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World Health Organization


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized


agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with
international public health. It was established on 7 April
1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, and is a
member of the United Nations Development Group. Its
predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the
League of Nations.
The constitution of the World Health Organization had been
signed by all 61 countries of the United Nations by 22 July
1946, with the first meeting of the World Health Assembly
finishing on 24 July 1948. It incorporated the Office
International d'Hygine Publique and the League of
Nations Health Organization. Since its creation, WHO has
been responsible for playing a leading role in the eradication
of smallpox. Its current priorities include communicable
diseases, in particular, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis;
the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases;
sexual and reproductive health, development, and aging;
nutrition, food security and healthy eating; occupational
health; substance abuse; and drive the development of
reporting, publications, and networking. WHO is responsible
for the World Health Report, a leading international
publication on health, the worldwide World Health Survey,
and World Health Day (7th-April of every Year).
Its links with the International Atomic Energy Agency and
distribution of contraception have both proved controversial,
as have guidelines on healthy eating and the 2009 flu
pandemic.

World Health Organization


Organisation mondiale de la S ant



Organizacin Mundial de la S alud

Flag of the World Health Organization


Org type

Specialized agency of the United


Nations

Acronyms

WHO
OMS

Head

Margaret Chan

Status

Active

Established

7 April 1948

Headquarters Geneva, Switzerland

Contents
1 History
1.1 Establishment
1.2 Operational history
2 Current projects
2.1 Overall focus
2.2 Communicable diseases
2.3 Non-communicable diseases
2.4 Life and lifestyle
2.5 Emergency work
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Website

www.who.int
(http://www.who.int)

Parent org

United Nations Economic and


Social Council (ECOSOC)

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2.6 Health policy


2.7 Governance and support
2.8 Other work
2.9 Data handling and publications
3 Structure
3.1 Membership
3.2 Assembly and Executive Board
3.3 Regional offices
3.4 People
3.5 Country and liaison offices
3.6 Financing and partnerships
4 Controversies
4.1 IAEA Agreement WHA 1240
4.2 Roman Catholic Church and AIDS
4.3 Intermittent preventive therapy
4.4 Diet and sugar intake
4.5 2009 influenza pandemic
5 See also
6 References
7 External links

History
Establishment
Main article: Establishment of the World Health Organization
The League of Nations Health Organization was established following the First World War inside the League of
Nations framework. According to the League's Covenant, it was to "endeavour to take steps in matters of
international concern for the prevention and control of disease, even in cases of dire human hardship".[1] Its efforts
were hampered by the Second World War, during which United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration
also played a role in international health initiatives.[2] During the United Nations Conference on International
Organization, references to health had been incorporated into the United Nations Charter and it passed a
declaration that an international health body would be set up.[3]
In February 1946, the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations helped draft the constitution of the new
body.[2] The use of the word "world", rather than "international", emphasised the truly global nature of what the
organization was seeking to achieve.[2] The constitution of the World Health Organization had been signed by all 61
countries of the United Nations by 22 July 1946. It thus became the first specialised agency of the United Nations
to which every member subscribed.[3] Its constitution formally came into force on the first World Health Day on 7
April 1948, when it was ratified by the 26th member state.[4] The first meeting of the World Health Assembly
finished on 24 July 1948, having secured a budget of US$5 million (then GBP1,250,000) for the 1949 year.
Andrija Stampar was the Assembly's first president, and G. Brock Chisholm was appointed Director-General of
WHO, having served as Executive Secretary during the planning stages.[2] Its first priorities were to control the
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spread of malaria, tuberculosis and sexually transmitted infections, and to improve maternal and child health,
nutrition and environmental hygiene. Its first legislative act was concerning the compilation of accurate statistics on
the spread and morbidity of disease.[2] The logo of the World Health Organization features the Rod of Asclepius as
a symbol for healing.[5]

Operational history
WHO established an epidemiological information service via telex in
1947, and by 1950 a mass tuberculosis inoculation drive (using the BCG
vaccine) was under way. In 1955, the malaria eradication programme
was launched, although it was later altered in objective. 1965 saw the
first report on diabetes mellitus and the creation of the International
Agency for Research on Cancer. WHO moved into its headquarters
building in 1966. The Expanded Programme on Immunization was
started in 1974, as was the control programme into onchocerciasis an
important partnership between the Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and
Three former directors of the Global
World Bank. In the following year, the Special Programme for Research
Smallpox Eradication Programme
and Training in Tropical Diseases was also launched. In 1976, the World
read the news that smallpox had been
Health Assembly voted to enact a resolution on Disability Prevention and
globally eradicated, 1980
Rehabilitation, with a focus on community-driven care. The first list of
essential medicines was drawn up in 1977, and a year later the ambitious
goal of "health for all" was declared. In 1986, WHO started it global
programme on the growing problem of HIV/AIDS, followed two years later by additional attention on preventing
discrimination against sufferers and UNAIDS was formed in 1996. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was
established in 1988.[6]
In 1958, Viktor Zhdanov, Deputy Minister of Health for the USSR, called on the World Health Assembly to
undertake a global initiative to eradicate smallpox, resulting in Resolution WHA11.54.[7] At this point, 2 million
people were dying from smallpox every year. In 1967, the World Health Organization intensified the global
smallpox eradication by contributing $2.4 million annually to the effort and adopted a new disease surveillance
method.[8][9] The initial problem the WHO team faced was inadequate reporting of smallpox cases. WHO
established a network of consultants who assisted countries in setting up surveillance and containment activities.[10]
The WHO also helped contain the last European outbreak in Yugoslavia in 1972.[11] After over two decades of
fighting smallpox, the WHO declared in 1980 that the disease had been eradicated the first disease in history to
be eliminated by human effort.[12]
In 1998, WHO's Director General highlighted gains in child survival, reduced infant mortality, raised life expectancy
and reduced rates of "scourges" such as smallpox and polio on the fiftieth anniversary of WHO's founding. He, did,
however, accept that more had to be done to assist maternal health and that progress in this area had been slow.[13]
Cholera and malaria have remained problems since WHO's founding, although in decline for a large part of that
period.[14] In the twenty-first century, the Stop TB Partnership was created in 2000, along with the UN's
formulation of the Millennium Development Goals. The Measles initiative was formed in 2001, and credited with
reducing global deaths from the disease by 68% by 2007. In 2002, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis
and Malaria was drawn up to improve the resources available.[6] In 2006, the organization endorsed the world's
first official HIV/AIDS Toolkit for Zimbabwe, which formed the basis for a global prevention, treatment and
support plan to fight the AIDS pandemic.[15]
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Current projects
Overall focus
The WHO's constitution states that its objective "is the attainment by all people of the highest possible level of
health".[16]
WHO identifies its role as one of six main objectives:[17]
providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed;
shaping the research agenda and stimulating the generation, translation and dissemination of valuable
knowledge;
setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation;
articulating ethical and evidence-based policy options;
providing technical support, catalyzing change, and building sustainable institutional capacity; and
monitoring the health situation and assessing health trends.
The 20122013 budget further identified thirteen areas among which funding was distributed.[18]

Communicable diseases
Two of those thirteen areas related to communicable diseases: the first, to reduce the "health, social and economic
burden" of communicable diseases in general; the second to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis in
particular.[18]
In terms of HIV/AIDS, WHO works within the UNAIDS network and considers it important that it works in
alignment with UNAIDS objectives and strategies. It also strives to involve sections of society other than health to
help deal with the economic and social effects of the disease.[19] In line with UNAIDS, WHO has set itself the
interim task between 2009 and 2015 of reducing the number of those aged 1524 years who are infected by 50%;
reducing new HIV infections in children by 90%; and reducing HIV-related deaths by 25%.[20]
Although WHO dropped its commitment to a global malaria eradication campaign in the 1970s as too ambitious, it
retains a strong commitment to malaria control. WHO's Global Malaria Programme works to keep track of malaria
cases, and future problems in malaria control schemes. WHO is to report, likely in 2015, as to whether
RTS,S/AS01, currently in research, is a viable malaria vaccine. For the time being, insecticide-treated mosquito
nets and insecticide sprays are used to prevent the spread of malaria, as are antimalarial drugs particularly to
vulnerable people such as pregnant women and young children.[21]
WHO's help has contributed to a 40% fall in the number of deaths from tuberculosis between 1990 and 2010, and
since 2005, it claims that over 46 million people have been treated and an estimated 7 million lives saved through
practices advocated by WHO. These include engaging national governments and their financing, early diagnosis,
standardising treatment, monitoring of the spread and impact of tuberculosis and stabilising the drug supply. It has
also recognised the vulnerability of victims of HIV/AIDS to tuberculosis.[22]
WHO aims to eradicate polio. It has also been successful in helping to reduce cases by 99% since the Global Polio
Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988, which partnered WHO with Rotary International, the US Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF), as well as smaller
organizations. It works to immunize young children and prevent the re-emergence of cases in countries declared

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organizations. It works to immunize young children and prevent the re-emergence of cases in countries declared
"polio-free".[23]

Non-communicable diseases
Another of the thirteen areas is aimed at the prevention and reduction of "disease, disability and premature from
chronic noncommunicable diseases, mental disorders, violence and injuries and visual impairment".[18][24]

Life and lifestyle


WHO also works to "reduce morbidity and mortality and improve health during key stages of life, including
pregnancy, childbirth, the neonatal period, childhood and adolescence, and improve sexual and reproductive health
and promote active and healthy aging for all individuals".[18][25]
It also tries to prevent or reduce risk factors for"health conditions associated with use of tobacco, alcohol, drugs
and other psychoactive substances, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity and unsafe sex".[18][26][27]
WHO works to improve nutrition, food safety and food security and to ensure this has a positive effect on public
health and sustainable development.[18]

Emergency work
When any sort of disaster or emergency occurs, it is WHO's stated objective to reduce any consequences it may
have on world health and its social and economic implications.[18]

Health policy
WHO also addresses government health policy with two aims: firstly, "to address the underlying social and
economic determinants of health through policies and programmes that enhance health equity and integrate propoor, genderresponsive, and human rights-based approaches" and secondly "to promote a healthier environment,
intensify primary prevention and influence public policies in all sectors so as to address the root causes of
environmental threats to health".[18]
In terms of health services, WHO looks to improve "governance, financing, staffing and management" and the
availability and quality of evidence and research to guide policy making. It also strives to "ensure improved access,
quality and use of medical products and technologies".[18]

Governance and support


The remaining two of WHO's thirteen identified policy areas relate to the role of WHO itself: firstly, "to provide
leadership, strengthen governance and foster partnership and collaboration with countries, the United Nations
system, and other stakeholders in order to fulfill the mandate of WHO in advancing the global health agenda" and
secondly "to develop and sustain WHO as a flexible, learning organization, enabling it to carry out its mandate more
efficiently and effectively".[18]

Other work
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The WHO and the World Bank constitute the core team responsible for administering the International Health
Partnership (IHP+). The IHP+ is a group of partner governments, development agencies, civil society and others
committed to improving the health of citizens in developing countries. Partners work together to put international
principles for aid effectiveness and development cooperation into practice in the health sector.[28]
In addition, the WHO has also promoted road safety.[29] Each year, the organization marks World Health Day
focusing on a specific health promotion topic, timed to match the anniversary of WHO's founding. Recent themes
have been drug resistance (2011) and ageing (2012).[30] As part of the United Nations, the World Health
Organization supports work towards the Millennium Development Goals.[31] Of the eight Millennium Development
Goals, three reducing child mortality by two-thirds, to reduce maternal deaths by three-quarters, and to halt and
begin to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS relate directly to WHO's scope; the other five inter-relate and have an
impact on world health.[32]

Data handling and publications


The organization relies on contributions from renowned scientists and professionals to inform its work, such as the
WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization,[33] the WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy,[34] and the
WHO Study Group on Interprofessional Education & Collaborative Practice.[35] WHO has also worked on global
initiatives in surgery, including emergency and essential surgical care,[36] trauma care,[37] and safe surgery.[38] The
WHO Surgical Safety Checklist is in current use worldwide in the effort to improve patient safety.[39]
WHO runs the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, targeted at improving health policy and
systems.[40] WHO aims to improve access to health research and literature in developing countries such as through
the HINARI network.[41] The organization has published tools for monitoring the capacity of national health
systems[42] and health workforces.[43] The Global Health Observatory(GHO) has been the WHO's main portal
which provides access to data and analyses for key health themes by monitoring health situations around the
globe.[44] The World Health Organization works to provide the needed health and well-being evidence through a
variety of data collection platforms, including the World Health Survey covering almost 400,000 respondents from
70 countries,[45] and the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) covering over 50,000 persons over
50 years old in 23 countries.[46] The Country Health Intelligence Portal (CHIP), has also been developed to
provide an access point to information about the health services that are available in different countries.[47] The
information gathered in this portal is utilized by the countries to set priorities for future strategies or plans,
implement, monitor, and evaluate it. The WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHOAIMS), the WHO Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL), and the Service Availability and Readiness
Assessment (SARA) provide guidance for data collection.[48] Collaborative efforts between WHO and other
agencies, such as through the Health Metrics Network, also aim to provide sufficient high-quality information to
assist governmental decision making.[49] WHO promotes the development of capacities in member states to use
and produce research that addresses their national needs, including through the Evidence-Informed Policy Network
(EVIPNet).[50] The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/AMRO) became the first region to develop and
pass a policy on research for health approved in September 2009.[51]
The organization develops and promotes the use of evidence-based tools, norms and standards to support member
states to inform health policy options. It oversees the implementation of the International Health Regulations, and
publishes a series of medical classifications; of these, three are overreaching "reference classifications": the
International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD), the International Classification of Functioning, Disability
and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI).[52] Other international policy
frameworks produced by WHO include the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (adopted in

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frameworks produced by WHO include the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (adopted in
1981),[53] Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (adopted in 2003)[54] and the Global Code of Practice on
the International Recruitment of Health Personnel (adopted in 2010).[55] The WHO regularly publishes a World
Health Report, its leading publication, including an expert assessment of a specific global health topic.[56] Other
publications of WHO include the Bulletin of the World Health Organization,[57] the Eastern Mediterranean
Health Journal (overseen by EMRO),[58] the Human Resources for Health (published in collaboration with
BioMed Central),[59] and the Pan American Journal of Public Health (overseen by PAHO/AMRO).[60]

Structure
The World Health Organization is a member of the United Nations Development Group.[61]

Membership
As of 2012, the WHO has 194 member states, including the Cook
Islands and Niue.[62] As of 2009, it also had two associate members,
Puerto Rico and Tokelau.[63] Non-members of the WHO include
Liechtenstein and other states with limited diplomatic recognition.[62]
Several other entities have been granted observer status. Palestine is an
observer as a "national liberation movement" recognised by the League of
Arab States under United Nations Resolution 3118. The Holy See also
attends as an observer, as does the Order of Malta.[64] In 2010, Taiwan
was invited under the name of "Chinese Taipei".[65]

Countries by World Health


Organization membership status

WHO Member States appoint delegations to the World Health Assembly, WHO's supreme decision-making body.
All UN Member States are eligible for WHO membership, and, according to the WHO web site, "other countries
may be admitted as members when their application has been approved by a simple majority vote of the World
Health Assembly".[62]
In addition, the UN observer organizations International Committee of the Red Cross and International Federation
of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies have entered into "official relations" with WHO and are invited as
observers. In the World Health Assembly they are seated along the other NGOs.[64]

Assembly and Executive Board


The World Health Assembly is the legislative and supreme body of
WHO. Based in Geneva, it typically meets yearly in May. It appoints the
Director-General every five years, and votes on matters of policy and
finance of WHO, including the proposed budget. It also reviews reports
of the Executive Board and decides whether there are areas of work
requiring further examination. The Assembly elects 34 members,
technically qualified in the field of health, to the Executive Board for
three-year terms. The main functions of the Board are to carry out the
decisions and policies of the Assembly, to advise it and to facilitate its
work.[66]
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Regional offices
The regional divisions of WHO were created between 1949 and 1952,
and are based on article 44 of WHO's constitution, which allowed the
WHA to "establish a [single] regional organization to meet the special
needs of [each defined] area". Many decisions are made at regional level,
including importance discussions over WHO's budget, and in deciding
the members of the next assembly, which are designated by the
regions.[67]
Each region has a Regional Committee, which generally meets once a
year, normally in the autumn. Representatives attend from each member
or associative member in each region, including those states that are not
fully recognised. For example, Palestine attends meetings of the Eastern
Mediterranean Regional office. Each region also has a regional office.[67]
Each Regional Office is headed by a Regional Director, who is elected
by the Regional Committee. The Board must approve such
appointments, although as of 2004, it had never overruled the preference
of a regional committee. The exact role of the board in the process has
been a subject of debate, but the practical effect has always been
small.[67] Since 1999, Regional Directors serve for a once-renewable
five-year term.[68]

Regional offices and regions of the


WHO:
Africa; HQ: Brazzaville, Congo
Americas; HQ: Washington DC,
USA
Europe; HQ: Copenhagen,
Denmark
Eastern Med.; HQ: Cairo, Egypt
South East Asia; HQ: New Delhi,
India
Western Pacific; HQ: Manila,
Philippines

Each Regional Committee of the WHO consists of all the Health


Department heads, in all the governments of the countries that constitute the Region. Aside from electing the
Regional Director, the Regional Committee is also in charge of setting the guidelines for the implementation, within
the region, of the health and other policies adopted by the World Health Assembly. The Regional Committee also
serves as a progress review board for the actions of WHO within the Region.
The Regional Director is effectively the head of WHO for his or her Region. The RD manages and/or supervises a
staff of health and other experts at the regional offices and in specialized centers. The RD is also the direct
supervising authorityconcomitantly with the WHO Director-Generalof all the heads of WHO country offices,
known as WHO Representatives, within the Region.

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Regional Offices of WHO


Region

Headquarters

Notes

Website

Africa

Brazzaville,
Republic of
Congo

AFRO includes most of Africa, with the exception


of Egypt, Sudan, South Sudan, Tunisia, Libya,
AFRO
Somalia and Morocco (all fall under
(http://www.afro.who.int)
[69][70]
EMRO).

Europe

Copenhagen,
Denmark.

EURO includes most of Europe and Israel.[70]

South-East
Asia

New Delhi, India North Korea is served by SEARO.[71]

EURO
(http://www.euro.who.int)
SEARO
(http://www.searo.who.int)

Eastern
Cairo, Egypt
Mediterranean

Eastern Mediterranean Regional office includes the


countries of Africa that are not included in AFRO, EMRO
as well as the countries of the Middle East, except (http://www.emro.who.int)
for Israel. Pakistan is served by EMRO.[72]

Western
Pacific

WPRO covers all the Asian countries not served


by SEARO and EMRO, and all the countries in
Oceania. South Korea is served by WPRO.[73]

Manila,
Philippines.

Also known as the Pan American Health


Washington D.C.,
Organization (PAHO), and covers the
The Americas
USA.
Americas.[74]

WPRO
(http://www.wpro.who.int)
AMRO
(http://www.paho.org)

People
The head of the organization is the Director-General, appointed by the World Health Assembly.[66] The current
Director-General is Margaret Chan, who was appointed on 9 November 2006.[76] On 18 January 2012, Chan
was nominated by the WHO's Executive Board for a second term. If confirmed by the World Health Assembly in
May 2012, Dr Chan will remain Director-General until the end of June 2017.[77]
WHO employs 8,500 people in 147 countries.[78] In support of the principle of a tobacco-free work environment
the WHO does not recruit cigarette smokers.[79] The organization has previously instigated the Framework
Convention on Tobacco Control in 2003.[80]
The WHO operates "Goodwill Ambassadors", members of the arts, sport or other fields of public life aimed at
drawing attention to WHO's initaitves and projects. There are currently five Goodwill Ambassadors (Jet Li, Nancy
Brinker, Peng Liyuan, Yohei Sasakawa and the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra) and a further ambassador
associated with a partnership project (Craig David).[81]

Country and liaison offices


The World Health Organization operates 147 country offices in all its regions.[82] It also operates several liaison
offices, including those with the European Union, United Nations and a single office covering the World Bank and
International Monetary Fund. It also operates the International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon, France,
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and the WHO Centre for Health Development in Kobe, Japan.[83] Additional
offices include those in Pristina; the West Bank and Gaza; the USMexican
Border Field Office in El Paso; the Office of the Caribbean Program
Coordination in Barbados; and Northern Micronesia office.[84] There will
generally be one WHO country office in the capital, occasionally accompanied
by satellite-offices in the provinces or sub-regions of the country in question.

Former Directors-General of
WHO[75]
Years of
Name
tenure
Brock Chisholm

19481953

The country office is headed by a WHO Representative (WR). As of 2010,


the only WHO Representative outside Europe to be a national of that country
was for the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya ("Libya"); all other staff were international.
Those in the Region for the Americas, they are referred to as PAHO/WHO
Representatives. In Europe, WHO Representatives also serve as Head of
Country Office, and are nationals with the exception of Serbia; there are also
Heads of Country Office in Albania, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan,
Turkey, and Uzbekistan.[84] The WR is member of the UN system country
team which is coordinated by the UN System Resident Coordinator.

Marcolino Gomes
19531973
Candau

The country office consists of the WR, and several health and other experts,
both foreign and local, as well as the necessary support staff.[82] The main
functions of WHO country offices include being the primary adviser of that
country's government in matters of health and pharmaceutical policies.[85]

Financing and partnerships

Halfdan T. Mahler 19731988


Hiroshi Nakajima

19881998

Gro Harlem
Brundtland

19982003

Lee Jong-wook

20032006

Anders
Nordstrm*

2006

*Acting Director-General following


the death of Lee Jong-wook while in
office

The WHO is financed by contributions from member states and outside donors. As of 2012, the largest annual
assessed contributions from member states came from the United States ($110 million), Japan ($58 million),
Germany ($37 million), United Kingdom ($31 million) and France ($31 million).[86] The combined 20122013
budget has proposed a total expenditure of $3,959 million, of which $944 million (24%) will come from assessed
contributions. This represented a significant fall in outlay compared to the previous 20092010 budget, adjusting to
take account of previous underspends. Assessed contributions were kept the same. Voluntary contributions will
account for $3,015 million (76%), of which $800 million is regarded as highly or moderately flexible funding, with
the remainder tied to particular programmes or objectives.[87]
In recent years, the WHO's work has involved increasing collaboration with external bodies.[88] As of 2002, a total
of 473 NGOs had some form of partnership with WHO. There were 189 partnerships with international nongovernmental organization (NGO) in formal "official relations" the rest being considered informal in character.[89]
Partners include the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation[90] and the Rockefeller Foundation.[91]

Controversies
IAEA Agreement WHA 1240
In 1959, the WHO signed Agreement WHA 1240 with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The
agreement states that the WHO recognises the IAEA as having responsibility for peaceful nuclear energy without
prejudice to the roles of the WHO of promoting health. However, the following paragraph adds: "whenever either
organization proposes to initiate a programme or activity on a subject in which the other organization has or may
have a substantial interest, the first party shall consult the other with a view to adjusting the matter by mutual

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have a substantial interest, the first party shall consult the other with a view to adjusting the matter by mutual
agreement".[92] The nature of this statement has led some pressure groups and activists (including Women in
Europe for a Common Future) to believe that the WHO is restricted in its ability to investigate the effects on human
health of radiation caused by the use of nuclear power and the continuing effects of nuclear disasters in Chernobyl
and Fukushima. They believe WHO must regain what they see as
"independence".[93][94][95]

Roman Catholic Church and AIDS


Main article: Roman Catholic Church and AIDS
In 2003, the WHO denounced the Roman Curia's health department's
opposition to the use of condoms, saying: "These incorrect statements about
Demonstration on Chernobyl
condoms and HIV are dangerous when we are facing a global pandemic which
disaster day near WHO in
has already killed more than 20 million people, and currently affects at least
Geneva
42 million."[96] As of 2009, the Catholic Church remains opposed to increasing
the use of contraception to combat HIV/AIDS.[97] At the time, the World
Health Assembly President, Guyana's Health Minister Leslie Ramsammy, condemned Pope Benedict's call, saying
he was trying to "create confusion" and "impede" proven strategies in the battle against the disease.[98]

Intermittent preventive therapy


The aggressive support of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for intermittent preventive therapy of malaria which
included the commissioning of a report from the Institute of Medicine triggered a memo from the former WHO
malaria chief Akira Kochi.[99]

Diet and sugar intake


Some of the research undertaken or supported by WHO to determine how people's lifestyles and environments are
influencing whether they live in better or worse health can be controversial, as illustrated by a 2003 joint
WHO/FAO report on nutrition and the prevention of chronic non-communicable disease,[100] which recommended
that sugar should form no more than 10% of a healthy diet. This report led to lobbying by the sugar industry against
the recommendation, to which the WHO/FAO responded by including in the report the statement "The
Consultation recognized that a population goal for free sugars of less than 10% of total energy is controversial", but
also stood by its recommendation based upon its own analysis of scientific studies.[101]

2009 influenza pandemic


Main article: 2009 flu pandemic
Swine Influenza A/H1N1
In 2007, the WHO organized work on pandemic influenza vaccine development through clinical trials in
collaboration with many experts. A pandemic involving the H1N1 influenza virus was declared by Director-General
Margaret Chan in April 2009.
By the post-pandemic period critics claimed the WHO had exaggerated the danger, spreading "fear and confusion"
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rather than "immediate information".[102] Industry experts countered that the 2009 pandemic had led to
"unprecedented collaboration between global health authorities, scientists and manufacturers, resulting in the most
comprehensive pandemic response ever undertaken, with a number of vaccines approved for use three months
after the pandemic declaration. This response was only possible because of the extensive preparations undertaken
in during the last decade".[103]

See also
Global health
Global Mental Health
Health For All
Health promotion
Drinking water quality standards
Public health
High 5s Project, a patient safety collaboration
Healthy city / Alliance for Healthy Cities, an international alliance
Health Sciences Online, virtual learning resources
Open Learning for Development, virtual learning resources
International Health Partnership

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External links
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Categories: World Health Organization Organizations established in 1948 Organisations based in Geneva
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