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Influenza Pandemic

Monique Jenkins | Amanda Arceo | ITT-Tech

The Influenza Pandemic occurred in

three waves in the United States
throughout 1918 and 1919

Influenza Strikes
Throughout history, influenza viruses have mutated and caused pandemics or
global epidemics. In 1890, an especially virulent influenza pandemic struck,
killing many Americans. Those who survived that pandemic and lived to
experience the 1918 pandemic tended to be less susceptible to the disease.

In July, an American soldier said that

while influenza caused a heavy fever, it
usually only confines the patient to
bed for a few days. The mutation of
the virus changed all that. [Credit:
National Library of Medicine]

Mode of Transmission
Limited data on the relative contributions of different routes of transmission
for influenza virus are available. Second research point
Person-to-person transmission is central to seasonal and pandemic spread
exposure to virus-contaminated objects (fomites), and inhalation of infectious

Symptoms of Influenza
The Flu
Fever* or feeling
Sore throat.

Runny or stuffy
Muscle or body

& Symptoms
Some people may
have vomiting and
diarrhea, though
this is more
common in
children than

Flu Complications
Most people who get influenza will recover in a few days to less than two weeks,
but some people will develop complications (such as pneumonia) as a result of
the flu, some of which can be life-threatening and result in death.

Anyone can get the flu (even healthy people), and serious problems related to
the flu can happen at any age, but some people are at high risk of developing
serious flu-related complications if they get sick. This includes people 65 years
and older, people of any age with certain chronic medical conditions (such as
asthma, diabetes, or heart disease), pregnant women, and young children.

People at High Risk from Flu

While flu vaccines can vary in how they work,

flu vaccination is the first and best way to
prevent influenza. Antiviral drugs are a second
line of defense to treat the flu if you get sick.
When used for treatment, antiviral drugs can
lessen symptoms and shorten the time you are
sick by 1 or 2 days

Types of vaccines
The flu vaccine is available as a shot and as a nasal spray. Your health care
provider will determine which vaccine is right for you.
The shot is available in a few different forms. There is a high-dose vaccine for
those over 65 and a vaccine for those with egg allergies. It is safe for most
people. Talk with your provider if you have had
A severe allergic reaction to a previous flu vaccine
Guillain-Barre syndrome (a severe paralyzing condition)
The nasal spray is recommended for people from 2 to 49 years old. It should
not be given to adults who:
Are pregnant
Have weak immune systems
Have egg allergy
Will be in close contact with someone with a weak immune systems
Have taken antiviral medication in the past 2 days

Types of vaccines

been in close contact with others with the flu. Contact your health care provider
if you have been exposed to someone with the flu.
Following these precautions may also be helpful:
When possible, avoid or limit contact with people who have the flu or symptoms
of the flu.
Frequent handwashing helps to lessen the risk of the risk of infection. Wash
them well for 15 to 20 seconds.
Cover your nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing. It is best to use
tissues. Then wash your hands.

Types of vaccines

The flu vaccine is safe. Vaccine safety is closely watched by the CDC and the
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and hundreds of millions of flu vaccines
have been safely given across the country for decades.
The flu vaccine can't give you the flu. The most common side effects from a
flu shot are soreness where the shot was given and maybe a slight fever or
achiness. The nasal spray flu vaccine might cause congestion, runny nose,
sore throat, or cough. These side effects are mild and don't last long.
The CDC recommends getting the flu shot every year, as soon as it becomes
available in your community. Flu season can begin as early as October and
most commonly peaks in the U.S. in January or February. The flu shot takes
1 to 2 weeks to become effective.