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1 Answers to end-of-chapter questions

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Structured questions
9

i
-carbon / central carbon

R group /
side group

carboxyl
group

amino
group

Each correct label [1]


[max 4]

Biology for CAPE

Original material Cambridge University Press 2011

ii

H2O
condensation

Peptide bond /
linkage

Showing where condensation


would occur [1]
Correct dipeptide [1]
+ H2Opeptide bond [1]
Identifying

i
Level

Types of bond

Position of bonds

Effect of bond
formation

formed between the


NH3 + group of one
amino acid and the
COO group of
another amino acid
formed between CO
and NH groups of
the peptide linkage

linear molecule,
determines the
sequence and number
of amino acids

Primary
structure

peptide /
covalent

Secondary
structure

hydrogen

Tertiary
structure

ionic

formed between R
groups / side chains
with COO and
NH3+ groups

hydrogen

formed between OH
groups, OH and
COOH groups, OH
and NH2 groups

disulphide

between the sulphur


groups of two
cysteine molecules

hydrophobic

formed between nonpolar groups


formed between side
chains of two or more
polypeptides

Quaternary
structure

Biology for CAPE

ionic
hydrogen
hydrophobic
disulphide

results in folding of
the protein to give
either an -helix or pleated molecule
results in the
polypeptide folding to
give a globular or 3D
structure

stabilises / holds the


polypeptide
monomers together

812 points [3]


47 points [2]
3 points [1]
< 3 points [0]

Original material Cambridge University Press 2011

ii

[1]

[1]

Any three points (1 mark each):

10 a

Similarity: both have hydrogen bonds between CO and NH groups of the


peptide linkage groups
Difference:
-helix: hydrogen bonding between CO and NH groups of amino acids four
places apart in a single chain
-pleated sheet: hydrogen bonding between CO and NH groups of amino acids
of adjacent chains

transport molecules in cell membrane, i.e. carrier and channel proteins


oxygen-transport molecules, e.g. haemoglobin
structural proteins, e.g. collagen in skin, tendons, walls of blood vessels
enzymes, e.g. pepsin, amylase
defence, e.g. antibodies
as signalling molecules, e.g. hormones
contractile for movement, e.g. tubulin
storage, e.g. egg albumen

[max 3]

[3]

ii
b

In the form of glucose, the OH on carbon 1 is on the same side of the ring as
carbon 6 / it is above the plane

[1]

i
Procedure and test reagents
Biuret Iodine in Ethanol
Boil with
solution potassium
Benedicts
dilute
iodide
and heat
acid and
neutralise
[tick]
[cross]
[cross]
[cross]
[cross]
reducing
sugar
[tick]
[tick]
[cross]
[cross]
[cross]
nonreducing
sugar
[cross]
[cross]
[cross]
[tick]
[cross]
starch
[cross]
[cross]
[tick]
[cross]
[cross]
protein
[cross]
[cross]
[cross]
[cross]
[tick]
lipid
Food

ii

45 correct [4]
3 correct [3]
2 correct [2]
1 correct [1]

Specimen contains a reducing sugar and protein

Biology for CAPE

Original material Cambridge University Press 2011

[1]

Stage 1: calibration / colour standards prepared


(a) Make 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% concentrations of glucose by serial dilution.
(b) Label 5 test-tubes 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% glucose respectively.
(c) Add 5 cm3 of Benedicts solution to each test-tube.
(d) Add 0.5 cm3 of each of the glucose solutions to the appropriate test-tube, using a
clean syringe each time.
(e) Shake each test tube in order to mix the contents.
(f) Place all five test tubes in a boiling water bath for 2 minutes.
(g) Carefully remove the test tubes and place in a test-tube rack.
Stage 2: Benedicts test on fruit juices
(a) Repeat steps (b) to (g) using the fruit juices A, B and C.
(b) Stir the colour standards and fruit juices.
(c) Compare the colours of the fruit juices with the known glucose concentrations.
(d) Estimate the % concentration of glucose of the fruit juices using the colour
standards.
Stage 3: Conversion of % glucose to mg glucose
4% glucose = 4000 mg of glucose in 100 cm3 of water
Therefore 0.5 cm3 of 4% glucose contains 4000 / 100 0.5 mg of glucose = 20 mg
glucose.
Logical sequence of method [4]
0.5 cm3 of 2.0% glucose = 10 mg
Same volumes, time used
0.5 cm3 of 1.0% glucose = 5 mg
for both Stage 1 and 2 [2]
0.5 cm3 of 0.5% glucose = 2.5 mg
Conversion of % to mg [1]
0.5 cm3 of 0.1% glucose = 0.5 mg
[max 7]

11 a

Correct structure for glucose [1]


Correct structure for fructose [1]
Identification of where bond will be
formed [1]
Correct structure of sucrose [1]
ii

Condensation reaction

iii

Function: Sucrose is the main form in which


carbohydrates are transported in plants.
Relation to structure: It is soluble and less reactive than
glucose.
Function: It is an important source of energy.
Relation to structure: It can be hydrolysed to give
glucose and fructose. Fructose isomerises to give glucose.
Hence two/one molecule of sucrose produces two
Any function [1]
molecules of glucose for respiration.
Corresponding relation to function [1]

Biology for CAPE

[1]

Original material Cambridge University Press 2011

iv

Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar because its reactive OH groups on carbon 1 in


glucose and carbon 2 in fructose are used to form the glycosidic bond.
Therefore, these groups are not available to reduce the Cu2+ ions in
Benedicts solution

[1]
[1]

b
Form of
glucose
Bonds
between
monomers

Features
of
molecule

Function

Starch
-glucose

Cellulose
-glucose

Glycogen
-glucose

amylose:
14;
amylopectin:
14 and
16
compact,
insoluble and
easily
hydrolysed to
glucose

14

14 and 16

straight chain,
with OH
projecting
outwards;
hydrogen bonding
between
molecules to form
fibrils
structural in
plants, cell wall
formation in
plants

Compact,
insoluble
molecule, easily
hydrolysed to
glucose

energy
storage
molecule in
plants

energy storage
in animals
Any 2 points [1]
[max 6]

Essay questions
12 a

Structure of water can be shown by a diagram as well as described in words.

In a water molecule, the two hydrogen atoms are found to


be on one side of the oxygen atom.
The oxygen atom pulls the bonding electrons towards it,
which makes the oxygen slightly negatively charged. The
hydrogen atoms have small positive charges. This unequal
distribution of charge is called a dipole.

States that hydrogen bonding is responsible for properties of water.

[2]

[1]
[1]

Any five features with effect (1 mark each point):


solvent properties: can dissolve ionic / polar substances by isolating
and dissolving them
water can act as a transport medium / allows for metabolic reactions

Biology for CAPE

Original material Cambridge University Press 2011

specific heat capacity: requires a large amount of heat to increase


temperature
this reduces fluctuations in temperature / more stable habitat /
maintains temperature for enzyme activity / metabolic reactions
high heat of vaporisation: requires a large amount of energy to
change from liquid to vapour
helps to maintain body temperature by sweating / cooling mechanism /
cooling in plants
high heat of fusion: requires a large amount of energy to change state
from liquid to solid and solid to liquid
makes it difficult for water to freeze / cells contain cytoplasm which is
mostly water / ice crystals would not form inside cells
density and freezing properties: maximum density at 4 oC / ice less
dense than liquid water / ice floats acts as an insulator / allows for
organisms to survive in freezing conditions below ice / circulation of
nutrients
high cohesion and surface tension: hydrogen bonding holds water
molecules together
allows for mass flow in plants / small animals can walk across water
for food
pH: measure of concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution works
with other substances to act as buffers
transparency: transparent to visible wavelengths of light allows for
photosynthesis to take place by algae / plants in water
reactivity: water takes part in many metabolic reaction
[1 mark each, max 5]
b

Globular formed by the folding of polypeptide by interaction of R groups (ionic,


hydrophobic, disulphide and hydrogen bonding) into complex shapes / compact
spherical protein

[2]

ii

4 subunits (2 and 2 ) interlock


haem group which carries oxygen
globular protein
Diagram with four subunits [1]
Labels [1]

13 a

Hb molecule has 4 haem groups


oxygen binds to haem group
4 oxygen molecules carried by each Hb molecule
when first oxygen molecule binds to first haem group, there is a
small change in the four polypeptides tertiary structure, making it
easier for an oxygen molecule to bind to the other three
Starch: made up of amylose and amylopectin
Monomer: -glucose
In amylose: 14 glycosidic bond, unbranched / helix / spiral
In amylopectin: 14 and 16 glycosidic bond / branched

Biology for CAPE

Original material Cambridge University Press 2011

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

[2]

Features: compact; takes up little space; does not interfere with metabolic reactions
/ inert; insoluble; does not affect water potential of cell

[2]

ii
Starch
made up of -glucose
monomers
14 glycosidic bond
no rotation of monomer
units
spiral / helix; amylopectin
branches
no hydrogen bonding
between molecules
b

Cellulose
made up of -glucose
monomers
14 glycosidic bond
alternate units rotated 180o
linear / straight chain /
unbranched
hydrogen bonding between
molecules to form
microfibrils

Any 4 comparative
points [4]

Any two points 1 mark:


alternate monomer units rotated 180o
many OH groups sticking above and below the plane of molecule
many hydrogen bonds within molecule
many hydrogen bonds between molecules
linear / unbranched chains
6070 chains link by hydrogen bonding to form microfibrils
arranged in bundles to form fibrils

c Any point 1 mark:


A single molecule made up of three single polypeptide chains twisted around
each other / Each chain has a shape of a helix (due to hydrogen bonding and
the secondary structure) / Molecule is described as a triple helix
Every third amino acid is the smallest amino acid, glycine / glycine allows
the chain to coil tightly
There are covalent bonds formed between the triple helix. This occurs
between the NH2 group of one chain and the COOH of another
Ends of the parallel molecule are staggered and hence there are no weak
spots. It is strong because the fibrils overlap
Each complete three-stranded molecule cross-links with other collagen
molecules running parallel to it to form fibrils

[max 3]

[max 4]

14 a
ester linkage bond formed by
condensation of carboxyl and hydroxyl
groups

2 saturated fatty
acids (non-polar
tails)

unsaturated fatty acid


causes kinks in the
molecule nonpolar tail

Biology for CAPE

provides OH groups,
forms nonpolar head of
molecule

Drawing [2]

Original material Cambridge University Press 2011

4 labels [3]
b

phospholipid consists of a glycerol residue with two fatty acid tails and a
phosphate group
phosphate group is hydrophilic
the fatty acid tails are hydrophobic
5 points [3]
triglyceride consists of a glycerol residue with 3 fatty acids tails
34 points [2]
the molecule is nonpolar / hydrophobic
2 points [1]

c Any point 1 mark:

phospholipids: consist of hydrophilic head and 2 hydrophobic tails


hydrophilic head attracted by water so orients towards the aqueous medium
hydrophobic tails repelled by water and so oriented away from the aqueous
medium
forms a bilayer
hydrophobic tails prevent movement of water-soluble / polar molecules
allows the movement of lipid-soluble / nonpolar molecules
weak interaction between phospholipid molecules makes membrane fluid
the fluid nature of the membrane allows it to unfold, break and reconnect easily /
exocytosis / endocytosis
max [7]

Biology for CAPE

Original material Cambridge University Press 2011