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PSYCHOLOGICA

L DISORDERS
1

PSYCHOLOGICAL
DISORDERS
I felt the need to clean my room would spend
four to five hours at it At the time I loved doing
it. Then I didn't want to do it any more, but I
couldnt stop The clothes hung two fingers
apart I touched my bedroom wall before
leaving the house I had constant anxiety I
thought I might be nuts.
Marc, diagnosed with
obsessive-compulsive disorder
(from Summers, 1996)

PSYCHOLOGICAL
DISORDERS
People are fascinated by the exceptional,
the unusual, and the abnormal. This
fascination may be caused by two
reasons:
1.

2.

During various moments we


feel, think, and act like an
abnormal individual.
Psychological disorders may
bring unexplained physical
symptoms, irrational fears,
and suicidal thoughts.
3

PSYCHOLOGICAL
DISORDERS

To study the abnormal is


the best way of
understanding the
normal.
William James (1842-1910)

1. There are 450 million people suffering


from psychological disorders (WHO,
2004).
2. Depression and schizophrenia exist in
4

MODULE 65

1.Defining Disorders
3 ds
MAUD

2.Understanding Disorders
Medical Model vs. Biopsychosocial Models
3.Classification
DSM 5
4.Labeling
Rosenhan Study
Dangers of Labeling/Bias
5

5.Prevalence & Rates of Disorders

DEFINING PSYCHOLOGICAL
DISORDERS

Mental health workers view psychological


disorders as persistently harmful
Thoughts
Feelings
Actions
Psychiatrists label behavior as disordered when
it is
The 3 Ds
Deviant
Distressful
Dysfunctional

DEVIANT, DISTRESSFUL &


DYSFUNCTIONAL
1. DEVIANT behavior: going against the norm
EX: Being naked in public in one culture may be
considered normal, while in others it may lead to
arrest
2. Deviant behavior must cause DISTRESS
suffering/pain
3. DYSFUNCTIONAL behavior impairs life
Interferes with normal daily routine
In the Wodaabe tribe men wear
costumes to attract women
In Western society this would be
considered deviant

MAUD
Behavior is considered disordered when it
impairs life because it is
Maladaptive
Interferes w/functioning
Dysfunctional

Atypical
Differs from societys norms
Deviant

Unjustifiable
Not able to be explained

Disturbing
Troubling/upsetting to self/others
Distressing

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS & THE


LAW

Insanity:

A legal term; refers to an inability to manage ones


affairs or to be unaware of the consequences of ones
actions
a person cannot be held responsible for his or her
actions because of mental illness.
Mnaghten rule
Many movements today are trying to abolish the
insanity plea and defense; desire to make everyone
accountable for their actions

Involuntary commitment:
danger to self
danger to others

ANDREA YATES CASE


Guilty?

Not guilty by
reason of
insanity?

-What evidence

supports this
verdict?

-What evidence

supports this verdict?

What is your
final verdict?
10

UNDERSTANDING
PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS1:28-3:50
Ancient Treatments
of psychological
disorders include:
Trephination
Exorcism
Being caged like
animals
Being beaten, burned,
castrated, mutilated,
Being transfused with
animals blood.

11

Trephination (boring holes


in the skull to remove evil

THE MEDICAL MODEL


Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) from France,
insisted that madness was NOT due to
demonic possession, but an ailment of the
mind.
George Wesley Bellows, Dancer in a Madhouse, 1907. 1997 The Art Institute of Chicago

Dance in the madhouse.

12

MEDICAL MODEL
The concept that disorders have physical
causes that can be diagnosed, treated,
and cured by drugs & therapy
Psychological disorders are
illnesses
Diagnosis based on symptoms
Treated through medication
Sometimes taking place in a hospital
13

THE BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL
APPROACH

Assumes that biological, socio-cultural,


and psychological factors combine and
interact to produce psychological
disorders.
Biologic
al

Genes &
Brain

Roles,
Expectation
Sociocultural

Psychologic
al

Stress,
Trauma,
Mood

14

CLASSIFYING PSYCHOLOGICAL
DISORDERS

Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders
(DSM) to describe
psychological
disorders.

Nearly 30% of adult


population meets the DSM-V (2013), describes
hundreds of psychological
criteria for at least disorders compared to 60 in
the 1950s.
one TOO
Critics of DSM.ITS
BROAD!

15

*Previous edition = 2000!

GOALS OF DSM DIAGNOSTIC


CLASSIFICATION

Describe a disorder
Predict its future course
Imply appropriate treatment
Stimulate research into its cause
Disorders outlined by DSM-V are reliable.
Therefore, diagnoses by different
professionals are consistent.
Others criticize DSM-V for putting any
kind of behavior within the compass of
psychiatry.

LABELING PSYCHOLOGICAL
DISORDERS
1. Critics of the DSM-V argue that labels may
stigmatize (negatively label) individuals
i.e. once youre crazy youre always crazy

17

EMPTY, DULL, THUD


David Rosenhan study, 1973
Eight healthy individuals went to hospital,
complaining of hearing voices saying
empty, dull, thud
All misdiagnosed with disorders!
Worse: Patients did not exhibit any
further symptoms yet clinicians went so far
as to discover causes of disorders!

Think & Discuss: What does


Rosenhans study suggest about the
power of a label/diagnosis??

18

LABELING PSYCHOLOGICAL
DISORDERS
2. Labels may be helpful for healthcare
professionals when communicating
with one another and establishing
therapy.

19

RATES OF
PSYCHOLOGICAL
DISORDERS

20

RATES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
DISORDERS
The prevalence of psychological disorders
during the previous year is shown below
(WHO, 2004).

21

Figure 14.5 Lifetime prevalence of psychological disorders

RISK & PROTECTIVE FACTORS


FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL
DISORDERS

23

LABELING PSYCHOLOGICAL
DISORDERS
3. Insanity labels
raise moral and
ethical questions
about how society
should treat
people who have
disorders and
have committed
crimes.

Jared Lee Loughner


(2011 Arizona shooting;
Pleaded guilty to 19 counts
attempted/murder in 2012)

MODULE 66: ANXIETY &


RELATED DISORDERS
1.Anxiety Disorders
Generalized
Panic
Phobia
2.Obsessive Compulsive & Related Disorders
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Hoarding
3.Trauma & Stressor Related Disorders
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
4.Understanding Anxiety Disorders, OCD &
PTSD
25
Learning perspective
Biological perspective

ANXIETY DISORDERS
Feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety.

1. Generalized anxiety disorder


(GAD)
2. Panic disorder
3. Phobias

26

GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER


Symptom
s
1. Persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension.
2. Autonomic arousal.
3. Inability to identify or avoid the cause of certain feelings .

27

PANIC DISORDER
Symptom
s
Minutes-long episodes of intense dread which
may include
feelings of terror, chest pains, choking, or
other frightening sensations.

Anxiety is a component of GAD and Panic


Disorder
Anxiety occurs more in the panic disorder,
28
making people avoid situations that cause
it.

PHOBIAS

Marked by a persistent and irrational fear


of an object or situation that disrupts
behavior.

29

hippopotomonstrosesquipedalio
phobia

30

Phobia of
long words

OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE
DISORDER- NEW CATEGORY!!!!

Persistence of unwanted thoughts (obsessions)


and urges to engage in senseless
rituals/behaviors (compulsions) that cause
distress.

31

BRAIN IMAGING
A PET scan of the
brain of a person
with ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder
(OCD).
High metabolic
activity (red) in the
frontal lobe areas
are involved with
directing
attention.

32

OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER
(OCD)

Howard Hughes

HOARDING
Persistent difficulty
discarding or parting with
possessions, regardless of
their actual value.
The behavior usually has
harmful effects
emotional, physical, social,
financial, and even legal.

34

POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS
DISORDER-NEW CATEGORY!!!
Four or more weeks of the following
symptoms constitute post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD):
1. Haunting
memories
2. Nightmares
3. Social withdrawal
4. Jumpy anxiety
5. Sleep problems
35

RESILIENCE TO PTSD

Only about 10% of women and 20% of men react to


traumatic situations and develop PTSD.
Holocaust survivors show remarkable resilience against
traumatic situations.
All major religions of the world suggest that surviving a
trauma leads to the growth of an individual.
36

EXPLAINING ANXIETY,
OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE &
TRAUMA/STRESS RELATED
DISORDERS
Freud suggested
that we repress
our painful and
intolerable ideas,
feelings, and
thoughts,
resulting in
anxiety.
37

THE LEARNING
PERSPECTIVE

Learning theorists suggest that fear


conditioning leads to anxiety
This anxiety then becomes associated with
other objects or events (stimulus
generalization)
It is then reinforced

38

THE LEARNING
PERSPECTIVE
Investigators believe that fear responses are
taught through observational learning.
EX: Young monkeys develop fear when
they watch other monkeys who are afraid
of snakes.

39

THE BIOLOGICAL
PERSPECTIVE

Natural Selection has led our ancestors


to learn to fear snakes, spiders, and other
animals. Therefore, fear preserves the
species.

Twin studies suggest that our genes


may be partly responsible for
developing fears and anxiety.
Twins are more likely to share

40

THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

S. Ursu, V.A. Stenger, M.K. Shear, M.R. Jones, & C.S. Carter (2003). Overactive action
monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychological Science, 14, 347-353.

Generalized anxiety,
panic attacks, and
even OCD are linked
with brain circuits like
the anterior
cingulate cortex.
Monitors actions and
checks for errors
Anterior Cingulate Cortex
(autonomic functions)
of an OCD patient.
41

MODULE 67:
MOOD DISORDERS
1.Depressive Disorders
Major Depressive
Disorder
Dysthymia
2.Bipolar & Related
Disorders
Bipolar Disorder
Cyclothymia
3.Understanding Mood
Related Disorders
Myths
Biological Perspective

42

DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS
Emotional extremes of mood related
disorders come in various forms:
1. Major depressive
disorder
2. Dysthymia
3. SAD
4. Postpartum Depression
The RED ones are differently
named now!
43

MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER


Depression is the common cold of
psychological disorders.
In a year, 5.8% of men and 9.5% of
women report depression worldwide
(WHO, 2002).
Blue mood
Gasping for air after a
hard run

Major Depressive
Disorder
Chronic shortness of
breath
44

MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER


Major depressive disorder occurs when
signs of depression last two weeks or
more and are not caused by drugs or
medical conditions.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Black Dog
Erikas Lightho
use

Signs include:
Lethargy and fatigue
Feelings of worthlessness
Loss of interest in family &
friends
Loss of interest in activities

45

DYSTHYMIC DISORDER (NOW


KNOWN AS PERSISTENT
DEPRESSANT DISORDER

Chronic, milder form of


Depression
Symptoms less severe
but longer lasting

Sufferer may go
undiagnosed, believing
depressed state is
their natural character
Symptoms present for 2+
years (1 year for children
& adolescents)

Seasonal Affective
Disorder
(Seasonal Onset)
Experience depressive
symptoms in winter
months

Sleep too much


Low energy levels
Depressed mood

SAD related to reduced exposure to daylight during the


winter.
Affects 1 to 2 percent of Floridas population,
~6 percent of the people living in Maryland and New York
City

POST-PARTUM DEPRESSION- NOW


WITH PERIPARTUM ONSET

Hormonal imbalances related to pregnancy can


cause more intense and longer lasting
depression
Interferes with ability to care for baby and
handle other daily tasks.
Common Symptoms:
Loss of appetite
Insomnia
Intense irritability and anger
Overwhelming fatigue
Loss of interest in sex
Lack of joy in life
Feelings of shame, guilt or inadequacy
Severe mood swings
Difficulty bonding with your baby
Withdrawal from family and friends
Thoughts of harming yourself or your baby

48

BIPOLAR DISORDER-NEW
CATEGORY!!!
Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.
An alternation between depression and mania
signals bipolar disorder.

Depressive Symptoms

Manic Symptoms

Gloomy

Elation

Withdrawn

Impulsive buying

Inability to make decisions


Tired
Slowness of thought

Desire for action


Hyperactive
Multiple ideas
Manic Episode
7:04

BIPOLAR DISORDER
Many great writers, poets, and composers
suffered from bipolar disorder.
During their manic phase creativity surged, but
not during their depressed phase.

Whitman

Wolfe

Clemens

Hemingway

Earl Theissen/ Hulton Getty Pictures Library

The Granger Collection

Bettmann/ Corbis

50

BIPOLAR I & II
Bipolar Disorder I
Classic diagnosis of
this disorder.
Patients experience:
Periods of inflated
mood followed by
depressive episodes
Periods occurs in
cycles

Bipolar Disorder II
Milder form of bipolar
disorder-highs arent as high

Patients experience:

At least one episode of


hypomania (a period of
elevated mood, but
without psychosis) and at
least one major
depressive episode.

51

CYCLOTHYMIC
DISORDER

Even milder form of


Bipolar-but longer
lasting!
Shifts in mood
between highs &
lows
Hypomania (not
as severe as
mania)

Depressive
symptoms (not
severe enough to
label as Major
Depressive
episode)
Bipolar Overview

Symptoms show for


2+ years (1 year in
children &
adolescents)
Sufferers may go
undiagnosed for
many years

52

EXPLAINING MOOD RELATED


DISORDERS
Since depression is so prevalent worldwide,
investigators want to develop a theory of
depression that will suggest ways to treat it.

Lewinsohn et al., (1985, 1998) note that a


theory of depression should explain the
following:
1. Behavioral
and cognitive
changes

53

THEORY OF DEPRESSION
3. Gender
differences

54

TABLE 10.2: EXPLAINING THE FINDINGS THAT RATES


OF DEPRESSION ARE HIGHER AMONG
WOMEN THAN AMONG MEN

THEORY OF DEPRESSION
4. Depressive episodes self-terminate.
5. Stressful events often precede
depression.
6. Depression is increasing, especially
in the teens.

56

SUICIDE
The most severe form of behavioral
response to depression is suicide.
Each year some 1 million people
commit suicide worldwide.

57

YOUTH SUICIDE
STATS
Each
day in our nation
2nd leading cause of death
for ages 10-24.
3rd leading cause of death
for college age youth and
ages 12-18.

there are an average of


over 5,400 attempts by
young people grades 712.

1/3 OF ALL ADOLESCENTS


More teenagers and young
& COLLEGE STUDENTS
adults die from suicide than
EXPERIENCE SUICIDAL
from cancer, heart disease,
THOUGHTS!
AIDS, birth defects, stroke,
pneumonia, influenza, and
chronic lung disease,
COMBINED.

58

Gestures

COMMON CHARACTERISTICS
OF SUICIDE
Purpose: seek a solution
seen as the solution to an unsolvable
problem
not pointless or accidental

Goal: cessation of consciousness


consciousness represents constant
psychological pain

Stimulus: intolerable psychological


pain
Stressor: frustrated psychological
need
feelings of frustration, failure,
worthlessness, etc.

Emotion: hopelessness/helplessness

Mood
Disorder
Review!

Identify:

Bipolar I
Bipolar II
Dysthymia
Cyclothymi
a 60

BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
1. Genetic Influences: Mood disorders run
in families.
The rate of depression is higher in
identical (50%) than fraternal twins
(20%).
2. Linkage analysis
and association
studies link possible
genes and
dispositions for
depression.
61

BBC 39:2242:52 min

THE DEPRESSED BRAIN

3. Lack or insufficient amount of neurotransmitters


Serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine

4. PET scans show that brain energy consumption


rises and falls with manic and depressive episodes.

Courtesy of Lewis Baxter an Michael E.


Phelps, UCLA School of Medicine

62

SOCIAL-COGNITIVE
PERSPECTIVE

The social-cognitive perspective suggests


that depression arises partly from selfdefeating beliefs and negative
explanatory styles.

63

NEGATIVE THOUGHTS AND MOODS

64

Explanatory style plays a major role in becoming

BECK TRIAD
Cognitive
Theory Of
Depression

Negative thoughts about:


The self (internal)
-self is worthless
The
world/environment
(global)
The Cognitive Route to Major Depression
-world is unfair
Beck
The future
(stable/unchanging)

DEPRESSION CYCLE
1. Negative stressful
events.
2. Pessimistic explanatory
style.
3. Hopeless depressed
state.
4. These hamper the way
the individual thinks
and acts, fueling
personal rejection.
66

MODULE 68: SCHIZOPHRENIA


1.Schizophrenia
Symptoms
Onset &
Development of
Schizophrenia
Understanding
Schizophrenia
67

SCHIZOPHRENIA
The literal translation is split mind
which refers to a split from reality.
A group of severe disorders
characterized by the following:
1. Disorganized and
delusional thinking.
2. Disturbed
perceptions.
3. Inappropriate
emotions and
actions.

68

Simulation

ONSET AND DEVELOPMENT OF


SCHIZOPHRENIA
Nearly 1 in a 100 Americans suffer from
schizophrenia, and throughout the world
over 24 million people suffer from this
disease
(WHO, 2002).

Schizophrenia strikes young people as


they mature into adults.
It affects men and women equally, but
men suffer from it more severely than

69

GENERAL INFO:
Age of Onset
SCHIZOPHRENIA
Female: 25 and up
Male: onset is younger, usually around
18

Split Mind meaning split from


REALITY NOT personality!
Psychosis
This split from reality shows
itself in:
disorganized and delusional
thinking
disturbed perceptions
inappropriate emotions & actions

RANGE OF SYMPTOMS
IS POSSIBLE
People with Schizophrenia may show a
varied range of behaviors.
Disorganized speech or behavior
Flat or inappropriate behavior
Immobility or excessive, purposeless movement
Parrot-like repeating of anothers speech or
movements
Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations

SPECIFICS ON THE SYMPTOMS


1. Disorganized Thinking:
Delusions: false beliefs; often of
persecution (being followed) or
grandeur (greatness)
Irrational and bizarre
Examples:
Persecution: CIA is watching me
Grandeur: I am God or I have
superhuman powers

DISORGANIZED & DELUSIONAL


THINKING
This morning when I was at Hillside [Hospital], I
was making a movie. I was surrounded by movie
stars Im Mary Poppins. Is this room painted
blue to get me upset? My grandmother died four
weeks after my eighteenth birthday.
(Sheehan, 1982)

This monologue illustrates fragmented, bizarre


thinking with distorted beliefs called delusions
(Im Mary Poppins).

DISORGANIZED & DELUSIONAL


THINKING
Many psychologists believe
disorganized thoughts occur
because of selective attention
FAILURE! (fragmented and
bizarre thoughts).

74

SYMPTOMS CONTINUED
2. Disturbed Perceptions:
Hallucinations: sensory experience
without stimulation

Most often in the form of hearing


voices
What do they hear?
Ordering and insulting statements
Example: burn your self with a cigarette
lighter, jump out of the window

SYMPTOMS
CONTINUED
3. Inappropriate Emotions and
Actions
laughing when talking about someones
death
flat affect NO emotion
Senseless, compulsive acts OR no
movement at all

POSITIVE & NEGATIVE


SYMPTOMS

POSITIVE SYMPTOMS:

Presence of inappropriate behaviors

disorganized speech
inappropriate emotions
delusions
Hallucinations

Mostly
positive
symptoms =
greater
NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS:
chance of
Absence of appropriate behaviors recovery
toneless voice
20% make
expressionless face
rigid body
full recovery
social withdrawal
77

Rigid Body

Delusions
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Hallucination
tion
s
s
Greater chance of recovery? Why
78

CHRONIC AND ACUTE


SCHIZOPHRENIA

Chronic schizophrenia is slow to develop.


Such schizophrenics usually display negative
symptoms
Recovery is doubtful
Chronic or Process
Acute schizophrenia rapidly
develops.
Such schizophrenics usually show
positive symptoms
Recovery is usually better
79

LOUIS WAIN
1860-1939
ENGLISH
ARTIST

Gerald
20sec 3:13;
3:50-6:00;
7:30-end

UNDERSTANDING
SCHIZOPHRENIA
Schizophrenia is a disease of the brain
exhibited by the symptoms of the mind.

88

Possible Causes
BRAIN ABNORMALITIES:
1. Ultra high levels of dopamine (because of
more receptors) that intensify brain symptoms
which causes the positive symptoms
o Drugs that block dopamine decrease
symptoms
o Amphetamines and cocaine increase
symptoms
PROBLEM!! Many schizophrenics are
addicted to these drugs
2. Low brain activity in the frontal lobe
3. Fluid filled brain areas that may cause

Dopamine helps control


the brain's reward and
pleasure centers
This NT also helps
regulate movement and
emotional responses
It enables us not only to
see rewards, but to take
action to move toward
them

Figure 14.19 The dopamine hypothesis as an explanation for schizophrenia

Paul Thompson and Arthur W. Toga, UCLA Laboratory of Neuro


Imaging and Judith L. Rapport, National Institute of Mental Health

91

OTHER ABNORMAL BRAIN


MORPHOLOGY
Schizophrenia patients may exhibit
morphological changes in the brain like
enlargement of fluid-filled ventricles.
Both Photos: Courtesy of Daniel R. Weinberger, M.D., NIH-NIMH/ NSC

92

VIRAL INFECTION
Schizophrenia has also been observed in
individuals who contracted a viral infection
(flu) during the middle of their fetal
development.

93

Figure 14.21 The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia

GENETIC FACTORSIdentical
The likelihood
of an individual
suffering from
schizophrenia is
50% if their
identical twin
has the disease
(Gottesman,
2001).

10

20

30

40

Both parents
Fraternal
One parent
Sibling
Nephew or niece
Unrelated

95

50

GENETIC FACTORS
ANY person 1 in 100
If siblings or parent have1 in 10
Identical twin1 in 2
Possible chromosome linkage
Children adopted by
schizophrenics dont catch the
disorder

PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
Psychological and environmental factors can
trigger schizophrenia if the individual is
genetically predisposed
(Nicol & Gottesman, 1983).

Genain Sisters

The genetically identical


Genain
sisters suffer from
schizophrenia. Two suffer
more than the others, thus
there are contributing97
environmental factors.

PSYCHOLOGICAL
FACTORS
Psychological factors ALONE do not
cause schizophrenia
Stressful lifestyle
Family communication issues
Traumatic experience
Poverty can intensify symptoms

MODULE 69
OTHER DISORDERS
1. Somatic Symptom & Related Disorders
Conversion
Illness Anxiety Disorder
2. Dissociative Disorders
DID
3. Eating Disorders
Binge-eating
Anorexia
bulimia
4. Personality Disorders
Cluster A (odd or eccentric behaviors) = paranoid,
schizoid, schizotypal
Cluster B (dramatic or impulsive behaviors) =
antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissism
Cluster C (anxiety based disorders) = avoidant,
dependent, obsessive-compulsive

99

SOMATIC SYMPTOM & RELATED


DISORDERS
Illness Anxiety Disorder
(Hypochondriasis): Person is
preoccupied with fears of having a serious
illness or disease
Interpret normal sensations and bodily
signs as proof that they have a terrible
disease
No physical disorder can be found

SOMATIC SYMPTOM & RELATED


DISORDERS (CONT'D)
Conversion Disorder: Severe
emotional conflicts are converted
into physical symptoms or a
physical disability
Caused by anxiety or emotional
distress but not by physical causes

DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
Conscious awareness becomes separated
(dissociated) from previous memories,
thoughts, and feelings.

Symptom
s
1. Loss of continuity of
experience
2. Inability to access information
3. Fragmentation of identity

10
2

DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY
DISORDER (DID)
A disorder in which a person exhibits two or
more distinct and alternating personalities
Formerly called multiple personality disorder.

Part 1

Part 2

Shirley Ardell Mason


real life Sybil

10
4

DID CRITICS
Critics argue that the diagnosis of DID
increased in the late 20th century.
DID has NOT been found in other
countries.

Critics Arguments

1. Role-playing by people open to


therapists suggestion.
2. 2. Learned response that
reinforces reductions in anxiety
10
5

PERSONALITY DISORDERS
Personality disorders
are characterized by
inflexible and
enduring behavior
patterns that
impair social
functioning.
They are usually
without anxiety,
depression, or
delusions.

10
6

ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY
DISORDER
A disorder in which the person (usually men)
exhibits a lack of conscience for
wrongdoing, even toward friends and family
members. Formerly, this person was called a
sociopath or psychopath.

10
7

3 MAIN CHILDHOOD
CHARACTERISTICS OF ASPD
Bedwetting
Beyond the normal age range
Harm to animals
Torturing, strangling, etc. with no remorse
Revenge fires
you didnt buy me the toy at the store
fine, Im gonna set your bedroom on fire

10
8

UNDERSTANDING ANTISOCIAL
PERSONALITY DISORDER
Antisocial PD has
biological and
psychological causes
(like mood &
schizophrenic
disorders).
Youngsters, before
committing a crime,
respond with lower
levels of stress
hormones than others
do at their age.

10
9

UNDERSTANDING ANTISOCIAL
PERSONALITY DISORDER

PET scans of 41 murderers revealed


reduced activity in the frontal lobes. In
a follow-up study, repeat offenders had 11%
less frontal lobe activity (Raine et al., 1999;
2000).
Frontal
lobe

Courtesy of Adrian Raine,


University of Southern California

Normal

Murderer

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0

HISTRIONIC PERSONALITY
DISORDER

More common in females

overwhelming desire to be noticed, and often


behave dramatically or inappropriately to get
attention
Play victim or princess role
intense, unstable emotions and distorted selfimages
their self-esteem depends on the approval of others
and does not arise from a true feeling of self-worth
Fish for compliments
Flirtatious

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1

NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY
DISORDER
More common in males
inflated sense of self-importance and an
extreme preoccupation with themselves
Brilliance/beauty
Take advantage of other people to achieve his or her
own goals
Have unreasonable expectations of favorable
treatment
Entitled/superiority
Disregard the feelings of others, and have little
ability to feel empathy
Arrogant/conceited/condescending/elitist
Fragile self esteem
Sensitive to criticism/avoid competition they will
lose

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2

BORDERLINE PERSONALITY
DISORDER
More common in females
long-term patterns of unstable or turbulent
emotions
Anger/guilt/shame/bitterness/despair
Fear of being abandoned/alone
Frantically seek to avoid it
Impulsiveness with money, substance abuse, sexual
relationships, binge eating, or shoplifting
Repeated crises and acts of self-injury, such as wrist
cutting or overdosing
Attention seeking to prevent abandonment

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3

Describe major characteristics of each type


of disorder:
Anxiety, Somatoform, Mood, Dissociative,
Schizophrenic, Personality

Check in on Diagnosis Day Case Studies # 17

MODULE 69
NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
1. Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
2. Autism Spectrum
3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
4. Tourettes

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5

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER


Range of disorders
Symptoms include:
Social deficiencies
Repetitive behaviors
Possibly linked with poor
communication among brain
regions which allow us to
take on anothers
perspective
Mirror Neuron link?
ASD diagnoses are
increasing!
NOT linked to childhood
vaccination!

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6

ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY


DISORDER (ADHD)
Affects 11% of 4-17 year olds in America!
3x more boys diagnosed than girls
Affects only 2.5% of adults

Symptoms include:
Extreme inattention
Hyperactivity
Impulsivity

Controversial Diagnosis!
Genetic?
Boredom? / Rambunctiousness?

Prescription stimulants allow for better focus

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7

SUBSTANCE ABUSE
& ADDICTIVE DISORDERS

Some examples:
1. Alcohol
2. Cannabis
3. Hallucinogens
4. Gambling
5. Sex, Shopping, Exercise Addictions
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