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IELTSWITHEXPLANATION>ACADEMICREADING

IELTSLessons
Passage1

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Passage3
DOGS:ALOVESTORY

IELTSWITHEXPLANATION

Passage2

AGeneticstudiesshowthatdogsevolvedfromwolvesandremainassimilartothecreaturesfromwhichtheycameashumanswithdifferentphysicalcharacteristicsare
toeachother,whichistosaynotmuchdifferentatall.EveninthemostchangeablemitochondrialDNAmarkersDNAhandeddownonthemotherssidedogsand
wolvesdifferbynotmuchmorethanonepercent,saysRobertWayne,ageneticistattheUniversityofCaliforniaatLosAngeles.

BWolflikespeciesgobackonetotwomillionyears,saysWayne,whosegeneticworksuggestsdogsofsomesortbeganbreakingawayabout100,000yearsago.Wolfand
earlyhumanfossilshavebeenfoundclosetogetherfromasfarbackas400,000yearsago,butdogandhumanfossilsdatebackonlyabout14,000years,allofwhichputs
wolvesand/ordogsinthecompanyofmanorhisprogenitorsbeforethedevelopmentoffarmingandpermanenthumansettlements,atatimewhenbothspeciessurvived
onwhattheycouldscratchouthuntingorscavenging.

CWhywouldthesecompetitorscooperate?Theanswerprobablyliesinthesimilarsocialstructureandsizeofwolfpacksandearlyhumanclans,thecompatibilityoftheir
huntingobjectivesandrange,andthewillingnessofhumanstoacceptintocampthemostsuppliantwolves,theyoungorlessthreateningones.

DCertainwolvesorprotodogsmayhaveworkedtheirwayclosetothefireringaftersmellingsomethinggoodtoeat,thenintoearlyhumangatheringsbyprovinghelpful
orunthreatening.Aswanderingpacksoftwentyfiveorthirtywolvesandclansoflikenumberednomadichumansroamedthelandscapeintandem,huntingbiggame,the
animalshungaroundcampsitesscavengingleftovers,andthehumansmighthaveusedthewolvessuperiorscentingabilityandspeedtolocateandtrackprospectivekills.
Atnight,wolveswiththeirkeensensescouldwarnhumansofdangerapproaching.
ETimesmightnothavebeenashardbackthenasiscommonlythought.Inmanyinstancesfoodwouldhavebeenplentiful,predatorsfew,andtheboundariesbetween
humansandwildlifeporous.Throughthoseporesslippedsmallerorlessthreateningwolves,whichfromlivinginpackswherealphabossesreignedwouldknowthetricks
ofsubservienceandcouldadapttohumansincharge.Puppiesinparticularwouldbehardtoresist,astheyaretoday.Thuswasaunionbornandaprocessof
domesticationbegun.

FOverthemillennia,admissionofcertainwolvesandprotodogsintohumancampsandexclusionoflarger,morethreateningonesledtothedevelopmentofpeople
friendlybreedsdistinguishablefromwolvesbysize,shape,coat,earsandmarkings.Dogsweregenerallysmallerthanwolves,theirsnoutsproportionallyreduced.They
wouldassistinthehunt,cleanupcampbyeatinggarbage,warnofdanger,keephumanswarm,andserveasfood.NativeAmericansamongothersatepuppies,andin
somesocietiesitremainsacceptedpractice.

GBythefourthmillenniumBCEgyptianrockandpotterydrawingsshowdogsbeingputtoworkbymen.Then,asnow,therelationshipwasnotwithoutdrawbacks.Feral
dogsroamedcitystreets,stealingfoodfrompeoplereturningfrommarket.Despitetheirpenchantformisbehaviour,andsometimebecauseofit,dogskeepturningupat
alltheimportantjuncturesinhumanhistory.

HInancientGreece,350yearsbeforeChrist,Aristotledescribedthreetypesofdomesticateddogs,includingspeedyLaconiansusedbytherichtochaseandkillrabbits
anddeer.Threehundredyearslater,Romanwarriorstrainedlargedogsforbattle.Thebrutescouldknockanarmedmanfromhishorseanddismemberhim.

IInseventeenthcenturyEngland,dogsstillworked,pullingcarts,sleds,andploughs,herdinglivestock,orworkingasturnspits,poweringwheelsthatturnedbeefand
venisonoveropenfires.Butworkingdogswerenotmuchlovedandwereusuallyhangedordrownedwhentheygotold.Unnecessarydogsmeanwhilegainedstatus
amongEnglishroyalty.KingJamesIwassaidtolovehisdogsmorethanhissubjects.CharlesIIwasfamousforplayingwithhisdogatCounciltable,andhisbrother
Jameshaddogsatseain1682whenhisshipwascaughtinastorm.Assailorsdrowned,heallegedlycriedout,SavethedogsandColonelChurchill!

JBythelatenineteenthcenturythepassionforbreedingledtothecreationofprivateregistriestoprotectprizedbloodlines.TheKennelClubwasformedinEnglandin
1873,andelevenyearslatertheAmericanKennelClub(AKC)wasformedacrosstheAtlantic.TodaytheAKCregisters150breeds,theKennelClublists196,andthe
EuropebasedFdrationCynologiqueInternationalerecognizesmanymore.Dogshowssproutedinthemid1800swhenunnecessary3ogsbeganvastlytooutnumber
workingones,astheydotothisday.Unless,thatis,youcountcompanionshipasajob.

Hotline:0979154789
Choosethecorrectanswer.

PARTNER

NEWS

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phchotr

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BoDoanh
trangweb

1.Whichparagraphexplainshowdogsbecamedifferentinappearancefromwolves?
A. ParagraphE
B. ParagraphG
C. ParagraphH

chntthn
n luyn

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D. ParagraphA
E. ParagraphC
F. ParagraphJ
G. ParagraphI

DONATO

Top5dona

H. ParagraphB
I. ParagraphF
G. ParagraphD

Explain:
ParagraphFdescribestheprocessofbecomingdifferentinappearance:'admissionofcertainwolves...andexclusionoflarger,morethreateningonesledtothe
developmentofpeoplefriendlybreedsdistinguishablefromwolvesbysize,shape,coat,ears,andmarkings.'

EXCELLEN

Topexcelle
2.Whichparagraphdescribestheclassificationofdogsintomanydifferenttypes?
A. ParagraphD
B. ParagraphH
C. ParagraphC

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D. ParagraphG
E. ParagraphE
F. ParagraphA
G. ParagraphF
H. ParagraphB
I. ParagraphI
G. ParagraphJ

Explain:
Thefinalparagraphmentions'prizedbloodlines'andorganizations:one'registers150breeds',one'lists196'andanother'recognizesmanymore'.

3.Whichparagraphstatesthebasicsimilaritybetweenwolvesanddogs?
A. ParagraphD
B. ParagraphI
C. ParagraphA
D. ParagraphE
E. ParagraphF
F. ParagraphJ
G. ParagraphB
H. ParagraphG
I. ParagraphC
G. towolves
K. ParagraphH

Explain:
ParagraphAmakesthepointseveraltimes:'dogsremainassimilarashumans...aretoeachother...notmuchdifferentatall''dogsandwolvesdifferbynot
muchmorethanonepercent'.

4.Whichparagraphgivesexamplesofgreaterhumanconcernforanimalsthanforpeople?
A. ParagraphF
B. ParagraphD
C. ParagraphG
D. ParagraphJ
E. ParagraphI
F. ParagraphE
G. ParagraphC
H. ParagraphA
I. ParagraphB
G. ParagraphH

Explain:
Thisparagraphreferstoaking'saidtolovehisdogsmorethanhissubjects'andtoarelativeofanotherkingwhoshouted'savethedogs'when'sailorsdrowned'.

1.WhichFOURofthefollowingstatementsaremadeinthetext?
A. Therewasverylittleforearlyhumanstoeat.
B. Neitherthewolvesnorthehumanslivedinoneplaceforlong.
C. Inatypicalcampthereweremanymorewolvesthanhumans.
D. Wolvesgotfoodfromearlyhumans.
E. Somewolveslearnedtoobeyhumanleaders.
F. Wolvesstartedlivingwithhumanswhenagriculturebegan.
G. Earlyhumansespeciallylikedveryyoungwolves.
H. Humanschosethemostdangerouswolvestohelpthemhunt.

Explain:
(i)Neitherthewolvesnorthehumanslivedinoneplaceforlong:ParagraphBmentionsbeforethedevelopmentof...permanenthumansettlements',while
paragraphDmention'wanderingpacks...and...nomadichumans'.(ii)Somewolveslearnedtoobeyhumanleaders:ParagraphCrefersto'themostsuppliant
wolves',whileparagraphFmentions'wolvesthatwouldknowthetricksofsubservienceandcouldadapttohumansincharge.'(iii)Wolvesgotfoodfromearly
humans:ParagraphFtalksof'animals...scavengingleftovers'(i.e.eatinganythingthehumansdidn'twant).(iv)Earlyhumansespeciallylikedveryyoungwolves:
ParagraphFstatesthat'Puppiesinparticularwouldbehardtoresist.'

Fromtheinformationinthetext,indicatewhouseddogsinthewayslistedbelow.

1.inwar
A. theNativeAmericans

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B. theGreeks
C. theRomans
D. theEgyptians
E. theEnglish
F. theFrench

Explain:
ThesecondsentenceofparagraphHtalksabout'Romanwarriors'who'trainedlargedogsforbattle'.Thenextsentencedescribeshow'thebrutes'couldattack
'anarmedman'.

2.asasourceofenergy
A. theNativeAmericans
B. theEnglish
C. theEgyptians
D. theRomans
E. theGreeks
F. theFrench

Explain:
ParagraphIreferstodogsin'seventeenthcenturyEngland'usedasasourceofenergy:'pullingcarts...',workingasturnspits'and'poweringwheels

3.asfood
A. theEgyptians
B. theGreeks
C. theRomans
D. theEnglish
E. theNativeAmericans
F. theFrench

Explain:
ThelastsentenceinparagraphGsays'NativeAmericansamongothersatepuppies'.Neitherthe'others'alludedtohere,northe'societies'inthenextclause,
arementionedbyname.

4.tohuntotheranimals
A. theFrench
B. theRomans
C. theEnglish
D. theNativeAmericans
E. theGreeks
F. theEgyptians

Explain:
AlthoughhuntingisreferredtoinB,C,DandG,paragraphHrefersspecificallytoancientGreece,wherepeopleused'speedyLaconians...tochaseandkill
rabbitsanddeer.'

5.toworkwithfarmanimals
A. theNativeAmericans
B. theEnglish
C. theRomans
D. theEgyptians
E. theFrench
F. theGreeks

Explain:
ThisistheseconduseofchoicetheEnglish.ParagraphIrefersto'herdinglivestock'inEngland,e.g.workingassheepdogs.

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