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By Danielle Petit
Kaplan University
HW220: Contemporary Diet and Nutrition
March 2014

Table of Contents




Information to Remember



Information to Remember




Information to Remember





Information to Remember




Information to Remember





Information to Remember




Information to Remember






Information to Remember





Information to Remember

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Information to Remember

A) Diet and physical activity assessment: Include your unit 2
screen shots and your personal diet and physical activity
assessment write-up.

B) Conduct an Internet search on the dietary habits of a

community in which you are interested. Prepare a 100-150
word summary of the information that you found on their
cultural food preferences. You can use a search engine like
Google or the Health Sciences Resource Room. Properly
cite the website in your write up.


Puerto Rican


Dietary Trends and Nutrition

Information to Remember:

I learned how to evaluate the need for changes in thinking and understanding of
contemporary models of diet and nutrition.

This unit outcome has helped me

understand that our diets vary greatly based on our individual knowledge and practice
of nutrition in our own life. Many factors influence what makes a person eat what
they eat and this requires a thoroughly and individualized assessment to determine
effective treatments.

I also learned to identify some major factors that have changed the role of nutrition in
American dietary trends. This includes things like fast food or prepared and processed
foods that offer convenience over conventional meal preparation. I realized that cost
is a big influence on dietary trends for Americans. I will use this knowledge to help

consider what influences my clients food choices. This will help me to accurately
approach assessing and formulating successful dietary changes.

I have identified two major disciplines of diet and nutrition. I now understand that
there is a difference between a Registered Dietician and a Nutritionist. In RI, where I
currently reside, licensure is required to perform nutrition care including such as
assessing, goal setting, counseling, or advising.

Website 1:
This website gives state by state information on licensure for nutrition
assessment, goal setting, and counseling. This will be important in my career to
ensure Im not practicing outside my scope of practice, allows me to find out what
licensure allows what practices and determine which practices even require licensure.
Website 2:
This is a governmentally funded website from the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA).

This website gives some great tools for consumers,

researchers, infection control professionals, and food resellers. There is information

on this site that ranges from food recalls and outbreaks to nutrition and biotechnology.

Website 3:
This website is a link specifically to food additive information from the Food
and Drug Administration (FDA). This site will allow for me to discuss the reasoning
behind the use of food colors and additives, what they are, how they are approved for
use and will help prove why organic diets are worth more money.

Article, Essay, or Book
This is a link to an article about how the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can fail
to protect Americans from food regulations. This article aids in expressing the need for us
to be both knowledgeable and active about what we consume.


This site is offered by the USDA or United States Food and Drug Administration. It is
an online tool that allows you to track your personal nutrition status and aids in choosing
healthier foods directly correlated to your dietary needs.

Unit 1 References
Center for Nutrition Advocacy. (2014). Laws by State. Retrieved from:
FDA. (2014). Food. Retrieved from:
FDA. (3/13/2013).Overview of Food additives, ingredients and Coloring. Retrieved From:
Jacobson, Michael F. (7/11/2012). FDA Is Not Protecting Consumers From Unsafe Food
Additives. Retrieved From:

USDA. (9/30/13). Supertracker. Retrieved From:

Food Choices Panorama and


Information to Remember

I learned to assess the influence of social and psychological factors on individual food
habits. There are different factors that influence peoples food choices that may come
from family customs, special observation, or familial history.

I have evaluated the importance of governmental standards for food labeling and
learned how to read through the misleading statements. The laws on marketing are
liberal and in favor of the food industrys pocket.

Its now easier to identify how food misinformation impacts the health and well-being
of vulnerable groups. This allows me the knowledge to aid people who are more
likely to purchase items them put them at greater health risks, by recognizing this I
will be able to consider their reasoning in meal planning or diet planning for that

Website 1
This is a USDA website to help people determine what labels mean. There are links
from this site to educate you on reading food labels and one that offers help with
understanding qualified health claims on food labels. There are also links for BMI, empty
calorie education, portioning, and solid fat charting.
Website 2
This website offers resources and information for recognizing
suspicious health claims and also supplies you with links for checking out
food and nutrition myths and misinformation. There are resources
specific to weight loss diets and products as well.

Website 3
This website offers a series of guides, produced by the USDA, that each focus on a
different topic of information or research source. What is most helpful is that the sources are


updated within five years and will serve as another way for me to stay current with my
knowledge of food regulations.
Article, Essay or Book
This article is about British Cardiologists calling for a ban on junk food sales and
marketing. They wanted to change what was sold in vending machines and raised awareness
on how important it is to avoid eating this type of empty calorie food. This campaign of
doctors also requested that the cost of fruits and vegetables be cut to make them more
affordable to at risk consumers.

This is a link to a blog place for the USDA. The site gives multiple links to several
different agricultural topics. This will enable me to keep up on current topics as well as
participate in conversations on agricultural subjects which allows for a question and answer
style of research.


Unit 2 References
USDA. (nd). Food Labeling. Retrieved from:
USDA. (2014). Fraud and Nutrition Misinformation. Retrieved From:
Gold, Mary V.(2008).Guide to U.S. Organic Marketing Laws and Regulations.Retrieved
Campbell, Dennis. (2013, June 27). Doctors call for junk food ban on NHS premises. The
Guardian. Retrieved from:
USDA. (nd). USDA Blog. Retrieved From:


Food Choices: Economics


Information to Remember

Assessing the economic factors that impact family food needs is important to
designing an effect diet plan. When working with people who lack the financial
ability to purchase nutritious food, it is important to show them how to understand the
difference in pricing for convenience or for nutrition.

I learned to more accurately identify sources of groceries and cost differences. This
can impact a familys decision to choose one brand or type of food that appears to be
less expensive. Sometimes if you compare the unit price, like price per pound, it is
actually beneficial to spend the few extra cents to purchase the more nutritious item.

In this unit I looked at government-funded food assistance programs. This included

the role of food insecurity in food choice (like using programs like WIC or
free/reduced lunch programs). This allowed me to understand the importance of
supporting the purchase and resale of healthier foods in schools and aided me in


understanding how people eat what they can afford; which is commonly not the most
nutritious way to determine your meal.

Website 1
This website is the home page for RIs Department of Human Services. This
site offers information on resources to people in need (i.e. people with disabilities, families
with children, veterans, etc.) this gives people access to food assistance.
Website 2
This site gives the locations of farmers markets according to location which
will enable people to buy local. Community supported agriculture is a good way to
cut out pollution and additives in our diet.
Website 3
This site gives information on food supplementation resources (financial help
for food), diabetic diet planning, nutrition certification courses, disability application,
and links to other helpful articles and resources for low income meal planning.


Article, Book, Essay
This is a study done on people who participate in food programs such as Supplemental
Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the Healthy Incentives Pilot (HIP) or food stamps.
What was found was that when there was money available and the nutritious food made
readily available, people of low income who participated in these programs ate more fruits and


This is a calculator for parents to determine how much they will spend according
to who the members of their family is. This helped me realize that diets vary according
to age and sex of the consumer, among other components.


Unit 3 References


RI Department of Human Services. (nd). Rhode Island Department of Human Services
(Home). Retrieved from:
Local Harvest. (2012). Local Harvest Home. Retrieved from:
USDA. (2013). Healthy Incentives Pilot Interim Report Summary. Retrieved From: (2010). Low Income Families and Nutrition. Retrieved from:
The Baby Center, LLC. (2014).Cost of Raising a Child. Retrieved from:

Foodborne illness and Disease

Information to Remember (3)

Proper food storage and handling prevents food-borne illnesses.

Food storage

includes refrigeration or freezing, canning or jarring or keeping food in recommended


environments. Proper food handling includes hand washing, washing fruits and
vegetables, washing tools and surfaces to prevent cross-contamination.

Many people have trouble reading food labels. They are important and provide
information on nutrition, ingredients, and safe storage. Although labels provide
important information, they can be misleading and in favor of the food production

Research of foodborne illness outbreaks in the U.S. is completed through the Food and
Drug Administration as well as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This
information is available for free to the public.

Resources (3 websites)
Website 1
This link is to an FDA site that gives information on food contamination, ways
to protect yourself, and on food contaminants and adulterations. There is additional
information, available through links on this site, about safe food storage, purchasing,
and serving, identifying people at risk for contracting a foodborne illness, chemical
contaminants, pesticides, natural toxins, and metals in food.
Website 2

This is a Center for Disease Control site which gives information of
surveillance, studies and surveys, data statistics and publications regarding foodborne
illnesses. This also offers resources and links to other FoodNet sites (the site from the
CDC focused on food).
Website 3
This is a website from the Center for Disease Control that offers
information on the prevalence and tracking of current foodborne illness

Article, Book, or Essay
This website is a link to the second edition of the Bad Bug Book, which gives
a general overview of what causes a particular food to be declared as contaminated,
what can make you sick and how to prevent it. Each chapter describes a different
bacteria and the Appendices offer more information on CDC estimates of prevalence,
examples of international resources, infective dose information, and more.


Tools (1)
This is a site which offers tools to create a food safety plan through the use of several
decision trees that help assess and address areas of food safety risk that will be unique to your
operation. The food safety plan you develop can be printed and implemented on your own
farm and will allow you to prepare a food safety audit.


U.S. Food and DrugAdministration. (2013). Foodborne Illnesses and Contaminants. Retrieved from:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Foodborne Diseases Active
Surveillance Network (FoodNet). Retrieved from:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the
United States. Retrieved From:
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2013). Bad Bug Book 2nd ed. Retrieved from:
On Farm Food Safety Project. (2014). How to Use the Food Safety Tool.
Retrieved From:



Information to Remember

Agricultural biotechnology is genetic alteration of food. Both produce and fish have
been genetically modified and can offer benefits to people of low income social class
and can pose as a health risk due to allergies.

There are benefits of agricultural biotechnology. Produce that has been genetically
modified can grow in environments not intended by nature. It is a way of speeding up
the adaptation process and in the meantime provide a source of nutrition to individuals
in need. The use of GMOs is widespread and nearly impossible to avoid.

There are some safety considerations with agricultural biotechnology. The research on
how the consumption of genetically modified foods is inconclusive at this time. There
is a risk of allergic reaction do to the use of a gene from one organism placed in
another which the consumer may not be aware of. Agricultural biotechnology poses a


risk to the environment through cross pollination with natural crops and poses a risk
for alteration of insects and wildlife.

Website 1
This is a USDA website based on frequently asked questions
biotechnology or GMOs. It also provides a link to look at data and
Website 2
This site discusses how GMOs can be helpful, the prevalence of GMO
crops, and criticism of GMOs, the governments role, and labeling.
Website 3


This site offers information on GMOs provided by people who stand to lose
no profit by exposing the truth. The non-GMO Project is a third party verification and
labeling of non-GMO products to ensure that consumers can make an informed choice
to consume or not to consume GMOs.

Article, Book, or Essay

Chapter 9 of Williams' Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy,
10th Edition discusses the problems from food misinformation. There is
information offered in this chapter discusses different types of food
misinformation, identifies individuals who are at risk, and how to combat
the misinformation.

This site offers phone apps that can help you avoid foods that contain GMOs.


USDA. (12/30/2013). Bitechnology Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). Retrieved from:
Whitman, Deborah B. (April 2000).Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?
Retrieved from:
The Non-GMO Project. (2014). GMO Facts. Retrieved From:

Schlenker, E. Roth, S.(2011).Williams Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 10th Ed.
Elsevier. St. Louis, MO
Natural Revolution. (2014). Apps that Help You Avoid GMO Foods and Products.
Retrieved from:





Information to Remember

Most people choose foods based on price. This make the economic
comparison between organic and conventional farming practices
challenging. Consumers need to understand the benefit of organic
farming as opposed to those of the conventional farming in order
to make a healthy decision.

The United States Department of Agriculture sets standards for

labeling food as organic and they are responsible for ensuring their
standards are met. Foods will either be labeled as 100% organic
or will have a label saying made with organic ingredients.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is supposed to regulate

food additives and coloring. Some additives approved by the FDA
are considered safe for human consumption but can alter
absorption of nutrients or produce other undesirable side effects
including increase your risk for cancer.

Website 1


This site offers general information about organic farming. It ranges on topics
from occupations and research to funding for organic projects and how to find organic
Website 2
This site gives information on how to eat organic food on a budget.
Website 3
This is the homepage for The Organic Trade Association a membership-based
business association for the organic industry in North America. This site offers
directories, organic facts, market analysis, and more.
Article, Book, or Essay
Are Organic Foods Safer or Healthier Than Conventional Alternatives?
This is a peer reviewed article that discusses how consuming an organic diet
can decrease your consumption of chemicals and food additives.



This is a USDA site for locating farmers markets. There are many organic
farms that attend farmers markets and this tool enables you to look up a market
anywhere in the country.


Gold, Mary V. (2007). Organic Production/Organic Food: Information Access Tools.
Retrieved from:
WebMD.(2014). How To Eat Organic Foods On A Budget. Retrieved From:
Organic Trade Association. (2014). Who We Are. Retrieved from:
Smith-Spangler, C., Brandeau, M. L., Hunter, G. E., Bavinger, J., Pearson, M., Eschbach, P.
J., & ... Bravata, D. M. (2012). Are Organic Foods Safer or Healthier Than
Conventional Alternatives?. Annals Of Internal Medicine, 157(5), 348-366.
USDA. (nd). Farmers Markets Search. Retrieved From:



Globalization of World Food

Information to Remember

U.S. fast-food industries are expanding to overseas food markets

and altering foreign traditional diets.

McWorld is the term

coined to describe the expansion of the fast food industry overseas

and Americanizing foreign diets.


Globalization of food increases the risk of widespread of foodborne

illnesses, alters traditional diets, increases pollution and increases
the difficulty of monitoring food production.

The American diet is influenced by marketing, convenience, and


Childhood obesity is a problem that has

triggered political interest and is an epidemic that needs to be

addressed in order to save the future health of America and now,
due to globalization, the world.

Website 1
This site is from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on obesity. It
offers data, statistics, resources, information on programs from state to state, and much
Website 2
Lets Move is a campaign designed by Michelle Obama to combat obesity in
America. The program is directed at childhood obesity but offers plenty of
information on nutrition and physical activity.


Website 3
This site is a general breakdown of information about where certain parts of a
typical meal may come from. Its a great site to use to show people how their daily
meals may generate from foreign countries.
Article, Book, or Essay
Globalization and children's diets: The case of Maya of Mexico and Central America.
This paper examined the influences of the globalization of food by using
Mayans for their case study. They found that the Mayan health has deteriorated due to
food globalization because they have been eating more highly processed foods that are
high in fat, sugar and low in fiber from their traditional nutritious diets from their local
farms. This paper offers a case study of how industrialized foods effect peoples diets
and their health.

This is a site that gives information on a fast food application for your phone.
It shows locations of over 50 fast food chains, offers over 15,000 menus, includes nutrition
facts, and allows for a calculation of total meal nutrition facts.



CDC. 2014. Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved From:
N.A. (2010).. Retrieved From:
The Whitney and Betty MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies at Yale.
(2014).The Globalization of Food and Plants. Retrieved From:
Bogin, B., Azcorra, H., Wilson, H., Vzquez-Vzquez, A., Avila-Escalante, M., CastilloBurguete, M., & ... Dickinson, F. (2014). Globalization and children's diets: The case
of Maya of Mexico and Central America. Anthropological Review, 77(1), 11-32.
doi:10.2478/anre-2014-0002 (n.d.).Fast Food Phone Apps. Retrieved From:


Contemporary Weight Loss


Information to Remember

There are six major medications (drugs) used for weight-loss.

All of them have less than desirable and sometimes
dangerous side effects and carry the risk of regaining the
weight after cessation of use.

There are many ways in which weight-loss industry markets

products and services to consumers. This is good because
people should be weight conscious but some people put
themselves at risk by misusing weight loss drugs or by
developing eating disorders.


There are ways in which consumers can use evidence-based

guidelines for maintaining a healthy diet. By using evidencebased guidelines they can reduce their risk for regaining
weight and experiencing more serious side effects, including
drug addiction.

Website 1
This site gives general information about dieting pills. It also offers links to
information on dangers of untested dietary drugs, information on weight loss supplements,
how excess weight impacts your health, and so on.
Website 2 is owned and operated by Cyberscape Media and offers expert
reviews on individual weight loss programs. Under their tab Disclaimer they describe how
they take commission from sales of any product offered on their site, this is a good example of
how to be aware of what information may have been altered and is not evidence based.
Website 3

This is a site put together by a group of Registered Dieticians to help people
lose weight safely. This particular link offers accurate information about targeting weight loss
and effective strategies to get people motivated as well as some cost saving information.
Article, Book, or Essay
William's Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy 10th edition
This book offers information on diet and nutrition and covers many topics.
Pages 343-348 review treatments for obesity through diet, exercise, behavioral therapy,
medication and surgery.

This tool from WebMD allows you create a weight loss plan,
calculate calories, keep a food log of more than 30,000 foods and
beverages, including brand names, allows for tracking of activity and
offers suggestions, tracks progress, and sends progress reports for
observation of weight management over time.


WebMD. (April 2014). Prescription Weight Loss Drugs. Retrieved From: (2014). Reviews of the Best Weight Loss Programs. Retrieved From:
Counterweight. (nd). About Us. Retrieved From:
Schlenker, E., & Roth, S. 2011. William's Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy10th ed.
St Louis, MO. Mosby, Inc.
WebMD. (2012). WebMD Food and Fitness Planner. Retrieved From:



Information to Remember

Many different factors play a role in nutrition. Ethnicity and racial diversity
are two major factors that can alter dietary intake and health outcomes.

Foods adopted form the American pattern and native foods differ in nutrition
contents. Many traditional diets are high in nutrients and fiber because of the
farm to plate practice but American diets are flooded with convenience which
leads to the consumption of processed foods, refined sugars, fat and sodium.

The optimum way to "preserve ones heritage and health" is by researching

what foods are native to the area you live in. This way you will be eating
fresh, locally grown food that doesnt require additives for preservation.


Website 1
This site allows you to search information about culture and diets according to
the country of interest.
Website 2
This site offers positive factors and draw backs of having diets influenced by
Website 3
This is a forum that allows people to discuss their diets and determine if they
are eating a diet based on cultural heritage. People talk back and forth and are able to
share information as well as recipes.


Article, Book, Essay

Foodborne illness incidence rates and food safety risks for
populations of low socioeconomic status and minority race/ethnicity:
a review of the literature

This article reviews the research on how low socioeconomic status can increase the
risk of contraction of a foodborne illness. This is more evidence of how our culture effects our
health outcomes.

This is a USDA site that offers food pyramids according to ethnicity. This is a helpful
tool for dieticians to evaluate different cultural diets.


Food and Culture Resources. (2005-2014). Welcome to Food Culture and Tradition. Retrieved
Lamb, Linda H. (October 21, 2013). How Culture Effects Diets. Retrieved From:
Bratnella_NM. (2010, Sept 10). Do You Make Your Meals According to Your Nationality?
Retrieved from:
Quinlan, J. (2013). Foodborne illness incidence rates and food safety risks for
populations of low socioeconomic status and minority race/ethnicity: a review of the
literature. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health, 10(8),
3634-3652. doi:10.3390/ijerph10083634
USDA. (2014). Ethnic/Cultural Food Pyramids. Retrieved from:



Appendix A
Unit 2 Essay
My diet is pretty good when comparing it to the 2010 Dietary
Guidelines. The goal of the 2010 Guidelines are similar to those of the
2005 guidelines. They aim to reduce the incidence and prevalence of
overweight and obesity by reducing overall calorie intake and increasing
physical activity; Move toward a more plant-based diet that emphasizes


vegetables, cooked dry peas and beans, fruits, whole grains, and nuts
and seeds; increase the use of seafood and fat-free or low-fat milk
products with only moderate use of lean meat, poultry, and eggs; Reduce
the use of foods with added sugars, fat, and sodium, and especially
refined grains with high levels of these ingredients; Meet the 2008
Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, (Schlenker, Roth, 2011,
I dont have as much of an issue with the dietary intake as I do with the
physical activity.

My physical activity level doesnt come close to the

recommendations. I do eat a lot of fruits, veggies, and whole grains, but

could eat more. I have trouble consuming seafood, even though Im from
RI, maybe I could take a supplement (Fish Oil). I always try to keep my
intake of refined and high sugary/salty foods at a low level.
Major influences on my food choices were cost, cravings, and ease
of preparation. Sales in grocery stores can be a bad thing; for example,
its the only time I buy Oreos.

Cravings can be a battle when Im

shopping and meal planning so I try to do these tasks on a full stomach.

My physical activity is influenced by convenience and time available for
activities. My favorite thing to do is Yoga at the YMCA because its a
great warm up for moderate level activities.

I live about 40 minutes

away from my favorite Y which makes it easy for me to blame lack of


time on why I dont go often. As a result my physical activity is almost

I think some improvements could be made in the Dietary
Guidelines for 2015. For starters, my sons school lunches are atrocious.
I think these guidelines should be more readily available, maybe by
offering free copies in grocery stores.

More information should be

available, such as warning labels for foods that arent good for you and
true labels, backed by evidence based information on those that are good
for you.

Television shows and commercials should be flashier about

nutrition and physical activity to encourage people to make better


I dont think these guidelines are out there enough for

consumers that arent as educated as college students/graduates.


Unit 2 Assignment Screen Shots





Petit, Danielle. (2014). Kaplan. HW220 Unit2 Assignment.

Schlenker, E. & Roth, S. (2011). Willliams Essentials of Nutrition and
Diet Therapy. 10th ed.
Elsevier Mosby St Louis, Missouri.
USDA, US Department of Health and Human Services. (December
2010).Retrieved From:

Amish Diet
Like any other American culture, Amish diets vary from family to family. Some
families will pay people to drive them to town for shopping or going to restaurants, some
purchase frozen or prepared meals as a treat. The families who work in the community eat
more processed foods, said Dan Yoder of Holmes county Ohio, it depends on what church


they belong to. Some families, life the Swartzentruber, only go to town once a month.
Traditionally Amish meals were from the farm to plate but with the industrialization of
farming there is less land for Amish farming forcing people to shop for their food.
Food preservation is achieved through canning, jarring or refrigeration by use of
refrigerator or freezers run off of car batteries and generators. Homemade bologna is popular
in OH Amish communities. Many rural families will have produce their own dairy products;
urban families often buy dairy items at the supermarket or a cheese house. Cornmeal mush,
cereals, and breads are common because corn is a large part of their diet. Fresh. The main
meal of the day typically consists of noodles, macaroni, or potatoes; meat, which is often fried;
and canned vegetables, (OSU, 2010) with bread at every meal, either store bought or
homemade. The lighter meal commonly consists of soup, cheese or bologna, and fruit. Snacks
are usually apples, cookies, or leftovers. Some women will breast feed, some bottle feed,
some buy infant cereal and others make their own from scratch. Amish childrens dietary
habits are influenced by family not by marketing.
Amish diets have shifted from high fiber and nutrient to high in fat, sugar and salt. The
Amish still have farms and orchards but there is a lot of industrialized, packaged food altering
their dietary habits.


Ohio State University. (2010). Cultural Diversity: Eating in America, Amish.
Yoder, Dan. (March 18, 2014). Personal Conversation.