Anda di halaman 1dari 199

K Thut iu Khin T ng

Bin tp bi:
Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn

K Thut iu Khin T ng
Bin tp bi:
Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
Cc tc gi:
Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn

Phin bn trc tuyn:


http://voer.edu.vn/c/0d7fe2e0

MC LC
1. Bi 1: C bn v h thng iu khin t ng
1.1. Khi nim iu khin
1.2. Cc nguyn tc iu khin
1.3. Phn loi iu khin
1.4. Lch s pht trin l thuyt iu khin
1.5. Mt s v d v cc phn t v h thng t ng
2. Bi 2: M t ton hc h thng iu khin lin tc
3. Bi 3: c tnh ng hc ca h thng
3.1. Khi nim v c tnh ng hc
3.2. Cc khu ng hc in hnh
3.3. c tnh ng hc ca h thng t ng
3.4. Kho st c tnh ng hc ca h thng
4. Bi 4: Kho st tnh n nh ca h thng
4.1. Khi nim v n nh
4.2. Tiu chun n nh i s
4.3. Phng php qu o nghim s
4.4. Tiu chun n nh tn s
5. Bi 5: nh gi cht lng ca h thng iu khin
5.1. Cc tiu chun cht lng
5.2. Sai s xc lp
5.3. p ng qu
5.4. Cc tiu chun ti u ha p ng qu
6. Bi 6: Thit k h thng iu khin lin tc
7. Bi 7: M t ton hc h thng iu khin ri rc
7.1. H thng iu khin ri rc
7.2. Php bin i Z
7.3. M t h thng ri rc bng hm truyn
7.4. M t h thng ri rc bng phng trnh trng thi
8. Bi 8: Phn tch v thit k h thng iu khin ri rc
8.1. H thng iu khin ri rc :Khi nim chung
8.2. Cc tiu chun n nh
8.3. nh gi cht lng ca h thng
8.4. Cc phng php tng hp h thng iu khin ri rc

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9. Bi 9: ng dng thit k h thng iu khin t ng


10. Bi 10: Lp trnh iu khin h thng t ng t my tnh
11. Bi 11: Tho lun v tng kt
11.1. M T H RI RC DNG MATLAB
Tham gia ng gp

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Bi 1: C bn v h thng iu khin t
ng
Khi nim iu khin
Khi nim iu khin
Khi nim
Mt cu hi kh ph bin vi nhng ngi mi lm quen vi l thuyt iu khin l
iu khin l g?. c khi nim v iu khin chng ta xt v d sau. Gi s chng
ta ang li xe trn ng, chng ta mun xe chy vi tc c nh 40km/h. t
c iu ny mt chng ta phi quan st ng h o tc bit c tc ca xe
ang chy. Nu tc xe di 40km/h th ta tng ga, nu tc xe trn 40km/h th ta
gim ga. Kt qu ca qu trnh trn l xe s chy vi tc gn bng tc mong
mun. Qu trnh li xe nh vy chnh l qu trnh iu khin. Trong qu trnh iu khin
chng ta cn thu thp thng tin v i tng cn iu khin (quan st ng h o tc
thu thp thng tin v tc xe), ty theo thng tin thu thp c v mc ch iu
khin m chng ta c cch x l thch hp (quyt nh tng hay gim ga), cui cng ta
phi tc ng vo i tng (tc ng vo tay ga) hot ng ca i tng theo ng
yu cu mong mun.
iu khin l qu trnh thu thp thng tin, x l thng tin v tc ng ln h thng
p ng ca h thng gn vi mc ch nh trc. iu khin t ng l qu trnh
iu khin khng cn s tc ng ca con ngi.
Cu hi th hai cng thng gp i vi nhng ngi mi lm quen vi l thuyt iu
khin l Ti sao cn phi iu khin?. Cu tr li ty thuc vo tng trng hp c
th, tuy nhin c hai l do chnh l con ngi khng tha mn vi p ng ca h thng
hay mun h thng hot ng tng chnh xc, tng nng sut, tng hiu qu kinh t.
V d trong lnh vc dn dng, chng ta cn iu chnh nhit v m cho cc cn
h v cc cao c to ra s tin nghi trong cuc sng. Trong vn ti cn iu khin cc xe
hay my bay t ni ny n ni khc mt cch an ton v chnh xc. Trong cng nghip,
cc qu trnh sn xut bao gm v s mc tiu sn xut tha mn cc i hi v s an
ton, chnh xc v hiu qu kinh t.
Trong nhng nm gn y, cc h thng iu khin (HTK) cng c vai tr quan trng
trong vic pht trin v s tin b ca k thut cng ngh v vn minh hin i. Thc
t mi kha cnh ca hot ng hng ngy u b chi phi bi mt vi loi h thng
iu khin. D dng tm thy h thng iu khin my cng c, k thut khng gian v
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h thng v kh, iu khin my tnh, cc h thng giao thng, h thng nng lng,
robot,...
Ngay c cc vn nh kim ton v h thng kinh t x hi cng p dng t l thuyt
iu khin t ng. Khi nim iu khin tht s l mt khi nim rt rng, ni dung
quyn sch ny ch cp n l thuyt iu khin cc h thng k thut.
Cc thnh phn c bn ca h thng iu khin

S khi h thng iu khin

Ch thch cc k hiu vit tt:


- r(t) (reference input): tn hiu vo, tn hiu chun
- c(t) (controlled output): tn hiu ra
- cht(t): tn hiu hi tip
- e(t) (error): sai s
- u(t) : tn hiu iu khin.
thc hin c qu trnh iu khin nh nh ngha trn, mt h thng iu khin
bt buc gm c ba thnh phn c bn l thit b o lng (cm bin), b iu khin v
i tng iu khin. Thit b o lng c chc nng thu thp thng tin, b iu khin
thc hin chc nng x l thng tin, ra quyt nh iu khin v i tng iu khin
chu s tc ng ca tn hiu iu khin. H thng iu khin trong thc t rt a dng,
s khi hnh 1.1 l cu hnh ca h thng iu khin thng gp nht.
Tr li v d li xe trnh by trn ta thy i tng iu khin chnh l chic xe,
thit b o lng l ng h o tc v i mt ca ngi li xe, b iu khin l b
no ngi li xe, c cu chp hnh l tay ngi li xe. Tn hiu vo r(t) l tc xe
mong mun (40km/h), tn hiu ra c(t) l tc xe hin ti ca xe, tn hiu hi tip cht(t)
l v tr kim trn ng h o tc , sai s e(t) l sai lch gia tc mong mun v tc
hin ti, tn hiu iu khin u(t) l gc quay ca tay ga.

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Mt v d khc nh h thng iu khin mc cht lng hnh 1.2 d rt n gin nhng


cng c y ba thnh phn c bn k trn. Thit b o lng chnh l ci phao, v tr
ca phao cho bit mc cht lng trong bn. B iu khin chnh l cnh tay n m van
ty theo v tr hin ti ca phao, sai lch cng ln th gc m van cng ln. i tng
iu khin l bn cha, tn hiu ra c(t) l mc cht lng trong bn, tn hiu vo r(t) l
mc cht lng mong mun. Mun thay i mc cht lng mong mun ta thay i di
ca on ni t phao n cnh tay n.

H thng iu khin mc cht lng

Cc bi ton c bn trong lnh vc iu khin t ng


Trong lnh vc iu khin t ng c rt nhiu bi ton cn gii quyt, tuy nhin cc bi
ton iu khin trong thc t c th quy vo ba bi ton c bn sau:
Phn tch h thng: Cho h thng t ng bit cu trc v thng s. Bi ton t ra l
trn c s nhng thng tin bit tm p ng ca h thng v nh gi cht lng ca
h. Bi ton ny lun gii c.
Thit k h thng: Bit cu trc v thng s ca i tng iu khin. Bi ton t ra l
thit k b iu khin c h thng tha mn cc yu cu v cht lng. Bi ton
ni chung l gii c.
Nhn dng h thng: Cha bit cu trc v thng s ca h thng. Vn t ra l xc
nh cu trc v thng s ca h thng. Bi ton ny khng phi lc no cng gii c.

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Cc nguyn tc iu khin
Cc nguyn tc iu khin
Cc nguyn tc iu khin c th xem l kim ch nam thit k h thng iu khin
t cht lng cao v c hiu qu kinh t nht.
Nguyn tc 1: Nguyn tc thng tin phn hi Mun qu trnh iu khin t cht lng
cao, trong h thng phi tn ti hai dng thng tin: mt t b iu khin n i tng
v mt t i tng ngc v b iu khin (dng thng tin ngc gi l hi tip). iu
khin khng hi tip (iu khin vng h) khng th t cht lng cao, nht l khi c
nhiu.
Cc s iu khin da trn nguyn tc thng tin phn hi l:
iu khin b nhiu (hnh 1.3): l s iu khin theo nguyn tc b nhiu t u
ra c(t) mong mun m khng cn quan st tn hiu ra c(t) . V nguyn tc, i vi h
phc tp th iu khin b nhiu khng th cho cht lng tt.

S khi h thng iu khin b nhiu

iu khin san bng sai lch (hnh 1.4): B iu khin quan st tn hiu ra c(t) , so snh
vi tn hiu vo mong mun r(t) tnh ton tn hiu iu khin u(t) . Nguyn tc iu
khin ny iu chnh linh hot, loi sai lch, th nghim v sa sai. y l nguyn tc
c bn trong iu khin.

S khi h thng iu khin san bng sai lch

iu khin phi hp: Cc h thng iu khin cht lng cao thng phi hp s
iu khin b nhiu v iu khin san bng sai lch nh hnh 1.5.

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S khi h thng iu khin phi hp

Nguyn tc 2: Nguyn tc a dng tng xng Mun qu trnh iu khin c cht lng
th s a dng ca b iu khin phi tng xng vi s a dng ca i tng. Tnh a
dng ca b iu khin th hin kh nng thu thp thng tin, lu tr thng tin, truyn
tin, phn tch x l, chn quyt nh,... ngha ca nguyn tc ny l cn thit k b
iu khin ph hp vi i tng. Hy so snh yu cu cht lng iu khin v b iu
khin s dng trong cc h thng sau:
- iu khin nhit bn i (chp nhn sai s ln) vi iu khin nhit l sy (khng
chp nhn sai s ln).
- iu khin mc nc trong bn cha ca khch sn (ch cn m bo lun c nc
trong bn) vi iu khin mc cht lng trong cc dy chuyn sn xut (mc cht lng
cn gi khng i).
Nguyn tc 3: Nguyn tc b sung ngoi Mt h thng lun tn ti v hot ng trong
mi trng c th v c tc ng qua li cht ch vi mi trng . Nguyn tc b
sung ngoi tha nhn c mt i tng cha bit (hp en) tc ng vo h thng v
ta phi iu khin c h thng ln hp en. ngha ca nguyn tc ny l khi thit k
h thng t ng, mun h thng c cht lng cao th khng th b qua nhiu ca mi
trng tc ng vo h thng.
Nguyn tc 4: Nguyn tc d tr V nguyn tc 3 lun coi thng tin cha y phi
phng cc bt trc xy ra v khng c dng ton b lc lng trong iu kin bnh
thng. Vn d tr khng s dng, nhng cn m bo cho h thng vn hnh an
ton.
Nguyn tc 5: Nguyn tc phn cp i vi mt h thng iu khin phc tp cn xy
dng nhiu lp iu khin b sung cho trung tm. Cu trc phn cp thng s dng
l cu trc hnh cy, v d nh h thng iu khin giao thng th hin i, h thng
iu khin dy chuyn sn xut.

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S iu khin phn cp

Nguyn tc 6: Nguyn tc cn bng ni Mi h thng cn xy dng c ch cn bng


ni c kh nng t gii quyt nhng bin ng xy ra.

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Phn loi iu khin


Phn loi iu khin
C nhiu cch phn loi h thng iu khin ty theo mc ch ca s phn loi. V d
nu cn c vo phng php phn tch v thit k c th phn h thng iu khin thnh
cc loi tuyn tnh v phi tuyn, bin i theo thi gian v bt bin theo thi gian; nu
cn c vo dng tn hiu trong h thng ta c h thng lin tc v h thng ri rc; nu
cn c vo mc ch iu khin ta c h thng iu khin n nh ha, iu khin theo
chng, iu khin theo di,...
Phn loi theo phng php phn tch v thit k
H thng tuyn tnh - H thng phi tuyn
H thng tuyn tnh khng tn ti trong thc t, v tt c cc h thng vt l u l phi
tuyn. H thng iu khin tuyn tnh l m hnh l tng n gin ha qu trnh
phn tch v thit k h thng. Khi gi tr ca tn hiu nhp vo h thng cn nm trong
gii hn m cc phn t cn hot ng tuyn tnh (p dng c nguyn l xp chng),
th h thng cn l tuyn tnh. Nhng khi gi tr ca tn hiu vo vt ra ngoi vng hot
ng tuyn tnh ca cc phn t v h thng, th khng th xem h thng l tuyn tnh
c. Tt c cc h thng thc t u c c tnh phi tuyn, v d b khuch i thng
c c tnh bo ha khi tn hiu vo tr nn qu ln, t trng ca ng c cng c c
tnh bo ha. Trong truyn ng c kh c tnh phi tuyn thng gp phi l khe h
v vng cht gia cc bnh rng, c tnh ma st, n hi phi tuyn... Cc c tnh phi
tuyn thng c a vo HTK nhm ci thin cht lng hay tng hiu qu iu
khin. V d nh t thi gian iu khin l ti thiu trong cc h thng tn la hay
iu khin phi tuyn ngi ta s dng b iu khin on-off (bang-bang hay relay). Cc
ng phn lc c t cnh ng c to ra mmen phn lc iu khin. Cc ng ny
thng c iu khin theo kiu full on - full off, ngha l mt lng kh np vo mt
ng nh trc trong khong thi gian xc nh, iu khin t th ca phi tuyn.
H thng bt bin - h thng bin i theo thi gian
Khi cc thng s ca HTK khng i trong sut thi gian hot ng ca h thng, th
h thng c gi l h thng bt bin theo thi gian. Thc t, hu ht cc h thng vt
l u c cc phn t tri hay bin i theo thi gian. V d nh in tr dy qun ng
c b thay i khi mi b kch hay nhit tng.
Mt v d khc v HTK bin i theo thi gian l h iu khin tn la, trong khi
lng ca tn la b gim trong qu trnh bay. Mc d h thng bin i theo thi gian

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khng c c tnh phi tuyn, vn c coi l h tuyn tnh, nhng vic phn tch v thit
k loi h thng ny phc tp hn nhiu so vi h tuyn tnh bt bin theo thi gian.
Phn loi theo loi tn hiu trong h thng
H thng lin tc
H thng lin tc l h thng m tn hiu bt k phn no ca h cng l hm lin tc
theo thi gian. Trong tt c cc HTK lin tc, tn hiu c phn thnh AC hay DC.
Khi nim AC v DC khng ging trong k thut in m mang ngha chuyn mn
trong thut ng HTK. HTK AC c ngha l tt c cc tn hiu trong h thng u
c iu ch bng vi dng s iu ch. HTK DC c hiu n gin l h c cc
tn hiu khng c iu ch, nhng vn c tn hiu xoay chiu. Hnh 1.7 l s mt
HTK DC kn v dng sng p ng qu ca h.
Cc thnh phn ca HTK DC l bin tr, khuch i DC, ng c DC, tachometer
DC...

S HTK DC vng kn

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S HTK AC vng kn

Hnh 1.8 l s mt HTK AC c cng chc nng nh HTK hnh 1.7. Trong
trng hp ny, tn hiu trong h u c iu ch, ngha l thng tin c truyn i
nh mt sng mang AC. Ch rng bin iu khin u ra ca i tng vn ging nh
HTK DC. HTK AC c s dng rng ri trong h thng iu khin my bay v
tn la, nhiu v tn hiu l l vn phi quan tm. Vi tn s sng mang t 400
Hz tr ln, HTK AC loi b c phn ln cc nhiu tn s thp. Cc thnh phn ca
HTK AC l thit b ng b, khuch i AC, ng c AC, con quay hi chuyn, my
o gia tc... Thc t, mt h thng c th lin kt cc thnh phn AC v DC, s dng
cc b iu ch v cc b gii iu ch thch ng vi tn hiu ti cc im khc nhau
trong h thng.
H thng ri rc
Khc vi HTK lin tc, HTK ri rc c tn hiu mt hay nhiu im trong h
thng l dng chui xung hay m s. Thng thng HTK ri rc c phn lm hai
loi: HTK ly mu d liu v HTK s. HTK ly mu d liu dng d liu xung.
HTK s lin quan n s dng my tnh s hay b iu khin s v vy tn hiu trong
h c m s ha, m s nh phn chng hn.
Ni chung, mt HTK ly mu d liu ch nhn d liu hay thng tin trong mt khong
thi gian xc nh. V d, tn hiu sai lch ca HTK ch c th c cung cp di
dng xung v trong khong thi gian gia hai xung lin tip HTK s khng nhn c
thng tin v tn hiu sai lch. HTK ly mu d liu c th xem l mt HTK AC v
tn hiu trong h thng c iu ch xung.
Hnh :minh ha hot ng ca mt h thng ly mu d liu. Tn hiu lin tc r(t) c
a vo h thng, tn hiu sai lch e(t) c ly mu bi thit b ly mu, ng ra ca
thit b ly mu l chui xung tun t. Tc ly mu c th thng nht hoc khng.
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Mt trong nhng u im quan trng ca thao tc ly mu l cc thit b t tin trong


h c th chia s thi gian dng chung trn nhiu knh iu khin. Mt li im khc
l nhiu t hn.
Do my tnh cung cp nhiu tin ch v mm do, iu khin bng my tnh ngy cng
ph bin. Nhiu h thng vn ti hng khng s dng hng ngn cc linh kin ri rc
ch chim mt khong khng khng ln hn quyn sch ny. Hnh 1.10 trnh by cc
thnh phn c bn ca b phn t li trong iu khin tn la.

S khi HTK ly mu d liu

S khi HTK tn la

Phn loi theo mc tiu iu khin


iu khin n nh ha
Mc tiu iu khin l kt qu tn hiu ra bng tn hiu vo chun r(t) vi sai lch cho
php exl (sai s ch xc lp).

Khi tn hiu vo r(t) khng i theo thi gian ta c h thng iu khin n nh ha hay
h thng iu chnh, v d nh h thng n nh nhit , in p, p sut, nng , tc
,...
iu khin theo chng trnh
Nu r(t) l mt hm nh trc theo thi gian, yu cu p ng ra ca h thng sao chp
li cc gi tr ca tn hiu vo r(t) th ta c h thng iu khin theo chng trnh.
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V d h thng iu khin my cng c CNC, iu khin t ng nh my xi mng


Hong Thch, h thng thu nhp v truyn s liu h thng in, qun l vt t nh
my...
iu khin theo di
Nu tn hiu tc ng vo h thng r(t) l mt hm khng bit trc theo thi gian, yu
cu iu khin p ng ra c(t) lun bm st c r(t), ta c h thng theo di. iu khin
theo di c s dng rng ri trong cc HTK v kh, h thng li tu, my bay...
iu khin thch nghi
Tn hiu v(t) chnh nh li tham s iu khin sao cho h thch nghi vi mi bin ng
ca mi trng ngoi.

Nguyn tc t chnh nh

iu khin ti u - hm mc tiu t cc tr
V d cc bi ton qui hoch, vn tr trong kinh t, k thut u l cc phng php iu
khin ti u.

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Lch s pht trin l thuyt iu khin


Lch s pht trin l thuyt iu khin
iu khin c in (classical control)
L thuyt iu khin c in (trc 1960) m t h thng trong min tn s (php bin
i Fourier) v mt phng s (php bin i Laplace). Do da trn cc php bin i ny,
l thuyt iu khin c in ch yu p dng cho h tuyn tnh bt bin theo thi gian,
mt d c mt vi m rng p dng cho h phi tuyn, th d phng php hm m
t. L thuyt iu khin kinh in thch hp thit k h thng mt ng vo - mt ng
ra (SISO: single-input/single-output), rt kh p dng cho cc h thng nhiu ng vo nhiu ng ra (MIMO: multi-input/multi-output) v cc h thng bin i theo thi gian.
Cc phng php phn tch v thit k h thng trong l thuyt iu khin c in gm
c phng php Nyquist, Bode, v phng php qu o nghim s. thit k h
thng dng phng php Nyquist v Bode cn m t h thng di dng p ng tn s
(p ng bin v p ng pha), y l mt thun li v p ng tn s c th o c
bng thc nghim. M t h thng cn thit k dng phng php qu o nghim
s l hm truyn, hm truyn cng c th tnh c t p ng tn s.
Hm truyn ca cc h thng phc tp c tnh bng cch s dng s khi hay s
dng tn hiu. M t chnh xc c tnh ng hc bn trong h thng l khng cn
thit i vi cc phng php thit k c in, ch c quan h gia ng vo v ng ra l
quan trng.
Cc khu hiu chnh n gin nh hiu chnh vi tch phn t l PID (Proportional Integral
Derivative), hiu chnh sm tr pha,... thng c s dng trong cc h thng iu
khin kinh in.
nh hng ca cc khu hiu chnh ny n biu Nyquist, biu Bode v qu o
nghim s c th thy c d dng, nh c th d dng la chn c khu hiu
chnh thch hp.
iu khin hin i (modern control)
(t khong nm 1960 n nay)
K thut thit k h thng iu khin hin i da trn min thi gian. M t ton hc
dng phn tch v thit k h thng l phng trnh trng thi. M hnh khng gian
trng thi c u im l m t c c tnh ng hc bn trong h thng (cc bin trng
thi) v c th d dng p dng cho h MIMO v h thng bin i theo thi gian. L
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thuyt iu khin hin i ban u c pht trin ch yu cho h tuyn tnh, sau
c m rng cho h phi tuyn bng cch s dng l thuyt ca Lyapunov.
B iu khin c s dng ch yu trong thit k h thng iu khin hin i l b
iu khin hi tip trng thi. Ty theo cch tnh vector hi tip trng thi m ta c
phng php phn b cc, iu khin ti u, iu khin bn vng...Vi s pht trin ca
l thuyt iu khin s v h thng ri rc, l thuyt iu khin hin i rt thch hp
thit k cc b iu khin l cc chng trnh phn mm chy trn vi x l v my
tnh s. iu ny cho php thc thi c cc b iu khin c c tnh ng phc tp
hn cng nh hiu qu hn so vi cc b iu khin n gin nh PID hay sm tr pha
trong l thuyt c in.
iu khin thng minh (intelligent control)
iu khin kinh in v iu khin hin i, gi chung l iu khin thng thng
(conventional control) c khuyt im l thit k c h thng iu khin cn phi
bit m hnh ton hc ca i tng. Trong khi thc t c nhng i tng iu khin
rt phc tp, rt kh hoc khng th xc nh c m hnh ton. Cc phng php iu
khin thng minh nh iu khin m, mng thn kinh nhn to, thut ton di truyn m
phng/bt chc cc h thng thng minh sinh hc, v nguyn tc khng cn dng m
hnh ton hc thit k h thng, do c kh nng ng dng thc t rt ln. Khuyt
im ca iu khin m l qu trnh thit k mang tnh th sai, da vo kinh nghim
ca chuyn gia. Nh kt hp logic m vi mng thn kinh nhn to hay thut ton di
truyn m thng s b iu khin m c th thay i thng qua qu trnh hc hay qu
trnh tin ha, v vy khc phc c khuyt im th sai. Hin nay cc b iu khin
thng thng kt hp vi cc k thut iu khin thng minh to nn cc b iu khin
lai iu khin cc h thng phc tp vi cht lng rt tt.

15/197

Mt s v d v cc phn t v h thng t ng
Mt s v d v cc phn t v h thng t ng
Cc phn t t ng
Nh cp , mt HTK gm cc phn t c bn sau:
* Phn t cm bin, thit b o lng
* i tng hay qu trnh iu khin
* Thit b iu khin, cc b iu khin th ng v tch cc
Cc loi cm bin, thit b o lng
Bin tr tuyn tnh, bin tr gc quay dng chuyn i s dch chuyn thnh in
p. Ngoi ra cn c th chuyn i kiu in cm v in dung... Nguyn tc chung
o cc i lng khng in nh nhit , quang thng, lc, ng sut, kch thc, di
chuyn, tc ... bng phng php in l bin i chng thnh tn hiu in. Cu trc
thit b o gm ba thnh phn: b phn chuyn i hay cm bin, c cu o in v cc
s mch trung gian hay mch gia cng tn hiu v d nh mch khuch i, chnh
lu, n nh. Cm bin xenxin lm phn t o lng trong cc h bm st gc quay,
truyn ch th gc quay c ly xa m khng thc hin c bng c kh. Bin p xoay
hay cn gi l bin p quay dng bin i in p ca cun s cp hoc gc quay
ca cun s cp thnh tn hiu ra tng ng vi chng. Bin p xoay sin, cos o gc
quay ca rto, trn t cun s cp, thnh in p t l thun vi sin hay cos ca gc
quay . Bin p xoay tuyn tnh bin i lch gc quay ca rto thnh in p t l
tuyn tnh. Con quay 3 bc t do v con quay 2 bc t do c s dng lm cc b cm
bin o sai lch gc v o tc gc tuyt i trong cc h thng n nh ng ngm
ca cc dng c quan st v ngm bn.
Cm bin tc - b m ha quang hc l a m trn c khc vch m nh sng c
th i qua c. Pha sau a m t phototransistor chu tc dng ca mt ngun sng.
ng c v a m c gn ng trc, khi quay nh sng chiu n phototransistor lc
b ngn li, lc khng b ngn li lm cho tn hiu cc colecto l mt chui xung. Trn
a m c khc hai vng vch, ngoi A trong B c cng s vch, nhng lch 90o (vch
A trc B l 90o) . Nu a m quay theo chiu kim ng h th chui xung B s nhanh
hn chui xung A l 1/2 chu k v ngc li.

16/197

Thit b o tc nh DC Tachometer, AC Tachometer, Optical Tachometer. Cm bin


nhit nh Pt 56?, Pt 100?, Thermocouple...
i tng iu khin
i tng iu khin c th l thit b k thut, dy chuyn sn xut, qui trnh cng
ngh... l mc tiu iu khin ca con ngi trong cc lnh vc khc nhau.
Cc phn t chp hnh thng dng trong KT l cc loi ng c bc, ng c DC,
servomotor, ng c AC, ng c thy lc kh nn... ng c bc c dng nh
v chnh xc do c cu trc rto v stato kh c bit. Rto thng thng l cc nam
chm vnh cu c cnh c x rnh rng ca sut chu vi ca rto, tp trung ng
sc t ti cc mi rng. Tng t, stato c ch to thng dng c bn bi dy qun
xen k theo cc t cc. Khi c dng in chy qua mt cun dy stato, rto s quay mt
gc n v tr cn bng t thng l giao im ca hai rng stato v rto. Thay i th
t cc cun dy 1, 2, 3, 4 rto s lch mt gc l 90o. C ba cch iu khin ng c
bc: iu khin hnh trnh nng lng thp, iu khin thng, iu khin 1/2 bc.
V cun dy stato c in tr thun rt nh khong 0,2? do vy thng iu khin bng
cc ngun dng thng dng nht l transistor, Fet....
Mt loi o lng iu khin khc cng thng gp trong cng nghip l h thng nhit,
v d nh l nung trong dy chuyn sn xut gch men, l sy trong dy chuyn ch
bin thc phm, h thng lm lnh trong cc dy chuyn ch bin thy sn. Yu cu
iu khin i vi h thng nhit thng l iu khin n nh ha hoc iu khin theo
chng trnh. M hnh ton ca ng c DC v l nhit s c trnh by mc 2.2.2.
K thut giao tip my tnh
Thit b iu khin rt a dng, c th l mt mch RC, mch khuch i thut ton,
mch x l hay my tnh PC. Trc y cc b iu khin nh PID, sm tr pha thng
c thc hin bng cc mch ri (xem mc 2.2.2.2). Gn y do s pht trin ca l
thuyt iu khin ri rc v k thut vi x l cc b iu khin trn c thc thi
bng cc chng trnh phn mm chy trn vi x l hay my tnh. Hin nay my tnh
khng nh l thit b iu khin a nng v tin cy. Phn di y s trnh by mt s
vn lin quan n k thut giao tip my tnh.
B chuyn i ADC v DAC
Hnh : l s Card A/D v D/A 8 bit. Trong cc ng dng cn chnh xc cao hn
c th s dng card A/D v D/A 12 bit.
Card giao tip vi my tnh

17/197

V d Card giao tip s dng IC8255 gn trn slot m rng ca Main Board my tnh
(H.1.13).
Cc loi giao thc truyn tin
RS232C serial Interface, chu ni 25 chn dng truyn d liu ni tip vi tc nh
hn 20.000 bits/second (nm 1969). Khong 1975 n 1977 p dng RS-422, RS-423,
RS-449. RS-449 chu ni 37 chn, tc truyn c th nhanh gp nm ln so vi
RS-232C.
Vo nm 1970-1975 pht trin Bus d liu song song vi IEEE-488.
Nm 1978 - IEEE - 583 c slots cho 25 moduls, ni trc tip vi Bus I/O ca my tnh,
ni song song ti 7 CRATES.

18/197

Card AD v DA 8 bit

19/197

Card xut nhp

Cc ng dng ca h thng iu khin t ng

20/197

minh ha mt h thng iu khin mc cht lng trong b.


Tc dng chy ng ra qua van V1 l bin i, h thng c th duy tr mc cht lng h
= const vi sai s cho php kh chnh xc. Nu mc cht lng trong b khng ng, mt
in p sai lch c to ra qua khuch i a vo b iu khin ng c iu chnh
van V2 khi phc li mc cht lng mong mun bng cch iu chnh tc dng
chy ng vo.
Trong trng hp dng chy vo c tc hng s, phao c hai cp tip im thng
ng, thng m iu khin ng m ng c in AC. trnh ng c b ng
ngt khng dt khot, to hai mc tng ng vng tr Trigger Schmidt h.

H thng iu khin t ng mc cht lng trong b

minh ha mt h thng nh v dng cho b phng tn la.


H thng hi tip ny c thit k nh v b phng kh chnh xc da trn cc lnh t
bin tr R1 l tn hiu vo c t xa h thng. Bin tr R2 cho tn hiu hi tip tr
v b khuch i vi sai, hot ng nh mt b pht hin sai lch. Nu c sai lch, c
khuch i a n ng c, iu chnh v tr trc ng ra tng ng vi v tr trc ng
vo v sai lch bng 0.

Mt h thng t ng nh v tr dng cho


b phng tn la

21/197

Robot l mt lnh vc rt quan trng trong ng dng cc HTK.


Vo thp nin 1960, ngi ta bt u nhn ra Robot l mt cng c quan trng tr
gip cng vic ch to, t cc ng dng ca chng trong nhiu h thng ch to khc
nhau c pht trin nhanh chng. L thuyt iu khin t ng, nguyn tc iu
khin thch nghi, cc hm Lyapunov c p dng c c Robot c ng theo
mun hay lc cn thit. Lnh vc ca Robotics cng ty thuc vo cch s dng cc
cm bin quan st v cc my tnh lp trnh cho Robot hon thnh cng vic theo yu
cu.
Robot c sng to ra thc hin nhiu cng vic khc nhau, lm cu ni gia cc
lnh vc ch to, cc nhim v vn chuyn khng gian v chm sc y t. ng dng ch
yu ca Robot l t ng ha qu trnh sn xut. Robot c s dng trong dy chuyn
sn xut xe hi, l mt thnh phn trong tu con thoi khng gian ca NASA, l bn gip
vic cho con ngi Robot tr gip trong cc bnh vin, thc hin cc cng vic ca y
t chm sc bnh nhn. Cc Robot ny s dng cc cm bin quan st, siu m v hng
ngoi iu khin thang my, trnh cc vt cn dc theo ng i, mang cc khay
thc n theo yu cu, ly thuc hay cc vt mu ca phng th nghim, ghi li tnh trng
sc khe ca ngi bnh, bo co cng vic qun l

22/197

Bi 2: M t ton hc h thng iu khin


lin tc
M t ton hc h thng iu khin lin tc
Khi nim
c c s cho phn tch, thit k cc h thng iu khin c bn cht vt l khc nhau,
c s chnh l ton hc. Tng qut quan h gia tn hiu vo v tn hiu ra ca h
thng tuyn tnh c th biu din bng phng trnh vi phn bc cao. Vic kho st h
thng da vo phng trnh vi phn bc cao thng gp nhiu kh khn. C hai phng
php m t ton hc h thng t ng gip cho vic kho st h thng d dng hn, l
phng php hm truyn t v phng php khng gian trng thi. Phng php hm
truyn t chuyn quan h phng trnh vi phn thnh quan h phn thc i s nh
php bin i Laplace, trong khi phng php khng gian trng thi bin i phng
trnh vi phn bc cao thnh h phng trnh vi phn bc nht bng cch t cc bin ph
(bin trng thi). Mi phng php m t h thng u c nhng u im ring. Trong
quyn sch ny chng ta s m t h thng bng c hai phng php.

Hm truyn t v i s s khi
Php bin i Laplace
1- nh ngha
Cho f(t) l hm xc nh vi mi t = 0, bin i Laplace ca f(t) l:

trong : s - l bin phc (bin Laplace) s j = s + ?


- l ton t bin i Laplace
F(s) - l nh ca hm f(t) qua php bin i Laplace.
Bin i Laplace tn ti khi tch phn biu thc nh ngha (2.1) hi t.

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2- Tnh cht ca php bin i Laplace


Tnh tuyn tnh
Nu hm f1(t) c bin i Laplace l

v hm f2(t) c bin i Laplace l


th:

nh ca o hm
Nu hm f(t) c bin i Laplace l

th:

trong f(0+) l iu kin u.


Nu iu kin u bng 0 th:

nh ca tch phn Nu hm f(t) c bin i Laplace l

th:

nh l chm tr

24/197

Lm tr hm f(t) mt thi gian l T


Nu f(t) c lm tr mt khong thi gian T, ta c hm
f(t-T). Khi :

nh l gi tr cui
Nu hm f(t) c bin i Laplace l

th:

3- Bin i Laplace ca mt s hm c bn
Khi kho st h thng t ng ngi ta thng t tn hiu vo l cc tn hiu c bn. V
d nh kho st h thng iu khin n nh ha tn hiu vo c chn l hm nc,
kho st h thng iu khin theo di tn hiu vo c chn l hm hm dc, nhiu
tc ng vo h thng c th m t bng hm dirac. Tn hiu ra ca h thng t ng
cng c dng l t hp ca cc tn hiu c bn nh hm nc, hm m, hm sin, Do
trong mc ny chng ta xt bin i Laplace ca cc hm c bn s dng trong
vic phn tch v thit k h thng cc phn sau.
Hm xung n v (hm dirac) (H.2.2a)
Hm xung n v thng c s dng m t nhiu tc ng vo h thng.

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Cc hm c bn
a) Hm xung n v; b) Hm nc n v; c) Hm dc n v
d) Hm parabol; e) Hm m; f) Hm sin

Theo nh ngha:

Hm nc n v (H.2.2b)
Trong cc h thng iu khin n nh ha, tn hiu vo c dng hm nc n v.

Theo nh ngha php bin i Laplace ta c:

26/197

Hm truyn t
1- nh ngha

Tn hiu vo v tn hiu ra ca h thng t ng


Quan h gia tn hiu vo v tn hiu ra ca mi h thng tuyn tnh bt bin lin tc
u c th m t bi phng trnh vi phn h s hng:

trong cc h s

v
l thng s ca h thng
; n l bc ca h thng. H thng c gi l hp thc (proper) nu n = m, h thng
c gi l khng hp thc nu n < m. Ch c cc h thng hp thc mi tn ti trong
thc t.
Gi s iu kin u bng 0, bin i Laplace hai v phng trnh trn ta c:

G(s) gi l hm truyn ca h thng.

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nh ngha: Hm truyn ca mt h thng l t s gia bin i Laplace ca tn hiu ra


v bin i Laplace ca tn hiu vo khi iu kin u bng 0.
2- Hm truyn t ca cc khu hiu chnh
Trong h thng t ng cc khu hiu chnh chnh l cc b iu khin n gin c
s dng bin i hm truyn t ca h thng nhm mc ch tng tnh n nh, ci
thin p ng v gim thiu nh hng ca nhiu ln cht lng ca h thng.
Thng khu hiu chnh l cc mch in. C hai dng mch hiu chnh l mch hiu
chnh th ng v mch hiu chnh tch cc. Mch hiu chnh th ng khng c cc b
khuch i, li ca cc mch ny thng nh hn hay bng 1. Ngc li mch hiu
chnh tch cc c cc khu khuch i, li ca cc mch ny thng ln hn 1. Phn
ny trnh by hm truyn mt s khu hiu chnh thng c s dng trong thit k h
thng.
c tnh ca cc khu hiu chnh ny s c phn tch cc chng sau.
Khu hiu chnh th ng:

Cc khu hiu chnh th ng


a) Khu tch phn bc mt; b) Khu vi phn bc mt
c) Khu sm pha; d) Khu tr pha
Khu hiu chnh tch cc :

28/197

Cc khu hiu chnh tch cc


a) Khu t l; b) Khu tch phn t l PI
c) Khu vi phn t l; d) Khu vi tch phn t l PID
S khi
mc 2.2.2 chng ta dn ra c hm truyn ca cc phn t c bn trong h thng
iu khin. Trong thc t cc h thng thng gm nhiu phn t c bn kt ni vi
nhau. Mt cch n gin nhng rt hiu qu trong vic biu din cc h thng phc tp
l dng s khi.
S khi ca mt h thng l hnh v m t chc nng ca cc phn t v s tc ng
qua li gia cc phn t trong h thng. S khi gm c ba thnh phn l khi chc
nng, b tng v im r nhnh.
- Khi chc nng: Tn hiu ra ca khi chc nng bng tch tn hiu vo v hm truyn
- im r nhnh: Ti im r nhnh mi tn hiu u bng nhau.
- B tng: Tn hiu ra ca b tng bng tng i s ca cc tn hiu vo.

Cc thnh phn c bn ca s khi

29/197

a) Khi chc nng; b) im r nhnh; c) B tng

S dng tn hiu
S dng tn hiu v cng thc Mason
1- nh ngha
biu din h thng t ng, ngoi phng php s dng s khi, ta cn c th s
dng phng php s dng tn hiu. Hy so snh hai hnh v di y, hnh 2.14b l
s dng tn hiu ca h thng c s khi nh hnh 2.7a.

Biu din h thng bng s dng tn hiu


a) S khi; b) S dng tn hiu
nh ngha
S dng tn hiu l mt mng gm cc nt v nhnh.
- Nt: mt im biu din mt bin hay tn hiu trong h thng.
- Nhnh: ng ni trc tip hai nt, trn mi nhnh c mi tn ch chiu truyn ca tn
hiu v c ghi hm truyn cho bit mi quan h gia tn hiu hai nt.
- Nt ngun: nt ch c cc nhnh hng ra.
- Nt ch: nt ch c cc nhnh hng vo.
- Nt hn hp: nt c c cc nhnh ra v cc nhnh vo.
Ti nt hn hp, tt c cc tn hiu ra u bng nhau v bng tng i s ca cc tn hiu
vo.
- ng tin: ng gm cc nhnh lin tip c cng hng tn hiu i t nt ngun
n nt ch v ch qua mi nt mt ln.
- li ca mt ng tin: tch ca cc hm truyn ca cc nhnh trn ng tin .
30/197

- Vng kn: ng khp kn gm cc nhnh lin tip c cng hng tn hiu v ch qua
mi nt mt ln.
- li ca mt vng kn: tch ca cc hm truyn ca cc nhnh trn vng kn .
2- Cng thc Mason
Hm truyn tng ng ca h thng t ng biu din bng s dng tn hiu c
th tnh theo cng thc:

trong :

- li ca ng tin th k
- nh thc ca s dng tn hiu:

- tng li vng ca cc vng kn c trong s dng tn hiu.

- tng cc tch li vng ca hai vng khng dnh nhau.

- tng cc tch li vng ca ba vng khng dnh nhau.


- nh thc con ca s dng tn hiu.
c suy ra t bng cch b i cc vng kn c dnh ti ng tin Pk..
Ch : * khng dnh = khng c nt no chung.
* dnh = c t nht nt chung.

31/197

Phng php khng gian trng thi


Khi nim
Nh trnh by u chng ny, quan h gia ng vo v ng ra ca h thng lin
tc bt k c th m t bng phng trnh vi phn bc n. Nghin cu h thng da trn
phng trnh vi phn bc n rt kh khn, do cn m t ton hc khc gip cho vic
nghin cu h thng d dng hn. Phng php hm truyn chuyn quan h phng
trnh vi phn cp n thnh phn thc i s nh php bin i Laplace. Nghin cu h
thng m t bng hm truyn thun li hn bng phng trnh vi phn, tuy nhin hm
truyn c mt s khuyt im sau:
- Ch p dng c khi iu kin u bng 0.
- Ch p dng c cho h thng tuyn tnh bt bin, khng th p dng m t h phi
tuyn hay h bin i theo thi gian.
- Nghin cu h thng trong min tn s.
Mt phng php khc c s dng kho st h thng t ng l phng php
khng trng thi. Phng php khng gian trng thi chuyn phng trnh vi phn bc
n thnh n phng trnh vi phn bc nht bng cch t n bin trng thi. Phng php
khng gian trng thi khc phc c cc khuyt im ca phng php hm truyn.
Trng thi ca h thng, h phng trnh bin trng thi
Trng thi
Trng thi ca mt h thng l tp hp nh nht cc bin (gi l bin trng thi) m nu
bit gi tr ca cc bin ny ti thi im to v bit cc tn hiu vo thi im t = to, ta
hon ton c th xc nh c p ng ca h thng ti mi thi im t = to.
H thng bc n c n bin trng thi. Cc bin trng thi c th chn l bin vt l hoc
khng phi l bin vt l. V d ng c DC l h bc hai, c hai bin trng thi c th
chn l tc ng c v dng in phn ng (bin vt l). Tuy nhin ta cng c th
chn hai bin trng thi khc.
Phng php m t h thng bng cch s dng cc bin trng thi gi l phng php
khng gian trng thi.
Vct trng thi
n bin trng thi hp thnh vct ct gi l vect trng thi, k hiu:

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Bng cch s dng cc bin trng thi, ta c th chuyn phng trnh vi phn bc n m
t h thng thnh h n phng trnh vi phn bc nht vit di dng ma trn nh sau:

trong :

Phng trnh (2.17) c gi l phng trnh trng thi ca h thng. Nu A l ma trn


thng, ta gi (2.172) l h phng trnh trng thi dng thng; nu A l ma trn
cho, ta gi (2.17) l h phng trnh trng thi dng chnh tc.
i vi cc h thng hp thc cht (bc t s hm truyn nh hn bc mu s) th D =
0.
H thng m t bi h phng trnh trng thi (2.17) c th biu din di dng s
trng thi nh sau:

S trng thi ca h thng

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Bi 3: c tnh ng hc ca h thng
Khi nim v c tnh ng hc
Khi nim v c tnh ng hc
c tnh ng ca h thng m t s thay i tn hiu u ra ca h thng theo thi
gian khi c tc ng u vo. Trong thc t cc h thng iu khin rt a dng, tuy
nhin nhng h thng c m t bng m hnh ton hc c dng nh nhau s c c
tnh ng hc nh nhau. kho st c tnh ng ca h thng tn hiu vo thng
c chn l tn hiu c bn nh hm xung n v, hm nc n v hay hm iu ha.
Ty theo dng ca tn hiu vo th m c tnh ng thu c l c tnh thi gian hay
c tnh tn s.

c tnh thi gian


c tnh thi gian ca h thng m t s thay i tn hiu u ra ca h thng khi tn
hiu vo l hm xung n v hay hm nc n v.

Tn hiu vo v tn hiu ra ca h thng


Nu tn hiu vo l hm xung n v
th p ng ca h thng l:

g(t) c gi l p ng p ng xung hay cn gi l hm trng lng ca h thng.


Vy p ng xung l p ng ca h thng khi tn hiu vo l hm xung n v. Theo
biu thc p ng xung chnh l bin i Laplace ngc ca hm truyn.
Nu tn hiu vo l hm nc n v r(t) = 1(t) th p ng ca h thng l:

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Biu thc (3.2) c c do p dng tnh cht nh ca tch phn ca php bin i
Laplace. t:

h(t) c gi l p ng nc hay cn gi l hm qu ca h thng.


Vy p ng nc l p ng ca h thng khi tn hiu vo l hm nc n v. Theo biu
thc (3.3) p ng nc chnh l tch phn ca p ng xung.
V d : Cho h thng c hm truyn l:

Xc nh hm trng lng v hm qu ca h thng.


Gii. Hm trng lng:

Hm qu :

Thc hin php bin i Laplace ngc ta c kt qu nh


35/197

trn. g
Nhn xt: bi trc ta bit c ba cch m t ton hc h thng tuyn tnh lin tc l
dng phng trnh vi phn, hm truyn v h phng trnh trng thi. Do quan h gia
hm trng lng v hm qu vi hm truyn cho bi biu thc (3.1) v (3.3) ta thy
rng c th dng hm trng lng hay hm qu m t ton hc h thng t ng.
Khi bit hm trng lng hay hm qu th s suy ra c hm truyn d dng
bng cc cng thc sau y:

V d: Cho h thng c p ng nc n v l:

Xc nh hm truyn ca h thng.
Gii. Theo bi, ta c:

c tnh tn s
c tnh tn s ca h thng tuyn tnh lin tc m t quan h gia tn hiu ra v tn hiu
vo ca h thng trng thi xc lp khi thay i tn s ca tn hiu dao ng iu ha
tc ng u vo ca h thng.
Xt h tuyn tnh lin tc c hm truyn l G(s), gi s tn hiu vo l tn hiu hnh sin:

Tn hiu ra ca h thng l:

Gi s G(s) c n cc pi phn bit tha


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, ta c th phn tch C(s) di dng:

Bin i Laplace ngc biu thc trn, ta c:

Nu h thng n nh th tt c cc cc pi u c phn thc m. Khi :

Nu G(s) c cc bi th ta cng c th chng minh c p ng xc lp ca h thng


c dng (3.6). Cc h s
v
xc nh bi cng thc:

rt gn biu thc ta c:

Biu thc cho thy trng thi xc lp tn hiu ra ca h thng l tn hiu hnh sin, cng
tn s vi tn hiu vo, bin t l vi bin tn hiu vo (h s t l l

) v lch pha so vi tn hiu vo ( lch pha l

37/197

).
nh ngha: c tnh tn s ca h thng l t s gia tn hiu ra trng thi xc lp
v tn hiu vo hnh sin.

Ta rt ra:

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Cc khu ng hc in hnh
trn chng ta va cp n khi nim c tnh ng hc ca h thng t ng. Trong
mc ny, chng ta s xt c tnh ng hc ca mt s khu c bn nh khu t l, vi
phn, tch phn, qun tnh bc mt, dao ng bc hai, Trn c s c tnh ng hc
ca cc khu c bn, mc s trnh by cch xy dng c tnh ng hc ca h thng t
ng.

Khu t l (khu khuch i)

Vy tn hiu ra ca khu t l bng tn hiu vo khuch i ln K ln. Hnh 3.2 m t


hm trng lng v hm qu ca khu t l.

c tnh thi gian ca khu t l

a) Hm trng lng; b) Hm qu

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c tnh tn s ca khu t l

1. Biu Bode; b) Biu Nyquist

Cc biu thc trn cho thy c tnh tn s ca khu t l l hng s vi mi , do


biu Bode v bin l mt ng song song vi trc honh, cch trc honh
; biu Bode v pha l mt ng nm ngang trng vi trc honh; biu Nyquist
l mt im do vct
khng i vi mi . Xem hnh

Khu tch phn l tng

c tnh thi gian:

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Vy hm trng lng v hm qu ca khu tch phn l tng tng ng l hm nc


n v v hm dc n v .Mt c im quan trng cn quan tm l hm qu ca
khu tch phn l tng tng n v cng.

c tnh thi gian ca khu tch phn l tng a) Hm trng lng; b) Hm qu

Nu v L() trong h ta vung gc thng thng th th L() l ng cong.


Tuy nhin do trc honh ca biu Bode c chia theo thang logarith c s 10 nn
d dng thy rng biu Bode v bin ca khu tch phn l tng l ng thng
c dc 20dB/dec. Biu Bode v pha ca khu tch phn l tng l ng nm
ngang do

vi mi . Biu Nyquist l na di ca trc tung do


c phn thc bng 0, phn o lun lun m

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c tnh tn s ca khu tch phn l tng a) Biu Bode; b) Biu Nyquist

Khu vi phn l tng

Hm qu :

Hm trng lng:

Hm qu ca khu vi phn l tng hm xung n v ,hm trng lng l o hm


ca hm qu , ch c th m t bng biu thc ton hc (hnh 3.7), khng biu din
bng th c.

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Hm qu ca khu vi phn l tng

c tnh tn s ca khu vi phn l tng hon ton tri ngc so vi khu tch phn
l tng. Biu Bode v bin ca khu vi phn l tng l ng thng c dc
+20dB/dec, biu Bode v pha l ng nm ngang

. Biu Nyquist l na trn ca trc tung do


c phn thc bng 0, phn o lun lun dng

c tnh tn s ca khu vi phn l tng a) Biu Bode; b) Biu Nyquist

Khu qun tnh bc nht


Hm truyn:

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c tnh thi gian:

Hm trng lng:

Hm qu :

Hm trng lng ca khu qun tnh bc nht l hm m suy gim v 0, hm qu


tng theo qui lut hm m n gi tr xc lp bng 1. Tc bin thin ca hm trng
lng v hm qu t l vi T nn T c gi l thi hng ca khu qun tnh bc
nht. T cng nh th p ng cng nhanh, T cng ln th p ng cng chm. Hnh 3.8
minh ha c tnh thi gian ca hai khu qun tnh bc nht c thi hng tng ng l
T1 v T2, trong T1 < T2.
Thay t = T vo biu thc 3.42 ta c h(T) = 0,63 , do thi hng ca khu qun tnh
bc nht chnh l thi gian cn thit hm qu tng ln bng 63% gi tr xc lp
(gi tr xc lp ca h(t) = 1). Mt cch khc xc nh thi hng T l v tip tuyn vi
hm qu ti gc ta , khong cch t giao im ca tip tuyn ny vi ng nm
ngang c tung bng 1 chnh l T.

c tnh thi gian ca khu qun tnh bc nht a) Hm trng lng; b) Hm qu

c tnh tn s:

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Biu thc cho thy biu Bode bin l mt ng cong. C th v gn ng biu


Bode bin bng cc ng tim cn nh sau:
- Nu

, do ta c th v gn ng bng ng thng nm trn trc honh ( dc bng 0).


- Nu

, do ta v gn ng bng ng thng c dc 20dB/dec.


Nh phn tch trn, ta thy ti tn s 1/T dc ca cc ng tim cn thay i, biu
Bode l mt ng gp khc nn tn s 1/T gi l tn s gy ca khu qun tnh bc
nht. Thay gi tr vo biu thc ta v c biu Bode v pha. mt s im
c bit nh sau:

Hnh 3.9a minh ha biu Bode ca khu qun tnh bc nht. ng cong t nt
biu Bode bin chnh l ng L() v chnh xc. Sai lch cc i gia ng

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cong v chnh xc v cc ng tim cn xut hin ti tn s gy, ti tn s ny gi tr


chnh xc ca L() l

, trong khi gi tr gn ng l 0dB, sai lch ny kh b c th b qua c. Do khi


phn tch v thit k h thng t ng trong min tn s ta c th dng biu Bode
bin v bng cc ng tim cn thay cho biu Bode bin v chnh xc.
v biu Nyquist ta c nhn xt sau:

iu ny chng t biu Nyquist ca khu qun tnh bc nht nm trn ng trn


tm

, bn knh
. Do pha ca G(j) lun m khi thay i t 0 n +8 nn biu Nyquist l na di
ca ng trn

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c tnh tn s ca khu qun tnh bc nht a) Biu Bode; b) Biu Nyquist

Khu vi phn bc nht


Hm truyn:

c tnh thi gian:

Hm qu :

Hm trng lng:

Hm qu ca khu vi phn bc nht l t hp tuyn tnh ca hm xung n v v hm


nc n v (hnh 3.10). Ta thy rng khu vi phn l tng v vi phn bc nht c c
im chung l gi tr hm qu v cng ln ti t = 0. Hm trng lng l o hm
ca hm qu , ch c th m t bng biu thc ton hc ,khng biu din bng th
c.

Hm qu ca khu vi phn bc nht

c tnh tn s:

Phn thc:

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Phn o:

Bin :

Pha:

So snh biu thc (3.53) v (3.54) vi (3.45) v (3.46) ta rt ra c kt lun: biu


Bode ca khu vi phn bc nht v khu qun tnh bc nht i xng nhau qua trc
honh (hnh 3.11a).
Do G(j) c phn thc P() lun lun bng 1, phn o Q() c gi tr dng tng dn t
0 n +8 khi thay i t 0 n +8 nn biu Nyquist ca khu vi phn bc nht l na
ng thng qua im c honh bng 1 v song song vi trc tung nh hnh 3.11b.

c tnh tn s ca khu vi phn bc nht a) Biu Bode; b) Biu Nyquist

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Khu dao ng bc hai

Hm truyn:

c tnh thi gian:

Hm trng lng:

Hm qu :

trong lch pha xc nh. Biu thc cho thy c tnh thi gian ca khu dao
ng bc hai c dng dao ng suy gim, hm trng lng l dao ng suy gim v 0,
hm qu l dao ng suy gim n gi tr xc lp l 1 (hnh 3.12).
- Nu =0:

, p ng ca h l dao ng khng suy gim vi tn s


, do
gi l tn s dao ng t nhin ca khu dao ng bc hai.
- Nu

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: p ng ca h l dao ng vi bin gim dn, cng ln dao ng suy gim cng


nhanh, do gi l h s tt (hay h s suy gim).

c tnh thi gian ca khu dao ng bc hai a) Hm trng lng; b) Hm qu

c tnh tn s:

Bin :

Biu thc cho thy biu Bode bin ca khu dao ng bc hai l mt ng cong.
Tng t nh lm i vi khu qun tnh bc nht, ta c th v gn ng biu
Bode bin bng cc ng tim cn nh sau:
- Nu

th
, do ta c th v gn ng bng ng thng nm trn trc honh ( dc bng 0).
- Nu

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, do ta v gn ng bng ng thng c dc 40dB/dec.


Ta thy rng ti tn s 1/T dc ca cc ng tim cn thay i nn tn s 1/T gi l
tn s gy ca khu dao ng bc hai.
Biu Bode v pha ca khu dao ng bc hai l mt ng cong, biu thc
(3.62) ta thy biu Bode v pha c im c bit sau y:

Hnh 3.13a minh ha biu Bode ca khu dao ng bc hai. Cc ng cong biu
Bode bin chnh l ng L() v chnh xc. Biu Bode bin chnh xc c
nh cng hng

ti tn
, do d thy rng nu cng nh th nh cng hng cng cao. Khi =0 th tn s
cng hng tin n tn s dao ng t nhin
.
Biu Nyquist ca khu dao ng bc hai c dng ng cong nh minh ha hnh
3.13b. Khi =0 th G(j) c bin bng 1, pha bng 0; khi
th G(j) c bin bng 0, pha bng 180o. Giao im ca ng cong Nyquist vi
trc tung c
, do tng ng vi tn s
, thay
vo biu thc ta suy ra bin ti giao im vi trc tung l
.
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c tnh tn s ca khu dao ng bc hai a) Biu Bode; b) Biu Nyquist

Khu tr hon (khu tr)


Hm truyn:

c tnh thi gian:

Hm trng lng:

Hm qu :

c im ca khu tr l tn hiu ra tr hn tn hiu vo mt khong thi gian l T.

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c tnh thi gian ca khu tr a) Hm trng lng; b) Hm qu

c tnh tn s:

Bin :

Pha:

Biu Bode bin ca khu tr hon l ng thng nm ngang trng vi trc honh
do L() = 0 vi mi . rng biu thc (3.68) l phng trnh ca mt ng thng
nu trc honh chia theo thang tuyn tnh. Tuy nhin do trc honh ca biu Bode
li chia theo thang logarith nn biu Bode v pha ca khu tr hon l ng cong
dng hm m, xem hnh 3.15a.
Do G(j) c bin bng 1 vi mi v c pha gim t 0 n
nn biu Nyquist ca khu tr l ng trn n v c mi tn ch chiu tng ca
nh hnh 3.15b.

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c tnh tn s ca khu tr hon a) Biu Bode; b) Biu Nyquist

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c tnh ng hc ca h thng t ng
c tnh ng hc ca h thng t ng
c tnh thi gian ca h thng
Xt h thng c hm truyn:

Bin i Laplace ca hm qu l:

Ty theo c im ca h thng m c tnh thi gian ca h thng c th c cc dng


khc nhau. Tuy vy chng ta c th rt ra mt s kt lun quan trng sau y:
- Nu G(s) khng c khu tch phn, vi phn l tng th hm trng lng suy gim v
0, hm qu c gi tr xc lp khc 0.

- Nu G(s) c khu tch phn l tng n = 0) th hm trng lng c gi tr xc lp khc


0, hm qu tng n v cng.

- Nu G(s) c khu vi phn l tng ( m b = 0 ) th hm qu suy gim v 0.

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- Nu G(s) l h thng hp thc ( n m = ) th h(0)=0.

- Nu G(s) l h thng hp thc cht ( n m < ) th g(0)=0.

- Nu G(s) khng c khu tch phn, vi phn l tng v c n cc phn bit, H(s) c th
phn tch di dng:

Bin i Laplace ngc biu thc (3.71) ta c hm qu ca h thng l:

Do hm qu l t hp tuyn tnh ca cc hm m c s t nhin. Nu tt c cc


cc pi u l cc thc th hm qu khng c dao ng; ngc li nu c t nht mt
cp cc phc th hm qu c dao ng.
Trn y va trnh by mt vi nhn xt v c tnh thi gian ca h thng t ng.
Thng qua c tnh thi gian chng ta c th bit c h thng c khu tch phn, vi
phn l tng hay khng? H thng ch gm ton cc thc hay c cc phc?
Nhng nhn xt ny gip chng ta c c hnh dung ban u v nhng c im c
bn nht ca h thng, t chng ta c th chn c phng php phn tch, thit k
h thng ph hp.
c tnh tn s ca h thng
Xt h thng t ng c hm truyn ) (s G . Gi s ) (s G c th phn tch thnh tch ca
cc hm truyn c bn nh sau:

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c tnh tn s ca h thng l:

Bin :

Biu thc cho thy biu Bode bin ca h thng bng tng cc biu Bode bin
ca cc khu c bn thnh phn.
Pha:

Biu thc chng t biu Bode pha ca h thng bng tng cc biu Bode pha ca
cc khu c bn thnh phn.
T hai nhn xt trn ta thy rng v c biu Bode ca h thng, ta v biu
Bode ca cc khu thnh phn, sau cng th li. Da trn nguyn tc cng th,
ta c phng php v biu Bode bin gn ng ca h thng bng cc ng tim
cn nh sau:

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Phng php v biu Bode bin bng cc ng tim cn


Gi s hm truyn ca h thng c dng:

Bc 1: Xc nh tt c cc tn s gy

, v sp xp theo th t tng dn:

Bc 2: Nu tt c cc tn s

th biu Bode gn ng phi qua im A c ta :

Bc 3: Qua im A, v ng thng c dc:


* (- 20 dB/dec ) nu G(s) c a khu tch phn l tng
* (+ 20 dB/dec ) nu G(s) c a khu vi phn l tng
ng thng ny ko di n tn s gy k tip
Bc 4: Ti tn s gy

, dc ca ng tim cn
c cng thm:
* (- 20 dB/dec ) nu
l tn s gy ca khu qun tnh bc mt.

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* (+ 20 dB/dec ) nu
l tn s gy ca khu vi phn bc mt.
* (-40 dB/dec ) nu
l tn s gy ca khu dao ng bc hai.
* (+40 dB/dec ) nu
l tn s gy ca khu vi phn bc hai,
.
( l s nghim bi ti
)
ng thng ny ko di n tn s gy k tip.
Bc 5: Lp li bc 4 cho n khi v xong ng tim cn ti tn s gy cui cng.
V d :V biu Bode bin gn ng ca h thng c hm truyn:

Da vo biu Bode gn ng, hy xc nh tn s ct bin ca h thng.


Gii. Cc tn s gy:

Biu Bode qua im A c ta :

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Biu Bode bin gn ng c dng nh hnh 3.16. Theo hnh v, tn s ct bin


ca h thng l 103rad/sec.

Biu Bode bin ca h thng

V d :. Hy xc nh hm truyn ca h thng, bit rng biu Bode bin gn ng


ca h thng c dng nh hnh 3.17.

Biu Bode bin ca h thng v d trn

Gii: H thng c bn tn s gy
. Da vo s thay i dc ca biu Bode, ta thy hm truyn ca h thng phi
c dng:

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Vn cn li l xc nh thng s ca h thng. Theo hnh v:

- dc on BC l 20dB/dec, m t im B n im C bin ca biu Bode


gim 40dB (t 34dB gim xung 6dB), do t B n C tn s phi thay i l 2
decade. Suy ra:

- dc on DE l +40dB/dec, m t im D n im E bin ca biu Bode


tng 60dB (t 6dB tng ln +54dB), do t D n E tn s phi thay i l 1.5 decade.
Suy ra:

Do hm truyn ca h thng l:

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Kho st c tnh ng hc ca h thng


Kho st c tnh ng hc ca h thng
S dng cng c h tr kho st c tnh ng hc ca h thng. V d cng c
Control Toolbox 5.0 h tr y cc lnh kho st c tnh ng ca h thng, c php
cc lnh rt gi nh nn rt d s dng.
- V p ng xung: lnh impulse
- V p ng nc: lnh step
- V biu Bode: lnh bode
- V biu Nyquist: lnh nyquist
C th nhp chut vo mt im bt k trn c tnh ng hc m Matlab v c
bit gi tr c th ca tung , honh ti im .

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Bi 4: Kho st tnh n nh ca h thng


Khi nim v n nh
Khi nim v n nh
nh ngha
H thng c gi l trng thi n nh, nu vi tn hiu vo b chn th p ng ca
h cng b chn (Bounded Input Bounded Output = BIBO).
Yu cu u tin i vi mt h thng KT l h thng phi gi c trng thi n
nh khi chu tc ng ca tn hiu vo v chu nh hng ca nhiu ln h thng.
H phi tuyn c th n nh trong phm v hp khi lch ban u l nh v khng n
nh trong phm v rng nu lch ban u l ln.
i vi h tuyn tnh c tnh ca qu trnh qu khng ph thuc vo gi tr tc ng
kch thch. Tnh n nh ca h tuyn tnh khng ph thuc vo th loi v gi tr ca tn
hiu vo v trong h tuyn tnh ch tn ti mt trng thi cn bng.
Phn bit ba trng thi cn bng: Bin gii n nh, n nh v khng n nh. Trn hnh
4.1 nu thay i nh trng thi cn bng ca qu cu, chng hn cho n mt vn tc ban
u b th qu cu s tin ti mt trng thi cn bng mi (Hnh 4.1a), hoc s dao
ng quanh v tr cn bng (Hnh 4.1b v d), hoc s khng tr v trng thi ban u
(Hnh 4.1c). Trong trng hp u, ta c v tr cn bng bin gii n nh, trng hp
sau l n nh v trng hp th ba l khng n nh. Cng v tr b v d trn hnh 4.1,
nu qu cu vi lch ban u l ln th cng s khng tr v trng thi cn bng ban
u c - Hai trng thi b v d ca qu cu ch n nh trong phm v hp m khng
n nh trong phm vi rng.

Minh ha trng thi n nh

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Trong trng hp ny vic kho st tnh n nh c gii hn cho cc h tuyn tnh bt


bin theo thi gian. l nhng h thng c m t bng phng trnh vi phn tuyn
tnh h s hng v c th p dng c nguyn l xp chng.
n nh ca h tuyn tnh
Mt h thng KT c biu din bng mt phng trnh vi phn dng tng qut:

Phng trnh ng vi tn hiu vo h thng l r(t) v tn hiu ra c(t). Hm truyn t ca


h thng c m t bng (4.1) c dng:

Nghim ca (4.1) gm hai thnh phn:

trong :
co(t) - l nghim ring ca (4.1) c v phi, c trng cho qu trnh xc lp.
cq(t) - l nghim tng qut ca (4.1) khng c v phi, c trng cho qu trnh qu .
Dng nghim tng qut c trng cho qu trnh qu trong h thng:

trong pi l nghim ca phng trnh c tnh:

pi c th l nghim thc cng c th l nghim phc lin hp v c gi l nghim cc


ca h thng. a thc mu s hm truyn t l A(s) bc n do h thng c n nghim
cc pi (Pole), i = 1, 2,..., n .

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Zero l nghim ca phng trnh B(s) = 0. T s hm truyn t G(s) l a thc bc m


(m< n) nn h thng c m nghim zero - zj vi j = 1, 2,..., m
H thng n nh nu:

H thng khng n nh nu:

Trong phng trnh (4.4) h s i l hng s ph thuc vo thng s ca h v trng thi


ban u.

Phn bit ba trng hp phn b cc trn mt phng phc


s
1- Phn thc ca nghim cc dng ai > 0
2- Phn thc ca nghim cc bng khng ai = 0
3- Phn thc ca nghim cc m ai < 0
n nh ca h thng ch ph thuc vo nghim cc m khng ph thuc vo nghim
zero, do mu s hm truyn t l A(s) = 0 c gi l phng trnh c tnh hay
phng trnh c trng ca h thng.

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Phn b cc trn mt phng S


Kt lun:
1- H thng n nh nu tt c nghim ca phng trnh c tnh u c phn thc m:
Re{pi} < 0, i < 0 cc nghim nm bn tri mt phng phc:

2- H thng khng n nh nu c d ch l mt nghim phng trnh c tnh (4.9) c


phn thc dng (mt nghim phi) cn li l cc nghim u c phn thc m (nghim
tri)
3- H thng bin gii n nh nu c d ch l mt nghim c phn thc bng khng
cn li l cc nghim c phn thc m (mt nghim hoc mt cp nghim phc lin hp
nm trn trc o). Vng n nh ca h thng l na tri mt phng phc s S.
p ng qu c th dao ng hoc khng dao ng tng ng vi nghim ca
phng trnh c tnh l nghim phc hay nghim thc.
Tt c cc phng php kho st n nh u xt n phng trnh c tnh (4.9) theo
mt cch no . Tng qut, ba cch nh gi sau y thng c dng xt n nh:
1- Tiu chun n nh i s Routh - Hurwitz
2- Tiu chun n nh tn s Mikhailov - Nyquist - Bode
3- Phng php chia min n nh v phng php qu o nghim s.

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Tiu chun n nh i s
Tiu chun n nh i s
iu kin cn
iu kin cn h thng n nh l tt c cc h s ca phng trnh c trng phi
khc 0 v cng du.
V d: H thng c phng trnh c trng:

Tiu chun n nh Routh


Cho h thng c phng trnh c trng

Mun xt tnh n nh ca h thng theo tiu chun Routh, trc tin ta thnh lp bng
Routh theo qui tc:
- Bng Routh c n+1 hng.
- Hng 1 ca bng Routh gm cc h s c ch s chn.
- Hng 2 ca bng Routh gm cc h s c ch s l.
- Phn t hng i ct j ca bng Routh (i = 3) c tnh theo cng thc:

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Pht biu tiu chun Routh


iu kin cn v tt c cc nghim ca phng trnh c trng nm bn tri mt
phng phc l tt c cc phn t nm ct 1 ca bng Routh u dng. S ln i du
ca cc phn t ct 1 ca bng Routh bng s nghim nm bn phi mt phng phc.
V d : Hy xt tnh n nh ca h thng c phng trnh c trng l:

Gii
Bng Routh

V tt c cc phn t ct 1 bng Routh u dng nn tt c cc nghim ca phng


trnh c tnh u nm bn tri mt phng phc, do h thng n nh.
V d : Hy xt tnh n nh ca h thng t ng c s khi nh sau
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Hnh 4.3: S khi h thng t ng v d 4.2

Gii. Phng trnh c trng ca h thng l

V cc phn t ct 1 bng Routh i du hai ln nn phng trnh c tnh u c hai


nghim nm bn phi mt phng phc, do h thng khng n nh.
V d : Cho h thng c s khi nh sau

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Hnh 4.4: S khi h thng t ng v d 4.3


Xc nh iu kin ca K h thng n nh.
Gii. Phng trnh c tnh

iu kin h thng n nh

Cc trng hp c bit
- Trng hp 1: nu c h s ct 1 ca hng no bng 0, cc h s cn li ca hng
khc 0 th ta thay h s bng 0 ct 1 bi s e dng, nh ty , sau qu trnh
tnh ton c tip tc.
V d : Xt tnh n nh ca h thng c phng trnh c trng:

Gii
Bng Routh

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V cc h s ct 1 bng Routh i du hai ln nn phng trnh c tnh ca h thng


c hai nghim nm bn phi mt phng phc, do h thng khng n nh.
- Trng hp 2: nu tt c cc h s ca hng no bng 0
- Thnh lp a thc ph t cc h s ca hng trc hng c tt c cc h s bng 0, gi
a thc l Ap(s).
- Thay hng c tt c cc h s bng 0 bi mt hng khc c cc h s chnh l cc h
s ca

. Sau qu trnh tnh ton tip tc.


Ch : Nghim ca a thc ph Ap(s) cng chnh l nghim ca phng trnh c trng.
V d 4.5. Xt tnh n nh ca h thng c phng trnh c trng:

Xc nh s nghim ca phng trnh c tnh nm bn tri, bn phi hay trn trc o


ca mt phng phc.
Gii

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a thc ph

Nghim ca a thc ph (cng chnh l nghim ca phng trnh c trng)

Kt lun
- Cc h s ct 1 bng Routh khng i du nn phng trnh c trng khng c
nghim nm bn phi mt phng phc.
- Phng trnh c tnh c hai nghim nm trn trc o.
- S nghim nm bn tri mt phng phc l 5 2 = 3.
=> H thng bin gii n nh.
Tiu chun n nh Hurwitz
Cho h thng c phng trnh c trng

Mun xt tnh n nh ca h thng theo tiu chun Hurwitz, trc tin ta thnh lp ma
trn Hurwitz theo qui tc:

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- Ma trn Hurwitz l ma trn vung cp nn.


- ng cho ca ma trn Hurwitz l cc h s t a1 n an.
- Hng l ca ma trn Hurwitz gm cc h s c ch s l theo th t tng dn nu bn
phi ng cho v gim dn nu bn tri ng cho.
- Hng chn ca ma trn Hurwitz gm cc h s c ch s chn theo th t tng dn nu
bn phi ng cho v gim dn nu bn tri ng cho.

Pht biu tiu chun Hurwitz


iu kin cn v h thng n nh l tt c cc nh thc con cha ng cho
ca ma trn Hurwitz u dng,
V d 4.6. Cho h thng t ng c phng trnh c trng l

Hi h thng c n nh khng?
Gii. Ma trn Hurwitz

Cc nh thc

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V tt c cc nh thc con cha ng cho ca ma trn Hurwitz u dng nn h


thng n nh.

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Phng php qu o nghim s


Phng php qu o nghim s
Khi nim
- Xt h thng c phng trnh c tnh

- Nghim ca phng trnh c tnh ng vi cc gi tr khc nhau ca K

Qu o nghim s

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V cc nghim ca phng trnh tng ng vi cc gi tr ca K ln mt phng phc.


Nu cho K thay i lin tc t 0 n +8, tp hp tt c cc nghim ca phng trnh to
thnh ng m nt nh trn hnh v. ng m nt trn hnh v c gi l qu o
nghim s.
nh ngha
Qu o nghim s l tp hp tt c cc nghim ca phng trnh c tnh ca h thng
khi c mt thng s no trong h thay i t
.
Qui tc v qu o nghim s

S h thng iu khin t ng
Xt h thng iu khin c s khi hnh 4.6. Phng trnh c tnh ca h

Mun p dng cc qui tc v qu o nghim s, trc tin ta phi bin i tng ng


phng trnh c tnh v dng

trong K l thng s thay i.


t

Gi n l s cc ca G0(s), m l s zero ca Go(s)

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Sau y l 11 qui tc v qu o nghim s ca h thng c phng trnh c tnh c


dng
Qui tc 1: S nhnh ca qu o nghim s = bc ca phng trnh c tnh = s cc
ca G0(s) = n.
Qui tc 2: Khi K = 0: cc nhnh ca qu o nghim s xut pht t cc cc ca Go(s).
Khi K tin n
: m nhnh ca qu o nghim s tin n m zero ca Go(s), n-m nhnh cn li tin
n 8 theo cc tim cn xc nh bi qui tc 5 v 6.
Qui tc 3: Qu o nghim s i xng qua trc thc.
Qui tc 4: Mt im trn trc thc thuc v qu o nghim s nu tng s cc v zero
ca Go(s) bn phi n l mt s l.
Qui tc 5: Gc to bi cc ng tim cn ca qu o nghim s vi trc thc xc
nh bi

Qui tc 6: Giao im gia cc tim cn vi trc thc l im A c ta xc nh bi

(pi v zi l cc cc v cc zero ca Go(s)).


Qui tc 7: im tch nhp (nu c) ca qu o nghim s nm trn trc thc v l
nghim ca phng trnh:

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Qui tc 8: Giao im ca qu o nghim s vi trc o c th xc nh bng mt trong


hai cch sau y
- p dng tiu chun Routh-Hurwitz.
- Thay
vo phng trnh c tnh (4.12), cn bng phn thc v phn o s tm c giao im
vi trc o v gi tr K.
Qui tc 9: Gc xut pht ca qu o nghim s ti cc phc pj c xc nh bi

Dng hnh hc ca cng thc trn l

Qui tc 10: Tng cc nghim l hng s khi K thay i t

Qui tc 11: H s khuch i dc theo qu o nghim s c th xc nh t iu kin


bin

V d 4.7. Cho h thng t ng c s khi nh sau

Hy v QNS ca h thng khi

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Gii. Phng trnh c tnh ca h thng

Cc cc: ba cc.

Cc zero: khng c.
=> QNS gm c ba nhnh xut pht t cc cc khi K = 0.
Khi
, ba nhnh ca QNS s tin n v cng theo cc tim cn xc nh bi:
- Gc gia cc tim cn v trc thc

- Giao im gia cc tim cn v trc thc

- im tch nhp l nghim ca phng trnh

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- Giao im ca QNS vi trc o c th xc nh bng mt trong hai cch sau y:


Cch 1
p dng tiu chun Routh

Bng Routh

iu kin h thng n nh

Vy h s khuch i gii hn l Kgh = 30.


Thay gi tr Kgh = 30 vo phng trnh (2), gii phng trnh ta c giao im ca
QNS vi trc o.

Cch 2

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Giao im (nu c) ca QNS v trc o phi c dng


Thay
vo phng trnh (1) ta c

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Tiu chun n nh tn s
Nguyn l gc quay
Xt h thng bc n c phng trnh c tnh h s hng:

a thc A(s) c vit di dng:

vi p1, p2,... pn l cc ca h thng, l nghim ca phng trnh c tnh.


Thay s = j vo ta c:

Gi s phng trnh c m nghim phi (c phn thc dng), cn (n - m) nghim tri


(c phn thc m)

Gc quay ca vect a thc c tnh tn s A(j)

Khi tn s thay i t
n

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th s thay i gc quay ca vect a thc c tnh tn s A(j) s l:

K hiu ch s thay i gc quay Nu qui nh chiu quay dng l chiu ngc chiu
kim ng h th ta c biu thc sau i vi nghim tri v phi:

H c m nghim phi v (n - m) nghim tri:

Nguyn l gc quay
H thng bc n c m nghim phi v (n - m) nghim tri c vect a thc c tnh tn
s A(j) s quay mt gc l (n-2m)/2 vng kn theo chiu ngc chiu kim ng h khi
tn s ? bin thin t
n

Vct a thc c tnh tn s A(j) s quay mt gc bng hiu s nghim tri (n - m) v


nghim phi (m) nhn vi khi bin thin t
n
.

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Tiu chun n nh tn s Mikhailov


Tiu chun n nh da vo nguyn l gc quay c A. V. Mikhailov pht biu vo
nm 1938: iu kin cn v h tuyn tnh n nh l biu vect a thc c
tnh A(j) xut pht t na trc thc dng ti ? bng khng, phi quay n gc phn t
theo chiu ngc chiu kim ng h khi bin thin t 0 n
, vi n l bc ca phng trnh c tnh ca h thng
V d :. xt h bc ba n = 3

Cho bin thin t 0 n v cng bng phng php trn xy dng ton b biu
vct a thc c tnh A(j).
- a thc c tnh (mu s hm truyn t ca h cn xt n nh trng thi h hoc
trng thi kn) c phn tch thnh hai thnh phn:

Tiu chun n nh Nyquist


Cho h thng t ng c s khi

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Cho bit c tnh tn s ca h h G(s), bi ton t ra l xt tnh n nh ca h thng


kn Gk(s).
Tiu chun Nyquist
H thng kn Gk(s) n nh nu ng cong Nyquist ca h h G(s) bao im (1, j0) 1/
2 vng theo chiu dng (ngc chiu kim ng h) khi thay i t 0 n
, trong l l s cc ca h h G(s) nm bn phi mt phng phc.
V d :. Cho h thng hi tip m n v, trong h h G(s) c ng cong Nyquist
nh hnh v. Bit rng G(s) n nh. Xt tnh n nh ca h thng kn

V G(s) n nh nn G(s) khng c cc nm bn phi mt phng phc. Do theo tiu


chun Nyquist h kn n nh nu ng cong Nyquist G(j) ca h h khng bao im
(1, j0). V vy:
Trng hp 1: G(j) khng bao im (-1, j0) ? h kn n nh.
Trng hp 2: G(j) qua im (-1, j0) h kn bin gii n nh;
Trng hp 3: G(j) bao im (-1, j0) ? h kn khng n nh.
Ch : i vi cc h thng c khu tch phn l tng, xc nh ng cong Nyquist
c bao im (1, j0) hay khng, ta v thm cung -/2 bn knh v cng ln ( l s khu
tch phn l tng trong hm truyn h h).

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Tiu chun n nh Bode


Cho h thng t ng c s khi nh hnh Cho bit c tnh tn s ca h h G(s),
bi ton t ra l xt tnh n nh ca h thng kn Gk(s).

Tiu chun Bode


H thng kn Gk(s) n nh nu h thng h G(s) c d tr bin v d tr pha
dng

V d : Cho h thng h c biu Bode nh hnh v. Hi h kn c n nh khng?

Gii. Trn biu Bode ta xc nh c:

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Do GM < 0 v FM < 0 nn h thng kn khng n nh.

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Bi 5: nh gi cht lng ca h thng


iu khin
Cc tiu chun cht lng
n nh l iu kin cn i vi mt h KT, song cha phi l h thng c
s dng trong thc t. Nhiu yu cu i hi h thng phi tha mn c cng mt lc
cc tiu chun cht lng khc nhau nh chnh xc, n nh, p ng qu ,
nhy, kh nng chng nhiu... Sau y l mt s tiu chun thng dng nh gi
cht lng h thng iu khin.

Sai s xc lp

Sai s l hiu s gia tn hiu vo v tn hiu hi tip. Mc ch mun tn hiu ra qua


vng hi tip lun lun bm c tn hiu vo mong mun. iu c ngha sai s xc
lp bng khng.

vt l ( qu iu chnh )

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Thi gian p ng
Thi gian ln nh l thi gian p ng ra t gi tr cc i (tp = tpeak).
Thi gian qu ts = tset xc nh bi thi im p ng ra t sau tr i khng vt
ra khi min gii hn sai s quanh gi tr xc lp. V d: c th l 2%, 5%...

d tr n nh
nh ngha: Khong cch t trc o n nghim cc gn nht (nghim thc hoc phc)
c gi l d tr n nh ca h. K hiu khong cch ngn nht y l ?o, nu ?o
cng ln th qu trnh qu cng nhanh v xc lp. p ng qu ca h bc n:

trong Re (pi + ?o) = 0

Tiu chun tch phn


Trong thc t mt h thng KT c thit k phi tha yu cu c hai ch xc
lp v qu . Qu trnh qu c th c nh gi thng qua gi tr tch phn ca sai
lch gia gi tr t v gi tr tc thi o c ca i lng cn iu chnh.

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Sai s xc lp
Xt h thng hi tip m c s khi nh hnh v:

H thng hi tip m

Sai s ca h thng l

Sai s xc lp

Sai s xc lp khng nhng ph thuc vo cu trc v thng s ca h thng m cn


ph thuc vo tn hiu vo.

Tn hiu vo l hm nc n v

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Tn hiu vo l hm dc n v

Tn hiu vo l hm parabol

Nhn xt
Ty theo s khu tch phn l tng c trong hm truyn h ( ) ( ) G s H s m Kp , Kv ,
Ka c gi tr nh bng sau:

- Nu G(s)H(s) khng c khu tch phn l tng th h thng kn theo kp s thay i


ca tn hiu vo l hm nc vi sai s
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v khng theo kp s thay i ca tn hiu vo l hm dc v hm parabol.


- Nu G(s)H(s) c mt khu tch phn l tng th h thng kn theo kp s thay i ca
tn hiu vo l hm nc vi sai s xle = 0, v theo kp s thay i ca tn hiu vo l hm
dc vi sai s

v khng theo kp s thay i ca tn hiu vo l hm parabol


h thng c mt khu tch phn l tng gi l h v sai bc mt.
- Nu G(s)H(s) c hai khu tch phn l tng th h thng kn theo kp s thay i ca
tn hiu vo l hm nc v hm dc vi sai s exl = 0, theo kp s thay i ca tn hiu
vo l hm parabol vi sai s

h thng c hai khu tch phn l tng gi l h v sai bc hai.


- Nu G(s)H(s) c ba khu tch phn l tng th h thng kn theo kp s thay i ca
tn hiu vo l hm nc, hm dc v hm parabol vi sai s
h thng c ba khu tch phn l tng gi l h v sai bc ba.
H thng c n khu tch phn l tng gi l h v sai bc n.

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p ng qu
p ng qu l p ng ca h thng khi tn hiu vo l hm nc n v.

H qun tnh bc mt
Hm truyn:

H thng kn ch c mt cc thc

Gin cc - zero ca h qun tnh bc nht

p ng qu ca h qun tnh bc nht

p ng ca h thng khi tn hiu vo l hm nc

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Nhn xt (xem hnh 5.4)


p ng qu ca khu qun tnh bc nht khng c vt l.
Thi hng T l thi im c(t) t 63.2% gi tr xc lp, T cng nh p ng cng
nhanh.
Thi gian xc lp ts (settling time) l thi gian sai s gia c(t) v gi tr xc lp nh
hn ( = 5% hay 2%).
Sai s xc lp bng 0.

H dao ng bc hai
Hm truyn

trong

H thng c cp cc phc lin hp

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Gin cc - zero ca h dao ng bc hai

p ng qu ca h dao ng bc hai

p ng ca h thng khi tn hiu vo l hm nc

trong lch pha xc nh bi

Nhn xt (xem hnh 5.6)


p ng qu ca khu dao ng bc hai c dng dao ng vi bin gim dn.
- Nu

, p ng ca h l dao ng khng suy gim vi tn

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gi l tn s dao ng t nhin.
- Nu

p ng ca h l dao ng vi bin gim dn


gi l h s tt (hay h s suy gim),
cng ln dao ng suy gim cng nhanh.
p ng ca khu dao ng bc hai c vt l.
Tng qut, vt l (POT Percent of Overshoot) c nh ngha l

(cmax - gi tr cc i ca c(t); cxl - gi tr xc lp ca c(t))


i vi h dao ng bc hai, vt l POT c tnh bi cng thc

Thi gian xc lp ts l thi gian sai s gia c(t) v gi tr xc lp nh hn e (e = 5%


hay 2%).
i vi h bc hai

Thi gian ln tr: (rise time) l thi gian c(t) tng t 10% n 90% gi tr xc lp.
i vi h bc hai

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Ch : Nu

ta khng gi l h dao ng bc hai v trong trng hp ny p ng ca h khng c


dao ng.
Nu
h thng kn c mt nghim kp (thc).

p ng ca h thng

Nu

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h thng kn c hai nghim thc phn bit

p ng ca h thng

H bc cao

Cp cc quyt nh ca h bc cao

H bc cao c nhiu hn hai cc. p ng tng ng vi cc cc nm cng xa trc o


suy gim cng nhanh. Do c th xp x h bc cao v h bc hai vi cp cc l hai
cc nm gn trc o nht. Cp cc nm gn trc o nht ca h bc cao gi l cp cc
quyt nh.

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Cc tiu chun ti u ha p ng qu
Tiu chun tch phn sai lch IE (Integrated Error)

i vi h c p ng qu khng dao ng (ng 1 hnh 5.3) th tiu chun IE chnh


l din tch ca hm sai lch e(t) to vi trc thi gian t cn t gi tr cc tiu th cht
lng t tt nht.

Tiu chun IE v IAE

Song i vi h c p ng qu dao ng n nh (ng 2) th tiu chun IE khng


phn nh ng cht lng ca h thng do c min din tch m c tr bt i. Kt
qu gi tr tch phn nh nhng qu trnh qu xu. V vy phi s dng tiu chun
tch phn tr s tuyt i ca sai lch.

Tiu chun IAE (Integral of the Absolute Magnitude of the Error - tch
phn tr tuyt i bin sai s)

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i vi h bc hai:

Tiu chun ISE (Integral of the Square of the Error - tch phn ca bnh
phng sai s)

ISE xem nh nhng din tch b v bnh phng mt s nh hn 1 b hn tr s tuyt


i ca s y. Mt trong nhng l do khin tiu chun ISE thng c s dng l cng
vic tnh ton v thc hin n gin. C th tnh c lng ISE theo bin i Fourier
hoc theo cng thc.

i vi h bc hai:

Tiu chun ITAE (Integral of Time multiplied by the Absolute Value of the
Error- tch phn ca thi gian nhn vi tr tuyt i ca sai s)

i vi h bc hai:

Trong ba tiu chun ti u ha p ng qu va trnh by trn, tiu chun ITAE


c s dng nhiu nht. p ng qu ca h thng bc n l ti u theo chun
ITAE th mu s hm truyn kn h bc n phi c dng

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Nu mu s hm truyn h kn c dng nh trn v t s hm truyn h kn ca h bc


n l

th p ng qu ca h thng l ti u v sai s xc lp bng 0.

Tiu chun tch phn c tnh n nh hng ca tc thay i ca sai lch


e(t)

vi l hng s c chn thch hp cho tng trng hp.


V d: ln khng cho php dao ng ln. Ngc li, nh cho php qu dao ng
ln.

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Bi 6: Thit k h thng iu khin lin tc


Khi nim
Thit k l ton b qu trnh b sung cc thit b phn cng cng nh thut ton phn
mm vo h cho trc c h mi tha mn yu cu v tnh n nh, chnh xc,
p ng qu , C nhiu cch b sung b iu khin vo h thng cho trc, trong
khun kh quyn sch ny chng ta ch yu xt hai cch sau:
Cch 1: thm b iu khin ni tip vi hm truyn ca h h, phng php ny gi
l hiu chnh ni tip (H.6.1). B iu khin c s dng c th l b hiu chnh sm
pha, tr pha, sm tr pha, P, PD, PI, PID, thit k h thng hiu chnh ni tip
chng ta c th s dng phng php QNS hay phng php biu Bode. Ngoi ra
mt phng php cng thng c s dng l thit k theo c tnh qu chun.

H thng hiu chnh ni tip

Cch 2: iu khin hi tip trng thi, theo phng php ny tt c cc trng thi ca h
thng c phn hi tr v ng vo v tn hiu iu khin c dng
(H.6.2). Ty theo cch tnh vct hi tip trng thi K m ta c phng php iu
khin phn b cc, iu khin ti u LQR, .

H thng iu khin hi tip trng thi

Qu trnh thit k h thng l qu trnh i hi tnh sng to do trong khi thit k thng
c nhiu thng s phi chn la.
Ngi thit k cn thit phi hiu c nh hng ca cc khu hiu chnh n cht
lng ca h thng v bn cht ca tng phng php thit k th mi c th thit k
c h thng c cht lng tt. Do cc phng php thit k trnh by trong bi ny

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ch mang tnh gi , l nhng cch thng c s dng ch khng phi l phng


php bt buc phi tun theo.
Vic p dng mt cch my mc thng khng t c kt qu mong mun trong thc
t. D thit k theo phng php no yu cu cui cng vn l tha mn cht lng
mong mun, cch thit k, cch chn la thng s khng quan trng.
Trc khi xt n cc phng php thit k b iu khin, chng ta xt nh hng ca
cc b iu khin n cht lng ca h thng.

Phng php thay i thng s


Nguyn tc thit k h thng dng phng php hiu chnh thng s hay cn gi l
QNS l da vo phng trnh c tnh ca h thng sau khi hiu chnh:

(6.1)

(6.2)
Ta cn chn thng s ca b iu khin GC(s) sao cho phng trnh (6.1) c nghim ti
v tr mong mun.
Hiu chnh sm pha
thun li cho vic v QNS chng ta biu din hm truyn khu hiu chnh sm pha
di dng sau :

(6.3)
Bi ton t ra l chn gi tr KC, a v T p ng ca h thng tha mn yu cu v
cht lng qu ( vt l, thi gian xc lp, )
Ta bit cht lng qu ca h thng hon ton xc nh bi v tr ca cp cc quyt
nh. Do nguyn tc thit k khu hiu chnh sm pha dng phng php QNS l
chn cc v zero ca khu hiu chnh sao cho QNS ca h thng sau khi hiu chnh
phi i qua cp cc quyt nh mong mun. Sau bng cch chn h s khuch i

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KC thch hp ta s chn c cc ca h thng chnh l cp cc mong mun. Nguyn


tc trn c c th ha thnh trnh t thit k sau:
Trnh t thit k
Khu hiu chnh: Sm pha
Phng php thit k: QNS
Bc 1: Xc nh cp cc quyt nh t yu cu thit k v cht lng ca h thng
trong qu trnh qu :

Bc 2: Xc nh gc pha cn b cp cc quyt nh

nm trn QNS ca h thng sau khi hiu chnh bng cng thc:

(6.4)
trong pi v zi l cc cc ca h thng G(s) trc khi hiu chnh.
Dng hnh hc ca cng thc trn l:

(6.5)
Bc 3: Xc nh v tr cc v zero ca khu hiu chnh
V hai na ng thng bt k xut pht t cc quyt nh s* sao cho hai na ng
thng ny to vi nhau mt gc bng *. Giao im ca hai na ng thng ny vi
trc thc l v tr cc v zero ca khu hiu chnh.
C hai cch v thng dng:
- PP ng phn gic ( cc v zero ca khu hiu chnh gn nhau).
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- PP trit tiu nghim ( h bc ca h thng).


Bc 4: Tnh h s khuch i KC bng cch p dng cng thc:

Gii thch
Bc 1: Do cht lng qu ph thuc vo v tr cp cc quyt nh nn thit k
h thng tha mn cht lng qu mong mun ta phi xc nh cp cc quyt nh
tng ng. Gi cp cc quyt nh mong mun l

.
Bc 2: h thng c cht lng qu nh mong mun th cp cc quyt nh

phi l nghim ca phng trnh c tnh sau khi hiu chnh (6.1). Xt iu kin v
pha:

(6.6)
trong zi v pi l cc zero v cc cc ca h thng h trc khi hiu chnh. t gc
pha cn b

, t biu thc (6.6) ta suy ra:

Do s phc c th biu din di dng vct nn cng thc trn tng ng vi cng
thc hnh hc sau:

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Bc 3: By gi ta phi chn cc v zero ca khu hiu chnh sao cho:

(6.7)
Do * v s* bit nn phng trnh (6.7) c hai n s cn tm l 1/T v 1/T. Chn
trc gi tr 1/T bt k thay vo phng trnh (6.7) ta s tnh c 1/T v ngc li,
ngha l bi ton thit k c v s nghim.
Thay v chn nghim bng phng php gii tch (gii phng trnh (6.7) nh va trnh
by chng ta c th chn bng phng php hnh hc. Theo hnh 6.3 hai s phc

v
c biu din bi hai vct
v
, do
v
. Thay cc gc hnh hc vo phng trnh (6.7) ta c:

T phn tch trn ta thy cc v zero ca khu hiu chnh sm pha phi nm ti im B
v C sao cho BPC * = F . y chnh l c s ton hc ca cch chn cc v zero nh
trnh by trong trnh t thit k.

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Quan h hnh hc gia v tr cc v zero ca khu hiu chnh sm pha vi gc pha cn b

Quan h hnh hc gia v tr cc v zero ca khu hiu chnh sm pha vi gc pha cn


b

V d : Thit k khu hiu chnh sm pha dng phng php QNS.

Cho h thng iu khinnh hnh v. Hy thit k khu hiu chnh GC(s) p ng


qu ca h thng sau khi hiu chnh tha: POT < 20%; tq < 0,5 sec (tiu chun 2%).
Gii: V yu cu thit k ci thin p ng qu nn s dng khu hiu chnh sm
pha:

Bc 1: Xc nh cp cc quyt nh
Theo yu cu thit k, ta c:

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Vy cp cc quyt nh l:

Bc 2: Xc nh gc pha cn b
Cch 1. Dng cng thc i s

Cch 2. Dng cng thc hnh hc

Bc 3: Xc nh cc v zero ca khu hiu chnh bng phng php ng phn gic.

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Bc 4: Tnh C K .

Vy hm truyn ca khu hiu chnh sm pha cn thit k l:

Nhn xt

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Qu o nghim s ca h thng trc khi hiu chnh khng qua im s* (H.6.4a) do


h thng s khng bao gi t c cht lng p ng qu nh yu cu d c thay
i h s khuch i ca h thng.

S thay i dng QNS khi hiu chnh sm pha a) QNS trc khi hiu chnh; b) QNS sau khi
hiu chnh

Bng cch s dng khu hiu chnh sm pha, qu o nghim s ca h thng b sa


dng v qua im s* (H.6.4b). Bng cch chn h s khuch i thch hp (nh thc
hin bc 4) h thng s c cp cc quyt nh nh mong mun, do p ng qu
t yu cu thit k (H.6.5).

p ng nc ca h thng v d 6.4 trc v sau khi hiu chnh

Hiu chnh tr pha


Hm truyn khu hiu chnh tr pha cn thit k c dng:

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Bi ton t ra l chn gi tr KC, v T p ng ca h thng tha mn yu cu v


sai s xc lp m khng lm nh hng n p ng qu (nh hng khng ng
k).
Ta bit do khu hiu chnh tr pha c h s khuch i min tn s thp ln nn
c tc dng lm gim sai s xc lp ca h thng. p ng qu ca h thng sau
khi hiu chnh tr pha gn nh khng i th cp cc quyt nh ca h thng trc v
sau khi hiu chnh phi nm rt gn nhau. t c iu ny ta phi t thm cc v
zero ca khu hiu chnh tr pha sao cho dng QNS thay i khng ng k. y l
nguyn tc cn tun theo khi thit k khu hiu chnh tr pha. Trnh t thit k di y
c th ha nguyn tc trn:
Trnh t thit k
Khu hiu chnh: Tr pha
Phng php thit k: QNS
Bc 1: Xc nh t yu cu v sai s xc lp.
Nu yu cu v sai s xc lp cho di dng h s vn tc

th tnh bng cng thc:

trong KV v K*V l h s vn tc ca h thng trc v sau khi hiu chnh.


Bc 2: Chn zero ca khu hiu chnh sao cho:

trong

l cp cc quyt nh ca h thng sau khi hiu chnh.


Bc 3: Tnh cc ca khu hiu chnh:

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Bc 4: Tnh KC bng cch p dng cng thc:

trong

l cp cc quyt nh ca h thng sau khi hiu chnh. Do yu cu thit k khng lm


nh hng ng k n p ng qu nn c th tnh gn ng:

Gii thch
Bc 1: Ta c h s vn tc ca h thng trc v sau khi hiu chnh l:

Do ta chn bng cng thc trn. Cc bc thit k tip theo m bo

.
Bc 2: Gi s1,2 l cp cc quyt nh ca h thng trc khi hiu chnh:

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Xt iu kin v pha. h thng c cht lng qu gn nh khng thay i th

. Suy ra:

(6.8)
Phn tch trn cho thy cc v zero ca khu hiu chnh tr pha phi tha mn biu
thc (6.8). Khi thit k ta thng chn khu hiu chnh tr pha sao cho

, t c iu ny c th t cc v zero ca khu hiu chnh tr pha nm rt gn


gc ta so vi phn thc ca
. Do ta chn v tr zero sao cho:

Bc 3: Suy ra:

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rng bng cch chn nh trn 1/T cng nm rt gn gc ta do 1/.


Bc 4: bc 2 v 3 ta mi chn cc v zero ca khu hiu chnh tr pha tha mn
iu kin v pha. tha mn iu kin bin ta chn KC bng cng thc

C th d dng kim chng c rng do cch chn zero v cc ca khu hiu chnh
nh bc 2 v bc 3 m bc 4 ta lun tnh c

. Nh vy KC tha mn gi thit ban u khi tnh h s bc 1.


Hiu chnh sm tr pha
Hm truyn khu hiu chnh sm tr pha cn thit k c dng:

trong :

l khu hiu chnh sm pha

l khu hiu chnh tr pha.


Bi ton t ra thit k

ci thin p ng qu v sai s xc lp ca h thng.


Trnh t thit k
Khu hiu chnh: Sm tr pha
Phng php thit k: QNS
Bc 1: Thit k khu sm pha

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tha mn yu cu v p ng qu (xem phng php thit k khu hiu chnh


sm pha mc trc).
Bc 2: t

.
Thit k khu hiu chnh tr pha

mc ni tip vo
tha mn yu cu v sai s xc lp m khng thay i ng k p ng qu ca
h thng sau khi hiu chnh sm pha (xem phng php thit k khu hiu chnh tr
pha mc trc).
V d 6.6. Thit k khu hiu chnh sm tr pha dng phng php QNS.

Hy thit k khu hiu chnh GC(s) sao cho h thng sau khi hiu chnh c cp cc phc
vi

; h s vn tc VK = 80.
Gii: H cha hiu chnh c

; VK = 8 .
V yu cu thit k b hiu chnh ci thin p ng qu v sai s xc lp nn GC(s)
l khu hiu chnh sm tr pha.

Bc 1: Thit k khu hiu chnh sm pha GC1(s)

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- Cp cc quyt nh sau khi hiu chnh:

Gc pha cn b

- Gc pha cn b:

- Chn zero ca khu sm pha trng vi cc s = -0,5 ca G(s) h bc h thng sau


khi hiu chnh.

T cc s*1 v hai na ng thng to vi nhau mt gc l * nh hnh 6.6. Cc ca


khu sm pha ti im B.

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Bc 2: Thit k khu hiu chnh tr pha GC2(s)

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- Xc nh :
H s vn tc ca h sau khi hiu chnh sm pha:

H s vn tc mong mun:

- Xc nh zero ca khu tr pha:

- Xc nh cc ca khu tr pha:

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Tm li khu hiu chnh sm tr pha cn thit k l:

Phng php thay i cu trc


C nhng h thng iu khin d thay i thng s n mc no cng khng lm n
n nh c. H thng nh vy c gi l h thng c cu trc khng n nh. Mun
lm cho h thng chuyn sang trng thi n nh ta phi thay i cu trc ca n.
Lm thay i cu trc tc l lm thay i cp ca phng trnh vi phn ca h thng th
c tnh cht lng cng thay i.

Nguyn l bt bin v iu khin b


Mt h thng KT trong cc ta yi(t) v sai lch e(t) khng ph thuc vo cc
tc ng bn ngoi fi(t) c gi l h thng bt bin. gim nh hng ca nhiu v
tng chnh xc ngi ta thng s dng nguyn tc b sai lch tc ng u vo v
b nhiu.

Thit k h thng iu khin PID


B iu khin PID l trng hp c bit ca hiu chnh sm tr pha nn v nguyn
tc c th thit k b iu khin PID bng phng php dng QNS hoc dng biu
Bode.
Mt phng php khc cng thng dng thit k b iu khin PID l phng php
gii tch. Sau y l mt v d:
V d 6.10. Cho h thng iu khin nh hnh v:

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Hy xc nh thng s ca b iu khin PID sao cho h thng tha mn yu cu:


- H c cp nghim phc vi = 0,5 , n = 8
- H s vn tc KV = 100.
Gii: Hm truyn b iu khin PID cn thit k:

H s vn tc ca h sau khi hiu chnh:

Theo yu cu bi KV = 100 nn suy ra:

Phng trnh c tnh ca h sau khi hiu chnh l:

(1)
h thng c cp cc phc vi

th phng trnh c tnh (1) phi c dng:

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Cn bng cc h s hai phng trnh (1) v (2), suy ra:

Vi KI = 100, gii h phng trnh trn ta c:

Vy hm truyn ca khu hiu chnh PID cn thit k l:

B iu khin PID c s dng rt rng ri trong thc t iu khin nhiu loi i


tng khc nhau nh nhit l nhit, tc ng c, mc cht lng trong bn cha...
do n c kh nng lm trit tiu sai s xc lp, tng tc p ng qu o gim
vt l nu cc thng s ca b iu khin c chn la thch hp. Do tnh thng dng
ca n nn nhiu hng sn xut thit b iu khin cho ra i cc b iu khin PID
thng mi rt tin dng. Trong thc t cc phng php thit k b iu khin PID
dng QNS, biu Bode hay phng php gi tch rt t c s dng do s kh
khn trong vic xy dng hm truyn ca i tng. Phng php ph bin nht
chn thng so cho cc b iu khin PID thng mi hin nay l phng php ZeiglerNichols.
Phng php Zeigler-Nichols
Phng php Zeigler-Nichols l phng php thc nghim thit k b iu khin P,
PI, hoc PID bng cch da vo p ng qu ca i tng iu khin. B iu khin
PID cn thit k c hm truyn l:

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(6.9)
Zeigler v Nichols a ra hai cch chn thng s b iu khin PID ty theo c im
ca i tng.
Cch 1: Da vo p ng qu ca h h, p dng cho cc i tng c p ng i
vi tn hiu vo l hm nc c dng ch S nh hnh 6.7, v d nh nhit l nhit, tc
ng c,

p ng nc ca h h c dng S

Thng s b iu khin P, PI, PID c chn nh sau:

V d 6.11. Hy thit k b iu khin PID iu khin nhit ca l sy, bit c tnh


qu ca l sy thu c t thc nghim c dng nh sau:

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Gii. Da vo p ng qu thc nghim ta c:

Chn thng s b iu khin PID theo phng php Zeigler- Nichols:

Cch 2: Da vo p ng qu ca h kn, p dng cho cc i tng c khu tch


phn l tng, v d nh mc cht lng trong bn cha, v tr h truyn ng dng ng
c,... p ng qu (h h) ca cc i tng c khu tch phn l tng khng c
dng nh hnh 6.24 m tng n v cng. i vi cc i tng thuc loi ny ta chn
thng s b iu khin PID da vo p ng qu ca h kn nh hnh 6.8. Tng dn
h s khuch i K ca h kn hnh 6.8 n gi tr gii hn Kgh, khi p ng ra ca
h kn trng thi xc lp l dao ng n nh vi chu k Tgh.

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p ng nc ca h kn khi K = Kgh

Thng s b iu khin P, PI, PID c chn nh sau:

V d :Hy thit k b iu khin PID iu khin v tr gc quay ca ng c DC, bit


rng nu s dng b iu khin t l th bng thc nghim ta xc nh c khi K = 20
v tr gc quay ng c trng thi xc lp l dao ng vi chu k T = 1 sec.
Gii. Theo d kin ca bi ton, ta c:

Chn thng s b iu khin PID theo phng php Zeigler-Nichols:

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Tnh iu khin c v quan st c ca h thng tuyn tnh lin tc


Khi nim iu khin c, quan st c (Controllabbility and Observability) do RKalman, R.E. ra.
iu khin c ca mt h thng l vi mt tc ng u vo liu chuyn c trng
thi ca h t thi im u vo t0 n thi im cui t1 trong khong thi gian hu hn
h (t1-t0) hay khng?
Quan st c ca h thng l vi cc ta o c bin ra yi ca h, liu ta c th
khi phc c cc vector trng thi xi trong mt khong thi gian hu hn hay khng?

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Bi 7: M t ton hc h thng iu khin


ri rc
H thng iu khin ri rc
Khi nim
Chng ny cp n mt loi h thng iu khin c hi tip, trong tn hiu ti
mt hay nhiu im l mt chui xung, khng phi l hm lin tc theo thi gian. Ty
thuc vo phng php lng t ha tn hiu m ta c cc loi h thng x l tn hiu
khc nhau. Phng php lng t ha theo thi gian cho tn hiu c bin lin tc,
thi gian ri rc. H thng x l loi tn hiu ny c gi l h thng ri rc. Nu php
lng t ha c tin hnh theo thi gian v c theo bin th kt qu nhn c l
tn hiu s. H thng x l tn hiu s gi l h thng s. Trong h thng ri rc v h
thng s, thng s iu khin - bin ca tn hiu ch xut hin ti cc thi im ri
rc cch u nhau ng bng mt chu k ly mu tn hiu. V c thi gian tr tt yu do
ly mu, vic n nh h thng tr nn phc tp hn so vi h lin tc, do i hi
nhng k thut phn tch v thit k c bit.
S pht trin mnh m ca k thut s, k thut vi x l v k thut my tnh lm cho
ngy cng c nhiu h thng iu khin s c s dng iu khin cc i tng.
H thng iu khin s c nhiu u im so vi h thng iu khin lien tc nh uyn
chuyn, linh hot, d dng i thut ton iu khin, d dng p dng cc thut ton iu
khin phc tp bng cch lp trnh. My tnh s cn c th iu khin nhiu i tng
cng mt lc. Ngoi ra, gi my tnh ngy cng h trong khi tc x l, tin cy
ngy cng tng ln cng gp phn lm cho vic s dng cc h thng iu khin s tr
nn ph bin. Hin nay cc h thng iu khin s c s dng rt rng ri, t cc b
iu khin n gin nh iu khin nhit , iu khin ng c DC, AC,... n cc h
thng iu khin phc tp nh iu khin robot, my bay, tu v tr, cc h thng iu
khin qu trnh cng ngh ha hc v cc h thng t ng cho nhng ng dng khc
nhau.

S khi h thng iu khin s

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Hnh 7.1 trnh by s khi ca h thng iu khin s thng gp, trong h thng c
hai loi tn hiu: tn hiu lin tc c(t), uR(t) v tn hiu s r(kT), cht(kT), u(kT). Trung
tm ca h thng l my tnh s, my tnh c chc nng x l thng tin phn hi t cm
bin v xut ra tn hiu iu khin i tng. V cm bin v i tng l h thng lin
tc nn cn s dng b chuyn i A/D v D/A giao tip vi my tnh. Do
phn tch v thit k h thng iu khin s trc tin ta phi m t ton hc c qu
trnh chuyn i A/D v D/A. Tuy nhin, hin nay khng c phng php no cho php
m t chnh xc qu trnh chuyn i A/D v D/A do sai s lng t ha bin , v vy
thay v kho st h thng s hnh 7.1 ta kho st h ri rc hnh 7.2.

S khi h thng iu khin ri rc

Trong quyn sch ny, chng ta pht trin cc phng php phn tch v thit k h
thng iu khin lin tc cho h thng iu khin ri rc. Nu phn gii ca php
lng t ha bin nh c th b qua sai s th ta c th xem tn hiu s l tn
hiu ri rc, iu c ngha l l thuyt iu khin ri rc trnh by trong quyn ny
hon ton c th p dng phn tch v thit k cc h thng iu khin s.

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c im ly mu

Qu trnh ly mu d liu

Ly mu l bin i tn hiu lin tc theo thi gian thnh tn hiu ri rc theo thi gian.
Xt b ly mu c u vo l tn hiu lin tc x(t) v u ra l tn hiu ri rc x*(t)
(H.7.3). Qu trnh ly mu c th m t bi biu thc ton hc sau:
x*(t) = x(t).s(t)
trong s(t) l chui xung dirac:

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ng thi gi s rng x(t) = 0 khi t < 0, ta c:

Bin i Laplace hai v phng trnh (7.3) ta c:

Biu thc chnh l biu thc ton hc m t qu trnh ly mu.


nh l Shanon: c th phc hi d liu sau khi ly mu m khng b mo dng th
tn s ly mu phi tha mn iu kin:

trong fc l tn s ct ca tn hiu cn ly mu.


Trong cc h thng iu khin thc t, nu c th b qua c sai s lng t ha th
cc khu chuyn i A/D chnh l cc khu ly mu.

Khu gi d liu
Khu gi d liu l khu chuyn tn hiu ri rc theo thi gian thnh tn hiu lin tc
theo thi gian.
Khu gi d liu c nhiu dng khc nhau, n gin nht v c s dng nhiu nht
trong cc h thng iu khin ri rc l khu gi bc 0 (Zero-Order Hold - ZOH)
(H.7.4).

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Khu gi bc 0 (ZOH)

Ta tm hm truyn ca khu ZOH. rng nu tn hiu vo ca khu ZOH l xung


dirac th tn hiu ra l xung vung c rng bng T (H.7.4b). Ta c:
R(s) = 1 (v r(t) l hm dirac)

Theo nh ngha:

Do :

Biu thc (7.6) chnh l hm truyn ca khu gi bc 0.

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Trong cc h thng iu khin thc t, nu c th b qua c sai s lng t ha th


cc khu chuyn i D/A chnh l cc khu gi bc 0 (ZOH).
Nhn xt
Bng cch s dng php bin i Laplace ta c th m t qu trnh ly mu v gi d
liu bng cc biu thc ton hc (7.4) v (7.6). Tuy nhin cc biu thc ton hc ny li
cha hm ex nn nu ta s dng m t h ri rc th khi phn tch, thit k h thng s
gp nhiu kh khn. Ta cn m t ton hc khc gip kho st h thng ri rc d dng
hn, nh php bin i Z trnh by di y chng ta s thc hin c iu ny.

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Php bin i Z
nh ngha
Cho x(k) l chui tn hiu ri rc. Bin i Z ca x(k) l:

(7.7)
trong : z = eTs (s l bin Laplace)
K hiu:

Nu x(k) = 0,
k < 0th biu thc nh ngha tr thnh:

Min hi t (Region of Convergence - ROC)


ROC l tp hp tt c cc gi tr z sao cho X(z) hu hn.
ngha ca php bin i Z
Gi s x(t) l tn hiu lin tc trong min thi gian, ly mu x(t) vi chu k ly mu T ta
c chui ri rc x(k) = x(kT).
Biu thc ly mu x(t):

Biu thc bin i Z:


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V z = eTs nn v phi ca hai biu thc (7.9) v (7.10) l nh nhau, do bn cht ca


vic bin i Z mt tn hiu chnh l ri rc ha tn hiu .
Php bin i Z ngc
Cho X(z) l hm theo bin phc z. Bin i Z ngc ca X(z) l:

vi C l ng cong kn bt k nm trong min hi t ROC ca X(z) v bao gc ta .

Tnh cht ca php bin i Z


Tnh tuyn tnh
Nu:

Th:

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Di trong min thi gian

Lm tr tn hiu Ko mu

Nu:

Th:

Nhn xt:
Nu trong min Z ta nhn X(z) vi

th tng ng vi trong min thi gian l tr tn hiu x(k) ko chu k ly mu.


V:

nn z1 c gi l ton t lm tr mt chu k ly mu.

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T l trong min Z
Nu:

Th:

o hm trong min Z
Nu:

Th:

nh l gi tr u
Nu:

Th:

nh l gi tr cui
Nu:

Th:

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Bin i Z ca cc hm c bn
Hm dirac

Theo nh ngha:

Vy:

(ROC: ton b mt phng Z)


Hm nc n v
Hm nc n v (lin tc trong min thi gian):

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Ly mu u(t) vi chu k ly mu l T, ta c:

Theo nh ngha:

Nu |z-1| < 1th biu thc trn l tng ca cp s nhn li v hn. p dng cng thc
tnh tng ca cp s nhn li v hn, ta d dng suy ra:

Vy:

Hm dc n v
Hm dc n v (lin tc trong min thi gian):

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Ly mu r(t) vi chu k ly mu l T, ta c:

Ta tm bin i Z ca r(k) bng cch p dng tnh cht t l trong min Z:


Ta c:

Vy:

Hm m
Hm m lin tc trong min thi gian:

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Ly mu r(t) vi chu k ly mu l T, ta c:

Theo nh ngha:

Nu

th biu thc trn l tng ca cp s nhn li v hn. p dng cng thc tnh tng ca
cp s nhn li v hn, ta suy ra:

Vy:

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Kt qu trn ta d dng suy ra:

Cc phng php tm bin i Z ngc


Cho hm ( ) X z , bi ton t ra l tm ( ) x k . Theo cng thc bin i Z ngc, ta c:

vi C l ng cong kn bt k nm trong ROC ca

v bao gc ta .
Tm x(k) bng cng thc trn rt phc tp, thc t ta thng p dng cc cch sau:
Cch 1: Phn tch X( z ) thnh tng cc hm c bn, sau tra bng bin i Z
V d 7.1. Cho:

Tm x(k).
Gii. Phn tch

, ta c:

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Tra bng bin i Z:

Suy ra: x(k) = (2k + 3k) u(k)


Cch 2: Phn tch ( ) X z thnh chui ly tha
Theo nh ngha bin i z:

Do nu phn tch X(z) thnh tng ca chui ly tha ta s c gi tr x(k) chnh l


h s ca thnh phn zk.
V d :. Cho:

Tm x(k).
Gii:

Chia a thc ta c:

Suy ra: x(0) = 0; x(1) = 1; x(2) = 5; x(3) = 19; x(4) = 65,...


Cch 3: Tnh x(k) bng cng thc qui
V d :. Cho:

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Tm x(k).
Gii: Ta c:

Bin i Z ngc hai v phng trnh trn ( tnh cht di trong min thi gian), ta
c:

Vi iu kin u: x( k 1) = 0; x(k 2) = 0
Thay vo cng thc trn ta tm c:
x(0) = 0; x(1) = 1; x(2) = 5; x(3) = 19; x(4) = 65,...
Cch 4: p dng cng thc thng d

Nu

l cc bc mt th:

Nu

l cc bc p th:

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V d : Cho:

Tm x(k).
Gii. p dng cng thc thng d, ta c:

M:

Do : x(k) = 2k + 3k

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M t h thng ri rc bng hm truyn


Hm truyn ca h ri rc

Quan h gia tn hiu vo v tn hiu ra ca h thng ri rc c m t bng phng


trnh sai phn:

trong n m, n gi l bc ca h thng ri rc Bin i z hai v phng trnh ta c:

t:

G(z) c gi l hm truyn ca h thng ri rc.


Hm truyn (7.18) c th bin i tng ng v dng:

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Hai cch biu din trn hon ton tng ng nhau, trong thc t hm truyn dng th
hai c s dng nhiu hn.
V d 7.5. Cho h thng ri rc m t bi phng trnh sai phn:

Tm hm truyn ca h thng.
Gii. Bin i Z hai v phng trnh sai phn m t h thng, ta c:

Tnh hm truyn h ri rc t s khi


Khi thm vo h thng lin tc cc khu ly mu, khu gi d liu (v b iu khin
s) ta c h thng iu khin ri rc. Bi ton t ra l tm hm truyn h ri rc theo
bin z t s khi c cc khu ly mu. Xt mt s s thng gp sau y:
Hai khu ni tip cch nhau bi khu ly mu

Hai khu ni tip cch nhau bi khu ly mu

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Trong :

V d 7.6: Cho

Tm hm truyn tng ng ca hai h thng c s khi hnh 7.6.


Gii. Tra bng bin i Z, ta c:

Do d dng suy ra:

Hai khu ni tip khng cch nhau bi khu ly mu

Hai khu ni tip khng cch nhau bi khu ly mu

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Trong :

Cn ch l:

V d 7.7 s minh ha iu ny.


V d :. Cho

Tm hm truyn tng ng ca hai h thng c s khi hnh 7.7.


Gii. Tra bng bin i z, ta c:

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R rng kt qu tnh hm truyn tng ng ca hai h thng v d 7.6 v 7.7 hon


ton khc nhau.
H thng hi tip c khu ly mu trong knh sai s

H thng hi tip c khu ly mu trong knh sai s

Trong :

Trng hp H(s) = 1 (h thng hi tip m n v) ta c:

V d 7.8. Cho

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Tm hm truyn tng ng ca hai h thng c s khi hnh 7.7.


Gii. Thc hin php bin i Z tng t nh lm v d 7.6 v 7.7, ta d dng tnh
c:

Thay vo cng thc (7.22) ta c:

H thng hi tip c khu ly mu trong vng hi tip

H thng hi tip c khu ly mu trong vng hi tip

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Trng hp ny khng tm c biu thc hm truyn, quan h gia tn hiu vo v tn


hiu ra nh sau:

Trong :

H thng hi tip c cc khu ly mu ng b trong nhnh thun

H thng hi tip c cc khu

ly mu ng b trong nhnh thun

Trong :

H thng hi tip c cc khu ly mu ng b v cc khu ni tip nhnh


thun

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H thng hi tip c cc khu ly mu ng b v cc khu ni tip nhnh thun

Trong :

S dng tn hiu - Cng thc Mason cho h ri rc


C th m rng khi nim s dng tn hiu trnh by trong chng 2 cho h lin
tc p dng vo h ri rc vi mt vi thay i nh. s dng cng thc Mason
cho h ri rc cn cc nguyn tc sau y:
Nu khng c b ly mu gia u vo R(s) v khu u tin trong vng thun (v d
G(s)) th khng th tch bit bin i Z ca u vo v khu u tin v ta lun c s
hng ( ) RG Z ZZ Z . Do trong trng hp ny khng th tnh c hm truyn bng
t l gia bin i Z tn hiu ra v tn hiu vo ca h thng.
Nu mt khu trong vng thun hay trong vng hi tip phn bit vi u vo, u ra
ca h thng v vi cc khu khc bi cc b ly mu u vo v u ra ca n hon
ton c lp v bin i Z.
Nu mt khu trong vng thun hay vng hi tip khng phn bit vi cc khu k cn
hay vi u vo ca h thng bi b ly mu th phi thc hin php bin i Z ca hm
truyn kt hp ca hai khu hay gia khu vi u vo.
Dng l thuyt Mason v ba nguyn tc trn cho h ri rc, c gi c th kim chng
c cc cng thc tnh hm truyn dn ra trong mc 7.3.2 ny.

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M t h thng ri rc bng phng trnh trng thi


Thnh lp phng trnh trng thi t phng trnh sai phn
V phi ca phng trnh sai phn khng cha sai phn ca tn hiu vo
Xt h thng ri rc c quan h gia tn hiu vo v tn hiu ra m t bi phng trnh
sai phn:

Ch : phng trnh trn h s ao = 1. Nu ao # 1 ta chia hai v cho ao c phng


trnh sai phn c dng (7.26).
Tng t nh lm i vi h lin tc, ta t cc bin trng thi bin i tng
ng phng trnh sai phn bc n trn thnh h n phng trnh sai phn bc mt.
t cc bin trng thi nh sau:

Thay vo phng trnh (7.26) ta c:

Kt hp phng trnh trn vi cc biu thc t bin trng thi ta c h phng trnh
sau:

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Vit li di dng ma trn:

p ng ca h thng:

t:

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Ta c h phng trnh bin thi:

V d 7.9. Cho h thng iu khin ri rc m t bi phng trnh sai phn:

Hy vit h phng trnh bin trng thi m t h thng.


Gii. Ta c:

t bin trng thi nh sau:

H phng trnh bin trng thi m t h thng cho l:

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trong :

V phi ca phng trnh sai phn c cha sai phn ca tn hiu vo


Xt h thng ri rc c quan h gia tn hiu vo v tn hiu ra m t bi phng trnh
sai phn:

Ch : phng trnh trn h s ao = 1. Nu ao ? 1 ta chia hai v cho ao c phng


trnh sai phn c dng (7.27)
t cc bin trng thi nh sau:

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T cch t bin trng thi trn ta rt ra phng trnh sau:

Trong :

Do h phng trnh bin trng thi m t h thng c dng:

Trong :

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V d 7.10. Cho h thng ri rc m t bi phng trnh sai phn:

Hy vit h phng trnh trng thi m t h thng trn.


Gii. Ta c:

t cc bin trng thi:

Trong :

H phng trnh bin trng thi c dng:

Trong :

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Thnh lp phng trnh trng thi t hm truyn h ri rc


Cho h thng m t bi hm truyn:

Ch : hm truyn trn h s ao = 1. Nu a0 ? 1 ta chia t s v mu s cho ao


c hm truyn c dng (7.28).
Cch 1: Bin i tng ng hm truyn v dng phng trnh sai phn:

p dng phng php trnh by mc 7.4.1.2 ta rt ra c h phng trnh bin


trng thi.
V d . Hy thnh lp h phng trnh trng thi m t h thng c hm truyn l:

Gii.Cch 1: Hm truyn cho tng ng vi:

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xem tip li gii trnh by v d 7.10.


Cch 2: Do

nn ta c th t bin ph E(z) sao cho:

p dng phng php trnh by mc 7.4.1.1, t cc bin trng thi:

Ta c phng trnh:

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Tm li ta c h phng trnh trng thi:

Trong :

V d. Cho h thng m t bi hm truyn:

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Hy thnh lp h phng trnh trng thi.


Gii. Hm truyn cho tng ng vi:

t bin ph E (z) sao cho:

t bin trng thi:

Ta c h phng trnh:

Trong :

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V d . Hy thnh lp h phng trnh trng thi m t h thng c hm truyn l:

Gii. t bin ph E(z) sao cho:

t bin trng thi:

Ta c h phng trnh:

Trong :

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Thnh lp phng trnh trng thi h ri rc t phng trnh trng thi h


lin tc
Phng php ny ch p dng c cho h thng c s khi nh sau:

Trnh t thnh lp phng trnh trng thi

Bc 1: Thnh lp h phng trnh bin trng thi lin tc:

Bc 2: Tnh ma trn qu ca h lin tc:

Vi:

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Bc 3: Ri rc ha phng trnh bin trng thi bc 1, ta c:

Trong :

Bc 4: H phng trnh bin trng thi ca h ri rc cn tm vi tn hiu vo r(kT) l:

Chng minh: Bc 1 v bc 2 thnh lp phng trnh trng thi v tnh ma trn qu


ca h lin tc khng c g phi chng minh. Ta chng minh t bc 3, bc ny ta
suy ra phng trnh trng thi ca h ri rc t phng trnh trng thi ca h lin tc.
Bc 3: chng 2, ta bit nghim ca phng trnh trng thi h lin tc cho bi
cng thc:

Tng qut:

p dng cng thc trn vi:

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Ta c:

Ta li c:

(do eR(t) l tn hiu ng ra ca khu gi ZOH)


Thay vo cng thc trn, ta c:

Do e(kT) khng ph thuc vo bin ly tch phn


nn:

i bin php tnh ly tch phn, ta c:

(7.31)
Ri rc ha phng trnh ng ra ca h lin tc, ta c:

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Bc 4: Theo s khi ca h thng, ta thy:

Thay vo (7.31) ta c kt qu cn chng minh.


V d. Cho h thng ri rc c s nh hnh v. Hy thnh lp h phng trnh bin
trng thi m t h thng vi cc bin trng thi c xc nh trn hnh v.

Gii
Bc 1: Thnh lp h phng trnh bin trng thi m t h lin tc:

Theo hnh v ta c:

Kt hp (7.32) v (7.33) ta c h phng trnh:

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p ng ca h thng:

Do :

Bc 2: Tnh ma trn qu :

Bc 3: Ri rc ha cc phng trnh trng thi ca h lin tc, ta c:


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Trong :

Bc 4: H phng trnh bin trng thi m t h thng ri rc vi tn hiu vo r(kT) l:

Trong :

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V d bng s c th: a = 2, T = 0,5sec, K = 10

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Kt lun: h phng trnh bin trng thi cn tm l:

Tnh hm truyn h ri rc t h phng trnh trng thi


Cho h thng ri rc m t bi h phng trnh bin trng thi:

Bi ton t ra l tm hm truyn:

Bin i Z h phng trnh trng thi, ta c:

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Lp t s, ta c:

(7.35)
V d. Cho h thng m t bi phng trnh trng thi:

Trong :

Hy vit hm truyn ca h thng trn.


Gii. p dng cng thc (7.35), hm truyn ca h thng l:

Ta c:

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Vy:

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Bi 8: Phn tch v thit k h thng iu


khin ri rc
H thng iu khin ri rc :Khi nim chung
Bi ny cp n mt loi h thng iu khin c hi tip, trong tn hiu ti mt
hay nhiu im l mt chui xung, khng phi l hm lin tc theo thi gian. Ty thuc
vo phng php lng t ha tn hiu m ta c cc loi h thng x l tn hiu khc
nhau. Phng php lng t ha theo thi gian cho tn hiu c bin lin tc, thi gian
ri rc. H thng x l loi tn hiu ny c gi l h thng ri rc. Nu php lng
t ha c tin hnh theo thi gian v c theo bin th kt qu nhn c l tn hiu
s. H thng x l tn hiu s gi l h thng s. Trong h thng ri rc v h thng s,
thng s iu khin - bin ca tn hiu ch xut hin ti cc thi im ri rc cch
u nhau ng bng mt chu k ly mu tn hiu. V c thi gian tr tt yu do ly mu,
vic n nh h thng tr nn phc tp hn so vi h lin tc, do i hi nhng k
thut phn tch v thit k c bit.
S pht trin mnh m ca k thut s, k thut vi x l v k thut my tnh lm cho
ngy cng c nhiu h thng iu khin s c s dng iu khin cc i tng.
H thng iu khin s c nhiu u im so vi h thng iu khin lin tc nh uyn
chuyn, linh hot, d dng i thut ton iu khin, d dng p dng cc thut ton iu
khin phc tp bng cch lp trnh. My tnh s cn c th iu khin nhiu i tng
cng mt lc. Ngoi ra, gi my tnh ngy cng h trong khi tc x l, tin cy
ngy cng tng ln cng gp phn lm cho vic s dng cc h thng iu khin s tr
nn ph bin. Hin nay cc h thng iu khin s c s dng rt rng ri, t cc b
iu khin n gin nh iu khin nhit , iu khin ng c DC, AC,... n cc h
thng iu khin phc tp nh iu khin robot, my bay, tu v tr, cc h thng iu
khin qu trnh cng ngh ha hc v cc h thng t ng cho nhng ng dng khc
nhau.

S khi h thng iu khin s

trnh by s khi ca h thng iu khin s thng gp, trong h thng c hai loi
tn hiu: tn hiu lin tc c(t), uR(t) v tn hiu s r(kT), cht(kT), u(kT). Trung tm ca

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h thng l my tnh s, my tnh c chc nng x l thng tin phn hi t cm bin v


xut ra tn hiu iu khin i tng. V cm bin v i tng l h thng lin tc nn
cn s dng b chuyn i A/D v D/A giao tip vi my tnh. Do phn tch v
thit k h thng iu khin s trc tin ta phi m t ton hc c qu trnh chuyn
i A/D v D/A. Tuy nhin, hin nay khng c phng php no cho php m t chnh
xc qu trnh chuyn i A/D v D/A do sai s lng t ha bin , v vy thay v kho
st h thng s hnh 8.1 ta kho st h ri rc hnh 8.2.

S khi h thng iu khin ri rc

Hm truyn ca h ri rc

Quan h gia tn hiu vo v tn hiu ra ca h thng ri rc c m t bng phng


trnh sai phn:

trong

gi l bc ca h thng ri rc
Bin i z hai v phng trnh trn ta c:

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G(z) c gi l hm truyn ca h thng ri rc.


Hm truyn (7.18) c th bin i tng ng v dng:

Hai cch biu din trn hon ton tng ng nhau, trong thc t hm truyn dng th
hai c s dng nhiu hn.

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Cc tiu chun n nh
iu kin n nh ca h thng iu khin ri rc
H thng c gi l n nh nu tn hiu vo b chn th tn hiu ra b chn (n nh
BIBO Bounded Input Bounded Output).
Ta bit h thng iu khin lin tc n nh nu tt c cc nghim ca phng trnh
c tnh u nm bn tri mt phng phc. Do quan h gia bin z v bin s l

nn s nm bn tri mt phng phc tng ng vi z nm bn trong vng trn n v.


Do h thng iu khin ri rc n nh nu tt c cc nghim ca phng trnh c
trng u nm bn trong vng trn n v.

Lu :
- H thng ri rc cho bi s khi

Phng trnh c tnh l:

- H thng ri rc cho h phng trnh bin trng thi

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Phng trnh c tnh l

Tiu chun RouthHurwitz


- Tiu chun RouthHurwitz cho php nh gi phng trnh i s

c nghim nm bn phi mt phng phc hay khng.


- Ta s dng kt qu ny nh gi nghim ca phng trnh c tnh ca h lin
tc

.
Nu phng trnh trn c nghim nm bn phi mt phng phc th h lin tc khng n
nh.
- Khng th s dng trc tip tiu chun RouthHurwitz nh gi tnh n nh ca
h ri rc v min n nh ca h ri rc nm bn trong ng trn n v.
- Mun dng tiu chun Routh-Hurwitz nh gi tnh n nh ca h ri rc ta phi
thc hin php i bin

Vi cch i bin nh trn, min nm trong vng trong n v ca mt phng z tng


ng vi na tri ca mt phng w.
p dng tiu chun Routh-Hurwitz i vi phng trnh c tnh theo bin w: nu
khng tn ti nghim w nm bn phi mt phng phc th khng tn ti nghim z nm
ngoi vng trn n v
h ri rc n nh.

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Tiu chun Jury


Xt n nh h ri rc c phng trnh c tnh:

Bng Jury
1- Hng 1 l cc h s ca phng trnh c tnh theo th t ch s tng dn.
2- Hng chn (bt k) gm cc h s ca hng l trc vit theo th t ngc li.
3- Hng l th i k = + 2 1 ( k = 1 ) gm c ( n k - ) phn t, phn t cij xc nh bi cng
thc

Pht biu tiu chun Jury


iu kin cn v h thng n nh l tt c cc h s hng l, ct 1 ca bng
Jury u dng.
V d : Cho h thng ri rc c phng trnh c tnh

Xt tnh n nh ca h thng trn.

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Do cc h s hng l ct 1 bng Jury u dng nn h thng n nh.

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nh gi cht lng ca h thng


p ng qu : c th xc nh c p ng ca h thng ri rc bng mt trong hai
cch sau y:
- Cch 1: tnh C(z), sau dng php bin i Z ngc tm c(k) .
- Cch 2: tnh nghim x(k) ca phng trnh trng thi ca h ri rc, t suy ra c(k).
Cp cc quyt nh: h bc cao c th xp x gn ng v h bc hai vi hai cc l cp
cc quyt nh.
i vi h lin tc, cp cc quyt nh l cp cc nm gn trc o nht. Do

, nn i vi h ri rc, cp cc quyt nh l cp cc nm gn vng trn n v nht.


vt l: i vi h ri rc, cch thng s dng tnh vt l l dng biu thc
nh ngha:

trong : Cmax l gi tr cc i ca c(k); cxl l gi tr cc i ca c(k).


Cch th hai cng c s dng khi bit cp cc quyt nh
ca h ri rc l da vo quan h
suy ra nghim s* , t tnh c v n.

Sai s xc lp
Theo nh l gi tr cui:

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Cc cng thc tnh sai s xc lp

Sai s xc lp ca h thng iu khin ri rc c s nh trn l:

Nu tn hiu vo l hm nc n v

Nu tn hiu vo l hm dc n v:

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182/197

Cc phng php tng hp h thng iu khin ri rc


Phng php dng QNS
Thit k b iu khin sm pha

Phng trnh c tnh ca h thng trc khi hiu chnh l

Phng trnh c tnh ca h thng sau khi hiu chnh l

Khu hiu chnh sm pha c dng

Bi ton t ra l chn gi tr KC, Cz v Cp p ng ca h thng tha mn yu cu


v cht lng qu (cht lng qu th hin qua v tr ca cp cc quyt nh).
Thit k b iu khin tr pha
Ta s dng khu hiu chnh tr pha khi mun lm gim sai s xc lp ca h thng.
Xt h thng iu khin c s nh hnh v

Khu hiu chnh CG(z) l khu tr pha


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Bi ton t ra l chn gi tr KC, ZC v PC lm gim sai s xc lp ca h thng m


khng nh hng ng k n cht lng p ng qu .

Thit k dng b iu khin hi tip trng thi

Cho i tng iu khin c m t bi HPT bin trng thi

Tn hiu iu khin trong h hi tip trng thi l

H phng trnh bin trng thi m t h hi tip trng thi

Phng trnh c tnh ca h hi tip trng thi

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Bi 9: ng dng thit k h thng iu


khin t ng
La chn h thng
Mc tiu: xc nh h thng s thit k l g? Mc tiu, gii hn phm vi thc hin.
Thc hin: sinh vin lm vic nhm, tho lun, la chn h thng s thit k, ln k
hoch thc hin.

Phn tch h thng


Muc tiu: xc nh chc nng, hot ng v ch ra cc khu chnh trong h thng s thit
k.
Nhm sinh vin thc hin vic phn tch v tng hp bo co.

Thit k iu khin cho h thng


Thc hin vic thit k h thng da trn kt qu phn tch.

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Bi 10: Lp trnh iu khin h thng t


ng t my tnh
Phn tch giao thc
Trn c s h thng phn tch bi trc. Nhm sinh vin tin hnh phn tch, xy
dng giao thc truyn thng, quy c lm vic ci t phn lp trnh iu khin.

Lp trnh giao din


Mc tiu l thit k v lp trnh c giao din phn mm trn my tnh iu khin
hot ng ca h thng.
Giao din p, m bo c cc chc nng nh iu khin, th hin cc kt qu, thng
s k thut (nu c) do h thng c iu khin bo v.

Lp trnh truyn thng v iu khin


Da trn giao thc truyn thng thit k, nhm sinh vin tin hnh ci t phn truyn
thng iu khin hot ng ca h thng t mc tiu t ra.

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Bi 11: Tho lun v tng kt


M T H RI RC DNG MATLAB
M T H RI RC DNG MATLAB
Cc lnh m t ton hc h ri rc tng t nh cc lnh m t ton hc h lin tc, ch
khc l khi to ra h thng ta khng ch nhp vo thng s h thng (t s, mu s hm
truyn hoc cc ma trn trng thi) m cn phi nhp vo chu k ly mu.
Hy so snh vi ph lc chng 2.
To ra h thng m t bi hm truyn: lnh tf (transfer function). C php: G =
tf(TS,MS,T) to ra h thng ri rc m t bi hm truyn G c t s l a thc TS, mu
s l a thc MS v chu k ly mu l T. Nu khng xc nh T th t T = -1.
V d:

n gin hm truyn: lnh minreal.

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C php: G=minreal(G) trit tiu cc thnh phn ging nhau t s v mu s c


dng hm truyn ti gin.
V d:

Cc lnh ghp ni h ri rc hon ton ging nh cc lnh ghp ni h lin tc, c th:
- Tnh hm truyn ca h thng ni tip: lnh series hoc ton t *
C php: G=series(G1, G2) tnh hm truyn G = G1*G2
- Tnh hm truyn ca h thng song song: lnh parallel hoc ton t +
C php: G=parallel(G1,G2) tnh hm truyn G = G1+G2
- Tnh hm truyn ca h thng hi tip: lnh feedback
C php: Gk=feedback(G1,G2,) tnh hm truyn h hi tip m
Gk = G1/(1+G1*G2)
Gk=feedback(G1,G2,+1) tnh hm truyn h hi tip dng
Gk = G1/(1G1*G2)
V d:

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To ra h thng m t bi phng trnh trng thi: lnh ss


(state space).
C php: PTTT=ss(A,B,C,D,T) to ra h thng ri rc m t bi phng trnh trng thi
PTTT c cc ma trn trng thi l A, B, C, D v chu k ly mu l T. Nu khng xc
n T th t T= 1.
V d:

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Cc lnh bin i gia hm truyn v phng trnh trng thi ca h ri rc hon ton
ging h lin tc.
- Bin i phng trnh trng thi v dng hm truyn: lnh tf
C php: G=tf(PTTT)
- Bin i hm truyn v dng phng trnh trng thi: lnh ss
C php: PTTT=tf(G)
V d: (xem th d 7.15)

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rng sau khi bin i ngc t hm truyn v dng phng trnh trng thi ta c
cc ma trn trng thi hon ton khc vi cc ma trn trng thi nhp vo ban u,
iu ny khng c g v l v i vi mt h thng ty theo cch t bin trng thi khc
nhau ta s c cc phng trnh trng thi khc nhau.

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Tham gia ng gp
Ti liu: K Thut iu Khin T ng
Bin tp bi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://voer.edu.vn/c/0d7fe2e0
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Khi nim iu khin
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/a4081d5c
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Cc nguyn tc iu khin
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/a4b67b4b
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Phn loi iu khin
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/4ed8432c
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Lch s pht trin l thuyt iu khin
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/0d08bf6b
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Mt s v d v cc phn t v h thng t ng
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/46a424fa
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Bi 2: M t ton hc h thng iu khin lin tc
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/41ea3e15

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Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/


Module: Khi nim v c tnh ng hc
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/237f6413
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Cc khu ng hc in hnh
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/1a487418
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: c tnh ng hc ca h thng t ng
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/be9adb1a
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Kho st c tnh ng hc ca h thng
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/6feb5fa4
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Khi nim v n nh
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/4e431d16
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Tiu chun n nh i s
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/8bdb9353
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Phng php qu o nghim s
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/c888537c
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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Module: Tiu chun n nh tn s


Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/44eb501b
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Cc tiu chun cht lng
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/78d3982e
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Sai s xc lp
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/83a5c64f
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: p ng qu
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/a3cb74fa
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Cc tiu chun ti u ha p ng qu
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/02521a7d
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Bi 6: Thit k h thng iu khin lin tc
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/16c98536
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: H thng iu khin ri rc
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/95e5ddea
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Php bin i Z

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Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn


URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/a89757f3
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: M t h thng ri rc bng hm truyn
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/7d8c4f27
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: M t h thng ri rc bng phng trnh trng thi
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/138d2ef0
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: H thng iu khin ri rc :Khi nim chung
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/7986df83
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Cc tiu chun n nh
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/6e223a25
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: nh gi cht lng ca h thng
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/76536471
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Cc phng php tng hp h thng iu khin ri rc
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/aa7b4d67
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Bi 9: ng dng thit k h thng iu khin t ng
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn

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URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/8365713e
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: Bi 10: Lp trnh iu khin h thng t ng t my tnh
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/9ceb3b00
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Module: M T H RI RC DNG MATLAB
Cc tc gi: Khoa CNTT HSP KT Hng Yn
URL: http://www.voer.edu.vn/m/3e7fe340
Giy php: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

196/197

Chng trnh Th vin Hc liu M Vit Nam


Chng trnh Th vin Hc liu M Vit Nam (Vietnam Open Educational Resources
VOER) c h tr bi Qu Vit Nam. Mc tiu ca chng trnh l xy dng kho
Ti nguyn gio dc M min ph ca ngi Vit v cho ngi Vit, c ni dung phong
ph. Cc ni dung u tun th Giy php Creative Commons Attribution (CC-by) 4.0
do cc ni dung u c th c s dng, ti s dng v truy nhp min ph trc
ht trong trong mi trng ging dy, hc tp v nghin cu sau cho ton x hi.
Vi s h tr ca Qu Vit Nam, Th vin Hc liu M Vit Nam (VOER) tr thnh
mt cng thng tin chnh cho cc sinh vin v ging vin trong v ngoi Vit Nam. Mi
ngy c hng chc nghn lt truy cp VOER (www.voer.edu.vn) nghin cu, hc
tp v ti ti liu ging dy v. Vi hng chc nghn module kin thc t hng nghn
tc gi khc nhau ng gp, Th Vin Hc liu M Vit Nam l mt kho tng ti liu
khng l, ni dung phong ph phc v cho tt c cc nhu cu hc tp, nghin cu ca
c gi.
Ngun ti liu m phong ph c trn VOER c c l do s chia s t nguyn ca cc
tc gi trong v ngoi nc. Qu trnh chia s ti liu trn VOER tr ln d dng nh
m 1, 2, 3 nh vo sc mnh ca nn tng Hanoi Spring.
Hanoi Spring l mt nn tng cng ngh tin tin c thit k cho php cng chng d
dng chia s ti liu ging dy, hc tp cng nh ch ng pht trin chng trnh ging
dy da trn khi nim v hc liu m (OCW) v ti nguyn gio dc m (OER) . Khi
nim chia s tri thc c tnh cch mng c khi xng v pht trin tin phong
bi i hc MIT v i hc Rice Hoa K trong vng mt thp k qua. K t , phong
tro Ti nguyn Gio dc M pht trin nhanh chng, c UNESCO h tr v c
chp nhn nh mt chng trnh chnh thc nhiu nc trn th gii.

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