Anda di halaman 1dari 23

# Signal

Processing
First

Lecture2
Phase&
TimeShift
Complex
Exponentials

ThisLecture:
Chapter2,Sects.23to25

AppendixA:ComplexNumbers
AppendixB:MATLAB
NextLecture:finishChap.2,
Section26toend

LECTURE OBJECTIVES
DefineSinusoidFormulafromaplot
RelateTIMESHIFTtoPHASE
Introduce an ABSTRACTION:
Complex Numbers represent Sinusoids
Complex Exponential Signal

z (t ) Xe

jt
3

SINUSOIDAL SIGNAL

A cos( t )
FREQUENCY
AMPLITUDE A
or,Hertz(cycles/sec)

Magnitude

( 2 ) f

PERIOD (insec)

1 2
T
f

PHASE

## PLOTTING COSINE SIGNAL from

the FORMULA

5 cos(0.3 t 1.2 )

Determineperiod:

T 2 / 2 / 0.3 20 / 3
Determineapeak locationbysolving

( t ) 0
Peakatt=4

5 cos(0.3 t 1.2 )
UseT=20/3andthepeaklocationatt=4

20
3

TIME-SHIFT
Inamathematicalformulawecanreplacet
withttm

x (t tm ) A cos( (t tm ))
Thenthet=0pointmovestot=tm
Peakvalueofcos((ttm))isnowatt=tm

TIME-SHIFTED SINUSOID
x (t 4) 5 cos(0.3 (t 4)) 5 cos(0.3 (t ( 4))

## PHASE <--> TIME-SHIFT

Equatetheformulas:

A cos( (t tm )) A cos( t )
andweobtain:
or,

tm

tm

## SINUSOID from a PLOT

Measure theperiod,T
Betweenpeaksorzerocrossings
Compute frequency: =2/T

3 steps

Measure timeofapeak:tm
Compute phase: =tm

Measure heightofpositivepeak:A

10

.01sec
1
T 10period
100

tm 0.00125 sec

2
T

2
0.01

200

11

## SINE DRILL (MATLAB GUI)

12

PHASE is AMBIGUOUS
Thecosinesignalisperiodic
Periodis2

A cos( t 2 ) A cos( t )

unchanged

if tm
tm 2

, then

( 2 )

2 tm T
13

COMPLEX NUMBERS
Tosolve:z2 =1
z=j
MathandPhysicsusez=i

Complexnumber:z=x+jy
y

x

Cartesian
coordinate
system
14

15

z3 z1 z2
( 4 j 3) ( 2 j5)
( 4 2) j ( 3 5)
6 j2
16

## *** POLAR FORM ***

VectorForm
Length =1
Angle =

CommonValues

j hasangleof0.5
1hasangleof
j hasangleof1.5
also,angleofjcould be0.51.52
becausethePHASEisAMBIGUOUS

17

POLAR RECTANGULAR
Relate(x,y)to(r,)

r x y
2

1 y
Tan x

Most calculators do
Polar-Rectangular

x
x r cos
y r sin

## Need a notation for POLAR FORM

18

Eulers FORMULA
ComplexExponential
Realpartiscosine
Imaginarypartissine
Magnitudeisone

e
re

cos( ) j sin( )

r cos( ) jr sin( )

19

COMPLEX EXPONENTIAL

j t

cos( t ) j sin( t )

Interpretthisasa RotatingVector
t
Anglechangesvs.time
Rotates in0.01secs

e

cos( ) j sin( )
20

## cos = REAL PART

Real Part of Eulers
General Sinusoid
So,

cos( t ) e{ e

j t

x (t ) A cos( t )

A cos( t ) e{ Ae

j ( t )
j j t

e{ Ae e

}
21

## REAL PART EXAMPLE

j j t

A cos( t ) e Ae e

Evaluate:

x (t ) e 3 je

x ( t ) e ( 3 j ) e

e 3e

j 0.5

j t

j t

j t

3 cos( t 0.5 )
22

COMPLEX AMPLITUDE
General Sinusoid

x(t ) A cos( t ) e Ae e

jt

Complex AMPLITUDE = X

z (t ) Xe

j t

X Ae

x(t ) e Xe