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Signal

Processing
First

Copyright Monash University 2009

Lecture2
Phase&
TimeShift
Complex
Exponentials

READING ASSIGNMENTS
ThisLecture:
Chapter2,Sects.23to25

AppendixA:ComplexNumbers
AppendixB:MATLAB
NextLecture:finishChap.2,
Section26toend

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LECTURE OBJECTIVES
DefineSinusoidFormulafromaplot
RelateTIMESHIFTtoPHASE
Introduce an ABSTRACTION:
Complex Numbers represent Sinusoids
Complex Exponential Signal

z (t ) Xe
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jt
3

SINUSOIDAL SIGNAL

A cos( t )
FREQUENCY
AMPLITUDE A
Radians/sec
or,Hertz(cycles/sec)

Magnitude

( 2 ) f

PERIOD (insec)

1 2
T
f

PHASE

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PLOTTING COSINE SIGNAL from


the FORMULA

5 cos(0.3 t 1.2 )

Determineperiod:

T 2 / 2 / 0.3 20 / 3
Determineapeak locationbysolving

( t ) 0
Peakatt=4
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ANSWER for the PLOT

5 cos(0.3 t 1.2 )
UseT=20/3andthepeaklocationatt=4

20
3

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TIME-SHIFT
Inamathematicalformulawecanreplacet
withttm

x (t tm ) A cos( (t tm ))
Thenthet=0pointmovestot=tm
Peakvalueofcos((ttm))isnowatt=tm
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TIME-SHIFTED SINUSOID
x (t 4) 5 cos(0.3 (t 4)) 5 cos(0.3 (t ( 4))

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PHASE <--> TIME-SHIFT


Equatetheformulas:

A cos( (t tm )) A cos( t )
andweobtain:
or,

tm

tm

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SINUSOID from a PLOT


Measure theperiod,T
Betweenpeaksorzerocrossings
Compute frequency: =2/T

3 steps

Measure timeofapeak:tm
Compute phase: =tm

Measure heightofpositivepeak:A
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10

(A, , ) from a PLOT

.01sec
1
T 10period
100

tm 0.00125 sec
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2
T

2
0.01

200

tm (200 )(tm ) 0.25


11

SINE DRILL (MATLAB GUI)

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12

PHASE is AMBIGUOUS
Thecosinesignalisperiodic
Periodis2

A cos( t 2 ) A cos( t )

Thusaddinganymultipleof2 leavesx(t)
unchanged

if tm
tm 2

, then

( 2 )

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2 tm T
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COMPLEX NUMBERS
Tosolve:z2 =1
z=j
MathandPhysicsusez=i

Complexnumber:z=x+jy
y

x
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Cartesian
coordinate
system
14

PLOT COMPLEX NUMBERS

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15

COMPLEX ADDITION =
VECTOR Addition

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z3 z1 z2
( 4 j 3) ( 2 j5)
( 4 2) j ( 3 5)
6 j2
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*** POLAR FORM ***


VectorForm
Length =1
Angle =

CommonValues

j hasangleof0.5
1hasangleof
j hasangleof1.5
also,angleofjcould be0.51.52
becausethePHASEisAMBIGUOUS

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17

POLAR RECTANGULAR
Relate(x,y)to(r,)

r x y
2

1 y
Tan x

Most calculators do
Polar-Rectangular

x
x r cos
y r sin

Need a notation for POLAR FORM


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18

Eulers FORMULA
ComplexExponential
Realpartiscosine
Imaginarypartissine
Magnitudeisone

e
re

cos( ) j sin( )

r cos( ) jr sin( )

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19

COMPLEX EXPONENTIAL

j t

cos( t ) j sin( t )

Interpretthisasa RotatingVector
t
Anglechangesvs.time
ex:rad/s
Rotates in0.01secs

e
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cos( ) j sin( )
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cos = REAL PART


Real Part of Eulers
General Sinusoid
So,

cos( t ) e{ e

j t

x (t ) A cos( t )

A cos( t ) e{ Ae

j ( t )
j j t

e{ Ae e
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}
21

REAL PART EXAMPLE

j j t

A cos( t ) e Ae e

Evaluate:

x (t ) e 3 je

Answer:

x ( t ) e ( 3 j ) e

e 3e

j 0.5

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j t

j t

j t

3 cos( t 0.5 )
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COMPLEX AMPLITUDE
General Sinusoid

x(t ) A cos( t ) e Ae e

jt

Complex AMPLITUDE = X

z (t ) Xe

j t

X Ae

Then, any Sinusoid = REAL PART of Xejt

x(t ) e Xe
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j t

eAe

j t

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