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Majed Alghamdi
Period. 3

Lesson1.1: Amazing facts:

Digestive system
1. The digestive system is responsible for breaking down food we eat into
smaller components so that nutrients can be easily absorbed by the body
and the waste discarded.
2. There are two types of digestion. Mechanical digestion is the physical
breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces through, chewing
(mastication). While chemical digestion uses enzymes to break down this
food mass further into small molecules which the body can separate and
3. Saliva in our mouths plays a key role in initial digestion by moistening the
food to help with the mechanical chewing and swallowing process. Saliva
also contains an enzyme which starts the chemical digestion of starchy
4. Our salivary glands produce around 1.5 liters of saliva each day!
5. Bolus is the name of the small round slurry mass produced for swallowing as
a result of chewing and starch digestion.
6. The pharynx, at the back of the throat, has a flap of tissue called the
epiglottis that closes during swallowing to prevent food going down the
trachea (windpipe).

Muscular system
1.Humans are born with all the muscle
fibers they will ever have.
2.Muscles cannot push, they only pull;
even when pushing an object.
3.It takes 17 muscles to smile and 43 to
4.The only muscle that never tires is our
5.When youre cold, your muscles contract
6.Muscles make up 40% of your total body

Skeletal System
1. At birth the human skeleton is made up of around 300 bones. By adulthood,
some bones have fused together to end up with 206 bones.
2. Human bones grow continually from birth till our mid 20's. Our skeleton's
bone mass is at its maximum density around the age of 30.
3. If broken our bones will re-grow and repair themselves. Often doctors will
place a cast on splint to make sure these bones repair straight and true.
4. The axial skeleton part of the human skeleton has 80 bones. It includes the
vertebral column, the rib cage and the skull and helps us maintain our
upright posture, by spreading the weight in the head, and upper areas
down to the lower areas near the hips.
5. The appendicular skeletal section of our skeleton has 126 bones. It includes
the pectoral (shoulder) girdles, the pelvic girdle and the bones of the lower
and upper limbs. Its function is for movement of the body and to protect
some organs.
6. The human skeletal system has six major functions including the
production of blood cells, for support, for movement, for protection, for
storage of ions and endocrine regulation.

Nervous system
1. Motor neurons transmit neural signals to activate muscles or
2. Sensory neurons change light, touch and sound into neural signals
which are sent back to our CNS to help our body understand and
react to its surroundings.
3. The nervous system is a complex structure of nerves of neurons
that transmit signals around the body to coordinate actions. It is in
effect our body's electrical wiring.
4. Nerves are enclosed bundles of long fibers called axons which are
made up of nerve cells. There are two types of nerve cells: neurons
and glial cells.
5. Glial (or glia) cells are derived from the Greek word "glue". They are
specialized cells that provide structure and support to neurons.
They help hold neurons in place, supply nutrients to neurons,
destroy germs, remove dead neurons, and direct axons of neurons.
6. Some types of glial cells generate a substance called myelin that
coat axons and work as electrical insulation to help them quickly
and efficiently transmit signals.

Immune or lymphatic system

1. Getting under 5 hours of sleep a night has been shown
to greatly depress immune function in your body.
2. Studies show that people who lack humor in their lives
tend to have less protective immune responses.
3. Toxins such as air pollution, pesticides and even
second-hand cigarette smoke can affect your body's
natural defense system.
4. In your blood, there are around 50 billion white cells
whose only interest is to keep your body's natural
defenses in good condition, so don't worry if you lose 5
billion when you give blood - you still have a few left.
5. When your catecholamine and CD8 levels change,
these levels can suppress the immune system.
6. Dieting decreases natural killer cell functionality,
therefore weakling the immune system.

Respiratory system
1. The right lung is slightly larger than the left.
2. Hairs in the nose help to clean the air we breathe
as well as warming it.
3. The highest recorded "sneeze speed" is 165 km
per hour.
4. The surface area of the lungs is roughly the same
size as a tennis court.
5. The capillaries in the lungs would extend 1,600
kilometers if placed end to end.
6. We lose half a liter of water a day through
breathing. This is the water vapor we see when we
breathe onto glass.

Cardiovascular system
1. The heart beats around 3 billion times in the averages
person's life.
2. About 8 million blood cells die in the human body every
second, and the same number are born each second.
3. Within a tiny droplet of blood, there are some 5 million red
blood cells.
4. It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cell to circle the
whole body.
5. Red blood cells make approximately 250,000 round trips of
the body before returning to the bone marrow, where they
were born, to die.
6. Red blood cells may live for about 4 months circulating
throughout the body, feeding the 60 trillion other body cells.

Lesson 1.1.2: Human body regional terms




Situated toward the front of the body


Away from the body surface; more internal

Directional terms

Terms used to explain where one body structure is in relation to another


Situated away from the attachment to the origin or a central point; located away from the center of
the body


Being or located near, on, or toward the back or posterior part of the human body


The distinguishing character or personality of an individual


Situated below and closer to the feet than another and especially of a human being


Of or relating to the side; especially of a body part


Lying or extending in the middle; especially of a body part


Situated at or toward the hind part of the body


Situated next to or near the point of attachment or origin or a central point

Regional terms

Anatomical terms that refer to specific visible landmarks on the surface of the body


Of, relating to, or located near the surface


Situated toward the head and away from the feet, up


A group of body organs or structure that together perform one or more vital functions


Pertaining to the interior or front of the body; opposite of dorsal

Lesson 1.2: Human Tissues

Types of tissues:
Nervous tissue
Muscular tissue
Connective tissue
Epithelial tissue
Definition of tissue: an integrated group of cells
with a common structure and function.

Nervous tissue
Nervous tissue is the main component
of the two parts of the nervous system;
the brain and spinal cord of the central
nervous system (CNS), and the
branching peripheral nerves of the
peripheral nervous system (PNS),
which regulates and controls bodily
functions and activity.

Types of neurons:
Sensory neurons
Motor neurons



There are three types of muscle tissues :
skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles.
Muscle tissue provides a) posture and body
support b) locomotion and c) heat
production. Muscle tissue is examined with
respect to function and types of muscle,
structure and mechanism of contraction and

Types of muscle tissues:

Cardiac muscle
Skeletal muscle
Smooth muscle

Connective tissue
Connective tissue forms a framework upon
which epithelial tissue rests and within which
nerve tissue and muscle tissue are embedded.
Blood vessels and nerves travel through
connective tissue.
Connective tissue functions not only as a
mechanical support for other tissues but also as
an avenue for communication and transport
among other tissues. Most significantly,
connective tissue is the stage for
inflammation. The principal cell types
involved in immunological defense are found
within connective tissue.
Connective tissue has multiple matrix, they are:
Fluid: blood cells
Solid: bone cells
Flexible: cartilage cells

Epithelial tissue
Epithelial tissues line the cavities and
surfaces of structures throughout the body.
Many glands are made up of epithelial
cells. Functions of epithelial cells include
secretion, selective absorption, protection,
transcellular transport and detection of

Types of epithelial tissue:

simple epithelium- thin, one cell
stratified epithelium- thick, the

Lesson 1.2.2: Skeleton scavenger hunt:20 major/key bones






Rib cage



Vertebral column




Pelvic girdle








AX & AP skeleton parts

Axial parts

Appendicular parts







Rib cage


Vertebral column


Pelvic girdle




Vertebral column

The vertebral
column has 31
bones, and is divided
to 3 parts other than
the sacrum and
coccyx, which are:
1. Cervical
2. Thoracic
3. Lumbar

Sternum parts
The sternum has 7 holes in each side
for the ribs, the three main parts of the
sternum are the manubrium, the body,
and the xiphoid process.

Male bones vs. female bones

How do we tell the difference between
female pelvic bone from male pelvic

Lesson 1.2.3: forensic

Determining sex: anthropologists use the skull, pelvic bone,
femur, and the tibia.
Race: the bone that is used to find someones race is the
skull only
Height: the femur, humerus, and tibia are usually the choices
of the bones that best work to find the height.
Age: age is mostly determined by the amount of cartilage
that is on the pelvic bone

Lesson 1.3: Identity: DNA

DNA- A double stranded, helical
molecule capable of replicating and
determining the inherited structure of
a cells proteins.
There are billions of DNA in only a
single person, and all DNA inside of
us has a random combination that is
impossible to repeat to another human.
DNA is made of for pieces, A, T, C,
and G, A goes with T, and C goes with
G. and all of these pieces make ever
persons DNA different.

Restriction enzymes
Definition: Restriction enzymes,
also known as restriction
endonucleases, are enzymes that
cut a DNA molecule at a particular
place. They are essential tools for
recombinant DNA technology. The
enzyme "scans" a DNA molecule,
looking for a particular sequence,
usually of four to six nucleotides.

Definition: RFLP (often
pronounced "rif lip", as if it were
a word) is a method used by
molecular biologists to follow a
particular sequence of DNA as it
is passed on to other cells. RFLPs
can be used in many different
settings to accomplish different

Gel electrophoresis
Huh? What is that?
Gel electrophoresis is the method
of separating and analyzing
macromolecules(DNA and protein)
based on their size.

Lesson 1.3.3: Biometrics

In information technology, biometrics
refers to technologies that measure and
analyze human body characteristics, such
as DNA, fingerprints, eye retinas and
irises, voice patterns, facial patterns and
hand measurements, for authentication