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TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI

VIN TON NG DNG & TIN HC

BI XUN DIU

Bi Ging
GII

TCH

II

(lu hnh ni b)
CC NG DNG CA PHP TNH VI PHN, TCH PHN BI, TCH PHN
PH THUC THAM S,

TCH PHN NG, TCH PHN MT, L THUYT


TRNG

Tm tt l thuyt, Cc v d, Bi tp v li gii

H Ni- 2009

MC
Mc lc .

LC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chng 1 . Cc ng dng ca php tnh vi phn trong hnh hc . . . . . . .

Cc ng dng ca php tnh vi phn trong hnh hc phng . . . . . . . . . .


5
1.1
Phng trnh tip tuyn v php tuyn ca ng cong ti mt im.
5
1.2
cong ca ng cong. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1.3
Hnh bao ca h ng cong ph thuc mt tham s . . . . . . . . . .
7
2
Cc ng dng ca php tnh vi phn trong hnh hc khng gian . . . . . . . 10
2.1
Hm vct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2
Phng trnh tip tuyn v php din ca ng cong cho di dng tham s 10
2.3
Phng trnh php tuyn v tip din ca mt cong. . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.4
Phng trnh tip tuyn v php din ca ng cong cho di dng giao ca hai m
Chng 2 . Tch phn bi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1

Tch phn kp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1
nh ngha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2
Tnh tch phn kp trong h to Descartes . .
1.3
Php i bin s trong tch phn kp . . . . . . .
2
Tch phn bi ba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1
nh ngha v tnh cht . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2
Tnh tch phn bi ba trong h to Descartes
2.3
Phng php i bin s trong tch phn bi ba .
3
Cc ng dng ca tch phn bi . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1
Tnh din tch hnh phng . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2
Tnh th tch vt th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3
Tnh din tch mt cong . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chng 3 . Tch phn ph thuc tham s. . . . . . . . .
1

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15
15
16
24
35
35
35
38
50
50
55
62
. 63

Tch phn xc nh ph thuc tham s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1.1
Gii thiu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63
63

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MC LC

1.2
Cc tnh cht ca tch phn xc nh ph thuc tham s. . . . .
1.3
Cc tnh cht ca tch phn ph thuc tham s vi cn bin i.
2
Tch phn suy rng ph thuc tham s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1
Cc tnh cht ca tch phn suy rng ph thuc tham s. . . . .
2.2
Bi tp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Tch phn Euler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1
Hm Gamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2
Hm Beta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3
Bi tp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chng 4 . Tch phn ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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63
66
67
67
68
75
75
75
76
. 79

Tch phn ng loi I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1.1
nh ngha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2
Cc cng thc tnh tch phn ng loi I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3
Bi tp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
Tch phn ng loi II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1
nh ngha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2
Cc cng thc tnh tch phn ng loi II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3
Cng thc Green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4
ng dng ca tch phn ng loi II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5
iu kin tch phn ng khng ph thuc ng ly tch phn.
Chng 5 . Tch phn mt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Tch phn mt loi I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1.1
nh ngha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2
Cc cng thc tnh tch phn mt loi I . . . . . . . . . .
1.3
Bi tp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
Tch phn mt loi II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1
nh hng mt cong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2
nh ngha tch phn mt loi II . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3
Cc cng thc tnh tch phn mt loi II . . . . . . . . . .
2.4
Cng thc Ostrogradsky, Stokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5
Cng thc lin h gia tch phn mt loi I v loi II . .
Chng 6 . L thuyt trng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Trng v hng . . . . . . .
1.1
nh ngha . . . . . .
1.2
o hm theo hng
1.3
Gradient . . . . . . .
1.4
Bi tp . . . . . . . .

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79
79
80
80
82
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82
85
91
92
95

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. 95
. 95
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. 98
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. 102
. 105
. 107

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107
107
107
108
109

MC LC
2

Trng vct . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1
nh ngha . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2
Thng lng, dive, trng ng
2.3
Hon lu, vct xoy . . . . .
2.4
Trng th - hm th v . . .
2.5
Bi tp . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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111
111
111
111
112
112

MC LC

CHNG
CC

NG DNG CA PHP TNH VI PHN


TRONG HNH HC

1. CC NG DNG CA PHP TNH VI PHN TRONG


HNH HC PHNG

1.1 Phng trnh tip tuyn v php tuyn ca ng


cong ti mt im.
1. im chnh quy.
Cho ng cong ( L) xc nh bi phng trnh f ( x, y) = 0. im M ( x0 , y0 )
c gi l im chnh quy ca ng cong ( L) nu tn ti cc o hm ring
0
0
f x ( M) , f y ( M) khng ng thi bng 0.

x = x ( t)
Cho ng cong ( L) xc nh bi phng trnh tham s
. im
y = y (t)
M ( x (t0 ) , y (t0 )) c gi l im chnh quy ca ng cong ( L) nu tn ti cc
o hm x 0 (t0 ) , y0 (t0 ) khng ng thi bng 0.

Mt im khng phi l im chnh quy c gi l im k d.


2. Cc cng thc.
Phng trnh tip tuyn v php tuyn ca ng cong xc nh bi phng
trnh ti im chnh quy:
5

Chng 1. Cc ng dng ca php tnh vi phn trong hnh hc


Tip tuyn
0

Php tuyn

(d) : f x ( M) . ( x x0 ) + f y ( M) . (y y0 ) = 0.
 x x0
y y0
d0 : 0
= 0
.
f x ( M)
f y ( M)

Ch : Trng hp c bit, ng cong cho bi phng trnh y = f ( x )


th phng trnh tip tuyn ca ng cong ti im M( x0 , y0 ) chnh quy l
y y0 = f 0 ( x0 )( x x0 ). y l cng thc m hc sinh bit trong chng
trnh ph thng.
Phng trnh tip
tuyn v php tuyn ca ng cong ( L) xc nh bi phng
x = x ( t)
ti im M ( x (t0 ) , y (t0 )) chnh quy:
trnh tham s
y = y ( t)
Tip tuyn

(d) :

y y ( t0 )
x x ( t0 )
=
.
0
x ( t0 )
y 0 ( t0 )

Php tuyn

d0 : x 0 (t0 ) . ( x x (t0 )) + y0 (t0 ) . (y y (t0 )) = 0.

1.2 cong ca ng cong.


1. nh ngha.

2. Cc cng thc tnh cong ca ng cong ti mt im.


Nu ng cong cho bi phng trnh y = f ( x ) th:
C ( M) =

| y00 |

( 1 + y 02 )

3/2

x = x ( t)
Nu ng cong cho bi phng trnh tham s
y = y ( t)
C ( M) =

th:



x 0 y0


00 00
x y

( x 02 + y 02 )

3/2

Nu ng cong cho bi phng trnh trong to cc r = r () th:


2

r + 2r 02 rr 00
C ( M) =
3/2
( r 2 + r 02 )
6

1. Cc ng dng ca php tnh vi phn trong hnh hc phng

1.3 Hnh bao ca h ng cong ph thuc mt tham


s
1. nh ngha: Cho h ng cong ( L) ph thuc vo mt hay nhiu tham s. Nu mi
ng cong trong h ( L) u tip xc vi ng cong (E) ti mt im no trn E
v ngc li, ti mi im thuc (E) u tn ti mt ng cong ca h ( L) tip xc
vi (E) ti im th (E) c gi l hnh bao ca h ng cong ( L).
2. Quy tc tm hnh bao ca h ng cong ph thuc mt tham s.
nh l 1.1. Cho h ng cong F ( x, y, c) = 0 ph thuc mt tham s c. Nu h
ng cong trn khng c im k d th hnh bao ca n c xc nh bng cch
kh c t h phng trnh

F ( x, y, c) = 0
(1 )
F0 ( x, y, c) = 0
c

3. Nu h ng cong cho c im k d th h phng trnh (1) bao gm hnh bao


(E) v qu tch cc im k d thuc h cc ng cong cho.
Bi tp 1.1. Vit phng trnh tip tuyn v php tuyn vi ng cong:
a) y = x3 + 2x2 4x 3 ti (2, 5).

Phng trnh tip tuyn y = 5


Li gii.
Phng trnh php tuyn x = 2

b) y = e1 x ti giao im ca ng cong vi ng thng y = 1 .

Phng trnh tip tuyn 2x y + 3 = 0


Li gii.
Ti M1 (1, 1),
Phng trnh php tuyn x + 2y 1 = 0

Phng trnh tip tuyn 2x + y 3 = 0


Ti M2 (1, 1),
Phng trnh php tuyn x 2y + 1 = 0
2

c.

x=
y=

1+ t
t3
3
+ 2t1
2t3

Li gii.

ti A(2, 2).

Phng trnh tip tuyn y = x.

Phng trnh php tuyn x + y 4 = 0.


7

Chng 1. Cc ng dng ca php tnh vi phn trong hnh hc


d. x 3 + y 3 = a 3 ti M(8, 1).
2

Li gii.

Phng trnh tip tuyn x + 2y 10 = 0.

Phng trnh php tuyn 2x y 15 = 0.


Bi tp 1.2. Tnh cong ca:
a. y = x3 ti im c honh x = 12 .
Li gii.

C ( M) =

b.

| y00 |

3/2
( 1 + y 02 )

= ... =

192
125

x = a (t sin t)
(a > 0) ti im bt k.
y = a (t cos t)

Li gii.

C ( M) =


x 0 y0

00 00
x y

( x 02 + y 02 )

3/2

= ... =

1
1

2a 2 1 cos x

c. x 3 + y 3 = a 3 ti im bt k (a > 0).
(
x = a cos3 t
, nn
Li gii. Phng trnh tham s:
y = a sin3 t


x 0 y0


00 00
x y
1
C ( M) =
=
...
=
3/2
3a |sin t cos t|
( x 02 + y 02 )
2

d. r = aeb , (a, b > 0)


Li gii.
C ( M) =

2

r + 2r 02 rr 00
3/2
( r 2 + r 02 )

Bi tp 1.3. Tm hnh bao ca h ng cong sau:


a. y =

x
c

+ c2
8

aeb

1 + b2

1. Cc ng dng ca php tnh vi phn trong hnh hc phng

b. cx2 + c2 y = 1
c. y = c2 ( x c)2
Li gii.
a. t F ( x, y, c) := y xc c2 = 0.
iu kin: c 6= 0.
(
(
Fx0 ( x, y, c) = 0
Fx0 ( x, y, c) = 0
, h phng trnh v

Xt h phng trnh:
Fy0 ( x, y, c) = 0
1=0
nghim nn h ng cong khng c im k d. Ta c
(
(
(
y xc c2 = 0
F ( x, y, c) = 0
x = 2c3

Fc0 ( x, y, c) = 0
2c + cx2 = 0
y = 3c2
y 3
3 = 0. Do iu kin c 6= 0 nn x, y 6= 0. Vy ta c hnh bao ca h
2
y 3
ng cong l ng x2 3 = 0 tr im O (0, 0).

nn


x 2
2

b. t F ( x, y, c) := cx2 + c2 y 1 = 0. Nu c = 0 th khng tho mn phng trnh


cho nn iu kin: c 6=(0.
(
Fx0 ( x, y, c) = 0
2cx = 0
x = c = 0, nhng im k

Xt h phng trnh:
0
Fy ( x, y, c) = 0
c2 = 0
d khng thuc h ng cong cho nn h ng cong cho khng c im k
d. Ta c
(
(
(
x = 2c
cx2 + c2 y = 1
F ( x, y, c) = 0

x2 + 2cx = 0
Fc0 ( x, y, c) = 0
y = c21
Do x, y 6= 0 v ta c hnh bao ca h ng cong l ng y = x4 tr im O(0, 0).
4

c. t F ( x, y, c) := c2 ( x (c)2 y = 0.
(
Fx0 ( x, y, c) = 0
Fx0 = 0
, h phng trnh v nghim

Xt h phng trnh:
Fy0 ( x, y, c) = 0
1 = 0
nn h ng cong cho khng c im k d.
Ta c
(
(
c2 ( x c ) 2 y = 0 ( 1)
F ( x, y, c) = 0

Fc0 ( x, y, c) = 0
2c ( x c) 2c2 ( x c) = 0 (2)

c=0

x4
.
(2) c = x , th vo (1) ta c y = 0, y = 16
x
c= 2
Vy hnh bao ca h ng cong l y = 0, y =

x4
16 .

10

Chng 1. Cc ng dng ca php tnh vi phn trong hnh hc

2. CC NG DNG CA PHP TNH VI PHN TRONG


HNH HC KHNG GIAN

2.1 Hm vct
Gi s I l mt khong trong R.
I Rn
nh x
c gi l hm vct ca bin s t xc nh trn R. Nu

t 7 r (t) R n

n = 3, ta vit r (t) = x (t) . i + y (t) . j + z (t) . k . t M ( x (t) , y (t) , z (t)), qu tch

M khi t bin thin trong I c gi l tc ca hm vct r (t).





a =
Gii hn: Ngi ta ni hm vct c gii hn l
a khi t t0 nu lim r (t)
t t0

0 , k hiu lim r (t) = a .


t t0

Lin tc: Hm vct r (t) xc nh trn I c gi l lin tc ti t0 I nu lim r (t) =


t t0

r (t0 ). (tung ng vi tnh lin tc ca cc thnh phn tng ng x (t) , y (t) , z (t))

r (t + h)
r (t )

0
0
c gi l o hm
o hm: Gii hn, nu c, ca t s lim hr = lim
h
h 0
h 0

d
r (t )

ca hm vct r (t) ti t0 , k hiu


r 0 (t0 ) hay dt 0 , khi ta ni hm vct r (t) kh
vi ti t0 .

Nhn xt rng nu x (t) , y (t) , z (t) kh vi ti t0 th r (t) cng kh vi ti t0 v


r 0 ( t0 ) =

x 0 ( t0 ) . i + y 0 ( t0 ) . j + z 0 ( t0 ) . k .

2.2 Phng trnh tip tuyn v php din ca ng


cong cho di dng tham s
Cho ng cong

x = x (t)
y = y(t)

z = z(t)

v M( x0 , y0 , z0 ) l mt im chnh quy.

Phng trnh tip tuyn ti M

(d) :

x x ( t0 )
y y ( t0 )
z z ( t0 )
=
=
.
0
0
x ( t0 )
y ( t0 )
z 0 ( t0 )

Phng trnh php din ti M.

( P) : x 0 (t0 ) . ( x x (t0 )) + y0 (t0 ) . (y y (t0 )) + z0 (t0 ) . (z z ( t0 )) = 0.


10

2. Cc ng dng ca php tnh vi phn trong hnh hc khng gian

11

2.3 Phng trnh php tuyn v tip din ca mt


cong.
Cho mt cong S xc nh bi phng trnh f ( x, y, z) = 0 v M( x0 , y0 , z0 ) l mt im
chnh quy ca S.
Phng trnh php tuyn ti M

(d) :

y y0
zz
x x0
= 0
= 0 0.
0
f x ( M)
f y ( M)
f z ( M)

Phng trnh tip din ti M

( P) : f x0 ( M) . ( x x0 ) + f y0 ( M) . (y y0 ) + f z0 ( M) . (z z0 ) = 0.
c bit, nu mt cong cho bi phng trnh z = z ( x, y) th phng trnh tip din ti M
l ( P) : z z0 = z0x ( M) . ( x x0 ) + z0y ( M) . (y y0 ).

2.4 Phng trnh tip tuyn v php din ca ng


cong cho di dng giao ca hai mt cong
(

f ( x, y, z) = 0
.
Cho ng cong xc nh bi giao ca hai mt cong nh sau
g ( x, y, z) = 0


= f 0 ( M) , f 0 ( M) , f 0 ( M) , l vct php tuyn ca mt phng tip din ca mt
t
n
f
z
y
x
cong f ( x, y,

 z) = 0 ti M.

t n g = g0x ( M) , gy0 ( M) , gz0 ( M) , l vct php tuyn ca mt phng tip din ca mt


cong g ( x, y, z) = 0 ti M.

l vct ch phng ca tip tuyn ca ng cong cho ti M. Vy phng


Khi
n
n
g
f
trnh tip tuyn l:
(

f x0 ( M) . ( x x0 ) + f y0 ( M) . (y y0 ) + f z0 ( M) . (z z0 ) = 0.

PTTQ
:

g0x ( M) . ( x x0 ) + gy0 ( M) . (y y0 ) + gz0 ( M) . (z z0 ) = 0.


y y0
x x0
z z0
=
=

PTCT : 0






0
0
0
0

f z ( M) f x ( M)
f y ( M) f z ( M)
f x ( M ) f y0 ( M )

0

0
0

gz ( M ) g0x ( M )
gy ( M ) gz0 ( M )
gx ( M ) gy0 ( M )

Bi tp 1.4. Gi s
p ( t) ,
q ( t) ,
(t) l cc hm vct kh vi. Chng minh rng:
a.

d
dt

p ( t) +
q ( t) =

d
p (t)
dt

d
q (t)
dt

11

12

Chng 1. Cc ng dng ca php tnh vi phn trong hnh hc


b.

d
dt

c.

d
dt

d.

d
dt

Li gii.


d
p (t)

p ( t)
( t)
p (t) = (t) dt + 0 (t)


d
q (t)

p ( t)
q ( t) =
p (t) dt +

p ( t)
q ( t) =
p (t)

d
p (t)

q ( t)
dt

d
q (t)
dt

d
p (t)
dt

q ( t)

q (t) = (q1 (t) , q2 (t) , q3 (t)), khi :


a. Gi s
p (t) = ( p1 (t) , p2 (t) , p3 (t)) ,

d
d

p ( t) +
q ( t) =
( p1 (t) + q1 (t) , p2 (t) + q2 (t) , p3 (t) + q3 (t))
dt
dt

= p10 (t) + q10 (t) , p20 (t) + q20 (t) , p30 (t) + q30 (t)


= p10 (t) , p20 (t) , p30 (t) + q10 (t) , q20 (t) , q30 (t)

d
p ( t) d
q (t)
=
+
dt
dt

b.

d

( t)
p (t)
dt

= [ (t) p1 (t)] 0 , [ (t) p2 (t)]0 , [ (t) p3 (t)]0


= 0 (t) p1 (t) + (t) p10 (t) , 0 (t) p2 (t) + (t) p20 (t) , 0 (t) p3 (t) + (t) p30 (t)


= 0 (t) p1 (t) , 0 (t) p2 (t) , 0 (t) p3 (t) + (t) p10 (t) , (t) p20 (t) , (t) p30 (t)

d
p (t)

+ 0 ( t)
p ( t)
= ( t)
dt

c. Chng minh tng t nh cu b, s dng cng thc o hm ca hm hp.


d.

d

p ( t)
q ( t)
dt

d p2 (t) p3 (t)
=

dt q2 (t) q3 (t)

= ...


p ( t) p ( t)
3
1
,
q3 ( t ) q1 ( t )


p ( t) p ( t)
1
2
,
q1 ( t ) q2 ( t )



p ( t) p0 ( t)

3
1
,
,
0
q3 ( t ) q1 ( t )




0
0
p2 (t) p3 (t) p3 (t) p1 (t)
,
,
q20 (t) q3 (t) q30 (t) q1 (t)

d
q ( t) d
p ( t)

=
p ( t)
+

q ( t)
dt
dt




=




+

p2 (t) p30 (t)


q2 (t) q30 (t)

!




!
p10 (t) p2 (t)

q10 (t) q2 (t)
p1 (t) p20 (t)
q1 (t) q20 (t)

Bi tp 1.5. Vit phng trnh tip tuyn v php din ca ng:


12

2. Cc ng dng ca php tnh vi phn trong hnh hc khng gian

x = a sin t
a.
y = b sin t cos t ti im ng vi t =

z = c cos2 t

et
sin t

x=
2
b.
ti im ng vi t = 2.
y=1

cos t
z = et

4 , ( a, b, c

> 0 ).

x a

y b

z c

Phng trnh tip tuyn: (d) : a 2 = 0 2 = c2




Phng trnh php din: ( P) : a x 2a c z 2c = 0.

Li gii.

a.

Phng trnh tip tuyn: (d) :

b.

2
2
2
2

y1
0


Phng trnh php din: ( P) : 22 x + 22 z
2
2

2
2

= 0.

Bi tp 1.6. Vit phng trnh php tuyn v tip din ca mt cong:


a) x2 4y2 + 2z2 = 6 ti im (2, 2, 3).
b) z = 2x2 + 4y2 ti im (2, 1, 12).
c) z = ln (2x + y) ti im (1, 3, 0)
Li gii.

a.

Phng trnh php tuyn: (d) :

x 2
4

y2
16

z3
12

Phng trnh tip din: ( P) : 4 ( x 2) 16 (y 2) + 12 (z 3) = 0


Phng trnh php tuyn: (d) :

b.

x 2
8

y1
8

z12
1

Phng trnh tip din: ( P) : 8 ( x 2) + 8 (y 1) (z 12) = 0.


Phng trnh php tuyn: (d) :

c.

x +1
2

y3
1

z
1

Phng trnh tip din: ( P) : 2 ( x + 1) + (y 3) z = 0.


Bi tp 1.7. Vit phng trnh tip tuyn v php din ca ng:
(
x2 + y2 = 10
ti im A (1, 3, 4)
a.
y2 + z2 = 25
b.

2x2 + 3y2 + z2 = 47
ti im B (2, 6, 1)
x2 + 2y2 = z
13

13

14

Chng 1. Cc ng dng ca php tnh vi phn trong hnh hc


(

f ( x, y, z) := x2 + y2 10 = 0
nn
Li gii.
a. Ta c
g ( x, y, z) := y2 + z2 25 = 0
Do n f n g = 2 (21, 8, 3). Vy:
Phng trnh tip tuyn (d) :

x 1
21

y3
8

y1
27

n f = (2, 6, 0)
.
n g = (0, 6, 8)

z4
3

Phng trnh php din ( P) : 21 ( x 1) 8 (y 3) + 3 (z 4) = 0


(
n f = (8, 6, 12)
, n f n g = 2 (27, 27, 4) nn
b. Tng t,
n g = (4, 4, 1)
Phng trnh tip tuyn (d) :

x +2
27

z6
4

Phng trnh php din ( P) : 27 ( x + 2) + 27 (y 1) + 4 (z 6) = 0

14

CHNG
TCH

PHN BI

1. T CH PHN KP
1.1 nh ngha
nh ngha 2.1. Cho hm s f ( x, y) xc nh trong mt min ng, b chn D. Chia
min D mt cch tu thnh n mnh nh. Gi cc mnh v din tch ca chng l
S1 , S2 , ..., Sn . Trong mi mnh Si ly mt im tu M ( xi , yi ) v thnh lp tng tch
n

phn In = f ( xi , yi ) Si . Nu khi n sao cho max {Si 0} m In tin ti mt gi


i =1

tr hu hn I , khng ph thuc vo cch chia min D v cch chn im M ( xi , yi ) th gii


hn y c gi l tch phn kp ca hm s f ( x, y) trong min D, k hiu l
ZZ

f ( x, y) dS

Khi ta ni rng hm s f ( x, y) kh tch trong min D. Do tch phn kp khng ph


thuc vo cch chia min D thnh cc mnh nh nn ta c th chia D thnh hai h ng
thng song song vi cc trc to , khi dS = dxdy v ta c th vit
ZZ

f ( x, y) dS =

ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy

ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy +

Tnh cht c bn:


Tnh cht tuyn tnh:
ZZ

[ f ( x, y) + g ( x, y)] dxdy =

15

ZZ

g ( x, y) dxdy

16

Chng 2. Tch phn bi


ZZ

k f ( x, y) dxdy = k

ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy

Tnh cht cng tnh: Nu D = D1 D2 v D1 D2 = th


ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy =

ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy +

D1

ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy

D2

1.2 Tnh tch phn kp trong h to Descartes


tnh cc tch phn hai lp, ta cn phi a v tnh cc tch phn lp.
1. Phc tho hnh dng ca min D.
2. Nu D l min hnh ch nht ( D ) : a 6 x 6 b, c 6 y 6 d th ta c th s dng mt
trong hai tch phn lp
ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy =

Zb
a

dx

Zd

f ( x, y) dy =

Zd
c

dy

Zd

f ( x, y) dx

3. Nu D l hnh thang cong c cch cnh song song vi Oy, ( D ) : a 6 x 6 b, ( x ) 6


y 6 ( x ) th dng tch phn lp vi th t dy trc, dx sau.
ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy =

Zb

dx

Z( x )

f ( x, y) dy

( x )

4. Nu D l hnh thang cong c cch cnh song song vi Ox, ( D ) : c 6 y 6 d, (y) 6


x 6 (y) th dng tch phn lp vi th t dx trc, dy sau.
ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy =

Zd
c

dy

Z(y)

f ( x, y) dx

( y)

5. Nu D l min c hnh dng phc tp, khng c dng 3,4 th thng thng ta s chia
min D thnh mt s hu hn min c dng 3 hoc 4 ri s dng tnh cht cng tnh
a v vic tnh ton nhng tch phn lp trn min c dng 3, 4.
Cc dng bi tp c bn
16

1. Tch phn kp

17

Dng 1: i th t ly tch phn.


Trong phn trn, chng ta bit rng th t ly tch phn v hnh dng ca min D c
lin quan cht ch n nhau. Nu th t dy trc, dx sau th min D c dng hnh thang
cong song song vi trc Oy, v c biu din l ( D ) : a 6 x 6 b, ( x ) 6 y 6 ( x ). Ngc li,
nu th t dx trc, dy sau th min D c dng hnh thang cong song song vi trc Ox,
v c biu din l ( D ) : c 6 y 6 d, (y) 6 x 6 (y). Do vy vic i th t ly tch phn
trong tch phn lp chng qua l vic biu din min D t dng ny sang dng kia.
1. T biu thc tch phn lp, v phc tho min D.
2. Nu D l min hnh thang cong c cc cnh song song vi Oy th ta chia D thnh cc
hnh thang cong c cc cnh song song vi Ox. Tm biu din gii tch ca cc min
con, v d ( Di ) : ci 6 y 6 di , i (y) 6 x 6 i (y), sau vit
Zb

dx

yZ2 ( x )

f ( x, y) dy =

Zdi

dy

i c
i

y1 ( x )

Zi (y)

f ( x, y) dx

i (y)

3. Lm tng t trong trng hp D l hnh thang cong c cc cnh song song vi Ox.
Bi tp 2.1. Thay i th t ly tch phn ca cc tch phn sau:
a)

Z1
0

dx

Z1 x2

f ( x, y) dy

1 x 2

y
1
D1
D2

1 x

Hnh 2.1 a)
Chiamin D thnh hai min con D1 , D2
nh hnh v,
1 6 y 6 0
0 6 y 6 1
D1 :
, D2 :
p
p
1 y2 6 x 6 1 y2
p1 y 6 x 6 p1 y

I=

Z0

dy

Z1y

f ( x, y) dx +

Z1
0

1 y2

17

dy

Z1y

1 y

f ( x, y) dx

18

Chng 2. Tch phn bi

b)

Z1

1+

dy

Z 1 y

f ( x, y) dx

2 y

2
1
O

2 x

Hnh 2.1 b)

1 6 x 6 2
nn:
Li gii. Ta c: D :

2 x 6 y 6 2x x2
I=

Z2

dx

c)

dx

f ( x, y) dy

2 x

Z2

2x
Z x2

Z 2x

f ( x, y) dx

2x x2

1
Hnh 2.1 c)

Li gii. Chia D thnh 3 min nh hnh v,

0 6 y 6 1
0 6 y 6 1
D1 : y 2
,
D
:
p
p
2
6 x 6 1 1 y2
1 + 1 y2 6 x 6 2
2

, D3 :

Vy:

I=

Z1
0

dy

Z 1 y

y2
2

f ( x, y) dx +

Z1
0

dy
1+

18

Z2

1 y2

f ( x, y) dx +

Z2
1

dy

1 6 y 6 2

y2 6 x 6 2
2

Z2

y2
2

f ( x, y) dx

1. Tch phn kp

d)

Z2

dy

Zy

19

f ( x, y) dx +

Z2

dy

Z4y

f ( x, y) dx

Hnh 2.1 d)

0 6 x 6 2
D:

x 6 y 6 4 x2

Li gii.

nn:

I=

Z2

Z4 x2

dx

f ( x, y) dy

Mt cu hi rt t nhin t ra l vic i th t ly tch phn trong cc bi ton tch


phn kp c ngha nh th no? Hy xt bi ton sau y:
Bi tp 2.2. Tnh I =

Z1
0

dx

Z1

xey dy.

x2

y
2

1
Hnh 2.2

Li gii. Chng ta bit rng hm s f ( x, y) = xey lin tc trn min D nn chc chn
kh tch trn D. Tuy nhin cc bn c th thy rng nu tnh tch phn trn m lm theo
2

19

20

Chng 2. Tch phn bi

th t dy trc th khng th tnh c, v hm s ey khng c nguyn hm s cp! Cn


nu i th t ly tch phn th:
2

I=

Z1

dy

Zy
0

y2

xe dx =

Z1

Z1

2
1
1
1 2
x= y
ey .ydy = ey |10 = (e 1)
x=0 dy =
2
2
4
4

y2 x

Dng 2: Tnh cc tch phn kp thng thng.


Bi tp 2.3. Tnh cc tch phn sau:
a)

ZZ


x sin ( x + y ) dxdy, D = ( x, y) R2 : 0 6 y 6

2,0

6x6

Li gii.

I=

Z2
0

b) I =

ZZ

dx

Z2
0

x sin ( x + y) dy = ... = hoc I =


2

Z2
0

dy

Z2

x sin ( x + y) dx = ... =

x2 (y x ) dxdy, D gii hn bi y = x2 &x = y2


y
y = x2
x = y2
1

Hnh 2.3
Li gii.
I=

Z1
0

dx

Z x

x2


1
x2 y x3 dy = ... =
504

20

1. Tch phn kp

21

Dng 3: Tnh cc tch phn kp c cha du gi tr tuyt i.


Mc ch ca chng ta l ph b c du gi tr tuyt i trong cc bi ton tnh
tch
phn kp c cha du gi tr tuyt i. V d, tnh cc tch phn kp dng
ZZ
D

| f ( x, y)| dxdy. Kho st du ca hm f ( x, y), do tnh lin tc ca hm f ( x, y) nn

ng cong f ( x, y) = 0 s chia min D thnh hai min, D + , D . Trn D + , f ( x, y) > 0, v


trn D , f ( x, y) 6 0. Ta c cng thc:
ZZ

| f ( x, y)| dxdy =

ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy

D+

ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy (1)

(1 )

Cc bc lm bi ton tnh tch phn kp c cha du gi tr tuyt i:


1. V ng cong f ( x, y) = 0 tm ng cong phn chia min D.
2. Gi s ng cong tm c chia min D thnh hai min. xc nh xem min no
l D + , min no l D , ta xt mt im ( x0 , y0 ) bt k, sau tnh gi tr f ( x0 , y0 ).
Nu f ( x0 , y0 ) > 0 th min cha ( x0 , y0 ) l D + v ngc li.
3. Sau khi xc nh c cc min D + , D , chng ta s dng cng thc (1) tnh tch
phn.
Bi tp 2.4. Tnh

ZZ



| x + y|dxdy, D : ( x, y) R2 || x 6 1| , |y| 6 1
y

1
D+
O

Li gii. Ta c:

Hnh 2.4

D + = D { x + y > 0} = {1 6 x 6 1, x 6 y 6 1}
D = D { x + y 6 0} = {1 6 x 6 1, 1 6 y 6 x }
21

22

Chng 2. Tch phn bi

nn:
I=

ZZ

D+

Bi tp 2.5. Tnh

ZZ p
D

( x + y ) dxdy

ZZ

( x + y) dxdy = ... =

8
3



|y x2 |dxdy, D : ( x, y) R2 || x | 6 1, 0 6 y 6 1
y

1
D+
D
O

Hnh 2.5

Li gii.


o n
o
n

D + = D ( x, y) y x2 > 0 = 1 6 x 6 1, x2 6 y 6 1

o

D = D ( x, y) y x2 6 0 = {1 6 x 6 1, 0 6 y 6 x }
n

ZZ q

I=

D+

x2 dxdy +

ZZ q
D

x2 ydxdy = I1 + I2

trong

I1 =

Z1

dx

Z1 q

x2

I2 =

y x2 dy =

Z1

Vy I =

Z1
2 

1 x2

dx

Zx q
0

2
x2 ydy =
3

3

Z1

+ 13
22

x =sin t

dx =

4
3

4
| x | dx =
3
3

Z2

cos4 tdt = ... =

Z1
0

x3 dx =

1
3

1. Tch phn kp

23

Dng 4: Tnh cc tch phn kp trong trng hp min ly tch phn l min i
xng.
nh l 2.2. Nu min D l min i xng qua trc Ox (hoc tng ng Oy) v hm l
hm l i vi y (hoc tng ng i vi x) th
ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy = 0

nh l 2.3. Nu min D l min i xng qua trc Ox (hoc tng ng Oy) v hm l


hm chn i vi y (hoc tng ng i vi x) th
ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy = 2

ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy

D0

trong D 0 l phn nm bn phi trc Ox ca D (hoc tng ng pha trn ca trc Oy


tng ng)
nh l 2.4. Nu min D l min i xng qua trc gc to O v hm f ( x, y) tho mn
f ( x, y) = f ( x, y) th
ZZ
f ( x, y) dxdy = 0

Bi tp 2.6. Tnh

ZZ

| x |+|y|61

| x | + |y| dxdy.
y
1

D1
O

Hnh 2.6
Li gii. Do D i xng qua c Ox v Oy, f ( x, y) = | x | + |y| l hm chn vi x, y nn
I=4

ZZ

D1

f ( x, y) dxdy = 4

Z1
0

23

dx

1Z x

( x + y)dy =

4
3

24

Chng 2. Tch phn bi

1.3 Php i bin s trong tch phn kp


Php i bin s tng qut
Php i bin s tng qut thng c
ZZ s dng trong trng hp min D l giao ca
f ( x, y) dxdy, trong f ( x, y) lin tc trn D.

hai h ng cong. Xt tch phn kp: I =

Thc hin php i bin s x = x (u, v ) , y = y (u, v ) (1)tho mn:

x = x (u, v) , y = y (u, v ) l cc hm s lin tc v c o hm ring lin tc trong


min ng Duv ca mt phng O0 uv.
Cc cng thc (1) xc nh song nh t Duv D.
0

x x0


D ( x,y)
nh thc Jacobi J = D(u,v) = 0u 0v 6= 0
yu yv

Khi ta c cng thc:


I=

ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy =

ZZ

Duv

f ( x (u, v ) , y (u, v)) | J | dudv

Ch :
Mc ch ca php i bin s l a vic tnh tch phn t min D c hnh dng
phc tp v tnh tch phn trn min Duv n gin hn nh l hnh thang cong hoc
hnh ch nht. Trong nhiu trng hp, php i bin s cn c tc dng lm n
gin biu thc tnh tch phn f ( x, y).
Mt iu ht sc ch trong vic xc nh min Duv l php di bin s tng qut
s bin bin ca min D thnh bin ca min Duv , bin min D b chn thnh min
Duv b chn.

0
u u0


D (u,v)
C th tnh J thng qua J 1 = D( x,y) = 0x 0y .
v x vy

Bi tp 2.7. Chuyn tch phn sau sang hai bin u, v:

Z1
Zx
u = x + y
a)
dx
f ( x, y) dxdy, nu t
v = x y
0

b) p dng tnh vi f ( x, y) = (2 x y)2 .

24

1. Tch phn kp

25
v
2

y
1
D
O

Li gii.

hn na

u = x + y
v = x y

nn

1 x

Hnh 2.7

x = u+v
2

y = uv

1
I=
2

Bi tp 2.8. Tnh I =



1 1
D ( x, y)


=
, | J| =
= 2
1 1
D (u, v )

0 6 x 6 1
D
x 6 y 6 x

ZZ

2 u

O0

Z2

du

Duv
2Z u
0

0 6 u 6 2

0 6 v 6 2 u


u+v uv
dv
,
2
2

1 6 xy 6 4

2
2
4x 2y dxdy, trong D :
x 6 y 6 4x
y
y = 4x

y=x

xy = 4
xy = 1

Hnh 2.8
25

26

Chng 2. Tch phn bi

Li gii. Thc hin php i bin

u = xy
v = y

x = p u
v

y = uv

khi

I=

Z4
1

du

Z4 
1

1 6 u 6 4

, Duv :

, J 1

1 6 v 6 4

 1
u
4 2uv . dv =
v
2v

Z4

du

Z4 
1

y x
uv
y


= y 1 = 2 = 2 p u = 2v
2 x
x
v
x


Z4
2u
45
3
u dv = udu =
2
2
4
v
1

Php i bin s trong to cc


Trong rt nhiu trng hp, vic tnh ton tch phn kp trong to cc n gin
hn rt nhiu so vi vic tnh tch phn trong to Descartes, c bit l khi min D c
dng hnh trn, qut trn, cardioids,. . . v hm di du tch
c nhng biu thc
phn
r = OM

.
x2 + y2 . To cc ca im M ( x, y) l b (r, ), trong
\

= OM,Ox

x = r cos
Cng thc i bin:
, trong min bin thin ca r, ph thuc vo hnh
y = r sin
dng ca min D. Khi J =

D ( x,y)
D (r,)

= r , v I =

6 6
2
1
c bit, nu D :
r1 ( ) 6 r 6 r2 ( )
I=

Z2

ZZ

f (r cos , r sin )rdrd

Dr

, th

rZ
2 ( )

f (r cos , r sin ) rdr

r1 ( )

Bi tp 2.9. Tm cn ly tch phn trong to cc I =

ZZ

min xc nh nh sau:
a) a2 6 x2 + y2 6 b2
26

f ( x, y) dxdy, trong D l

1. Tch phn kp

27
y
b

a
b
a

Hnh 2.9a
Li gii.

0 6 6 2
D:
a 6 r 6 b

I =

Z2

Zb

f (r cos , r sin ) rdr

b) x2 + y2 > 4x, x2 + y2 6 8x, y > x, y 6 2x


y

Hnh 2.9b
Li gii. Ta c:

6 6
3
D: 4
4 cos 6 r 6 8 cos

I =

Z3

8Z
cos

f (r cos , r sin ) rdr

4 cos

Bi tp 2.10. Dng php i bin s trong to cc, hy tnh cc tch phn sau:
a)

ZR
0

dx

R
Z2 x2
0


ln 1 + x2 + y2 dy ( R > 0).
27

28

Chng 2. Tch phn bi


y

Hnh 2.10 a

0 6 x 6 R
T biu thc tnh tch phn ta suy ra biu thc gii tch ca min D l:

0 6 y 6 R2 x 2

x = r cos
0 6 6
2
nn chuyn sang to cc, t:
th
y = r sin
0 6 r 6 R

Z2

ZR

ZR


 


2
2
ln 1 + r d 1 + r
I = d ln 1 + r rdr =
4
0
0
0
 

i
h 2
2
2
=
R + 1 ln R + 1 R
4

b) Tnh

ZZ

x 2 + ( y 1 )2 = 1
2
xy dxdy, D gii hn bi
x2 + y2 4y = 0

O
Hnh 2.10 b

x = r cos
t
y = r sin

0 6 6

2 sin 6 r 6 4 sin

28

1. Tch phn kp

29

I=

4Z
sin

r cos . (r sin )2 rdr

2 sin

=0
Cch 2: V D i xng qua Oy v xy2 l hm s l i vi x nn I = 0.
Bi tp 2.11. Tnh cc tch phn sau:

a)

ZZ

4y 6 x2 + y2 6 8y
dxdy

2 , trong D :
( x 2 + y2 )
x 6 y 6 x 3
y

y=x 3

y=x
4

O
Hnh 2.11a
Li gii.

x = r cos
t
y = r sin

I=

Z3

b)

ZZ r

8Z
sin

4 sin

1 x 2 y2
dxdy
1+ x 2 + y2

1
1
rdr =
4
2
r

Z3 

6 6
3
4
4 sin 6 r 6 8 sin
1
1

2
64 sin 16 sin2

trong D : x2 + y2 6 1

29

3
d =
128

1
1
3

30

Chng 2. Tch phn bi


y
1

Hnh 2.11b

x = r cos
t
y = r sin

Ta c:

I=

Z2

Z1
0

0 6 6 2

0 6 r 6 1

1 r2
u =r2
= 2
rdr
1 + r2

Z1
0

1
2

1u
du
1+u

t
t=

Z1

du =

4t

2 dt
1u
( 1+ t 2 )

1 + u 0 6 t 6 1

Z1

Z1

dt
4dt
+
4
I= t
dt
=

2
2
1 + t2
( 1 + t2 )
( 1 + t2 )
0
0
0



1
1 t

1
+ arctg t 10
= 4 arctg t 0 + 4
2 t2 + 1 2
2
=
2
4t

x2 + y2 6 12

ZZ
x2 + y2 > 2x
xy
dxdy
trong

D
:
c)

x 2 + y2
2 + y2 > 2 3y

x > 0, y > 0
30

1. Tch phn kp

31
y

2 3

D2

D1
O

2 3

Hnh 2.11c
Li gii. Chia min D thnh hai min nh hnh v,

0 6 6
6 6
6
2
D = D1 D2 , D1 =
, D2 = 6

2 cos 6 r 6 2 3
2 3 sin 6 r 6 2 3
Vy I = I1 + I2 , trong

Z6

I1 =

2 cos

I2 =

Z2

nn I =

2Z 3

2Z 3

2 3 sin

sin
1
rdr =
2
2
r

Z6

r2 cos sin
1
rdr
=
r2
2

Z2

r2 cos



17
cos sin 12 4cos2 d = ... =
32


27
cos sin 12 12 sin2 d = ... =
32

11
8

Php i bin s trong to cc suy rng.


Php i bin trong to cc suy rng c s dng khi min D c hnh dng ellipse
hoc hnh trn c tm khng nm trn cc trc to . Khi s dng php bin i ny, bt
buc phi tnh li cc Jacobian ca php bin i.

x = ar cos
y2
x2
1. Nu D : a2 + b2 = 1, thc hin php i bin
, J = abr
y = br sin

x = a + r cos
2. Nu D : ( x a)2 + (y b)2 = R2 , thc hin php i bin
y = b + r sin

,J =r

3. Xc nh min bin thin ca r, trong php i bin trong h to cc suy rng.


31

32

Chng 2. Tch phn bi

4. Thay vo cng thc i bin tng qut v hon tt qu trnh i bin.


ZZ

2
9x2 4y2 dxdy, trong D : x2 + y 6 1.
Bi tp 2.12. Tnh
4
9
D

Hnh 2.12
Li gii.

x = 2r cos
t
y = 3r sin

Ta c:
I=6

0 6 6 2
J = 6r,
0 6 r 6 1

Z1
Z2

2
2
2
2
36r cos 36r sin rdrd = 6.36 |cos 2| d r3 dr = ... = 216

ZZ

Dr

Bi tp 2.13. Tnh

ZR
0

dx

R
Z2 x2

R2 x 2

Rx x2 y2 dy, ( R > 0)
y

Hnh 2.13
Li gii. T biu thc tnh tch phn suy ra biu thc gii tch ca D l:



0 6 x 6 R
R 2
R2
D:
x
+ y2 6

Rx x2 6 y 6 Rx x2
2
4
32

1. Tch phn kp

33

x = R + rcos
2
t
y = r sin

Vy
I=

Z2

Bi tp 2.14. Tnh

R
Z2 r 2
R

ZZ

r2 rdr

0 6 6 2
| J | = r,
0 6 r 6 R
2

= 2.

R
Z2 r 2
R
1

r2 d

R2
r2
4

R3
12

xydxdy, vi

a) D l mt trn ( x 2)2 + y2 6 1

Hnh 2.14a
Li gii.

nn

x = 2 + r cos
t
y = r sin
I=

Z2
0

Z1

0 6 r 6 1

0 6 6 2

(2 + r cos ) r sin .rdr = 0

Cch 2. Nhn xt: Do D l min i xng qua Ox, f ( x, y) = xy l hm l i vi y


nn I = 0.
b) D l na mt trn ( x 2)2 + y2 6 1, y > 0
y

Hnh 2.14b
33

34

Chng 2. Tch phn bi


Li gii.

nn

x = 2 + r cos
t
y = r sin
I=

Z
0

Z1

0 6 r 6 1

0 6 6

(2 + r cos ) r sin .rdr =

34

4
3

2. Tch phn bi ba

35

2. T CH PHN BI BA
2.1 nh ngha v tnh cht
nh ngha 2.2. Cho hm s f ( x, y, z) xc nh trong mt min ng, b chn V ca khng
gian Oxyz. Chia min V mt cch tu thnh n min nh. Gi cc min v th tch
ca chng l V1 , V2 , ..., Vn . Trong mi min i ly mt im tu M( xi , yi , zi ) v thnh
n

lp tng tch phn In = f ( xi , yi , zi ) Vi . Nu khi n + sao cho max {Vi 0} m In


i =1

tin ti mt gi tr hu hn I , khng ph thuc vo cch chia min V v cch chn im


M( xi , yi , zi )ZZZth gii hn y c gi l tch phn bi ba ca hm s f ( x, y, z) trong min V ,
f ( x, y, z) dV .

k hiu l

Khi ta ni rng hm s f ( x, y, z) kh tch trong min V.


Do tch phn bi ba khng ph thuc vo cch chia min V thnh cc min nh nn ta c
th chia V bi ba h mt thng song song vi cc mt phng to , khi dV = dxdydz
v ta c th vit
ZZZ
ZZZ
f ( x, y, z) dV =
f ( x, y, z) dxdydz
V

Cc tnh cht c bn
Tnh cht tuyn tnh
ZZZ

[ f ( x, y, z) + g ( x, y, z)] dxdydz =

ZZZ

f ( x, y, z) dxdydz +

ZZZ

k f ( x, y, z) dxdydz = k

g ( x, y, z) dxdydz

ZZZ

ZZZ

f ( x, y, z) dxdydz

Tnh cht cng tnh: Nu V = V1 V2 v V1 V2 = th:


ZZZ
V

f ( x, y, z) dxdydz =

ZZZ

f ( x, y, z) dxdydz +

ZZZ

f ( x, y, z) dxdydz

V2

V1

2.2 Tnh tch phn bi ba trong h to Descartes


Cng ging nh vic tnh ton tch phn kp, ta cn phi a tch phn ba lp v tch
phn lp. Vic chuyn i ny s c thc hin qua trung gian l tch phn kp.
Tch phn ba lp Tch phn hai lp Tch phn lp
35

36

Chng 2. Tch phn bi

S trn cho thy vic tnh tch phn ba lp c chuyn v tnh tch phn kp (vic
tnh tch phn kp c nghin cu bi trc). ng nhin vic chuyn i ny ph
thuc cht ch vo hnh dng ca min V. Mt ln na, k nng v hnh l rt quan trng.
Nu min V c gii hn bi cc mt z = z1 ( x, y) , z = z2 ( x, y), trong z1 ( x, y) , z2 ( x, y)
l cc hm s lin tc trn min D, D l hnh chiu ca min V ln mt phng Oxy th ta
c:
I=

ZZZ

f ( x, y, z) dxdydz =

ZZ

dxdy

z2Z( x,y)

f ( x, y, z) dz

(2.1)

z1 ( x,y)

Thut ton chuyn tch phn ba lp v tch phn hai lp


1. Xc nh hnh chiu ca min V ln mt phng Oxy.
2. Xc nh bin di z = z1 ( x, y) v bin trn z = z2 ( x, y) ca V.
3. S dng cng thc 2.1 hon tt vic chuyn i.
n y mi vic ch mi xong mt na, vn cn li by gi l:
Xc nh D v cc bin z = z1 ( x, y) , z = z2 ( x, y) nh th no?
C hai cch xc nh: Dng hnh hc hoc l da vo biu thc gii tch ca min V.
Mi cch u c nhng u v nhc im ring. Cch dng hnh hc tuy kh thc hin
hn nhng c u im l rt trc quan, d hiu. Cch dng biu thc gii tch ca V tuy
c th p dng cho nhiu bi nhng thng kh hiu v phc tp. Chng ti khuyn cc
em sinh vin hy c gng th cch v hnh trc. Mun lm c iu ny, i hi cc bn
sinh vin phi c k nng v cc mt cong c bn trong khng gian nh mt phng, mt
tr, mt nn, mt cu, ellipsoit, paraboloit, hyperboloit 1 tng, hyperboloit 2 tng, hn
na cc bn cn c tr tng tng tt hnh dung ra s giao ct ca cc mt.
Ch : Cng ging nh khi tnh tch phn kp, vic nhn xt c tnh i xng ca min
V v tnh chn l ca hm ly tch phn f ( x, y, z) i khi gip sinh vin gim c khi
lng tnh ton ng k.
nh l 2.5.ZZZNu V l min i xng qua mt phng z = 0(Oxy) v f ( x, y, z) l hm s l

i vi z th

f ( x, y, z) dxdydz = 0.

nh l 2.6. Nu ZV
phng z = 0(Oxy) v f ( x, y, z) l hm s
Z
ZZ l min i xng quaZZmt
f ( x, y, z) dxdydz = 2
f ( x, y, z) dxdydz, trong V + l phn pha
chn i vi z th
V

trn mt phng z = 0 ca V.

V+

36

2. Tch phn bi ba

37

Tt nhin chng ta c th thay i vai tr ca z trong hai nh l trn bng x hoc y. Hai
nh l trn c th c chng minh d dng bng phng php i bin s.

0
6
x
6

ZZZ
4

zdxdydz trong min V c xc nh bi: x 6 y 6 2x


Bi tp 2.15. Tnh

0 6 z 6 1 x 2 y2

Li gii.

I=

1
Z4

dx

Z2x

1 x 2 y2

dy

Bi tp 2.16. Tnh

zdz =

Z4
0

ZZZ

x2 + y


2

dx

Z2x
x


1
1
1 x2 y2 dy =
2
2

dxdydz trong V:

z
z=

Z4 
0


10 3
43
x x dx =
3
3072

x 2 + y 2 + z2 = 1
x 2 + y 2 z2 = 0

1 x 2 y2

z=

x 2 + y2

y
O

Hnh 2.16
37

38

Chng 2. Tch phn bi

Li gii. Do tnh cht i xng,

ZZZ
V

ZZZ

x2 + y2 dxdydz = 2

V1 l na pha trn mt phng Oxy ca V. Ta c


vi D l hnh chiu ca V1 ln Oxy. Ta c

I1 =

ZZ

x + y dxdy

1 x 2 y2

dz =

ZZ 

x +y

x 2 + y2

0 6 6 2
x = r cos
J = r,
1 nn

y = r sin
0 6 r 6
2
1

I1 =

Z2
0

p

1 r2 r dr

Z2

1
2

d = 2

Vy

Z
0

p


x2 + y2 dxdydz = 2I1 , trong

V1 q
q

V1 : x2 + y2 6 z 6 1 x2 y2

D : x 2 + y2 6 1 ,
2

 q

x2

y2

1 r2 r dr =

x2

(r =cos )

...

+ y2

dxdy

2 8 5 2
=
.
5
12

4 8 5 2
.
I=
5
12

2.3 Phng php i bin s trong tch phn bi ba


Php i bin s tng qut
Php i bin s tng qut thng
ZZZc s dng trong trng hp min V l giao ca

f ( x, y, z) dxdydz trong f ( x, y, z) lin tc trn V.

ba h mt cong. Gi s cn tnh I =
Thc hin php i bin s

tho mn

x = x (u, v, w )

y = y (u, v, w )

z = z u, v, w
(
)

(2.2)

x, y, z cng vi cc o hm ring ca n l cc hm s lin tc trn min ng Vuvw


ca mt phng O0 uvw.
Cng thc 2.2 xc nh song nh Vuvw V.
38

2. Tch phn bi ba
J=

39

D ( x,y,z)
D (u,v,w)

6= 0 trong Vuvw . Khi

ZZZ

ZZZ

I=

f ( x, y, z) dxdydz =

Vuvw

f [ x (u, v, w ) , y (u, v, w ) , z (u, v, w)] | J | dudvdw

Cng ging nh php i bin trong tch phn kp, php i bin trong tch phn bi ba
cng bin bin ca min V thnh bin ca min Vuvw , bin min V b chn thnh min
Vuvw b chn.

x + y + z = 3

ZZZ

dxdydz.
Bi tp 2.17. Tnh th tch min V gii hn bi x + 2y z = 1 bit V =

x + 4y + z = 2
V

u = x+y+z

Li gii. Thc hin php i bin


v = x + 2y z . V php i bin bin bin ca V

w = x + 4y + z

u = 3

thnh bin ca Vuvw nn Vuvw gii hn bi: v = 1

w = 2
J 1



1 1 1
ZZZ


1
1
D (u, v, w)
1


dudvdw = .6.2.4 = 8
=
= 1 2 1 = 6 J = V =


D ( x, y, z)
6
6
6
1 4 1
Vuvw

Php i bin s trong to tr


Khi min V c bin l cc mt nh mt paraboloit, mt nn, mt tr, v c hnh chiu
D ln Oxy l hnh trn, hoc hm ly tch phn f ( x, y, z) c cha biu thc ( x2 + y2 ) th ta
hay s dng cng thc i bin trong h to tr. To tr ca im M( x, y, z) l b ba
(r, , z), trong (r,
) chnh l to cc ca im M0 l hnh chiu ca im M ln Oxy.

x = r cos

D ( x,y,z)
Cng thc i bin y = r sin . nh thc Jacobian ca php bin i l J = D(r,,z) = r,

z = z
ta c:

I=

ZZZ
V

f ( x, y, z) dxdydz =

ZZZ

Vr z

39

f (rcos, r sin , z) rdrddz

40
Nu min V :

Chng 2. Tch phn bi


(

( x, y) D

z1 ( x, y) 6 z 6 z2 ( x, y)

I=

Z2

Bi tp 2.18. Tnh

ZZZ

x2

rZ
2 ( )

rdr

r1 ( )

+y


2

, trong D :

z2 (r cosZ,r sin )

1 6 6 2
r1 ( ) 6 r 6 r2 ( )

th:

f (r cos , r sin , z) dz

z1 (r cos ,r sin )

dxdydz, trong V :

x 2 + y2 6 1
16z62

z
2
V
1
y

x
Hnh 2.18

0 6 6 2
x
=
r
cos

Li gii. t y = r sin th 0 6 r 6 1 . Ta c

1 6 z 6 2
z = z
I=

Z2
0

Bi tp 2.19. Tnh

ZZZ
V

Z1
0

r dr

Z2

zdz = ... =

3
4

x2 + y2 dxdydz, trong :

a) V l min gii hn bi mt tr: x2 + y2 = 2x v cc mt phng z = 0, z = a ( a > 0).


b) V l na ca hnh cu x2 + y2 + z2 6 a2 , z > 0 (a > 0)
40

2. Tch phn bi ba

41
z

Hnh 2.19a

66

x
=
r
cos

2
Li gii. a) t y = r sin . T x2 + y2 = 2x suy ra r = 2 cos . Do : 0 6 r 6 2 cos .

z = z
0 6 z 6 a
Vy

I=

Z2

2Z
cos

r dr

Za

zdz = ... =

16a2
9

x
Hnh 2.19b

41

42

Chng 2. Tch phn bi

0 6 6 2
x
=
r
cos

Li gii. b) t y = r sin , ta c 0 6 r 6 a
. Vy

z = z

0 6 z 6 a2 r 2
I=

Z2

Bi tp 2.20. Tnh I =

Za

r dr

ZZZ

a2 r 2
Z

zdz = 2

Za

r2 .

a2 r 2
2a5
dr =
2
15

ydxdydz, trong V gii hn bi:

y=

z2 + x 2

y=h

x
Hnh 2.20

0 6 6 2
x = r cos

Li gii. t y = r sin , ta c 0 6 r 6 h . Vy

r 6 y 6 h
z = z
I=

Z2

Bi tp 2.21. Tnh I =

ZZZ p

Zh
0

rdr

Zh

ydy = 2

Zh
0

r.

h2 r 2
h4
dr =
2
4

x2 + y2 dxdydz trong V gii hn bi:

42

x 2 + y 2 = z2
z=1

2. Tch phn bi ba

43
z

y
O

x
Hnh 2.21

x = r cos
0 6 6 2

Li gii. t y = r sin , ta c 0 6 r 6 1 . Vy

z = z
r 6 z 6 1

I=

Z2
0

Bi tp 2.22. Tnh

ZZZ
V

Z1

r dr

dxdydz
x2 + y2 +(z2)2

Z1

dz = 2

Z1
0

, trong V :

43

r2 (1 r ) dr =

x2 + y2 = 1

|z| 1

44

Chng 2. Tch phn bi


z

x
Hnh 2.22

x
=
r
cos

0 6 6 2

Li gii. t y = r sin | J | = r, Vrz : 0 6 r 6 1


, ta c

z0 = z 2
3 6 z 0 6 1
I=

Z2

Z1
0

r 0

r. ln z +

= 2
V lim r ln

Z1

rdr

Z1

Z1
0

r ln

p

dz0

r 2 + z 02

r2

+ z 02

 0
z =1
z0 =3 dr


r2 + 1 1 dr

Z1

r ln

= 2 ( I1 I2 )

p

r2 + 9 3 dr




r2 + 1 1 = lim r ln
r2 + 9 3 = 0 nn thc cht I1 , I2 l cc tch phn
r 0

xc nh.

t r2 + 1 = t rdr = tdt, ta c
Z

r ln
Z

p


r2 + 1 1 dr

t ln (t 1) dt

t2
t2
1
= ln (t 1)
dt
2
2 t1
t2 1
t2
t
=
ln (t 1) + C
2
4
2
44

2. Tch phn bi ba
nn

45


 1 1 

1 
t2 1
t2
t 2
I1 =
21
21
| = ln
ln (t 1)
2
4
2 1
2
4 2

9
t
3t
Tng t, I2 = t
2 ln ( t 3) 4 2 + C nn
 2

 1 3 

1 
t 9
t2 3t 10
10 3
10 3
I2 =
|3 = ln
ln (t 3)
2
4
2
2
4 2
2

Vy

21
I = 2 ( I1 I2 ) = ln
+ 3 10 8 2
10 3

Php i bin trong to cu


Trong trng hp min V c dng hnh cu, chm cu, mi cu,. . . v khi hm ly tch

phn f ( x, y, z) c cha biu thc x2 + y2 + z2 th ta hay s dng php i bin trong to
cu.
To cu ca im M( x, y, z) trong khng gian l b ba (r, , ), trong :

r
=
OM




\
= OM, Oz




0
\

= OM
, Ox

x = r sin cos

Cng thc ca php i bin l: y = r sin sin .

z = r cos
nh thc Jacobian J =
ZZZ

D ( x,y,z)
D (r,,)

f ( x, y, z) dxdydz =

= r2 sin , ta c:

ZZZ

f (r sin cos , r sin sin , r cos ) r2 sin drdd

Vr

c bit, nu Vr

I=

6 6 2 , ( 2 1 6 2 )

1
: 1 ( ) 6 6 2 ( )
th

r , 6 r 6 r ,
)
)
2(
1(

Z2

Z
2 ( )

1 ( )

sin d

r2Z(,)

f (r sin cos , r sin sin , r cos )r2 dr

r1 (,)

45

46

Chng 2. Tch phn bi

Bi tp 2.23. Tnh

ZZZ

x 2 + y2 + z


2

dxdydz, trong V :

1 6 x 2 + y 2 + z2 6 4
x 2 + y 2 6 z2

V1

y
O

x
Hnh 2.23

x = r sin cos

Li gii. t y = r sin sin . Do 1 6 x2 + y2 + z2 6 4 nn 1 r 2; trn mt nn c

z = r cos
phng trnh x2 + y2 = z2 nn =

4.

Vy

0 6 6 2

066

1 6 r 6 2

nn

I=2

Z2
0

Z4

sin d

Bi tp 2.24. Tnh

Z2
1

ZZZ p

r5
4.31


2 2
r .r dr = 2.2. ( cos ) 04 . 21 =
5
5

!
2
1
2

x2 + y2 + z2 dxdydz trong V : x2 + y2 + z2 6 z.

46

2. Tch phn bi ba

47

y
O

x
Hnh 2.24

x = r sin cos

Li gii. t y = r sin sin . Nhn hnh v ta thy 0 6 6 2, 0 6 6

z = r cos

2.

Do x2 + y2 + z2 6 z nn 0 6 r 6 cos . Vy
I=

Z2

Z2

sin d

r.r2 dr = 2.

cos
Z

Z2
0

sin . cos4 d =
4
10

Php i bin trong to cu suy rng.


Tng t nh khi tnh tch phn kp, khi min V c dng hnh ellipsoit hoc hnh cu
c tm khng nm trn cc trc to th ta s s dng php i bin s trong to cu
suy rng. Khi ta phi tnh li Jacobian ca php bin i.
1. Nu min V c dng hnh ellipsoit hoc hnh cu c tm khng nm trn cc trc to
nn ngh ti php i bin s trong to cu suy rng.
2.

Nu V :

x2
a2

y2
b2

z2
c2

= 1 th thc hin php i bin

x = ar sin cos

y = br sin sin , J = abcr2 sin

z = cr cos
47

48

Chng 2. Tch phn bi


Nu V : ( x a)2 + (y b)2 + (z c)2 = R2 th thc hin php i bin

x = a + r sin cos

y = b + r sin sin , J = r2 sin

z = c + r cos

3. Xc nh min bin thin ca , , r.

4. Dng cng thc i bin tng qut hon tt vic i bin.


Bi tp 2.25. Tnh

ZZZ
V

1, z > 0, (a, b > 0)

x2 + y2 dxdydz, trong V l na ca khi ellipsoit

x 2 + y2
a2

+ bz2 6

Li gii. Cch 1: S dng php i bin trong to tr suy rng.


t

z = bz0

o
n
p
D ( x, y, z)
= a2 br, Vrz0 = 0 6 6 2, 0 6 r 6 1, 0 6 z0 6 1 r2
x = ar cos J =

D (r, , z)

y = ar sin

Vy

I=

Z2

Z1

dr

Z1r2

3 2

bz .ar.a brdz = 2a b

Z1

r2 .

2a3 b2
1 r2
dr =
2
15

Cch 2: S dng php i bin trong to cu suy rng.


t

x = ar sin cos

o
n
D ( x, y, z)

= a2 br2 sin , Vrz0 = 0 6 6 2, 0 6 6 , 0 6 r 6 1


y = ar sin sin J =

D (r, , )
2

z = br cos

Vy

I=

Z2
0

Z2
0

Z1

3 2

br cos .ar sin .a b sin = 2a b

Bi tp 2.26. Tnh

Z2

cos sin d

ZZZ 
V

x2
a2

y2
b2

z2
c2

dxdydz , V :

48

x2
a2

Z1
0

y2
b2

z2
c2

r4 dr =

2a3 b2
15

6 1, (a, b, c > 0).

2. Tch phn bi ba

49

Li gii. t

x = ar sin cos

D ( x, y, z)
= abcr2 sin , Vrz0 = {0 6 6 2, 0 6 6 , 0 6 r 6 1}
y = br sin sin J =

D (r, , )

z = cr cos
Vy

I = abc

Z2
0

Z
0

Z1

r2 .r2 sin =

49

4
abc
5

50

Chng 2. Tch phn bi

3. CC NG DNG CA TCH PHN BI


3.1 Tnh din tch hnh phng
Cng thc tng qut: S =

ZZ

dxdy

y = 2x

Bi tp 2.27. Tnh din tch ca min D gii hn bi: y = 2 x .

y = 4
y

y = 2 x

y = 2x

O
Hnh 2.27

Li gii. Nhn xt:


D = D1 D2 , D1
nn
S=

ZZ

dxdy =

ZZ

D1

dxdy +

(
ZZ

2 6 x 6 0

6y64

dxdy = 2

D2

ZZ

D1

50

, D2

06x62
2x 6 y 6 4


3
dxdy = ... = 2 8
ln 2

3. Cc ng dng ca tch phn bi

51

Bi tp 2.28. Tnh din tch ca min D gii hn bi:

y = x2

y2 = x, y2 = 2x
x2 = y, x2 = 2y

x2 = 2y
2x = y2
x = y2

O
Hnh 2.28

Li gii. Ta c S =

ZZ

dxdy. Thc hin php i bin

th

y2

u =
16u62
x

D
:
,
uv

x2
1
6
v
6
2

v =
y
J 1

Vy


y2 2y
D (u, v )

x
= 2xx2
=
2
y
D ( x, y)
xy2
S=

ZZ

Duv




= 3

1
1
dudv =
3
3

Bi tp 2.29. Tnh din tch min D gii hn bi


51

y = 0, y2 = 4ax
x + y = 3a, y 6 0 ( a > 0)

52

Chng 2. Tch phn bi


y

3a
3a

6a
Hnh 2.29
Li gii. Nhn hnh v ta thy D :

6a 6 y 6 0

nn
y2

6 x 6 3a y
4a
3a

Z y
Z0
ZZ
Z0 
y2
dy
dxdy =
3a y
S=
dx =
dy = 18a2
4a
6a

6a

y2
4a

Bi tp 2.30. Tnh din tch min D gii hn bi


y

x2 + y2 = 2x, x2 + y2 = 4x
x = y, y = 0

y=x

Hnh 2.30
Li gii. Ta c S =

ZZ

dxdy, t

S=

Z4
0

0 6 6
x = r cos
4
th D :
nn

y = r sin
2 cos 6 r 6 4 cos

4Z
cos

2 cos

rdr =

1
2

Z4
0

52

12 cos2 d =

3 3
+
4
2

3. Cc ng dng ca tch phn bi

53

Bi tp 2.31. Tnh din tch min D gii hn bi ng trn r = 1, r =


Ch :

2
3

cos .

r = a l phng trnh ng trn tm O(0, 0), bn knh a.


r = a cos l phng trnh ng trn tm (a, 0), bn knh a.
y

Hnh 2.31
Li gii. Giao ti giao im ca 2 ng trn:
2

r = 1 = cos =
6
3
nn
2 cos

3Z

Z6
Z6 
4
3

1
cos2 1 d =

S = 2 d
rdr = 2.
2
3
6
18
0

Bi tp 2.32. Tnh din tch min D gii hn bi ng x2 + y2


)
y
r=a

sin 2

O
x

Hnh 2.32
53

2

= 2a2 xy ( a > 0) (ng

54

Chng 2. Tch phn bi


(

Li gii. Tham s ho ng cong cho, t

x = r cos

, phng trnh ng cong


y = r sin
tng ng vi r2 = a2 sin 2. Kho st v v ng cong cho trong h to cc (xem
hnh v 2.32). Ta c

0 6 6 , 6 6 3
2p
2
D:

0 6 r 6 a sin 2
Do tnh i xng ca hnh v nn

S=2

Z2
0

Zsin 2

rdr =

Z2

a2 sin 2d = a2

Bi tp 2.33. Tnh din tch min D gii hn bi ng x3 + y3 = axy ( a > 0) (L Descartes)

1
2

1
2

TCX: y = x 13
Hnh 2.33
(
x = r cos
Tham s ho ng cong cho, t
, phng trnh ng cong tng ng
y = r sin
vi
a sin cos
r=
sin3 + cos3
Kho st v v ng cong cho trong h to cc (xem hnh v 2.33). Ta c

0 6 6 2
D:
a sin cos

0 6 r 6
sin3 + cos3
54

3. Cc ng dng ca tch phn bi

55

nn

S=

Z2

a sin cos
sin3 Z
+cos3

rdr =

Z2
a2

sin2 cos2

t= tg a2

1
.
d =

2
2 3
sin3 + cos3

+
Z
0

d t3 + 1

( t 3 + 1)

a2
6

Bi tp 2.34. Tnh din tch min D gii hn bi ng r = a (1 + cos ) ( a > 0), (ng
Cardioids hay ng hnh tim)
y

a
O

2a

a
Hnh 2.34

Li gii. Ta c
D = {0 6 6 2, 0 6 r 6 a (1 + cos )}

nn
S=2

a (1+
Zcos )

rdr = a

(1 + cos )2 d = ... =

3a2
2

3.2 Tnh th tch vt th


Cng thc tng qut:
V=

ZZZ

dxdydz

Cc trng hp c bit
1. Vt th hnh tr, mt xung quanh l mt tr c ng sinh song song vi trc
Oz, y l min D trong mt phng Oxy, phaZZtrn gii hn bi mt cong z =

f ( x, y) dxdy. (Xem hnh v di

f ( x, y) , f ( x, y) > 0 v lin tc trn D th V =

y).

55

56

Chng 2. Tch phn bi


z = f ( x, y)

O
D
x

2. Vt th l khi tr, gii hn bi cc ng sinh song song vi trc Oz, hai mt


z = z1 ( x, y) , z = z2 ( x, y). Chiu cc mt ny ln mt phng Oxy ta c min D,
z1 ( x, y) , z2 ( x, y) l cc hm lin tc, c o hm ring lin tc trn D. Khi :
V=

ZZ

|z1 ( x, y) z2 ( x, y)| dxdy

z = f ( x, y)

z = g( x, y)
y

O
D
x

3x + y > 1

Bi tp 2.35. Tnh din tch min gii hn bi 3x + 2y 6 2


.

y > 0, 0 6 z 6 1 x y
56

3. Cc ng dng ca tch phn bi

57
z

Hnh 2.35

Li gii.

V=

ZZ

f ( x, y) dxdy =

Z1
0

dy

22y
Z3

1 y
3

1
(1 x y ) dx =
6

Bi tp 2.36. Tnh th tch ca min V gii hn bi

Z1 
0


1
1 2y + y2 dy =
18

z = 4 x 2 y2

2z = 2 + x2 + y2

2z = 2 + x2 + y2

z = 4 x 2 y2

Hnh 2.36
57

58

Chng 2. Tch phn bi

Li gii. Giao tuyn ca hai mt cong:

x 2 + y2 = 2
z=2

, nn hnh chiu ca V ln mt phng

Oxy l D : x2 + y2 2. Hn na trn D th 4 x2 y2 >


V=

ZZ 
D

x = r cos
y = r sin

th

2+ x 2 + y2
2

2 + x 2 + y2
4x y
2
2

nn ta c:

dxdy

0 6 6 2
, do
06r6 2

V=

Z2

Bi tp 2.37. Tnh th tch ca V :

Z 2
0


3 2
3 r rdr = ... = 3
2

0 6 z 6 1 x 2 y2

.
y > x, y 6 3x
z

1
y

Hnh 2.37

x
Li gii. Do x y

3x nn x, y 0. Ta c
V=

ZZ 
D


1 x2 y2 dxdy
58

3. Cc ng dng ca tch phn bi

59

66
x = r cos
4
3 . Vy
th

y = r sin
06r61

Z3

V=

Bi tp 2.38. Tnh th tch V :

Z1 
0

1 r2 rdr = . . . =
48

x2 + y2 + z2 6 4a2
x2 + y2 2ay 6 0

2a

O
2a

2a

Hnh 2.38

Li gii. Do tnh cht i xng ca min V nn


V=4

ZZ q
D

trong D l na hnh trn D :

4a2 x2 y2 dxdy,

x + y 2ay 6 0

x>0

59

. t

0 6 6
x = r cos
2

0 6 r 6 2a sin
y = r sin

60

Chng 2. Tch phn bi

Vy

V=4

Z2

2aZsin

= 4.

4
3

1
2

Z2

32a3
=
3

Z2

4a2 r2 rdr

3
2 2
2 r =2a sin
d
4a r2 r=0
3


8a3 8a3 cos3 d

2
3

z=0

x 2 y2
Bi tp 2.39. Tnh th tch ca min V gii hn bi z = a2 + b2 .

2
2

x + y = 2x
a2
b2
a
z
z=

x2
a2

y2
b2

O
a

Hnh 2.39
Li gii. Ta c hnh chiu ca V ln mt phng Oxy l min D :
i xng ca min V nn:

ZZ  2
y2
x
+ 2 dxdy,
V=2
a2
b
D+

60

x2
a2

y2
b2

2x
a .

Do tnh cht

3. Cc ng dng ca tch phn bi

61
y2

trong D + l na ellipse D + : xa2 + b2 = 2x


a ,y > 0

(
0 6 6
x = ar cos
2
. Vy
t
th | J | = abr,

y = br sin
0 6 r 6 2 cos
2

V=2

Z2
0

2Z
cos

r2 rdr = ... =

3
2

az = x2 + y2
q
Bi tp 2.40. Tnh th tch ca min V :
.
z = x 2 + y2
z

Hnh 2.40
Li gii. Giao tuyn ca hai ng cong:
z=

x 2 + y2

x 2 + y2 =
a

x 2 + y 2 = a2
z=a

Vy hnh chiu ca V ln mt phng Oxy l


D : x 2 + y 2 = a2
Nhn xt rng, trong min D th mt nn pha trn mt paraboloit nn:

ZZ q
x 2 + y2
2
2
V=
x +y
dxdy
a
D

61

62
t

Chng 2. Tch phn bi


(

x = r cos
y = r sin

th

0 6 6 2
06r6a

V=

Z2
0

. Vy

Za 
0


a3
r2
rdr = ... =
r
a
6

3.3 Tnh din tch mt cong


Mt z = f ( x, y) gii hn bi mt ng cong kn, hnh chiu ca mt cong ln mt
phng Oxy l D. f ( x, y) l hm s lin tc, c cc o hm ring lin tc trn D. Khi :
ZZ q
1 + p2 + q2 dxdy, p = f x0 , q = f y0
=
D

z = f ( x, y)

O
D
x

62

CHNG
TCH

PHN PH THUC THAM S .

1. T CH PHN XC NH PH THUC THAM S .


1.1 Gii thiu
Xt tch phn xc nh ph thuc tham s: I (y) =

Zb

f ( x, y) dx, trong f ( x, y) kh

tch theo x trn [ a, b] vi mi y [ c, d]. Trong bi hc ny chng ta s nghin cu mt s


tnh cht ca hm s I (y)nh tnh lin tc, kh vi, kh tch.

1.2 Cc tnh cht ca tch phn xc nh ph thuc


tham s.
1) Tnh lin tc.
nh l 3.7. Nu f ( x, y)l hm s lin tc trn [ a, b ] [ c, d] th I (y)l hm s lin
tc trn [c, d]. Tc l:

lim I (y) = I (y0 ) lim

y y0

y y0

Zb
a

f ( x, y) dx =

Zb

f ( x, y0 ) dx

2) Tnh kh vi.
nh l 3.8. Gi s vi mi y [c, d], f ( x, y) l hm s lin tc theo x trn [ a, b] v
0
f y ( x, y) l hm s lin tc trn [ a, b] [c, d] th I (y) l hm s kh vi trn (c, d) v
63

64

Chng 3. Tch phn ph thuc tham s.

I (y) =

Zb

f y ( x, y) dx , hay ni cch khc chng ta c th a du o hm vo trong


0

tch phn.

3) Tnh kh tch.
nh l 3.9. Nu f ( x, y) l hm s lin tc trn [ a, b] [ c, d] th I (y)l hm s kh
tch trn [c, d] , v:
Zd

I (y) dy :=

Zd
c

Zb
a

f ( x, y) dx dy =

Zb
a

Zd
c

f ( x, y) dy dx

Bi tp
Bi tp 3.1. Kho st s lin tc ca tch phn I (y) =

Z1

y f (x)
dx
x 2 + y2

, vi f ( x ) l hm s

dng, lin tc trn [0, 1] .


Li gii. Nhn xt rng hm s g ( x, y) =

y f (x)
x 2 + y2

lin tc trn mi hnh ch nht [0, 1] [ c, d]

v [0, 1] [d, c] vi 0 < c < d bt k, nn theo nh l 3.7, I (y) lin tc trn mi


[c, d] , [d, c] , hay ni cch khc I (y) lin tc vi mi y 6= 0.
By gi ta xt tnh lin tc ca hm s I (y) ti im y = 0 . Do f ( x ) l hm s dng, lin
tc trn [0, 1] nn tn ti m > 0 sao cho f ( x ) > m > 0 x [0, 1] . Khi vi > 0 th:
I ( ) =

Z1

f ( x)
dx >
x 2 + 2

Z1

f ( x )
dx 6
x 2 + 2

I () =

Suy ra | I () I ()| >


0 khi 0 , I (y) gin on ti y = 0 .
2m.arctg x

2m. 2

Z1
0

Z1
0

.m
x
dx = m.arctg
2

x2

.m
x
dx = m.arctg
2
2
x +

khi 0 , tc l | I () I ()| khng tin ti

Bi tp 3.2. Tnh cc tch phn sau:


a) In () =

Z1

x lnn xdx , n l s nguyn dng.

Li gii.
Vi mi > 0, hm s f n ( x, ) = x lnn x, n = 0, 1, 2, ... lin tc theo x
trn [0, 1]
64

1. Tch phn xc nh ph thuc tham s.


V lim x lnn+1 x = 0 nn
x 0+

65

f n ( x,)

= x lnn+1 x lin tc trn [0, 1] (0, +).

Ngha l hm s f n ( x, ) = x lnn x tho mn cc iu kin ca nh l 3.8 nn:


d
In1 () =
d
0

Z1

x ln

n 1

xdx =

Z1

d  n 1 
x ln
x dx =
d

Z1

x lnn xdx = In ()

Tng t, In2 = In1 , ..., I2 = I1 , I1 = I0 , suy ra In () = [ I0 ()](n) . M I0 () =


Z1
h
i(n )
(1)n n!
1
1
x dx = +

I
=
(
)
n
n +1 .
1
+1
0

( + 1)

b)

Z2
0


ln 1 + y sin2 x dx, vi y > 1.


Li gii. Xt hm s f ( x, y) = ln 1 + y sin2 x tho mn cc iu kin sau:



f ( x, y) = ln 1 + y sin2 x xc nh trn 0, 2 (1, +) v vi mi y > 1 cho


trc, f ( x, y) lin tc theo x trn 0, 2 .
 
2x
0
Tn ti f y ( x, y) = 1+sin
xc
nh,
lin
tc
trn
0, 2 (1, +) .
2
y sin x

Theo nh l 3.8, I 0 (y) =


t t = tgx th dx =
0

I (y) =

+
Z
0

Z2

0
dt
,0
1+ t 2

sin2 x
dx
1+ y sin2 x

Z2
0

6 t 6 + .

dx

1
+y
sin2 x


1
1
1

dt
y t2 + 1 1 + ( y + 1 ) t2
0
#
p

arctg t y + 1 |0+

t2 dt
=
(t2 + 1) (1 + t2 + yt2 )

"

+ 
Z

1
1
arctgt|0+ p
y
y+1
!
1

p
1 p
= p
.
=
2y
1+y
2 1+y 1+ 1+y
=

Suy ra



p

1
p
.
dy = ln 1 + 1 + y + C
2 1+y 1+ 1+y
p

Do I (0) = 0 nn C = ln 2 v I (y) = ln 1 + 1 + y ln 2.
I (y) =

I (y) dy =

Bi tp 3.3. Xt tnh lin tc ca hm s I (y) =

Z1
0

65

y2 x 2
2 dx.
( x 2 + y2 )

66

Chng 3. Tch phn ph thuc tham s.

Li gii. Ti y = 0 , I (0) =

Z1
0

Z1

Ti y 6= 0 , I (y) =

x12 dx = , nn hm s I (y) khng xc nh ti y = 0.

( x2 +y2 )2x.x
( x 2 + y2 )

dx =

vi mi y 6= 0 .

Z1
0

x
x 2 + y2

1
,
1+ y2

nn I (y) xc nh v lin tc

1.3 Cc tnh cht ca tch phn ph thuc tham s vi


cn bin i.
Xt tch phn ph thuc tham s vi cn bin i
J (y) =

bZ(y)

a(y)

f ( x, y) dx, vi y [c, d] , a 6 a (y) , b (y) 6 b y [c, d]

1) Tnh lin tc
nh l 3.10. Nu hm s f ( x, y) lin tc trn [ a, b ] [c, d] , cc hm s a ( y) , b (y)
lin tc trn [c, d] v tho mn iu kin a 6 a (y) , b (y) 6 b y [ c, d] th J (y) l
mt hm s lin tc i vi y trn [c, d] .
2) Tnh kh vi
nh l 3.11. Nu hm s f ( x, y) lin tc trn [ a, b] [ c, d] , f y ( x, y) lin tc trn
[ a, b ] [c, d] , v a (y) , b (y) kh vi trn [c, d] v tho mn iu kin a 6 a ( y) , b (y) 6
b y [c, d] th J (y) l mt hm s kh vi i vi y trn [ c, d], v ta c:
0

J 0 (y) =

bZ(y)

a(y)

f y ( x, y) dx + f (b (y) , y) by (y) f (a ( y) , y) ay (y)

Bi tp
Bi tp 3.4. Tm lim

y 0

1Z+ y

dx
.
1+ x 2 + y2

Li gii. D dng kim tra c hm s I (y) =

1Z+ y
y

l 3.10, nn lim

y 0

1Z+ y
y

dx
1+ x 2 + y2

= I (0 ) =

Z1

dx
1+ x 2

= 4 .

66

dx
1+ x 2 + y2

lin tc ti y = 0 da vo nh

2. T CH PHN SUY RNG PH THUC THAM S .


2.1 Cc tnh cht ca tch phn suy rng ph thuc
tham s.
Xt tch phn suy rng ph thuc tham s I (y) =

+
Z
a

f ( x, y)dx, y [c, d]. Cc kt qu

di y tuy pht biu i vi tch phn suy rng loi II (c cn bng v cng) nhng u
c th p dng mt cch thch hp cho trng hp tch phn suy rng loi I (c hm di
du tch phn khng b chn).
1) Du hiu hi t Weierstrass
nh l 3.12. Nu | f ( x, y)| 6 g ( x ) ( x, y) [ a, + ] [ c, d] v nu tch phn suy

rng

+
Z

g ( x ) dx hi t, th tch phn suy rng I (y) =

+
Z

f ( x, y)dx hi t u i vi

y [c, d].
2) Tnh lin tc

nh l 3.13. Nu hm s f ( x, y) lin tc trn [ a, + ] [c, d] v nu tch phn suy

rng I (y) =
trn [ c, d].

+
Z
a

f ( x, y)dx hi t u i vi y [c, d] th I (y) l mt hm s lin tc

3) Tnh kh vi
nh l 3.14. Gi s hm s f ( x, y) xc nh trn [ a, + ] [ c, d] sao cho vi mi y
0
[c, d] , hm s f ( x, y) lin tc i vi x trn [ a, +] v f y ( x, y) lin tc trn [ a, + ]

[c, d]. Nu tch phn suy rng I (y) =

+
Z

f ( x, y)dx hi t v

i vi y [ c, d] th I (y) l hm s kh vi trn [c, d] v

+
Z
a

I 0 (y)

f y ( x, y)dx hi t u
0

+
Z

f y ( x, y) dx.
0

4) Tnh kh tch
nh l 3.15. Nu hm s f ( x, y) lin tc trn [ a, + ] [c, d] v nu tch phn suy
rng I (y) hi t u i vi y [c, d] th I (y) l hm s kh tch trn [ c, d] v ta c
67

68

Chng 3. Tch phn ph thuc tham s.

th i th t ly tch phn theo cng thc:

Zd

I (y) dy :=

Zd
c

+
Z
a

f ( x, y) dx dy =

+ Zd
Z

f ( x, y) dy dx.

2.2 Bi tp
Dng 1. Tnh tch phn suy rng ph thuc tham s bng cch i th t ly
tch phn
Gi s cn tnh I (y) =

+
Z

f ( x, y)dx.

B1. Biu din f ( x, y) =

Zd

F ( x, y) dy.

B2. S dng tnh cht i th t ly tch phn:

I (y) =

+
Z

f ( x, y)dx =

+ Zd
Z
a

F ( x, y) dydx =

Zd
c

+
Z
a

F ( x, y) dx dy

Ch : Phi kim tra iu kin i th t ly tch phn trong nh l 3.15 i vi tch


phn suy rng ca hm s F ( x, y).
Bi tp 3.5. Tnh cc tch phn sau:
a)

Z1

xb x a
ln x dx,

(0 < a < b ).

Li gii. Ta c:
xb x a
= F ( x, b) F ( x, a) =
ln x

Zb

Fy ( x, y) dy =

Zb

x dy;

xy
F ( x, y) :=
ln x

nn:
Z1
0

xb

xa

dx =
ln x

Z1
0

Zb
a

x dy dx =
y

Zb
a

Z1
0

x dx dy =

Kim tra iu kin v i th t ly tch phn:


68

Zb
a

1
b+1
dy = ln
y+1
a+1

2. Tch phn suy rng ph thuc tham s.

b)

+
Z

ex e x
dx,
x

69

(, > 0).

Li gii. Ta c:


ex e x
x

F (x,y): = e

yx
x

F ( x, ) F ( x, ) =

Fy ( x, y) =

eyx dy

nn:
+
Z
ex e x

+ Z
Z

dx =

yx

dy dx =

Kim tra iu kin v i th t ly tch phn:


c)

+
Z

ex e x
x2

+
Z

yx

dx dy =

dy
= ln .
y

dx, (, > 0).

Li gii. Ta c:
2
ex

2
e x

x2

F (x,y): = e

yx 2
x2

nn:
+
2
2
Z
ex e x

x2

Vi iu kin bit

F ( x, ) F ( x, ) =

dx =

+
Z

2
e x dx

+ Z
Z

ta c

Suy ra I =

2 y dy

+
Z

Fy ( x, y) dy =

eyx dy

e x y dx =

+
Z
0

2 y.

e x y dx dy

e x y dy dx =


.

Kim tra iu kin v i th t ly tch phn:


e)

+
Z

sin cx
, (a, b, c > 0).
e ax sin bx
x

Li gii. Ta c:

ax sin bx

sin cx
x

F (x,y)=

e ax sin yx
x

F ( x, b) F ( x, c) =
69

Zb
c

Fy ( x, y) dy =

Zb
c

e ax cos yxdx

70

Chng 3. Tch phn ph thuc tham s.


nn:
I=

+ Zb
Z

e ax cos yxdx

v I =

Zb

a
dy
a2 + y2

e ax cos yxdy dx =

a2 +a y2 e ax

cos yx +

Zb
c

y
e ax
a2 + y2

+
Z
0

e ax cos yxdx dy

sin yx, suy ra

+
Z

e ax cos yxdx =

a
,
a2 + y2

= arctg ba arctg ac .

Kim tra iu kin v i th t ly tch phn:


Dng 2. Tnh tch phn bng cch o hm qua du tch phn.
Gi s cn tnh I (y) =

+
Z

f ( x, y)dx.

B1. Tnh

I 0 (y)

bng cch

I 0 (y)

+
Z

f y ( x, y) dx.

B2. Dng cng thc Newton-Leibniz khi phc li I (y) bng cch I (y) =

I 0 (y) dy.

Ch : Phi kim tra iu kin chuyn du o hm qua tch phn trong nh l 3.14.
Bi tp 3.6. Chng minh rng tch phn ph thuc tham s I (y) =

+
Z

arctg( x + y)
dx
1+ x 2

l mt

hm s lin tc kh vi i vi bin y. Tnh I 0 (y) ri suy ra biu thc ca I (y).


Li gii. Ta c:
f ( x, y) =

arctg( x + y)
1+ x 2



arctg(x+y)
1+ x 2 6

lin tc trn [, + ] [, + ].

1
2 . 1+ x 2

trn [, +].

, m

+
Z

1
1+ x 2

= hi t, nn I (y) =

+
Z

arctg( x + y)
dx
1+ x 2

hi t u

Theo nh l 3.13, I (y) lin tc trn [, + ].


+
Z


0
0

1
1
6 1+ x2 , y; do
Hn na f y ( x, y) =
f y ( x, y)dx hi t u trn
(1+ x2 )[1+( x + y)2 ]

[, +]. Theo nh l 3.14, I (y) kh vi trn [, +], v:

I 0 (y)

+
Z

70

1
dx.
(1+ x2 ) [1+( x + y)2 ]

2. Tch phn suy rng ph thuc tham s.

71

1
+B
= Ax
+ Cx+ D 2 , dng phng php ng nht h s ta thu c:A
1+ x 2
1+( x + y)
(1+ x2 )[1+( x + y)2 ]
2
2
1
, B = y(y2 +4) , C = y2 +4 , D = y23+4 . Do :
y(y2 +4)

1
I 0 (y) = 2
y +4
1
+4
4
= 2
y +4

y2

Suy ra I (y) =

#
2x + 3y
2x + y
+
1 + x2
1 + ( x + y)2


i


h

2

2
ln 1 + x + y arctg x + ln 1 + ( x + y) + y arctg ( x + y) |+
x =
"

+
Z

= 2 arctg + C, mt khc I (0) =


y
2

I 0 (y) dy

+
Z

arctg x
dx
1+ x 2

= 0 nn C = 0 v

y
2

I (y) = 2 arctg

Bi tp 3.7. Tnh cc tch phn sau:


a)

Z1

xb x a
ln x dx,

(0 < a < b ).

Li gii. t I ( a) =

Z1

xb x a
ln x dx,

f ( x, a) =

xb x a
ln x .

Ta c:

xb x a
ln x lin tc trn theo x trn [0, 1]
= x a lin tc trn [0, 1] (0, +).

f ( x, a) =
0

f a ( x, a)

Z1

f a ( x, a)dx =

Z1
0

vi mi 0 < a < b.

x a dx = a+1 1 hi t u trn [0, 1] v n l TPX.

Do theo nh l 3.14,
0

I ( a) =

Z1
0

f a ( x, a) dx =

1
I ( a) =
a+1

I 0 ( a) da = ln ( a + 1) + C.

+1
Mt khc I (b) = 0 nn C = ln (b + 1) v do I ( a) = ln ba+
1.

b)

+
Z

ex e x
dx,
x

(, > 0).

Li gii. t I () =

+
Z

ex e x
dx,
x

f ( x, ) =

71

ex e x
.
x

Ta c:

72

Chng 3. Tch phn ph thuc tham s.


ex e x
lin tc theo x trn [0, +) vi
x
= ex lin tc trn [0, +) (0, +).

f ( x, ) =
0

f ( x, )

+
Z

mi , > 0.

+
Z

f ( x, ) dx =

ex dx = 1 hi t u i vi trn mi khong [, +)

theo tiu chun Weierstrass, tht vy,

|ex |

ex ,

+
Z

ex dx =

hi t.

Do theo nh l 3.14,
+
Z

I () =

f ( x, ) dx =

1
I () =

I 0 () d = ln + C.

Mt khc, I ( ) = 0 nn C = ln v I = ln .

c)

+
Z

ex e x
x2

dx, (, > 0).

+
Z

Li gii. t I () =

ex e x
x2

dx, f ( x, ) =

ex e x
x2

. Ta c:

f ( x, ) =

ex e x
x2

lin tc theo x trn [0, +) vi mi , > 0.

f ( x, ) = ex lin tc trn [0, +) (0, +).


0

+
Z

f ( x, ) dx =

+
Z

2
ex dx

x = y

+
Z

ey

dy

1
2 .

hi t u theo



2
2

trn mi [, + ) theo tiu chun Weierstrass, tht vy, ex 6 ex m
0

+
Z

ex dx hi t.
2

Do theo nh l 3.14,
0

I ( ) =

+
Z
0

f ( x, ) dx =

Mt khc, I ( ) = 0 nn C =
d)

+
Z

1
. I () =
2


I 0 () d = . + C.

p
p

. v I () =
.

dx
n +1
( x2 + y)

72

2. Tch phn suy rng ph thuc tham s.


+
Z

Li gii. t In (y) =

73

dx
n+1 , f n ( x, y )
( x 2 + y)

1
n +1 .
( x2 + y)

Khi :

[ In1 (y)]y =

+
Z
0

dx
= n
n
2
( x + y)
y

+
Z
0

dx

( x2 + y)

n +1

0
1
= n.In (y) In = ( In1 ) .
n

1
1
Tng t, In1 = n
1 ( In 2 ) , In 2 = n 2 ( In 3 ) , ..., I1 = ( I0 ) .

Do , In (y) =
In (y) =

(1)n
n!

[ I0 (y)]

(n )

+
Z

. M I0 (y) =

1
dx
x2 + y

(2n 1)!! 1
2 . (2n)!! . y2n+1 .

1 arctg x |+
y
y 0

2 y

nn

Vn cn li l vic kim tra iu kin chuyn o hm qua du tch phn.

Cc hm s f ( x, y) =

x2 + y

, f y ( x, y) =

(n )

2
( x2 + y)

, ..., f yn ( x, y) =

trong [0, +) [ , + ) vi mi > 0 cho trc.






(1)n
1
1
1
1
x2 +y 6 x2 + , 2 2 6 2 2 , ..., 2 n+1 6 2 1 n+1
( x + y)
( x + )
( x + y)
( x + )
M cc tch phn
+
Z

f ( x, y) dx,

1
dx, ...,
x2 +

+
Z

1
n+1 dx
( x2 + )

lin tc

u hi t, do

f y ( x, y) dx, ...,

+
Z

f yn ( x, y) dx hi t u trn [, + )vi mi >


(n )

0.
e)

+
Z

+
Z

(1)n
n +1
( x 2 + y)

+
Z

sin cx
e ax sin bx
dx (a, b, c > 0) .
x

Li gii. t I (b) =

+
Z

sin cx
sin cx
e ax sin bx
dx, f ( x, b) = e ax sin bx
. Ta c:
x
x

f ( x, b) = e ax sin bxx sin cx lin tc theo x trn [0, +) vi mi a, b, c > 0.


f b ( x, b) = e ax cos bx lin tc trn [0, +) (0, +).
0

+
Z

f b ( x, b) dx =

+
Z

e ax cos bx

a2 +a b2 e ax

cos bx +

b
e ax sin bx
a2 + b 2


+
0 =

hi t u theo b trn mi (0, +) theo tiu chun Weierstrass, tht vy,

| e ax cos bx |

2
e ax

+
Z

e ax dx hi t.
2

73

a
a2 + b 2

74

Chng 3. Tch phn ph thuc tham s.


Z

Do theo nh l 3.14, Ib ( x, b) =
0

Mt khc I (c) = 0 nn C =

f)

+
Z

a
, I = a2 +a b2 db = arctg ba
a2 + b 2
arctg ac v I = arctg ba arctg ac .

+ C.

e x cos (yx ) dx.

Li gii. t I (y) =

+
Z

e x cos (yx ) dx, f ( x, y) = e x cos (yx ) .Ta c:


2

f ( x, y) lin tc trn [0, +) (, +).


f y ( x, y) = xe x sin yx lin tc trn [0, +) (, +).
0

+
Z

f y ( x, y) dx =

+
Z
0

2
xe x

sin yxdx =

1 x2
2e



sin yx 0+

1
2

+
Z

ye x cos yxdx =

y
2 I

(y)

+
Z


2
2
0

x
hi t u theo tiu chun Weierstrass, tht vy, f y ( x, y) 6 xe , m
xe x dx =
1
2

hi t.

Do theo nh l 3.14,
M I (0) = C =

I 0 (y)
I (y)

nn I (y) =

y2

= 2 I = Ce 4 .
y

y4
2 e

Nhn xt:
Vic kim tra cc iu kin o hm qua du tch phn hay iu kin i th t
ly tch phn i khi khng d dng cht no.
+
Z

Cc tch phn

f ( x, ) dx cu b, c, d ch hi t u trn khong [, + ) vi mi
0

> 0, m khng hi t u trn (0, +). Tuy nhin iu cng khng nh


rng I =
0

+
Z

f ( x, ) dx trn (0, +).


0

74

3. Tch phn Euler

75

3. T CH PHN EULER
3.1 Hm Gamma
( p) =

+
Z

x p1 e x dx xc nh trn (0, +)

Cc cng thc
1. H bc: ( p + 1) = p ( p) , ( n) =

(1)n ()
.
(1 )(2 )...(n )

ngha ca cng thc trn l nghin cu ( p) ta ch cn nghin cu ( p) vi


0 < p 6 1 m thi, cn vi p > 1 chng ta s s dng cng thc h bc.

2. c
nn (n) = (n 1)! n N.
 bit, (1) = 1 
(2n 1)!!
1
.
2 = nn n + 12 = 22
3. o hm ca hm Gamma:

( k)

( p) =

+
Z
0

4. ( p) . (1 p ) =

sin p

x p1

ln x .e x dx.

0 < p < 1.

3.2 Hm Beta
Dng 1: B ( p, q) =
Dng 2: B ( p, q) =

Z1

x p1 (1 x )

0
+
Z

q 1

x p 1
dx.
(1+ x ) p + q

Dng lng gic: B ( p, q) = 2


Cc cng thc:

dx.

Z2

sin2p1 t cos2q1 tdt, B

m+1 n +1
2 , 2

= 2

Z2

sinm t cosm tdt.

1. Tnh i xng: B ( p, q) = B (q, p ).


2. H bc:

B ( p, q) =

B ( p, q) =

p1
p+ q 1 B ( p 1, q) ,
q 1
p+ q 1 B ( p, q 1) ,

nu p > 1
nu q > 1

ngha ca cng thc trn ch mun nghin cu hm bta ta ch cn nghin cu


n trong khong (0, 1] (0, 1] m thi.
75

76

Chng 3. Tch phn ph thuc tham s.


3. c bit, B (1, 1) = 1 nn

B (m, n) =
B ( p, n) =

( m1)!(n 1)!
, m, n N
(m+ n 1)!
(n 1)!
n
( p+ n 1)( p+ n 2)...( p+1) p

4. Cng thc lin h gia hm Bta v Gamma: B ( p, q) =


5. B ( p, 1 p ) = ( p) (1 p) =

N.

( p) (q )
.
( p+ q)

sin p .

3.3 Bi tp

Z2

Bi tp 3.8. Biu th

sinm x cosn xdx qua hm B (m, n).

Li gii. t sin x =

t 0 6 t 6 1, cos xdx =

Z2

sin x cos xdx =

Z2
0

sin x 1 sin x

 n 1
2

dt
2 t

1
. cos xdx =
2

Z2
0

m
2

t (1 t )

n 1
2

12

1
dt = B
2

m+1 n+1
,
2
2

y chnh l cng thc dng lng gic ca hm Beta.


Bi tp 3.9.

a)

Z2

sin6 x cos4 xdx.

Li gii. Ta c
1
I= B
2
b)

Za
0

7 5
,
2 2

7
2

1
= .
2
( 6)

5
2


 

1
1
5!! 3!!

3
+

2
+
2
2
3
1
1 23 . 22
=
= .
= .
2
( 6)
2
5!
512

x2n a2 x2 dx ( a > 0) .

Li gii. t x = a t dx =

adt

2 t


Z1
2n +2 
1
a2n+2
adt
a
1
3
n 21
I = a t .a (1 t) . =
. t
B n+ ,
(1 t) 2 dt =
2
2
2 2
2 t
0
0




1
3
(2n 1)!!

n
+
2n
+
2
.
2 2
a2n+2
a2n+2 (2n 1)!!
a
n
2
. 2
=
=
=
2
( n + 2)
2
2 (2n + 2)!!
( n + 1) !
Z1

2n n

1
2

76

3. Tch phn Euler

c)

+
Z

77

x10 e x dx

Li gii. t x =
+
Z

I=

t dx =

dt

2 t

dt
1
t e . =
2
2 t

d)

5 t

+
Z

1
t e dt =
2

9
2

11
2

1 9!!
9!!
= . 5 =
.
2 2
26

+
Z

x
2 dx
(1+ x 2 )

Li gii. t x2 = t 2xdx = dt
I=

+ 41 dt
Z
t .

1
=
2
2
(1 + t )
2 t

+
Z
0

Vy
1
I= B
2

e)

+
Z

3 5
,
4 4

p 1 = 1
1
4
= B ( p, q) vi
2

2
(1 + t )
p+q = 2
1
t 4 dt

1 5 1
= .3 4 5
B
2 4 + 4 1

3 1
,
4 4

1
= .B
8

3 1
,
4 4

p =

q =

= .
=
8 sin 4
4 2

1
dx
1+ x 3

Li gii. t x3 = t dx = 13 t 3 dt
2

1
I=
3

f)

+
Z
0

x n +1
dx,
(1+ x n )

+ 2
Z
t 3 dt

1
= B
1+t
3

1 2
,
3 3

1
2
=
3 sin 3
3 3

(2 < n N )

Li gii. t x n = t dx = n1 t n 1 dt
1

I=

+
Z

1
.
n



1
2
2
dt = B
+ 1, 1
n
n
n
(1 + t)2
(1 + t)2
0


2
2
2
2

n


.
= 2
B
,1
2
n
n
n sin 2
+1 + 1 n 1
n

n +1
n

2
n

. n1 t n 1 dt

1
=
n

+
Z

77

tn

3
4
5
4

78

g)

Chng 3. Tch phn ph thuc tham s.


Z1
0

dx,
n
1 x n

n N

Li gii. t x n = t dx = n1 t n 1 dt
1

I=

Z1 1 n1 1
dt
nt
0

1
1 =
n
(1 t ) n

Z1
0

1
n 1

. (1 t )

78

n1

1
dt = B
n

1
1
,1
n
n

1
n sin n

CHNG
TCH

PHN NG

1. T CH PHN NG LOI I
1.1 nh ngha
c . Chia cung AB
c thnh n cung
Cho hm s f ( x, y) xc nh trn mt cung phng AB
nh, gi tn v di ca chng ln lt l s1 , s2 , ...sn . Trn mi cung si ly mt im
n

Mi bt k. Gii hn, nu c, ca tng f ( Mi ) si khi n sao cho max si 0 khng


i =1

c v cch chn cc im Mi c gi l tch phn ng


ph thuc vo cch chia cung AB
Z
c
f ( x, y) ds.
loi mt ca hm s f ( x, y) dc theo cung AB, k hiu l
c
AB

Ch :

c
Tch phn ng loi mt khng ph thuc vo hng ca cung AB.

c c khi lng ring ti M ( x, y) l ( x, y) th khi lng ca n l


Nu
cung AB
Z
( x, y) ds. nu tch phn tn ti.

c
AB

c c tnh theo cng thc l =


Chiu di ca cung AB

c
AB

ds.

Tch phn ng loi mt c cc tnh cht ging nh tch phn xc nh.


79

80

Chng 4. Tch phn ng

1.2 Cc cng thc tnh tch phn ng loi I


c cho bi phng trnh y = y ( x ) , a 6 x 6 b th
1. Nu cung AB
Z

f ( x, y) ds =

Zb

f ( x, y ( x ))

c
AB

1 + y02 ( x )dx.

c cho bi phng trnh x = x (y) , c 6 y 6 d th


2. Nu cung AB
Z

f ( x, y) ds =

Zd

f ( x (y) , y)

c
AB

1 + x 02 (y)dy.

c cho bi phng trnh x = x (t), y = y(t), t1 t t2 , th


3. Nu AB
Z

f ( x, y)ds =

Zt2

f ( x (t), y(t))

t1

c
AB

x 02 (t) + y02 (t) dt

(1 )

(2 )

(3 )

c cho bi phng trnh trong to cc r = r ( ) , 1 2 th coi n


4. Nu cung AB
p
nh l phng trnh di dng tham s, ta c ds = r2 ( ) + r 02 ( )d v
Z

f ( x, y) ds =

Z2

f (r ( ) cos , r ( ) sin )

c
AB

r2 ( ) + r 02 ( )d

1.3 Bi tp

Bi tp 4.1. Tnh

( x y) ds, C l ng trn c phng trnh x2 + y2 = 2x.

x = 1 + cos t
Li gii. t
y = sin t
I=

Z2
0

Bi tp 4.2. Tnh

, 0 6 t 6 2

(1 + cos t sin t)

( sin t)2 + cos2 tdt = 2

x = a ( t sin t)
2
y ds, C l ng cong
y = a (1 cos t)
80

, 0 6 t 6 2, a > 0.

(4 )

1. Tch phn ng loi I


Li gii.

x 0 (t) = a (1 cos t)
y0 (t) = a sin t

I=

Bi tp 4.3. Tnh

Z p
C

Li gii.

I=

81

Z2r
0

a2

Z2
0

x 02 (t) + y02 (t) = 2a sin

t
2

t
256a3
a2 (1 cos t)2 .2a sin dt =
.
2
15

x = a (cos t + t sin t)
x2 + y2 ds, C l ng
y = a (sin t t cos t)

x 0 (t) = at cos t
y0 (t) = at sin t

x 02 (t) + y02 (t) = at


i

a3
(cos t + t sin t) + (sin t t cos t) .atdt =
3
2

81

, 0 6 t 6 2, a > 0.

q

3
(1 + 4 2 )

82

Chng 4. Tch phn ng

2. T CH PHN NG LOI II
2.1 nh ngha
c Chia cung AB
c thnh n cung nh
Cho hai hm s P ( x, y) , Q ( x, y) xc nh trn cung AB.

si bi cc im chia A0 = A, A1 , A2 , ..., An = B.Gi to ca vect Ai 1 Ai = (xi , yi ) v


n

ly im Mi bt k trn mi cung si . Gii hn, nu c, ca tng [ P ( Mi ) xi + Q ( Mi ) yi ]


i =1

c v cch chn cc im Mi
sao cho max xi 0, khng ph thuc vo cch chia cung AB
c , k
c giZl tch phn ng loi hai ca cc hm s P ( x, y) , Q ( x, y) dc theo cung AB
hiu l

P ( x, y) dx + Q ( x, y) dy.

c
AB

Ch :

c nu i chiu trn ng
Tch phn ng loi hai ph thuc Zvo hng ca cung AB,
Z
ly tch phn th tch phn i du,

c
AB

P ( x, y) dx + Q ( x, y) dy =

P ( x, y) dx + Q ( x, y) dy.

c
BA

Tch phn ng loi hai c cc tnh cht ging nh tch phn xc nh.

2.2 Cc cng thc tnh tch phn ng loi II


c c cho bi phng trnh y = y ( x ), im u v im cui ng vi
1. Nu cung AB
x = a, x = b th
Z

Pdx + Qdy =

Zb 
a

c
AB


P ( x, y ( x )) + Q ( x, y ( x )) .y0 ( x ) dx.

(5 )

c c cho bi phng trnh x = x (y), im u v im cui ng vi


2. Nu cung AB
y = c, y = d th
Z

Pdx + Qdy =

Zd 
c

c
AB



P x (y) .x 0 (y) dy, y + Q ( x (y) , y).

x = x ( t)
c c cho bi phng trnh
3. Nu cung AB
y = y ( t)

(6 )

, im u v im cui tng

ng vi t = t1 , t = t2 th
Z

c
AB

Pdx + Qdy =

Zt2 

t1


P ( x (t) , y (t)) .x 0 (t) + Q ( x (t) , y (t)) y0 (t) dt
82

(7 )

2. Tch phn ng loi II

83

Bi tp
Bi tp 4.4. Tnh



c l cung parabol y = x2 t
x2 2xy dx + 2xy y2 dy, trong AB

c
AB

A (1, 1) n B (2, 4).

Li gii. p dng cng thc (5) ta c:


I=

Z2 h
1

Bi tp 4.5. Tnh

x 2x

+ 2x x

.2x dx =

41
.
30

x = a(t sin t)


x2 2xy dx + 2xy y2 dy trong C l ng cong
y = a(1 cos t)

theo chiu tng ca t, 0 t 2, a > 0.

x 0 (t) = a(1 cos t)


Li gii. Ta c
nn:
y0 (t) = a sin t
I=

Z2
0

{[2a(t sin t) a(1 cos t)] a(1 cos t) + a(t sin t).a sin t} dt

Z2

[(2t 2) + sin 2t + (t 2) sin t (2t 2) cos t]dt

= a2

Z2

[(2t 2) + t sin t 2t cos t]dt

=a

0



= a2 4 2 6 .
Bi tp 4.6. Tnh

ABCA

A(0, 0), B(1, 1), C(0, 2).


2 x2 + y2 dx + x (4y + 3) dy ABCA l ng gp khc i qua
y
C
B

1
O
A

Hnh 4.6
83

84

Chng 4. Tch phn ng

Li gii. Ta c

I=

... +

AB
Z1 h
0

phng trnh ng thng AB : x = y


phng trnh ng thng BC : x = 2 y nn

phng trnh ng thng CA : x = 0

... +

BC

2 y +y

...

CA
2

+ y (4y + 3) dy +

Z2
1

i
h
2 (2 y)2 + y2 . (1) + (2 y) (4y + 3) dy + 0

=3
Bi tp 4.7. Tnh

ABCDA

dx + dy
| x |+|y|

trong ABCDA l ng gp khc qua A(1, 0), B(0, 1), C(1, 0), D (0
y
1B
C

1
A

D
Li gii. Ta c

nn

Hnh 4.7

AB : x + y = 1

BC : x y = 1

CD : x + y = 1

DA : x y = 1
I=

... +

AB

= 0+

BC

Z1

BC

dx = dy

dx + dy = 0

dx = dy
Z

... +

CD

2dx
+0+
x+y

2dx +

... +

dx + dy = 0

Z1

2dx

=0

84

DA

DA

2dx
xy

2. Tch phn ng loi II

85

x
=
t
sin
t

x 2 + y2
Bi tp 4.8. Tnh
dx + dy trong y = t cos t
2

C
0 t 2
4
Li gii. t u =

x = u2 sin u
t0 u ,
y = u2 cos u

I=

Z2 h 
u
0

Z  3
u
0

x 0 (u) = 2u sin u + u2 cos u

y0 (u) = 2u cos u u2 sin u

theo chiu tng ca t.

2u sin u + u cos u + 2u cos u u sin u du




+ 2u cos udu

3
= 2 + 2
2

2.3 Cng thc Green.


Hng dng ca ng cong kn: Nu ng ly tch phn l ng cong kn th
ta quy c hng dng ca ng cong l hng sao cho mt ngi i dc theo ng
cong theo hng y s nhn thy min gii hn bi n gn pha mnh nht nm v pha
bn tri.
y

D
C
x

Gi s D R2 l min n lin, lin thng, b chn vi bin gii D l ng cong kn vi


hng dng, hn na P, Q cng cc o hm ring cp mt ca chng lin tc trn D.
Khi
Z
ZZ 
Q P 
Pdx + Qdy =
dxdy

x
y
C

Ch :

85

86

Chng 4. Tch phn ng


Nu D c hng m th

Pdx + Qdy =

ZZ 
Q
D

P 
dxdy
y

Trong nhiu bi ton, nu C l ng cong khng kn, ta c th b sung C c


ng cong kn v p dng cng thc Green.
Bi tp 4.9. Tnh cc tch phn sau

( xy + x + y) dx + ( xy + x y) dy bng hai cch:

tnh trc tip, tnh nh cng thc Green ri so snh cc kt qu, vi C l ng:
a) x2 + y2 = R2
y

Hnh 4.9 a
Cch
2: S dng cng thc Green

P( x, y) = xy + x + y
P
Q
x y = y x
Q( x, y) = xy + x y

Cch
1: Tnh trc tip
x = R cos t
t
0 t
y = R sin t
I = ...

R3
=
2

Z2

I =

(cos t cos 2t + sin t cos 2t) dt

ZZ

(y x ) dxdy

ZZ

ydxdy

x 2 + y2 6 R 2

x 2 + y2 6 R 2

=0

=0
b) x2 + y2 = 2x
y

86
Hnh 4.9 b

ZZ

x 2 + y2 6 R 2

xdxdy

2. Tch phn ng loi II

87

2
2
2
2
Cch
1: Tnh trc tip. Ta c x + y = 2x ( x 1) + y = 1 nn
x = 1 + cos t
t
, 0 t 2
y = sin t

I=

Z2

{[(1 + cos t) sin t + 1 + cos t + sin t] ( sin t) + [(1 + cos t) sin t + 1 + cos t sin t] cos t}dt

0
Z2
0

2 sin t + cos t cos t sin t + cos t sin t cos t sin t + cos t sin t dt

= ...
=

Cch 2:
S dng cng thc Green.
P( x, y) = xy + x + y
Ta c:
Q
x
Q( x, y) = xy + x y

I =

ZZ

( x 1) 2 + y2 61

I=

Z2

Z2

P
y

x = r cos
(y x ) dxdy, t
y = r sin

2Z
cos
0

(r sin 1 r cos )rdr


1
2
(sin cos ) .4 cos 2 cos d
2

c)

x2
a2

y2
b2

= yx

= 1, (a, b > 0)
87

2
2

88

Chng 4. Tch phn ng


Cch 1: Tnh trc tip

x = a cos t
0 t 2
x 0 (t) = a sin t
t
y = b sin t

y0 (t) = b cos t

Cch
2: S dng cng thc Green

P( x, y) = xy + x + y
P
Q
x y = y x
Q( x, y) = xy + x y

I =

I = ...

Z2
0

y2
x2
+ 2 61
a2
b

ab sin t + ab cos t dt

ZZ

x 2 + y 2 61
a2
b2

=0

Bi tp 4.10. Tnh

ZZ

(y x ) dxdy
ydxdy

ZZ

xdxdy

x 2 + y 2 61
a2
b2

=0
Z

x2 y +

x
4

x2 + y2 =2x

dy y2 x +

y
4 dx.

Hnh 4.10
Li gii. p dng cng thc Green ta c:


Z 
Z
Z 
Z

Q P
3 2 3 2
3  2
2
I=
4xydxdy = 0
4xy + x + y dxdy =
dxdy =
x + y dxdy v

x
y
4
4
4
D
D
D
D

x = r cos
t
, ta c 2 2 , 0 r 2 cos . Vy
y = r sin

3
I=
4

Bi tp 4.11. Tnh

OABO

Z2

2Z
cos
0

3
r2 .rdr =
4

Z2

4 cos4 =

e x [(1 cos y ) dx (y sin y) dy] trong OABO l ng gp

khc O(0, 0), A(1, 1), B(0, 2)

88

2. Tch phn ng loi II

89
y
B
A

1
O

Hnh 4.11

P ( x, y) = e x (1 cos y)
Li gii. t
Q ( x, y) = e x (y sin y)

Q
x

ZZ

e x ydxdy

P
y

= e x y.

p dng cng thc Green ta c:

I=

D
Z1

dx

1
=
2

2Z x

Z1
0

e x ydy

e x (4x 4) dx

= 4 2e

Bi tp 4.12. Tnh

x2 + y2 =2x

( xy + e x sin x + x + y) dx ( xy ey + x sin y) dy
y

Hnh 4.12

P ( x, y) = xy + e x sin x + x + y
Li gii. t
Q ( x, y) = xy ey + x sin y

89

Q
x

P
y

= y x 2.

90

Chng 4. Tch phn ng

p dng cng thc Green ta c:

I=

ZZ

D
ZZ
D

y x 2dxdy
x 2dxdy v

x = r cos
t
y = r sin

Z2

ZZ

ydxdy = 0

, 0 r 2 cos
2
2

2Z
cos
0

(r cos 2) rdr

= 3

 3

H

xy4 + x2 + y cos xy dx + x3 + xy2 x + x cos xy dy
Bi tp 4.13. Tnh
C

x = a cos t
trong C
( a > 0 ).
y = a sin t
y

Hnh 4.13

P ( x, y) = xy4 + x2 + y cos xy
Li gii. t
Q ( x, y) = x3 + xy2 x + x cos xy
3

90

Q
x

P
y

= x2 + y2 4xy3 1.

2. Tch phn ng loi II

91

p dng cng thc Green ta c:


I=

ZZ

x2 + y2 4xy3 1dxdy

D
ZZ
D

x = r cos
t
y = r sin

Z2
0

ZZ

x + y 1dxdy v
2

Za 

0
4
a

4xy3 dxdy = 0

0 2, 0 ra


r 1 rdr

2.4 ng dng ca tch phn ng loi II


p dng cng thc Green cho hm s P( x, y), Q( x, y) tho mn
S (D) =

ZZ

1dxdy =

Ly P( x, y) =

P
y

= 1 ta c:

Pdx + Qdy

xdy

Ly P( x, y) = y, Q( x, y) = 0 th S ( D ) =
1
2y

Ly P( x, y) = 0, Q( x, y) = x th S ( D ) =

1
2 x, Q ( x, y)

Q
x

th S ( D ) =

1
2

ydx
Z

xdy ydx

Bi tp4.14. Dng tch phn ng loi II, tnh din tch ca min gii hn bi mt nhp
x = a(t sin t)
v Ox (a > 0).
xycloit
y = a(1 cos t)
y

Hnh 4.14

91

A
2

92

Chng 4. Tch phn ng

Li gii. p dng cng thc


S( D ) =

xdy =

xdy +

AmO

xdy =

Z0

OnA

a ( t sin t) .a sin tdt = 3a2

2.5 iu kin tch phn ng khng ph thuc


ng ly tch phn.
Gi s rng D l min n lin, lin thng, P, Q cng vi cc o hm ring cp mt
ca chng lin tc trn D. Khi bn mnh sau l tng ng:
1.

P
Q
=
vi mi ( x, y) D.
x
y

2.

Pdx + Qdy = 0 vi mi ng cong ng kn L nm trong D.

Pdx + Qdy = 0 khng ph thuc vo ng i t A nB, vi mi ng cong AB

3.

AB

nm trong D.

4. Pdx + Qdy l vi phn ton phn. Ngha l c hm s u( x, y) sao cho du = Pdx + Qdy.
Hm u c th c tm theo cng thc:
u( x, y) =

Zx

P( x, y0 )dx +

x0

Zy

Q( x, y)dy =

Zx

x0

y0

P( x, y)dx +

Zy

Q( x0 , y)dy

y0

Gii bi ton tnh tch phn ng khng ph thuc ng i:


1. Kim tra iu kin Py = Q x .
0

(1 )

2. Nu iu kin (1) c tho mn v ng ly tch phn l ng cong kn th I = 0.


3. Nu iu kin (1) c tho mn v cn tnh tch phn trn cung AB khng ng
th ta chn ng tnh tch phn sao cho vic tnh tch phn l n gin nht, thng
thng ta chn l ng thng ni A vi B, hoc ng gp khc c cc cnh song
song vi cc trc to . Mt khc, nu tm c hm F sao cho du = Pdx + Qdy th
I = u ( B ) u ( A ).
92

2. Tch phn ng loi II

Bi tp 4.15. Tnh

93

(Z3,0)



x4 + 4xy3 dx + 6x2 y2 5y4 dy.

(2,1)

B
x

Hnh 4.15
0
0

Li gii. Nhn xt rng x4 + 4xy3 y = 6x2 y2 5y4 x nn tch phn cho khng ph

thuc vo ng i. Vy ta chn ng i l ng gp khc ACB nh hnh v.


I=

Pdx + Qdy +

AC

Bi tp 4.16. Tnh

2, )
(Z

(1, )

y2
x2

Pdx + Qdy = 62

CB

cos

y
x

y
y
y
dx + sin x + x cos x dy

P = 1 y2 cos y
x
x2
Li gii. t
Q = sin y + y cos y
x

1 2 x

Hnh 4.16

P
y =

Q
x

2y

= x2 cos x +

y2
x3

sin x nn tch phn


y

cho khng ph thuc vo ng i t A n B. Khi ta chn ng ly tch phn l


ng thng AB, n c phng trnh y = x.
I=

Z2 
1

1 cos dx +

Z2
1

93

(sin + cos ) dx = 1

94

Chng 4. Tch phn ng

94

CHNG
TCH

PHN MT

1. T CH PHN MT LOI I
1.1 nh ngha
Cho hm s f ( x, y, z) xc nh trn mt cong S. Chia mt cong S thnh n mt nh
n

S1 , S2 , . . . , Sn . Trn mi Si ly mt im Mi bt k. Gii hn, nu c, ca tng f ( Mi )Si


i =1

khi n v max d(Si ) 0 khng ph thuc vo cch chia mt cong S v cch chn
1 i n

cc im Mi c gi l tch phn mt loi I ca hm s f ( M) trn mt cong S, k hiu l


ZZ

f ( x, y, z)dS.

1.2 Cc cng thc tnh tch phn mt loi I


Gi s S l mt c cho bi phng trnh z = z( x, y); (( x, y) D R2 ), hay l hnh
chiu ca S ln mt phng Oxy l D, z( x, y) cng vi cc o hm ring ca chng
lin tc trn D. Khi
s
ZZ
ZZ
 z 2  z 2
+
dxdy
f ( x, y, z)dS =
f ( x, y, z( x, y)) 1+
x
y
D

1.3 Bi tp
Bi tp 5.1. Tnh

ZZ 
S

z + 2x +

4y
3


dS trong S = ( x, y, z) | x2 +
95

y
3

+ 4z = 1, x > 0, y > 0, z > 0

96

Chng 5. Tch phn mt


z
C

A
x

Hnh 5.1

Li gii. Ta c hnh chiu ca mt S ln mt phng Oxy l


n

o n
x y
x o
D = ( x, y) | + 6 1, x > 0, y > 0 = ( x, y) |0 6 x 6 2, 0 6 y 6 3 1
2 3
2

p = z 0 = 2

p
x
y
x
2 + q2 dxdy = 61 dxdy nn
Mt khc z = 4(1 2 3 )
1
+
p

dS
=
3
q = z0 = 4
y
3
I=

ZZ  
D

x y
4y
4 1
+ 2x +
2 3
3

Bi tp 5.2. Tnh

ZZ

3Z 3x
Z2
2

61
61
dx
dxdy = 4
dy = 4 61
3
3




x2 + y2 dS, S = ( x, y, z) |z = z2 + y2 , 0 6 z 6 1 .

z
1

x
Hnh 5.2
96

1. Tch phn mt loi I

97



2 + y2 6 1
x,
y
|
x
Li gii. Ta c hnh chiu
ca
mt
cong
ln
mt
phng
Oxy
l
D
=
(
)

p = z0 = 2x
x
2
2
Mt khc, z = x + y
nn
q = z0 = 2y
y
I=

ZZ 

x +y

q

x = r cos
t
y = r sin

I=

Z2

Z1

Z5

=
=

16

r2

Z1

r2

1 + 4x2 + 4y2 dxdy

0 2, 0 r 1

1 + 4r2 rdr



1 + 4r2 d 1 + 4r2


t 1 
tdt tt = 1 + 4r2
4
!

20 5
4
+
3
15

97

98

Chng 5. Tch phn mt

2. T CH PHN MT LOI II
2.1 nh hng mt cong
Cho mt cong S trong khng gian. Ti mi im M chnh quy ca mt cong S c hai

vect php tuyn n v l


n v
n.
Nu c th chn c ti mi im M ca mt mt vect php tuyn n v n sao cho
vect n bin thin lin tc trn S th ta ni mt S nh hng c. Khi ta chn
mt hng lm hng dng th hng cn li c gi l hng m.
Ngc li, th mt S gi l khng nh hng c. V d nh l Mobius.

2.2 nh ngha tch phn mt loi II


Cho mt mt cong nh hng S trong min V R3 v n = (cos , cos , cos ) l
vct php tuyn n v theo hng dng chn ca S ti im M( x, y, z). Gi trng

vect F ( M) = ( P ( M) , Q ( M) , R ( M)) bin thin lin tc trn V, ngha l cc to


P ( M) , Q ( M) , R ( M) ca n l nhng hm s lin tc trn V. Chia mt S thnh n mt
cong nh, gi tn v c din tch ca chng ln lt l S1 , S2 , ..., Sn . Trn mi Si ly
mt im Mi bt k v gi vect php tuyn n v theo hng dng chn ca n l ni =
n

(cos i , cos i , cos i ). Gii hn, nu c, ca tng [ P ( Mi ) cos i + Q ( Mi ) cos i + R ( Mi ) cos i ]Si
i =1

c gi l tch phn mt loi II ca cc hm s P ( x, y, z) , Q (x, y, z) , R ( x, y, z) trn mt S,


v c k hiu l:
ZZ

P( x, y, z)dydz + Q( x, y, z)dzdx + R( x, y, z)dxdy

2.3 Cc cng thc tnh tch phn mt loi II


Gi s
I=

ZZ

Pdydz +
{z
I1

ZZ

Qdzdx +
{z
I2

ZZ

Rdxdy .
{z
I3

Ngi ta tnh tch phn mt loi II bng cch a v tch phn kp. Chng hn xt tch
phn I3 . Gi s mt S c phng trnh z = z( x, y), z( x, y) cng vi cc o hm ring ca
chng lin tc trn min D l hnh chiu ca S ln mt phng Oxy. Khi :
98

2. Tch phn mt loi II

99

Nu vect php tuyn n v theo hng dng


n to vi Oz mt gc nhn th
ZZ

Rdxdy =

ZZ

R ( x, y, z ( x, y)) dxdy

Nu vect php tuyn n v theo hng dng


n to vi Oz mt gc t th
ZZ

Rdxdy =

ZZ

R ( x, y, z ( x, y)) dxdy

Tng t nh vy chng ta c th a I1 , I2 v tch phn kp.


Bi tp
Bi tp 5.3. Tnh

ZZ


z x2 + y2 dxdy, trong S l na mt cu x2 + y2 + z2 = 1, z > 0,

hng ca S l pha ngoi mt cu.

n ( x, y, z)
y

O
D:

x2

+ z2

a2

Hnh 5.3

p
Li gii. Ta c mt z = 1 x2 y2 , hnh chiu ca S ln mt phng Oxy l min D :

x2 + y2 1, hn na
n to vi Oz mt gc nhn nn:
ZZ q


2
2
2
2
I=
1 x y x + y dxdy
D

x = r cos
t
y = r sin

Z2

4
15

Z1 p
0

0 2, 0 r 1

1 r2 r3 dr

99

100

Chng 5. Tch phn mt

Bi tp 5.4. Tnh
0, y > 0, z > 0.

ZZ

ydxdz + z2 dxdy trong S l pha ngoi mt x2 +

y2
4

n ( x, y, z)
y

Hnh 5.4

x
Li gii. Tnh I1 =

ZZ

ydxdz

Mt S : y = 2 1 x2 z2
Hnh chiu ca S ln Oxz l

1
4

hnh trn, D1 : x2 + z2 1, x 0, z 0.

= (
n , Oy l gc nhn.
nn:
I=

ZZ

D1

1 x2 z2 dxdz

x = r cos
t
z = r sin

Z2

=
3
Tnh I2 =

ZZ

Z1 p

,0 r 1
2

1 r2 rdr

z2 dxdy

Mt S : z2 = 1 x2

y2
4

Hnh chiu ca S ln Oxz l

1
4

elip, D2 : x2 +

= (
n , Oz l gc nhn.
100

y2
4

1, x 0, y 0.

+ z2 = 1, x >

2. Tch phn mt loi II

101

nn:
I=

ZZ

D2

1 x2

y2
dxdy
4

x = r cos
t
y = 2r sin

Z2
0

=
4
Vy I =

Z1
0

, 0 r 1, J = 2r
2

(1 r2 )2rdr

7
12

Bi tp 5.5. Tnh
R 2 , z 0.

ZZ

x2 y2 zdxdy trong S l mt trn ca na mt cu x2 + y2 + z2 =

Hnh 5.5

Li gii. Ta c:
Mt S : z =

R2 x 2 y 2

Hnh chiu ca S ln Oxy l hnh trn, D : x2 + y2 R2 .

= (
n , Oz) l gc nhn.
101

102

Chng 5. Tch phn mt

nn:
I=

ZZ

2 2

x y

R2 x2 y2 dxdy

D
x = r cos
t
y = r sin

I=

Z2
0

ZR

2R7

0 2, 0 r R, J = r

sin2 cos2

R2 r2 .r5 dr

105

2.4 Cng thc Ostrogradsky, Stokes


Gi s P, Q, R l cc hm kh vi, lin tc trn min b chn, o c trong V R3 . V
gii hn bi mt cong kn S trn hay trn tng mnh, khi :
ZZ

Pdydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy =

ZZZ 
V

P Q R
+
+
x
y
z

dxdydz

trong tch phn v tri ly theo hng php tuyn ngoi.


Ch :
Nu tch phn v tri ly theo hng php tuyn trong th
ZZ

Pdydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy =

ZZZ 
V

P Q R
+
+
x
y
z

dxdydz

Nu mt cong S khng kn, c th b sung thnh mt cong S0 kn p dng cng


thc Ostrogradsky, ri tr i phn b sung.
Bi tp 5.6. Tnh
y2

+ z2

a2 .

ZZ

xdydz + ydzdx + zdxdy trong S l pha ngoi ca mt cu x2 +

102

2. Tch phn mt loi II

103
z

n ( x, y, z)

Hnh 5.6

Li gii. p dng cng thc Ostrogradsky ta c


ZZ

xdydz + ydzdx + zdxdy =

3dxdydz = 3V = 4a2

Bi tp 5.7. Tnh

ZZZ

ZZ

x3 dydz + y3 dzdx + z3 dxdy trong S l pha ngoi ca mt cu x2 +

y 2 + z 2 = R2 .

Li gii. Xem hnh v 5.6, p dng cng thc Ostrogradsky ta c:


ZZZ 

3 x2 + y2 + z2 dxdydz
I=
V

x = r sin cos
t y = r sin sin

z = r cos

I=3

Z2

Z
0

ZR

0 2
0

0 r R

r4 sin dr

12R5
5
103

, J = r2 sin

104

Chng 5. Tch phn mt

Bi tp 5.8. Tnh

ZZ

y2 zdxdy + xzdydz + x2 ydxdz trong S l pha ngoi ca min x

0, y 0, x2 + y2 1, z x2 + y2 .
z

Hnh 5.8

Li gii. p dng cng thc Ostrogradsky ta c:


I=

ZZZ 
V


y2 + z + x2 dxdydz

x = r cos

y = r sin

z = z

Z2
0

=
8

Bi tp 5.9. Tnh
x2

+ y2 , a

ZZ

Z1
0

dr

Zr 
0

0r1

0 z r 2

, J = r


r2 + z rdr

xdydz + ydzdx + zdxdy trong S l pha ngoi ca min (z 1)2 6

6 z 6 1, a > 0.
104

2. Tch phn mt loi II

105
z

n
a
y
a1

1a

x
Hnh 5.9
Li gii. p dng cng thc Ostrogradsky ta c:
I=

ZZZ
V

1
3dxdydz = 3V = 3. Bh = (1 a)3
3

2.5 Cng thc lin h gia tch phn mt loi I v loi


II
ZZ

[ P( x, y, z) cos + Q( x, y, z) cos + R( x, y, z) cos ] dS


(5.1)

ZZ

P( x, y, z)dydz + Q( x, y, z)dzdx + R( x, y, z)dxdy

trong cos , cos , cos l cosin ch phng ca vct php tuyn n v ca mt S.


Bi tp 5.10. Gi S l phn mt cu x2 + y2 + z2 = 1 nm trong mt tr x2 + x + z2 =
0, y 0, hng S pha ngoi. Chng minh rng
ZZ

( x y)dxdy + (y z)dydz + (z x )dxdz = 0


105

106

Chng 5. Tch phn mt

y
O

Li gii. Ta c y =

(
n , Oy) < 2 nn

Hnh 5.10

1 x2 y2 nn vct php tuyn ca S l


n = (y0x , 1, y0z ). V

n = (y0x , 1, y0z ) =

Do |
n|=

x2
1 x 2 z2

+ 1 + 1 xz2 z2 =

x
1 x 2 z2

1
.
1 x 2 z2

, 1,

z
1 x 2 z2

Vy

cos = cos(
n , Ox ) =

cos = cos(
n , Oy) =

cos = cos( n , Oz) =

n1
=x

|n|
n2
=y

|n|
n3
=z

|
n|

p dng cng thc lin h gia tch phn mt loi I v II 5.1 ta c


I=

ZZ

ZZ

[( x y) cos + (y z) cos + (z x ) cos ] dS


( x y)z + (y z) x + (z x )ydS

=0
106

CHNG
L

THUYT TRNG

1. T RNG V HNG
1.1 nh ngha
nh ngha 6.3. Cho l mt tp con m ca R3 (hoc R2 ). Mt hm s
u:R

( x, y, z) 7 u = u( x, y, z)

c gi l mt trng v hng xc nh trn .

Cho c R, khi mt S = {( x, y, z) |u( x, y, z) = c} c gi l mt mc ng vi gi tr


c (ng tr).

1.2 o hm theo hng


nh ngha 6.4. Cho u = u( x, y, z) l mt trng v hng xc nh trn v M0 .

Vi l l mt vct khc khng bt k v M( x, y, z) sao cho M0 M cng phng vi l , t


p

( x x )2 + ( y y )2 + ( z z )2
nu M0 M l
0
0
0
=
(6.1)
p

( x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 + (z z0 )2 nu
M0 M l

4u
c gi l o hm theo hng l ti M0 ca trng
0
u
v hng u v c k hiu l
( M0 ).
l
Gii hn (nu c) ca t s lim

Ch :
107

108

Chng 6. L thuyt trng

Gii hn trong cng thc 6.1 c th c thay bng


u( x0 + t cos , y0 + t cos , z0 + t cos ) u( x0 , y0 , z0 )
,
t 0
t

trong cos , cos , cos l cc cosin ch phng ca l .


lim

Nu l Ox th

( M0 )
l

u
x ( M0 ).

o hm theo hng l ti im M0 ca trng v hng u th hin tc bin

thin ca trng v hng u ti M0 theo hng l .


nh l 6.16. Nu u = u( x, y, z) kh vi ti M( x0 , y0 , z0 ) th n c o hm theo mi hng

l 6= 0 ti M0 v
u
u
u
u

( M0 ) = x ( M0 ). cos + y ( M0 ). cos + z ( M0 ). cos ,


l

trong cos , cos , cos l cc cosin ch phng ca l .

(6.2)

1.3 Gradient
nh ngha 6.5. Cho u( x, y, z) l trng v hng c cc o hm ring ti M0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ).
Ngi ta gi gradient ca u ti M0 l vct


u
u
u
( M0 ), ( M0 ), ( M0 )
x
y
z

v c k hiu l gradu( M0 ).

nh l 6.17. Nu trng v hng u( x, y, z) kh vi ti M0 th ti ta c

u
( M0 ) = gradu.~l
~l
u
( M0 ) th hin tc bin thin ca trng v hng u ti M0 theo hng ~l.
~
l


 
u

~ ~
u
T cng thc
( M0 ) = gradu.l = gradu l . cos gradu,~l ta c ( M0 ) t gi tr ln
~l
~l


~
nht bng gradu l nu ~l c cng phng vi grad u. C th
Ch :

Theo hng ~l, trng v hng u tng nhanh nht ti M0 nu ~l c cng phng, cng

hng vi grad u.

Theo hng ~l, trng v hng u gim nhanh nht ti M0 nu ~l c cng phng,

ngc hng vi grad u.


108

1. Trng v hng

109

1.4 Bi tp

Bi tp 6.1. Tnh o hm theo hng l ca u = x3 + 2y3 3z3 ti A(2, 0, 1), l =

AB, B(1, 2, 1).

Li gii. Ta c AB = (1, 2, 2) nn
1
1
,
cos = =
3
| AB |
2
2
cos = = ,
3
| AB |
2
2
cos = =
,
3
| AB |

u
u
= 3x2
( A) = 12
x
x
u
u
= 6y2
( A) = 0
y
x
u
u
= 9z2
( A ) = 9
z
x

p dng cng thc 6.2 ta c


u
1
2
2

( A) = 12. 3 + 0. 3 + (9). 3 = 2
l

Bi tp 6.2. Tnh mnun ca gradu vi u = x3 + y3 + z3 3xyz ti A(2, 1, 1). Khi no th

graduOz, khi no gradu = 0.


Li gii. Ta c

u u u
= (3x2 = 3yz, 3y2 3zx, 3z2 3xy)
, ,
x y z



nn gradu = (9, 3, 3) v gradu = 92 + 32 + 32 = 3 11.

gradu =

E
graduOz gradu, k = 0

x2 = yz

gradu = 0 y2 = zx

z2 = xy

u
x

= 0 z2 = xy

x=y=z

Bi tp 6.3. Tnh gradu vi u = r2 + 1r + ln r v r = x2 + y2 + z2 .

Bi tp 6.4. Theo hng no th s bin thin ca hm s u = x sin z y cos z t gc to


O(0, 0) l ln nht?
109

110

Chng 6. L thuyt trng



 
u

~ ~
u

~
Li gii. T cng thc
(O) = gradu.l = gradu l . cos gradu, l ta c (O) t gi
~l
~l


~
tr ln nht bng gradu l nu ~l c cng phng vi gradu(O) = (0, 1, 0).
p
p

Bi tp 6.5. Tnh gc gia hai vct gradz ca cc hm z = x2 + y2 , z = x 3y + 3xy


ti M(3, 4).
Li gii. Ta c

gradz1 =

gradz2 =

2x 2 ,
x +y
1+

y
x 2 + y2




nn gradz1 ( M) = 53 , 45 .


3y
, 3 + 3x
2 y
2 x

nn gradz2 ( M) = 2, 94 . Vy

D E
gradz1 , gradz2
12

cos = =
5 145
gradz1 . gradz2

110

2. Trng vct

111

2. T RNG VCT
2.1 nh ngha
Cho l mt min m trong R3 . Mt hm vct

F : R3

M 7 F = F ( M ),

trong

F = Fx ( M) i + Fy ( M) j + Fz ( M) k

2.2 Thng lng, dive, trng ng

a. Thng lng: Cho S l mt mt nh hng v F l mt trng vct. i lng


=

ZZ

Fx dydz + Fy dzdx + Fz dxdy

(6.3)

c gi l thng lng ca F i qua mt cong S.

b. Dive: Cho F l mt trng vct c thnh phn Fx , Fy , Fz l cc hm s c o hm

Fy
Fz
x
ring cp mt th tng F
x + y + z c gi l dive ca trng vct F v k hiu

l div F .

c. Trng vct F xc nh trn c gi l mt trng ng nu div F ( M) = 0 vi


mi M .

Tnh cht: Nu F l mt trng ng th thng lng i vo bng thng lng i ra.

2.3 Hon lu, vct xoy


a. Hon lu: Cho C l mt ng cong (c th kn hoc khng kn) trong khng gian.
i lng
Z
Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz
(6.4)
C

c gi l hon lu ca F dc theo ng cong C.


b. Vct xoy: Vct



i
j
k


rot F := x y z

Fx

111

Fy

Fz

112

Chng 6. L thuyt trng

c gi l vct xoy (hay vct rota) ca trng vct F .

2.4 Trng th - hm th v

Trng vct F c gi l trng th (trn ) nu tn ti trng v hng u sao cho

gradu = F (trn ). Khi hm u c gi l hm th v.

nh l 6.18. iu kin cn v trng vct F = F ( M) l mt trng th (trn

) l rot F ( M) = 0 vi mi M .

Ch : Nu F l trng th th hm th v u c tnh theo cng thc


u=

Zx

Fx ( x, y0 , z0 )dx +

x0

Zy

Fy ( x, y, z0 )dy +

Zz

Fz ( x, y, z)dz + C

(6.5)

z0

y0

2.5 Bi tp
Bi tp 6.6. Trong cc trng sau, trng no l trng th?

a.
a = 5( x2 4xy) i + (3x2 2y) j + k .

b.
a = yz i + xz j + xy k .

c.
a = ( x + y) i + ( x + z) j + (z + x ) k .
Li gii.

a. Ta c

rot
a =



y

Q




, z
R R


x , x


P P

nn trng cho khng phi l trng th.

= (0, 0, 6x 20y) 6= 0

b. Ngoi cch tnh rot


a , sinh vin c th d dng nhn thy tn ti hm th v u = xyz

nn a l trng th.
c. Ta c

rot
a =



y

Q




, z
R R

112


x , x


P P

= (0, 0, 0)

2. Trng vct

113

nn
a l trng th. Hm th v c tnh theo cng thc 6.5:
u=

Zx

Fx (t, y0 , z0 )dt +

x0

Zx

Fy ( x, t, z0 )dt +

tdt +

( x + 0)dt +

+ xy +

Zz

Fz ( x, y, t)dt + C

z0

y0

Zy

x2

Zy

Zz

(t + y)dt + C

z2
2

+ yz + C

Bi tp 6.7. Cho F = xz2 i + 2 j + zy2 k . Tnh thng lng ca F qua mt cu S :


x2 + y2 + z2 = 1 hng ra ngoi.
Li gii. Theo cng thc tnh thng lng 6.3 ta c
=

ZZ

xz2 dydz + yx2 dxdz + zy2 dxdy

p dng cng thc Ostrogradsky ta c


=

ZZZ

( x2 + y2 + z2 )dxdydz

Thc hin php i bin trong to cu


ta c
=

Z2
0

x = r sin cos
y = r sin sin

z = r cos

Z1

r2 .r2 sin dr =

0 2
0

0 r 1

, J = r2 sin

4
5

Bi tp 6.8. Cho F = x (y + z) i + y(z + x ) j + z( x + y) k v L l giao tuyn ca mt

tr x2 + y2 + y = 0 v na mt cu x2 + y2 + z2 = 2, z 0. Chng minh rng lu s ca F


dc theo L bng 0.
Li gii. Theo cng thc tnh lu s 6.4
I=

x (y + z)dx + y(z + x )dy + z( x + y)dz

113

114

Chng 6. L thuyt trng

p dng cng thc Stokes ta c


I=


y

Q

ZZ

ZZS
S




dydz + z
R
R


x dzdx




+ x
P

dxdy
Q

(z y)dydz + ( x z)dzdx + (y x )dxdy

= 0 (theo bi tp 5.10).

114