Anda di halaman 1dari 2

Bank Pawee N.

11-1

Jan 22nd, 2014

Alkaloid
Alkaloid, a type of chemical, which is contained organic nitrogen bases and an amine group, and
it can be found in plants especially the opium poppy, and the ergot fungus. Additionally, it can be
produced as drugs such as morphine, nicotine, ephedrine, quinine, and strychnine. This chemical
can be useful if you know how to use it wisely, but firstly, basic informations need to be known;
acid, base, and aqueous solution are components of combining with alkaloid.
Acid is a substance, which can be considered as the danger substance, as it is able to harm
every living organism. It also can turn litmus paper into red. Furthermore, the substance has
various abilities: it is corrosive, which can burn or corrodes objects into ashes. Also it can
neutralise alkali, and have a sour taste. The pH scale of acid is in between 0-7. Examples of this
substance, such as lemon, soda, vinegar, stomach acid, and vice versa. According to BronstedIowry theory, it donates Hydrogen ion to base. Additionally, it gives proton away as well in reference
to Arrhenius theory. However in Lewis theory, acid gets lone pair electron from base.
Base, a substance that has pH scale in between 8-14. Its characteristics: first, its favour is bitter,
second, it is the donator of electrons, and third it is able to change litmus paper into blue.
Additionally, it can neutralise with acid in order to turn the substance into neutral state. Base can be
found in baking soda, sea water, ammonia, milk of magnesia, or lye. This substance is contained
alkali as the main ingredient. Aqueous solution is a system which water is involving and it is a
solvent. It is applied to a mixture or solution. A chemical will be written as (aq) after the specie is
dissolved with water.
Every step that we need to create drugs cautious, is to come up with high quality products. In
amine group, it contains carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen as primary elements. After we obtain the
bark and breaks into a smaller part, we put it into a beaker, and add water and acetic acid. Then
we boil and leave it for 24 hours. The reason is to do this, is because to neutralise any germ or
bacteria inside the bark; we collect it from a deep forest which could have noxious danger inside it,
and the acid helps neutralisation process, or breaking down any material of the bark that reacted
with acid as well; alkaloid is scaled in basic zone. Also, water helps both acid and base substance
into neutral state too. 24 hours afterward, any undissolved specie will be removed. After that, when
we add a base, until it indicates pH 9-10, suddenly a precipitate is spotted. It is caused by cations
and anions combine to form an insoluble ionic solid. This is called precipitate reaction. An example,
Fe(NO3)3(aq)+NaOH(aq), and gives out as Fe(NO3)3(aq)+NaOH(aq). Then we cancel spectator
ions out and leave as net ionic equation; Fe3+(aq)+OH(aq)Fe(OH)3(s). However we do not like
precipitates. It could bring fatal side effects when a consumer takes a dosage of out drug. Such as
cancer, mutation of genes, and so on. Thus we need to remove it out completely. For safety to
consumers.
In summary, alkaloid can be made as drugs that can be used for recreation. However, abusing
can lead to fatal, so you need to be concise of taking a dosage. you do not want to end like a
junkie.
References:

Bank Pawee N.

11-1

Jan 22nd, 2014

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britanica. (2014). Alkaloid [Online]. Available:

http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/15672/alkaloid [January 22nd, 2015]

Helmenstin, A. M. (2014). Base Definition [Online]. Available:

http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryglossary/a/basedefinition.htm [January 22nd, 2015]

Helmenstin, A. M. (2014). Base Definition [Online]. Available:

http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryglossary/g/aqueous-definition.htm [January 23rd, 2015]

Reusch, W. (2013). Amines [Online]. Available:

http://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/VirtTxtJml/amine1.htm [January 24th, 2015)


Schaffer, J. ; Herman, C. (2011). Precipitation Reaction [Online] Available:
http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Inorganic_Chemistry/Reactions_in_Aqueous_Solutions/Precipitation
_Reactions [January 24th, 2015]