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Fundamentals of Corrosion

By
Dr. Ir. Agus Solehudin
DEFINISI KOROSI
Korosi adalah Kerusakan material
karena bereaksi dengan
lingkungannya
Corrosion is the destructive attack of a metal by chemical or
electrochemical reaction with its environment
MENGAPA LOGAM TERKOROSI?

LOGAM KEMBALI KE ALAM

LOGAM

E
TEK.
ANTI KOROSI KOROSI

MINERAL t MINERAL
IKATAN LOGAM
Ikatan logam adalah gaya tarik menarik antara ion-ion
positif dengan elektron-elektron pada kulit valensi dari
suatu atom unsur logam
KOROSI ?

PINDAHNYA ION LOGAM


DARI LOGAM KE LINGKUNGAN
Gcell = −nFEcell
SUMBER HETEROGENITAS
HETEROGENITAS

DI LOGAM

STRATIFIKASI ENERGI
atau POTENSIAL
DI LINGKUNGAN
PERBEDAAN FASA
PADA BAJA : FERIT (ANODIK), SEMENTIT (KATODIK)
BESI TUANG : DAERAH DEKAT GRAFIT
BUTIRAN HALUS = ANODIK

BUTIRAN KASAR = KATODIK


TERBENTUKNYA
DAERAH ANODIK

DAERAH DIMANA ADA TEGANGAN SISA KARENA


PENGERJAAN DINGIN (PEMBENGKOKAN, PEMUKULAN, PENGELASAN, DLL.

ANODIK (AKAN TERKOROSI)


Grafit

KOROSIF

e
BAGIAN YANG LEBIH PANAS (ANODIK)
AKAN TERKOROSI

T
LAJU KOROSI DENGAN V2 LEBIH BESAR DARI V1
O2 rendah

BAGIAN SEDIKIT DIBAWAH PERMUKAAN ELEKTROLIT


KANDUNGAN OKSIGEN LEBIH RENDAH
SEL KOROSI

K e

e
e

A
_
_ 
 _
_ 
 _
_
 
_
 _
_ 

A K

SEL LENGKAP
SYARAT TERJADINYA KOROSI

 ANODA
 KATODA
 ELEKTROLIT
 KONDUKTOR ANTARA ANODA
DAN KATODA
APA YANG TERJADI DI PERMUKAAN
LOGAM?

di ANODA : TERKOROSI
TERJADI OKSIDASI
ARUS KELUAR LOGAM

di KATODA : TIDAK TERKOROSI


TERJADI REDUKSI
ARUS MASUK LOGAM
DI ANODA : M Mn+ + ne

DI KATODA :
ASAM : 2e + 2H+ H2
BASA/NETRAL : 4e + O2 + H2O 4(OH)-
2e + 2H2O H2 + 2(OH)-

REDUKSI ION : ne + Mn+ M


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Steel Corrosion

Initial Oxidation Reaction

2 Fe  O2  2 H2 O  2 Fe ( OH ) 2
Secondary Oxidation Reaction

1
2 Fe(OH ) 2  O2  H2 O  2 Fe(OH ) 3
2
Rust
Cu /Cu++ Mulia 0,337 Volt
H2/H+ -0,000
Ni/Ni+ -0,250
Fe/Fe++ -0,440
Zn/Zn++ -0,763
Al/Al+++ -1,660
Mg/Mg++ Aktif -2,370
Cu /Cu++ Mulia 0,337 Volt
H2/H+ -0,000
Ni/Ni+ -0,250
Fe/Fe++ -0,440
Zn/Zn++ -0,763
Al/Al+++ -1,660
Mg/Mg++ Aktif -2,370
Corrosion potential calculation
• Reduction Reaction must have higher
potential than the oxidation reaction or
they will not form a cathodic cell
Fe 2  2e   Fe -0.440 V

Zn 2  2e   Zn -0.763 V

V  .440   .763  0.323V


Relative measure of
corrosion
Apa Yang Terjadi?

Zn Fe

Zn  Zn++ + 2e + +
+ + 2H+ + 2e  H2
+ +
+ +
+ +
+
REAKSI-REAKSI

Oksidasi Zn  Zn++ + 2e Fe  Fe++ + 2e Oksidasi

Reduksi 2H+ + 2e  H2 2H+ + 2e  H2 Reduksi

Net Net

2H+ + Zn  Zn + H2 Fe + 2H+  Fe++ + H2


GALVANIK
Ikor

Anoda Katoda

e
APA YANG TERJADI?

di ANODA : TERKOROSI
TERJADI OKSIDASI
ARUS KELUAR LOGAM

di KATODA : TIDAK TERKOROSI


TIDAK TERKOROSI
ARUS MASUK LOGAM
BILA LOGAM DICELUPKAN
DALAM LARUTAN

TERKOROSI : LAMBAT
CEPAT

PASIF : LAPISAN PROTEKTIF (terkorosi sangat lambat)

LAPISAN BERPORI (terkorosi lebih cepat)

IMUN : TIDAK TERKOROSI


GALVANIC SERIES
• Ranks the reactivity of metals/alloys in seawater
Platinum
Gold
Graphite
Titanium
Silver
316 Stainless Steel Based on Table 17.2, Callister
Nickel (passive) 6e. (Source of Table 17.2 is
M.G. Fontana, Corrosion
Copper Engineering, 3rd ed.,
Nickel (active) McGraw-Hill Book Company,
1986.)
Tin
Lead
316 Stainless Steel
Iron/Steel
Aluminum Alloys
Cadmium
Zinc
Magnesium
4/13/2014 by asolehudin
Corrosion Mechanisms
• 3 primary mechanisms :
– Mechanical
– Chemical
– Electrochemical

• Mechanical Corrosion is caused by stress and erosion.

• Chemical Corrosion is caused by a direct chemical


reaction of the metal with its surroundings.

• Electrochemical Corrosion results from a chemical


reaction involving the transfer of electrons.

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Corrosion Mechanisms
• ELECTROCHEMICAL
– GALVANIC
– CREVICE - PITTING
– INTERGRANULAR
– STRAY CURRENT CORROSION.

• CHEMICAL
– H2S, Polysuphides, Sulphur
– ACID
– BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS - Sulphate Reducing
Bacteria (SRB)
– H2 (Hydrogen) EMBRITTLEMENT.

• MECHANICAL
– EROSION
– CORROSION FATIGUE
– STRESS - Sulphide Stress, Chloride Stress

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Electrochemical Corrosion
• Electro-Chemical Corrosion needs:
– An electrolyte ie. water with dissolved salts
– A corrodent , usually a dissolved gas, acid.
• Two separate simultaneous reactions occur :
• Anodic Reaction (Oxidation):
– Production of Electrons
M ---- M++ + 2e-
2 Cl- ------ Cl2 + 2e-
• Cathodic Reaction (Reduction)
– Consumption of Electrons
2 H+ + 2 e- -------- H2 Acid
2 H2O + 2 e- --------- H2 + 2 OH- Alkaline / netral

O2 + 4 H+ + 4 e- ----------- 2H2O Acid


2 H2O + O2 + e- ------------- 4OH- Alkaline / netral

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Galvanic Corrosion
• Galvanic (Two Metal) Corrosion occurs when two dis-
similar metals are immersed in a conductive medium.

• Corroding tendency is determined by the relative position


of the metals in the Galvanic series.

• The metal with the larger tendency to corrode becomes


the anode.

• The anode continues to corrode as long as a circuit is


maintained.

• In a corrosion cell the anode and cathode may be on the


same piece of metal. (Short circuited cell).

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Galvanic Corrosion

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Erosion Corrosion

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Erosion Corrosion

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Erosion Corrosion

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Erosion Corrosion

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Cavitation

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Cavitation

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Fretting

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Pitting Corrosion

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Pitting Corrosion

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Pitting Corrosion

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Pitting Corrosion

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Pitting Corrosion

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Pitting Corrosion

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Pitting Corrosion

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Pitting Corrosion

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Pitting Corrosion

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Pitting Corrosion

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Pitting Corrosion

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Pitting Corrosion

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Pitting Corrosion

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Pitting Corrosion

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Crevice Corrosion

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Crevice Corrosion

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Crevice Corrosion

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Crevice Corrosion

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Crevice Corrosion

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Crevice Corrosion

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Intergranular Corrosion

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SCC

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soal
• Example: A steel coupon of 4 x 2 x 1/8
inches is placed in an acid solution for one
week, and loses 90 mg. Calculate the rate
of corrosion in mpy. Assume that steel is
iron only.
d Fe = 7,8 gr/cm3

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References
• Dr. Yves Gunaltun, 2009,”Corrosion
Control in Oil and Gas Production”, Total
E&P, France
• Denny A. Jones, 1992,”Principles and
Prevention of Corrosion”, Macmillan
Publishing Company, USA
• R. Winston Revie and Herbert H. Uhlig,
2008,” Corrosion and Corrosion Control”,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Canada