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# Physics 1010

Semester Project
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Brittany Ayala
Spring 2015

## Part 1: Star Identification:

B
C

A
D

A - Mimosa
Distance: 353 Lightyears
The light we see today was sent from the
star in the year 1662
The radius of the Mimosa is 8 times that
of the Sun
Mimosa shines 3000 times brighter than
the Sun
B - Gacrux
Distance: 88 Lightyears
The light we see today was sent from the
star in the year 1927
Gacrux is 1.3 x the mass of the Sun
Gacrux is 1500 times brighter than the
Sun

C Delta Crucis
Distance: 345 Lightyears
The light we see today was sent from
the star in the year 1670
The radius of the Delta Crucis is 113
times that of the Sun!
The Delta Crucis is 140 times
brighter than the Sun
D Alpha Crucis
Distance: 321 Lightyears
The light we see today was sent from
the star in the year 1694
The Alpha Crucis is a pair of like
stars, their mass combined being
approx. 13 times that of the Sun
One star of the pair is 25,000 times
brighter than the Sun; the other is
16,000 times brighter

## Part 2: Equation Analysis:

E = mc2
E energy (variable)
m mass (variable)
c speed of light (constant)
C is the speed of light, approx. 300,000 km/second; C = 90,000,000,000 km/second
As the variable of mass increases, energy will increase; energy and mass are directly related.
Question 4: Analyze the statement: if it is possible to change mass into energy a little bit of
mass could produce a lot of energy. Is it true or not? Provide a brief explanation based on your
analysis of the equation

d = gt2/2
where:
d = distance an object falls when released from rest (no air resistance)
g = acceleration of gravity at the Earths surface
t = time the object has been falling
With no air resistance, all objects fall at the same speed. Just looking at the equation, you can
see that there is no variable for weight, nor mass, therefore, the weight of an object means
absolutely nothing. The above equation holds true for all objects, and with no air resistance, all
objects will fall at the same speed.

v = gt
where:
v = velocity of a falling object if released from rest (no air resistance)
g = acceleration of gravity at Earths surface
t = time the object has been falling
Again with no air resistance, all objects fall at the same speed. Just looking at the equation,
you can see that there is no variable for weight, nor mass, therefore, the weight of an object
means absolutely nothing. The above equation holds true for all objects, and with no air
resistance, all objects will fall at the same speed.

Why is it that we have thought that heavy objects fall faster than lighter objects? Probably
because it would hurt more to have something heavy fall on top of you than something light.
Honestly, after taking this course and learning the equations, it doesnt seem like there is any
almost logical reason to believe heavy objects would fall faster!
What physical property of mass compensates for the difference in applied forces? Surface area

e = 1 Tcold/Thot
where:
e = efficiency of energy use
Tcold = the temperature of the environment surrounding the heat engine
Thot = the internal operating temperature of the engine
This is the equation for the efficiency of a heat engine (your car is a heat engine unless you have
an electric model). An e = 1 is 100% efficiency, meaning 100% of the energy gets used to do
what you want to do with no wasted, unrecoverable energy. An e = 0 is an efficiency of zero
with none of the energy going to what you want to do and all of the energy being wasted or in
unrecoverable forms.
The temperatures in this equation are in the Kelvin scale where the lowest temperature is 0
degrees. There are no negative temperatures in the Kelvin scale. A temperature we might
encounter on Earth would be about 300 degrees Kelvin.
In theory, by lowering the temperature of the surrounding environment to absolute 0 Kelvin (273 Celcius), you achieve e=1, therefore 100% efficieny.
It is not practical at all to achieve 100% efficiency by lowering the temperature of the
environment as it would have to be absolute 0 Kelvin (-273 Celcius), at which point mass is
reduced to 0, and pressure is reduced to 0.
Regardless of the temperature of the internals of the engine, in order to achieve 100% efficiency,
Tcold/Thot must equal 0, therefore, Tcold must be 0 (as Thot, is not 0), therefore. It doesnt
matter if Thot is raised, Tcold must be 0, and in theory it is possible.
Regardless of how hot the internal temperature of the engine is, the external environment can
never be 0 degrees Kelvin, therefore, it is not practical.
The only other way to make a car 100% efficient, is to utilize the wasted energy. This is already
done today by taking the wasted energy (heat) and using it in the cars heating system. Although
convenient, not 100% efficient (much of the heat is wasted).

## Part 3: Learning about a Law of Physics

Newtons 3rd Law of Physics states that to every action there is always an opposed equal
reaction. For every force exerted, there is an equal and opposite force.
In the real world this happens:

only putting force into the object which you bonked your head on. Although you do
exert a force on whatever it is you bonked your head on, say a tree branch, the tree branch
also exerted an equal, yet opposite force back on you. This would explain the pain
B How do you jump? By putting your force into the ground, the ground puts the equal
and opposite force back on you, pushing you away from the ground, and into the air.
C Cars drive by the tires pushing in the opposite direction that the driver of the car
desires the car to drive. The wheels pushed backward on the ground, and the car moves
forward.

## Part 4: Explanation of Fermis Paradox and possible resolution

The Fermis Paradox is a paradox because it is a statement that makes two separate arguments
that are, in a sense, contradicting to each other. The paradox implies that the universe is big
enough and old enough, that extraterrestrial life is almost a guarantee. Given the age of the
universe relative to the age of our earth, extraterrestrial civilization that must exist (given the
high probability), and said civilization would be much more advanced than ours (as they have
existed billions of years longer), so they must have been able to make contact with what they
would consider to be extraterrestrial life: the human species of Earth.
Resolution 1:
John Ball, in 1973, had an idea that the entire Earth is one big zoo for the further advanced
lifeform. Our planet was taken into captivity, and we are on display for observation. Why have
we been left alone? Thats a question within a mans great imagination that I cannot answer.
Resolution 2:
Maybe the human species is the only lifeform that feels the need to explore beyond, maybe space
is vast enough that Earth would be like stumbling across a piece of red sand in a desert of yellow
sand, and therefore extraterrestrial life, even if they wanted to explore, would still have an
exceptionally difficult time finding us.
Resolution 3:
Maybe extraterrestrial life exists, but in a separate dimension that we cant see? Maybe our
paths never cross because time is but our perception of reality, and we subject ourselves to our
lives, counting each second, rather than simply existing.
Resolution 4:
Here is a good one, and the only one I really believe. Maybe there is a God. Maybe God created
the heavens and the Earth, just as he said he did in the Bible. Maybe space, the heavens, reach
beyond our comprehension, unmeasurable, because it can go on as far as God wants it to go.
There are no walls in space, and there is no extraterrestrial life. Why? Because if God had put
the Earth into a box, and there was an end to space, what would be on the opposite side of the
barrier?