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TUGAS INDIVIDU

ANALISIS REKAYASA
SI-5101

Dosen :
Ir. Biemo W. Soemardi, Ph.D.

Oleh :
Davin Yuan Kermite (25014003)

MANAJEMEN REKAYASA KONSTRUKSI

SEKOLAH PASCA SARJANA


INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI BANDUNG
2014

7-14.

The Electrocomp Corp manufactures 2 electrical products: Air Conditioner and Large Fans. The
assembly process for each is similar in the both require a certain amount of wiring and drilling. Each
air conditioner takes 3 hours of wiring and 2 hours of drilling. Each fan must go through 2 hours of
wiring and 1 hour of drilling. During the next production period, 240 hours of wiring time are
available and up to 140 hours of drilling time may be used. Each air conditioner sold yields a profit of
$25. Each fan assembled may be sold for a $15 profit. Formulate and solve this LP production mix
situation to find the best combination of air conditioners and fans that yields the highest profit. Use
the corner point graphical approach.
= Air Conditioner
= Large Fan

Objective Function:

max profit = 25 + 15

s.t.

3 + 2 240 (hours of wiring time available)


2 + 140 (hours of drilling time available)
, 0

Dengan menggunakan metode corner point, perlu dicari titik-titik setiap persamaan sehingga dapat dibuat
garis dari persamaan tersebut, yaitu:
a. wiring time constraint
(0,
3(0) + 2 = 240
= 120
(0, 120)
( 0)

3 + 2(0) = 240
= 80
(80, 0)

b. drilling time constraint


(0, ) 2(0) + = 140
= 140
(0, 140)
(, 0)

2 + (0) = 140
= 70
(70, 0)

160
140

120

Fan

100
Series1

80

series 2

60

Linear (Series1)

40

Linear (series 2)

20
0
0

20

40

60

80 100

Air Conditioner

Titik perpotongan antara garis 1 & garis 2 adalah:


3 + 2 240 = 2 (2 + 140)
31 + 2 240 = 4 + 2 280
40 =
= 140 2(40) = 60

(40,60)

Langkah selanjutnya adalah dengan menghitung nilai dari fungsi tujuan di setiap titik:
AC ()
Fan ()
Profit = 25 + 15
0
0
0
0
120
1800
70
0
1750
40
60
1900
Jadi kombinasi yang memberikan profit paling besar adalah 40 AC dan 60 Fan.

7-15.

Electrocomps management realizes that it forgot to include 2 critical constraints (see Problem 7-14).
In particular, management decides that there should be a minimum number of air conditioners
produced in order to fulfill a contract. Also, due to an oversupply of fans in the preceding period, a
limit should be placed on the total number of fans produced.
(a)

If Electrocomp decides that at least 20 AC should be produced but no more than 80 fans should
be produced, what would be the optimal solutions? How much slack is there for each of the
four constraints?
tambahan constraint:
20
80
Air Conditioner
Large Fan
X
Y
jumlah
40
60
max 25
15
wiring
drilling

profit
1900
Hours Used
Constraint
2
240 <=
240
1
140 <=
140
1
60 <=
80
40 >=
20

3
2
Fan max
AC min

solusi optimal (40, 60) tidak berubah karena masih memenuhi tambahan constraint.
Constraint

Slack

Surplus

(Amount of resource available) (Amount of resource used)

(Actual amount) (Minimum amount)

Wiring Hours
Drilling Hours
Fan Production
AC

0
0
20
20

(b) If Electrocomp decides that at least 30 AC should be produced but no more than 50 fans should be
produced, what would be the optimal solution? How much slack is there for each of the four constraints
at the optimal solution?
Air Conditioner
Large Fan
X
Y
jumlah
45
50
max 25
15
wiring
drilling

3
2
Fan max
AC min

profit
1875
Hours Used
Constraint
2
235 <=
240
1
140 <=
140
1
50 <=
50
45 >=
30

Karena jumlah maksimal kipas dikurangi menjadi lebih kecil daripada jumlah kipas pada solusi optimal
sebelumnya, maka solusi optimal juga berubah, yaitu:

Air Conditioner (X) = 45


Large Fan (Y) = 50
profit = 25(45) +15(50) = $1875

Constraint

Slack

Surplus

(Amount of resource available) (Amount of resource used)

(Actual amount) (Minimum amount)

Wiring Hours
Drilling Hours
Fan Production
AC

7-19.

0
0
0
15

MSA Computer Corporation manufactures 2 models of minicomputers, the Alpha 4 and the Beta 5.
The firm employs 5 technicians, working 160 hours each per month, on its assembly line.
Management insists that full employment (i.e., all 160 hours of time) be maintained for each worker
during next months operations. It requires 20 labor hours to assemble each Alpha 4 computer and
25 labor hours to assemble each Beta 5 model. MSA wants to see at least 10 Alpha 4s and at least 15
Beta 5s produced during the production period. Alpha 4s generate $1,200 profit per unit, and Beta
5s yield $1,800 each. Determine the most profitable number of each model of minicomputer during
the coming month.
= Alpha 4
= Beta 5

Objective Function:

max profit = 1200A + 1800B

s.t.

20A + 25B = 800 (semua labor hours digunakan)


A 10, B 15

Dengan menggunakan Excel Solver, dicari solusi optimal dari model yang dibuat.
Alpha 4
A
jumlah
10
max 1200
labor hours
Alpha qty
Beta qty

Beta 5
B
24
1800
20
1

profit
55200
Resource used
Constraint
25
800 =
800
10 >=
10
1
24 >=
15

Dengan memproduksi jumlah Alpha 4 minimal (10 unit) dan memaksimalkan jumlah Beta 5 (24
unit) akan didapatkan profit sebesar $55.200

7-24.

The stock brokerage firm of Blank, Leibowitz, and Weinberger has analyzed and recommended two
stocks to an investors club of college professors. The professors were interested in factors such as
short-term growth, intermediate growth, and dividend rate. These data on each stock are as follows:
Stock ($)
Factor
Short-term growth potential
Per dollar invested

Intermediate growth potential


(over next 3 years)

Louisiana Gas and Power

Trimex Insulation Company

.36

.24

1.67

1.50

4%

8%

Per dollar invested

Dividend rate potential

Each member of the club has an investment goal of:


(1) an appreciation of no less than $720 in the short term,
(2) an appreciation of at least $5,000 in the next 3 years, and
(3) a dividend income of at least $200 per year.
What is the smallest investment that a professor can make to meet these three goals?
Ketiga goal diatas, dijadikan sebagai constraint yang harus dipenuhi dengan fungsi objektif minimasi
biaya investasi:
= Besarnya investasi di Louisiana Gas and Power
= Besarnya investasi di Trimex Insulation Company
Karena investasi menggunakan uang yang mempunyai satuan terkecil tertentu (dalam sen), maka untuk mempermudah
satuan terkecil dijadikan 1$ (integer)

Objective Function:

min investment = X + Y

s.t.

0.36X + 0.24Y 720 (short-term growth)


1.67X + 1.50Y 5000 (intermediate growth)
0.04X + 0.08Y 200 (dividend per year)
X, Y 0 (integer)

jumlah
min

short
intermediate
Dividend

7-27.

Lousiana Gas and Power


(X)

Trimex Insulation Company


(Y)

1360
1
1360

1820
1
1820

489,6
2271,2
54,4

436,8
2730
145,6

investment
3180
Resource used
Constraint
926,4
>=
720
5001,2
>=
5000
200
>=
200

Dengan menggunakan perhitungan melalui Excel Solver didapatkan bahwa nilai investasi minimum
yang dapat diberikan dengan memenuhi ketiga syarat adalah sebesar $3.180
Consider the following 4 LP formulations. Using a graphical approach, determine
(a) which formulation has more than 1 optimal solution
(b) which formulation is unbounded
(c) which formulation has no feasible solution
(d) which formulation is correct as is

Persamaan 1
Maximize 101 + 102
s.t.

1 5
1 + 22 8
2 2
1 = 6

(8,0) dan (0,4)

X =6

Tidak ada daerah solusi (c)


Persamaan 2
Maximize 1 + 22
s.t.

1 1
2 1
1 + 22 2

(2,0) dan (0,1)

Redundant constraint

Feasible
Region

2 1

1 + 22

Karena fungsi objektif parallel dengan constraint 1 + 22 2 , maka model ini memiliki lebih
dari 1 solusi optimal. (a)
Persamaan 3
Maximize 31 + 22
s.t.

1 + 22 5
1 2
2 4

(5,0) dan (0,5 2)

Dari grafik dapat dilihat bahwa tidak ada yang membatasi jumlah maksimal 1 dan 2 sehingga
nilai solusi dari fungsi objektif dapat mencapai tak terhingga (b)
Persamaan 4
Maximize 31 + 32
s.t.

21 + 32 24 (12,0) dan (0,8)


21 + 2 6
. (3,0) dan (0,6)
2 1
1 1

Feasible
Region

Dari grafik di atas, meskipun ada constraint yang redundan, namun hasil solusinya memenuhi
syarat-syarat/constrain (d)
7-28.

Graph the following LP problem and indicate the optimal solution point:
Maximize profit = $3X + $2Y
s.t.
2X + Y 150
2X + 3Y 300
(a) Does the optimal solution change if the profit per unit of X changes to $ 4.50?
(b) What happens if the profit function should have been $3X + $3Y?
Persamaan
2X + Y 150
2X + 3Y 300

Titik yg dilewati
(75, 0) dan (0, 150)
(150, 0) dan (0, 100)

Dari gambar di atas, titik ekstrim yang ada pada daerah yang diarsis adalah pada potongan antara 2
garis constraint, yaitu:
2X + Y - 150 = 2X + 3Y 300
150 = 2Y
Y = 75
(X = 37.5)
Titik
(0, 0)
(75, 0)
(0, 100)
(37.5, 75)

3 + 2
0
225
200
262.5

Dari semua titik yang ada, nilai optimal terdapat pada titik (37.5, 75)
Adjustable Cells
Cell
$B$2
$C$2

Name
jumlah X
jumlah Y

Final Reduced Objective Allowable


Allowable
Value
Cost
Coefficient Increase
Decrease
37,5
0
3
1 1,666666667
75
0
2
2,5
0,5

Constraints
Cell
Name
$D$5 a Resource used
$D$6 b Resource used

Final
Value
150
300

Shadow
Price
1,25
0,25

Constraint Allowable
R.H. Side
Increase
150
1E+30
300
1E+30

Allowable
Decrease
1E+30
1E+30

(a) apabila fungsi tujuan berubah menjadi $4.5X + $2Y, apakah solusi optimal berubah?
Tanda merah pada tabel di atas menunjukkan besar perubahan yang dilakukan tanpa
mengubah solusi optimal.
batas maksimum perubahan pada profit X diubah adalah = $3+$1 = $4 (lebih kecil dari
$4.5)
Berdasarkan hasil Excel Solver didapatkan bahwa solusi optimal adalah X = 75, Y = 0
variabel
unit produced
o.f.
max
constrain
a
b

Y
75
4,5

2
2

0 profit
2
337,5

1
3

150 <=
150 <=

150
300

(b) apabila fungsi tujuan berubah menjadi $3X + $3Y, apa yang akan terjadi?
batas maksimum perubahan pada profit Y diubah adalah = $2+$2.5 = $4.5 , sehingga
perubahan koefisien pada Y menjadi 3 (masih di bawah batas maksium) tidak mengubah
solusi optimal. Hanya nilai dari profit saja yang berubah, yaitu:
profit = $3(37.5) + $3(75) = $337,5

7-31.

Consider the following LP problem:


Maximize profit = 5X +6Y
s.t. 2X + Y 120
2X + 3Y 240
X,Y 0
(a) What is the optimal solution to this problem? Solve it graphically.
(b) If a technical breakthrough occurred that raised the profit per unit of X to $8, would this affect
the optimal solution?
(c) Instead of an increase in the profit coefficient X to $8, suppose that profit was overestimated
and should only have been $3. Does this change the optimal solution?
(a) Grafik dari model di atas adalah sebagai berikut:

Titik
(0, 0)
(60, 0)
(0, 80)
(30, 60)

5X + 6Y
0
300
480
510

Dari hasil perhitungan nilai fungsi objektif masing-masing titik, solusi optimalnya adalah X =
30 dan Y = 60
(b) Dengan menggunakan QM, didapatkan analisis sensitivitas sebagai berikut:

Perubahan koefisien X pada fungsi tujuan menjadi 8 tidak akan mempengaruhi solusi optimal
karena nilai 8 masih di antara lower bound (4) dan upper bound (12), hanya akan mengubah
nilai dari profit yang didapat, yaitu:
Profit = 8(30) + 6(60) =600
(c) Apabila ternyata koefisien X berubah menjadi 3, maka solusi optimalnya akan berubah
karena sudah keluar dari batas lower bound (4), maka solusi optimal yang baru berubah
menjadi:
X = 0, Y = 80
Profit = 0 + 6(80) = 480

7-37.

Bhavika Investments, a group of financial advisors and retirement planners, has been requested to
provide advice on how to invest $200,000 for one of its clients. The client has stipulated that the
money must be put into either a stock fund or a money market fund, and the annual return should
be at least $14,000. Other conditions related to risk have also been specified, and the following
linear program was developed to help with this investment decision:
Minimize risk = 12S + 5M
s.t. S + M = 200,000 (total investment is $200,000)
0.1S + 0.05M 14,000 (return must be at least $14,000)
M 40,000 (at least $40,000 must be in money market fund)
S, M 0
where
S = dollars invested in stock fund
M = dollars invested in money market fund

10

(a) How much money should be invested in money market fund (M) and the stock fund(S)? What
is the total risk?
Dari hasil yang ditampilkan QM di atas, solusi optimalnya adalah:
S = $ 80,000
M = $ 120,000
Risk = 12(80,000) + 5(120,000) = $ 1,560,000
(b) What is the total return? What rate of return is this?
Total return yang didapat adalah sebesar $ 14,000
Rate of return =

14,000
200 ,000

= 0.07

(c) Would the solution change if risk measure for each dollar in the stock fund(S) were 14 instead
of 12?
Karena upper bound dari variabel S adalah tak terhingga, maka kenaikan koefisien ke 14 tidak
mengubah solusi, hanya besarnya risk yang berubah, yaitu:
risk = 14(80,000) + 5(120,000) = $ 1,720,000 (d)
(d) For each additional dollar that is available, how much does the risk change?
Perubahan besarnya risk adalah $ 1,720,000 (perhitungan ada di (c))
(e) Would the solution change if the amount that must be invested in the money market fund
were changed from $40,000 to $50,000?
Perubahan nilai pada konstrain ketiga menjadi M $50,000 tidak mengubah solusi karena
belum melebihi upper bound (120,000)

11

8-15.

(Agricultural production planning problem) Margaret Blacks family owns 5 parcels of farmland
broken into a southeast sector, north sector, northwest sector, west sector, and southwest sector.
Margaret is involved primarily in growing wheat, alfalfa, and barley crops and is currently preparing
her production plan for next year. The Pennsylvania Water Authority has just announced its yearly
water allotment, with the Black farm receiving 7,4000 acre-feet, Each parcel can only tolerate a
specified amount of irrigation per growing season, as specified in the following table:
Parcel
Southeast
North
Northwest
West
Southwest

Area (Acres)

Water Irrigation Limit (Acre-feet)

2,000
2,300
600
1,100
500

3,200
3,400
800
500
600

Each of Margarets crops needs a minimum amount of water per acre, and there is a projected limit
on sales of each crop. Crop data follow:
Crop
Wheat
Alfalfa
Barley

Maximum Sales

Water Needed per Acre

110,000 bushels
1,800 tons
2,200 tons

1.6
2.9
3.5

Margarets best estimate is that she can sell wheat at a net profit of $2 per bushel, alfalfa at $40 per
ton, and barley at $50 per ton. One acre of land yields an average of 1.5 tons of alfalfa and 2.2 tons
of barley. The wheat yield is approximately 50 bushels per acre.
(a)

Formulate Margarets production plan


misal: wheat (W), Alfalfa (A), Barley (B)
asumsi: W, A, B adalah bilangan bulat, karena satuan terkecil yang digunakan adalah 1 acre
objective function:
max profit = 2W + 40A + 50B
s.t.
W 110,000
A 1,800
B 2,200
W + A + B 6,500 (luas lahan tersedia)
1.6W + 2.9A + 3.5B 8,500 (jumlah air tersedia)
W, A, B 0

(b)

What should the crop plan be, and what profit will it yield?
dengan menggunakan Excel Solver didapatkan:
Wheat = 0
Alfalfa = 277
Barley = 2199
Solusi = $ 121,030
(gambar dari Excel Solver terdapat di halaman berikut)

12

variabel
solution
maximize
constraints
wheat max sale limit
alfalfa max sale limit
barley max sale limit
area max limit
water max limit

(c)

wheat
0
2

alfalfa
277
40

barley
2199
50

1
1
1
1,6

1
2,9

Result
121.030

LHS
0
277
1 2199
1 2476
3,5 8499,8

<=
<=
<=
<=
<=

RHS
110.000
1.800
2.200
6.500
8.500

The Water Authority informs Margaret that for a special fee of $6,000 this year, her farm
will qualify for an additional allotment of 600 acre-feet of water. How should she respond?
variabel wheat
alfalfa
barley
solution
0
490
2194
Result
maximize
2
40
50
129.300
constraints
wheat max sale limit
alfalfa max sale limit
barley max sale limit
area max limit
water max limit

1
1
1
1,6

1
2,9

1
1
3,5

LHS
0
490
2194
2684
9100

<=
<=
<=
<=
<=

RHS
110.000
1.800
2.200
6.500
9.100

Dengan penambahan biaya $ 6,000 dolar akan memberikan tambahan air sebesar 600 acrefeet. Maka dari itu perlu dihitung apakah keuntungan yang didapat lebih besar daripada biaya
tambahan yang dikeluarkan atau tidak.
profit = ($ 129,300 - $ 121,030 =$ 8,270
Berarti dengan penambahan $ 6,000, keuntungan bersih yang didapatkan adalah:
$ 8,270 - $ 6,000 = $ 2,270
Karena profit yang didapatkan lebih besar dari biaya tambahan yang dikeluarkan maka
sebaiknya Margaret mengambil kesempatan tersebut.

13

8-16.

(Material blending problem) Amalgamated Products has just received a contract to construct steel
body frames for automobiles that are to be produced at the new Japanese factory in Tennessee. The
Japanese auto manufacturer has strict quality control standards for all of its component
subcontractors and has informed Amalgamated that each frame must have the following steel
content:

Amalgamated mixes batches of eight different available materials to produce one ton of steel used
in the body frames. The table on this page details these materials. Formulate and solve the LP model
that will indicate how much each of the eight materials should be blended into a 1-ton load of steel so
that Amalgamated meets its requirements while minimizing costs.

Jawaban :
Objective Function:
minimize f($) = 0.121 + 0.132 + 0.153 +0.091 + 0.072 +0.11 +0.122 +0.093
s.t.
0.021
0.043

0.71 + 0.552 + 0.123 +0.011 + 0.052


2000

0.023

.151 + 0.32 + 0.263 +0.11 + 0.032 +0.241 +0.252 +0.233

0.0505

2000
.151 + 0.32 + 0.263 +0.11 + 0.032 +0.241 +0.252 +0.233

2 300 ;

2000

1 50;

2 200;

0.046
0.054

3 300

1 ,2 ,3 ,1 ,2 ,1 ,2 ,3 0

14

Hasil perhitungan linear programming dengan menggunakan excel solve adalah sebagai berikut:
variable
(pounds) produced
objective min cost

A1

A2
60
0.12

A3
0
0.13

I1
0
0.15

I2
0
0.09

C1
0
0.07

C2
41.66666048
0.1

C3
200.000001
0.12

100.000001
0.09

s.t.
manganese

0.70

0.55

0.12

0.01

0.05

silicon

0.15

0.30

0.26

0.10

0.03

0.24

0.25

0.23

carbon

0.03

0.01

0.03

0.18

0.20

0.25

cost
44.36666636

resource used

A1 (pounds)
A2 (pounds)
A3 (pounds)
I1 (pounds)
I2 (pounds)
C1 (pounds)
C2 (pounds)
C3 (pounds)

1
1
1

2.100% min
max
4.600% min
max
3.715% min
max

RHS
2.1%
2.3%
4.3%
4.6%
5.05%
5.4%

0 max

300

41.66666048 max
200.000001 max
100.000001 max

50
200
100

Hasil yang didapatkan adalah:


A1 : 60 pounds
C1 : 41.67 pounds
C2 : 200 pounds (resource max)
C3 : 100 pounds (resource max)
Berdasarkan hasil dari perhitungan excel, model tidak dapat memberikan solusi yang memenuhi konstrain spesifikasi (kandungan karbon di
bawah spesifikasi), dimana:
kandungan minimal carbon adalah 5.05%, sedangkan hasil dari solusi yang didapat hanya 3,715%
Apabila dilakukan penambahan campuran C1 sampai mencapai kandungan carbon minimum, maka akan berakibat pada kandungan silicon
melebihi batas maksimal. Oleh karena itu batasan spesifikasi tidak dapat dipenuhi.
15

10-13. An airline owns an aging fleet of Boeing 737 jet airplanes. It is considering a major purchase of up to
17 new Boeing model 757 and 767 jets. The decision must take into account numerous cost and
capability factors, including the following:
(1) the airline can finance up to $1.6 billion in purchases
(2) each Boeing 757 will cost $80 million, and each Boeing 767 will cost $110 million
(3) at least one-third of the planes purchased should be the longer-range 757
(4) the annual maintenance budget is to be no more than $8 million
(5) the annual maintenance cost per 757 is estimated to be $800,000 and it is $500,000 for each
767 purchased
(6) each 757 can carry 125,000 passengers per year, whereas each 767 can fly 81,000 passengers
annually.
Formulate this as an integer programming problem to maximize the annual passenger-carrying
capability. What category of integer programming problem is this? Solve this problem
misal: -

Boeing 757 =
Boeing 767 =
jumlah pesawat adalah bilangan bulat (integer) karena satuan terkecil adalah 1 pesawat

objective function
s.t.

max capacity = 125,000X + 81,000Y

80X + 110Y 1600 (in million).. financial


X 1 3(X+ Y) menjadi 2X - Y 0 ............... jumlah pesawat
0.8X + 0.5Y 8 (in million) maintenance cost

karena yang jumlah pesawat harus dalam bentuk integer (semua variabel harus dalam bentuk integer),
maka kasus ini termasuk dalam pure integer programming.
Dengan menggunakan excel Solver didapatkan:

variable
solution
max capacity
constraint
financial
maintenance
plane qty

Boeing 757 Boeing 767


X
Y
5
8
result
125.000
81.000
1.273.000
LHS
80
0,8
2

110
0,5
-1

RHS
1.280
8
2

1600
8
0

dengan X=5 dan Y=8, maka kapasitas totalnya adalah 1,273,000 penumpang

16

10-16. Innis Construction Company specializes in building moderately priced homes in Cincinnati, Ohio. Tom
Innis has identified eight potential locations to construct new single-family dwellings, but he cannot put
up homes on all of the sites because he has only $300,000 to invest in all projects. The accompanying
table shows the cost of constructiong homes in each area and the expected profit to be made from the
sale of each home. Note that the home-building costs differ considerably due to lot costs, site
preparation, and differences in the models to be built. Note also that a fraction of a home cannot be
built.
Cost of building ($)
Expected Profit ($)
Location
Clofton
1
60,000
5,000
Mt. Auburn
2
50,000
6,000
Mt. Adams
3
82,000
10,000
Amberly
4
103,000
12,000
Norwood
5
50,000
8,000
Covington
6
41,000
3,000
Roselawn
7
80,000
9,000
Eden Park
8
69,000
10,000
(a)

Formulate Innis problem using 0-1 integer programming

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 dalam bilangan biner


objective function
s.t.

max profit = 51 + 62 + 103 + 124 + 85 + 36 + 97 + 108

601 + 502 + 823 + 1034 + 505 + 416 + 807 + 698 300


1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 0

(b)

Solve with QM for Windows or Excel


variable
solution
maximize profit
constraint
financial

X1
0

X2
1

X3
1

60

50

X4
0
10

X5
1

X6
1

X7
0

X8
1

12

103

50

41

80

result
10

37
LHS

82

69

RHS
292

dari hasil perhitungan di atas, maka solusi optimalnya adalah dengan mengerjakan proyek di:
- Mt. Aubum
- Mt. Adams
- Norwood
- Covington
- Eden Park
Maka Innis akan mendapatkan profit sebesar $37,000

17

300

10-17. A real estate developer is considering 3 possible projects: a small apartment complex, a small shopping
center, and a mini-warehouse. Each of these requires different funding over the next 2 years, and the
NPV of the investments also varies. The following table provides the required investment amounts (in
$1,000s) and the NPV of each (also expressed in $1,000s):
INVESTMENT

NPV
Apartment
Shopping center
Mini-warehouse

1
2
3

Year 1

Year 2

40
30
20

30
20
20

18
15
14

The company has $80,000 to invest in year 1 and $50,000 to invest in year 2.
(a) develop an integer programming model to maximize the NPV
1 , 2 , 3 , dalam bilangan biner
objective function
s.t.

maximize profit = 181 + 152 + 143

401 + 302 + 203 80


301 + 202 + 203 50
1 , 2 , 3 0

(b) solve using computer software. Which of the 3 projects would be undertaken if NPV is
maximized? How much money would be used each year?
variable
solution
maximize profit
constraint
year 1
year 2

X1
1

X2
1
18

X3
0
15

result
14

33
LHS

40
30

30
20

20
20

RHS
70
50

80
50

Untuk memaksimasi NPV, maka proyek yang akan dikerjakan adalah Apartment dan Shopping
Center dengan biaya investasi sebesar:
year 1 = $70,000
year 2 = $50,000

18

10-19. Triangle Utilities provides electricity for 3 cities. The company has 4 electric generators that are used to
provide electricity. The main generator operates 24 hours per day, with an occasional shutdown for
routine maintenance. Three other generators (1,2,3) are available to provide additional power when
needed. A startup cost is incurred each time one of these generators is started. The startup costs are
$6,000 for 1; $5,000 for 2; and $4,000 for 3. These generators are used in the following ways:
A generator may be started at 6:00 AM and run for either 8 hours or 16 hours, or it may be started at
2:00 PM and run for 8 hours (until 10:00 PM). All generators except the main generator are shut down
at 10:00 PM.
Forecasts indicate the need for 3,200 megawatts more than provided by the main generator before 2:00
PM, and this goes up to 5,700 megawatts between 2:00 and 10:00 PM.
Generator 1 may provide up to 2,400 megawatts, generator 2 may provide up to 2,100 megawatts, and
generator 3 may provide up to 3,300 megawatts. The cost per megawatt used per 8 hour period is $8 for
1, $9 for 2, and $7 for 3.
(a) Formulate this problem as an integer programming problem to determine the least-cost way to
meet the needs of the area

Generator 1
Generator 2
Generator 3

1
2
3

Power
(megawatts)

Startup
Cost ($)

Cost per megawatt


per 8 hour($)

Total Cost
per 8 hour ($)

2,400
2,100
3,300

6,000
5,000
4,000

8
9
7

19,200
18,900
23,100

1 = 1 jika generator 1 dinyalakan pada periode-1, 0 jika tidak


2 = 1 jika generator 2 dinyalakan pada periode-1, 0 jika tidak
3 = 1 jika generator 3 dinyalakan pada periode-1, 0 jika tidak
4 = 1 jika generator 1 dinyalakan pada periode-2, 0 jika tidak
5 = 1 jika generator 2 dinyalakan pada periode-2, 0 jika tidak
6 = 1 jika generator 3 dinyalakan pada periode-2, 0 jika tidak
minimize cost = 61 + 52 + 43 + 19,21 + 18,92 + 21,73
(menggunakan C dan T untuk menyederhanakan fungsi tujuan)

dimana:
1 = (1 +4 )
2 = (2 +5 )

1 = (1 + 4 2 -1 4 )
2 = (2 + 5 2 -2 5 )

3 = (3 +6 )

3 = (3 + 6 2 -3 6 )

s.t.

2,4001 + 2,1002 + 3,3003 3,200 (8 jam pertama)


2,4002 + 2,1003 + 3,3004 5,700 (8 jam kedua)

19

(b) Solve using computer software

variable
values

x1
0

x2
0

x3
1

x4
1

x5
0

x6
1

terms
calculated values
minimize cost

C1
1
6

C2
0
5

C3
1
4

T1
1
19,2

T2
0
18,9

T3
2
21,7

2400

2100

3300

constraints
watt period 1
watt period 2

result
72,60
LHS

2400

2100

3300

RHS
3300
5700

3200
5700

Dari hasil perhitungan melalui excel solver pada NLP objective function di atas, didapatkan solusi
optimal berupa:
Generator-1 dinyalakan mulai 2:00 PM (selama 8 jam) dan Generator-3 dinyalakan sejak 6:00 AM
(selama 16 jam) sehingga total biaya operasionalnya adalah $72,600

20

10-24. An Oklahoma manufacturer makes 2 products speaker telephones (1 ) and pushbutton telephones (2 ).
The following goal programming model has been formulated to find the number of each to produce
each day to meet the firms goals:
Minimize
1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 + + 4 1 +
subject to

21 + 42 + 1 - 1 + = 80
81 + 102 + 2 - 2 + = 320
81 + 62 + 3 - 3 + = 240
all , 0

Find the optimal solution using a computer

asumsi: setiap deviasi memiliki bobot yang sama yang bernilai 1. Dari hasil perhitungan pada QM
didapat 1 = 40, 2 = 0.
Dari solusi tersebut dapat dilihat bahwa constrain 1 & 2 terpenuhi, sedangkan constrain 3
menunjukkan kelebihan nilai sebesar 80, sehingga total deviasi untuk model ini adalah 80.

21

10-32. The integer programming problem in the box below has been developed to help First National Bank
decide where, out of 10 possible sites, to locate 4 new branch offices: where represents Winter Park,
Maitland, Osceola, Downtown, South Orlando, Airport, Winter Garden, Apopka, Lake Mary, Cocoa
Beach, for i equals 1 to 10, respectively.

(a) Where should the 4 new sites be located, and what will be the expected return?
variable
solution
maximize profit

X1
0

X2
0
120

X3
0
100

X4
0
110

X5
1
140

X6
0
155

X7
0
128

X8
1
145

X9
1
190

170

X10
1
result
150

constraint

665

LHS
1
2
3
6
4
5

20
15
1

30
5
1
1
1

20
20

25
20

30
5

1
1
1

1
1

30
5
1
1

25
10
1
1

20
20
1
1

25
5
1
1
1

30
20
1
1
1

RHS
105
50
2
4
3
1

dari hasil perhitungan di atas, 4 lokasi yang baru adalah:


- South Orlando (5 )
- Apopka (8 )
- Lake Mary (9 )
- Cocoa (10 )
expected return = 655

(b) If at least 1 new branch must be opened in Maitland ( ) or Osceola ( ), will this change the
answers? Add the new constraint and re-run
dengan kondisi seperti soal (b), tambahan constraint adalah
X2 + X3 1

22

110
50
3
4
2
1

variable
solution
maximize profit
constraint
a
b
c
d
e
f
g

X1
0

X2
0
120

X3
1
100

X4
0
110

X5
1
140

X6
0
155

X7
0
128

X8
1
145

X9
1
190

170

X10
0
result
150

625

LHS
20
15

30
5
1
1
1

1
1

20
20

25
20

30
5

1
1
1
1

1
1

30
5
1
1

25
10
1
1

20
20
1
1

25
5
1
1
1

30
20
1
1

RHS
95
50
1
4
4
1
1

110
50
3
4
2
1
1

dengan tambahan batasan di atas, maka perubahan lokasi adalah sebagai berikut:
- Osceola (3 )
- South Orlando (5 )
- Apopka (8 )
- Lake Mary (9 )
expected return = 625

(c) The expected return at Apopka was overestimated. The correct value is $160,000 per year (that
is, 160). Using the original assumptions (namely, ignoring (b)), does your answer to part (a)
change?
variable
solution
maximize profit
constraint
a
b
c
d
e
f

X1
0

X2
0
120

X3
0
100

X4
0
110

X5
1
140

X6
0
155

X7
0
128

X8
1
145

X9
1
160

170

X10
1
result
150

635

LHS
20
15
1
1

30
5
1
1
1

20
20

25
20

30
5

1
1
1

1
1

30
5
1
1

25
10
1
1

20
20
1
1

25
5
1
1
1

30
20
1
1
1

RHS
105
50
2
4
3
1

?
?
?
?
?
?

dari perubahan koefisien pada 8 dari 190 menjadi 160, mengubah tidak solusi optimal
sebelumnya, hanya besarnya expected return yang berubah menjadi 635

23

110
50
3
4
2
1