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Instructional Design Project

The Saunders Writing Center


Instructional Design Project

Rachel Doss and Alexa Rodriguez


The University of Tampa
EME 620 Spring 2015

Instructional Design Project


Table of Contents
Definition of Performance Problem.................................................................................................3
Introduction..................................................................................................................................3
Needs Assessment........................................................................................................................5
Learner Analysis..............................................................................................................................9
General Characteristics................................................................................................................9
Specific Characteristics................................................................................................................9
Personal and Social Characteristics...........................................................................................10
Contextual Analysis.......................................................................................................................10
Orienting Context.......................................................................................................................10
Instructional Context..................................................................................................................10
Transfer Context.........................................................................................................................12
Task Analysis.................................................................................................................................12
Instructional Objectives.............................................................................................................20
Objectives Sequencing...............................................................................................................21
Objectives Strategies..................................................................................................................22

Instructional Design Project


Definition of Performance Problem
Introduction
The University of Tampa is a private university located in Tampa, Florida, that offers 200
undergraduate academic programs of study, as well as 12 masters programs, and nine
concentrations. With the enrollment rate growing every year, The University of Tampa needs to
ensure that there are programs implemented at the university to help students succeed while
attending their program of study. One resource that is available for students to access is the
Saunders Writing Center. This program is a tutoring center located on campus that helps
undergraduate and graduate students with their writing process, and overall writing skills. To
help students with the process of writing papers and reports, the tutors at the writing center are
available during the week to sit down with students and help with brainstorming, communicating
ideas clearly, and revising. The Saunders Writing Center is run by the Director, who is an
Associate English Professor at the University of Tampa, and employs roughly six to eight
undergraduate students, in addition to one to two graduate students who range in different majors
to works as tutors. When students graduate, it is important to fill those tutoring positions to
ensure that there are enough tutors to work appropriate hours during the week.
The tutors that are selected to work at the Saunders Writing Center are recommended by
their University of Tampa English professors. These individuals must have the skills required to
write effective papers, as well as possess qualities that would make him/her an effective writing
tutor. Once these students are recommended, the information is sent over to the Director of the
Saunders Writing Center, who takes the time to contact these individuals in hope that they are
interested in interviewing for the position. The interview process involves the Director contacting
the potential tutors, interviewing them, and reviewing their writing samples. Once this process is

Instructional Design Project


finished, the individuals that the Director feels would make a great fit are contacted, and asked to
attend training before they can start their position.
With every new job position, especially tutoring, it is important to have new employees
properly trained in how to handle job tasks, and introduce different scenarios in which the
employees might encounter. New writing tutors undergo training for one to two weeks before
they are able to conduct tutoring sessions on their own. The first week the tutors meet as a group
with the Director of the Saunders Writing Center to go over expectations, day-to-day tasks, and
some scenarios that the tutors may encounter while working at the writing center. Once the group
training is completed, the new tutors are able to assist existing tutors during their appointments
for a period of time. While training is being conducted, some tutors do not feel one hundred
percent comfortable with one-to-one sessions at the end of this initial training period. With the
implementation of a new training program, the new tutors will feel comfortable in tutoring
students early on, and be prepared to handle situations that arise.
Due to inefficient training, redesigning the training to encompass hybrid instruction will
provide students with proper knowledge to ensure that they will be able to handle their new
position as a writing tutor. The online instruction will instruct new tutors on the imperatives of
tutoring, basic and essential tutoring procedures, the 6 PQ Method of Discovery Learning, and
how to begin and end a tutoring session. The online instruction will also provide the new tutor
with various scenarios in which they might encounter in a tutoring session, and advice on how to
handle certain situations. The in-class tutoring instruction will consist of a meet and greet of new
tutors, a Q & A session with the Director, mock tutoring sessions, and proper training on how to
speak to students face to face, as well as how to answer certain questions.

Instructional Design Project


Needs Assessment
In order to determine where the gap in training is at the Saunders Writing Center, a needs
assessment would need to be conducted to identify the problem and suggest feasible solutions.
There will be two types of stakeholders involved in the needs assessment. The first would be the
performers, which will consist of undergraduate and graduate students who participate in
tutoring, or who have the desire to participate in tutoring with the writing center in the future.
The performers would also consist of the actual tutors who are providing the tutoring. The
second type of stakeholder will be the decision makers. The decision makers are vital to the
needs assessment process, as they are the individuals who usually request the needs assessment,
and will be the ones to ultimately review the results and possible solutions that can be
implemented to better improve the overall training of the tutors. Within this needs assessment,
the only decision maker would be the Director of the writing center, since he holds the highest
authority.
Data will be collected through online surveys of undergraduate and graduate students, a
focus group with new, existing, and alumni tutors, in addition to an interview with the Director
of the writing center. The online survey will consist of ten open ended and closed ended
questions that would be created on SurveyMonkey.com. The surveys will be emailed out to all
undergraduate and graduate students at the university. This will allow not only students who have
already participated in tutoring at the university, but also students who are interested in possibly
participating in the future. The interview with the Director of the writing center will be a face-toface interview consisting of questions that would provide information on the current training
process, as well as what they would like to see happen for the writing center in the future. The
questions will be open-ended allowing for room for follow-up questioning. The focus group

Instructional Design Project


would consist of new, existing, and if possible, alumni tutors. The participants in the focus group
will be asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards the training process
that is currently set at the writing center and what changes they would like to see.
Once all the data is collected, it will be analyzed and interpreted to determine the gap in
training at the Saunders Writing Center. The surveys will be analyzed through
SurveyMonkey.com, as there is an analytical function that will interpret the results of the
surveys. An instructional designer will transcribe the responses from the focus group and
interview with the Director. The needs assessment will involve a project manager who will
oversee the whole process of the project from initial development of questioning for the online
surveys, interviews, and focus group to the end of data analysis.
The results of the data collection revealed that there is in fact a gap in the training process at
the Saunders Writing Center at The University of Tampa. The training at the writing center has
proven to be inefficient and lacking depth. Furthermore, based on our proposed needs
assessment, instruction and training needs are necessary to provide tutors with proper knowledge
to ensure that they will be able to handle their new position as a writing tutor.

Goal Analysis
Step 1. Identify Aim
Have writing tutors conduct efficient and effective tutoring sessions with undergraduate and
graduate students from The University of Tampa.
Step 2. Set Goals

Identify the tutoring session process

Instructional Design Project

How to enter in the tutoring session information into the Saunders Writing Center computer
system

Conduct productive tutoring sessions with students

Properly handle unexpected situations during sessions

Demonstrate knowledge of writing skills

Communicate with proper etiquette during tutoring sessions

Portray leadership behaviors

Step 3. Refine Goals

Identify the tutoring session process step-by-step

Demonstrate entering in the tutoring session information into the Saunders Writing Center
computer system

Conduct productive tutoring sessions with students by following the 6 PQ Method of


Discovery Learning

Identify different ways to properly handle unexpected situations

Provide personal examples demonstrating knowledge of writing skills

Communicate with proper etiquette, portraying leadership behaviors

Step 4. Rank Goals


1.

Identify the tutoring session process step-by-step

2.

Conduct productive tutoring sessions with students by following the 6 PQ Method of


Discovery Learning

3.

Communicate with proper etiquette, portraying leadership behaviors

4.

Identify different ways to properly handle unexpected situations

Instructional Design Project


5.

Demonstrate entering in the tutoring session information into the Saunders Writing Center
computer system

6.

Provide personal examples demonstrating knowledge of writing skills

Step 5. Refine Goals Again

Conduct the tutoring session process step-by-step

Facilitate and evaluate tutoring sessions with students by following the 6 PQ Method of

Discovery Learning

Communicate with proper etiquette, demonstrating leadership behaviors

Maintain accurate summaries by entering in the tutoring session information into the
Saunders Writing Center computer system

Provide personal examples demonstrating knowledge of writing skills in a wide range of


academic subjects

Step 6. Final Ranking


1.

Conduct the tutoring session process step-by-step

2.

Facilitate and evaluate tutoring sessions with students by following the 6 PQ Method of
Discovery Learning

3.

Communicate with proper etiquette, demonstrating leadership behaviors

4.

Maintain accurate summaries by entering in the tutoring session information into the
Saunders Writing Center computer system

5.

Provide personal examples demonstrating knowledge of writing skills in a wide range of


academic subjects

Instructional Design Project


Learner Analysis
General Characteristics
The learners include roughly six to eight undergraduate students, in addition to one to two
graduate students who range in different majors to work as tutors at the Saunders Writing Center
at The University of Tampa. The ages range from 18 plus, and include both male and female
learners. The majority of the learners are classified as having little to minimal work experience
as they are undergraduate students, sometimes right out of high school. Other graduate student
tutors may have some experience as tutors and/or working with peers. The writing center tutors
will have completed at a minimum a high school diploma. Other tutors will have completed
some college, may have obtained their undergraduate degree, or are attending graduate classes
currently. In order to be selected as a writing center tutor, the learner must have completed both
English 101 and 102 at the college level. The learners are open to all ethnic backgrounds;
however, they must be fluent in English language, reading and writing, in order to fulfill the
writing requirements at The University of Tampa.
Specific Characteristics
As previously stated, the learners must have completed both English 101 and 102 at the
college level in order to be selected as a writing center tutor. The learners are also required to
have a certain level of grade point average (GPA), as well as knowledge of proper grammar and
various formatting and citation styles such as APA, MLA, Chicago, etc. Not only should the
learners possess a high level of people skills and patience, but they should also maintain efficient
verbal communication skills in order to interact with their students. The learners must be able to
portray motivation and encouragement to their students in order to achieve their writing goals.

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Instructional Design Project


Personal and Social Characteristics
Since the age range of the learners is 18 plus, the learners must demonstrate a high level
of maturity and carry themselves at a higher standard as they are often viewed as role models.
Learners must seem interested in the task at hand and exhibit high levels of motivation and drive
in order to help others. Special talents of the learners include being an extremely skillful writer
and communicator. Learners must possess admirable work ethic and must be able to handle high
levels of stress in a time of need (mid-terms, finals, etc).
Contextual Analysis
Orienting Context
The Saunders Writing Center tutor training will be designed to educate newly hired
writing tutors on the process of conducting efficient and effective tutoring sessions, as well as
train the tutors on how to handle certain tutoring situations that may arise. The tutors will learn
about the history/background of The Saunders Writing Center, how to schedule appointments,
how to conduct tutoring sessions that benefit the students, and also how to enter the tutoring
session data into the computer system. While some newly hired tutors may have experience with
tutoring, it is important that all new tutors are well educated on how to conduct and handle
tutoring sessions, as well as understand the overall process of the Saunders Writing Center to
ensure that the program is running smoothly, as well as provide the best service possible for The
University of Tampa students.
Instructional Context
The new tutor training will take place both face-to-face and online. The face-to-face
training will take place in a conference room located on The University of Tampa campus, and

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will be conducted by the Director of the Saunders Writing Center. The conference room will be
equipped with a large table, chairs, a whiteboard, screen projector, and Internet access. The large
conference table will be beneficial in the fact that the new tutors and the director will be able to
see one another, and have open communication access. The whiteboard and projector will be
used for displaying information to one another during the training, and the internet access gives
the director and tutors the ability to look up information or use their computers for training
purposes. The training room must have enough lighting for the director and tutors to be able to
read paperwork, and also have the ability to dim or shut off the lights when using the projector.
Outside noise must be kept to a minimum, or have the ability to be blocked out in order for the
direct and tutors to have the ability to concentrate during the training.
The online portion of the new tutor training will be completed in an environment of the
tutors choosing. This online training should be completed in a well-lit and noise free
environment to ensure that the tutor is able to focus during the training. If the tutor does not have
a personal computer, the University of Tampa offers computer labs in which the individual will
be able to access the training.
The final part of the new tutor training will take place in the Saunders Writing Center
where the new tutors will have the ability to observe veteran tutors, and help cotutor until the
newly hired tutors feel comfortable to conduct sessions on their own. The Saunders Writing
Center is a room located in Plant Hall, which is a building on the University of Tampa campus.
The writing center is located on the third floor of Plant Hall, where the noise level is kept to a
minimum to ensure that the tutors and students are given an area to concentrate. The Saunders
Writing Center environment is well lit with both natural light, lamps, and ceiling lights to
provide ample lighting for the tutoring sessions. There are roughly three small tables with two

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Instructional Design Project


chairs (one for the tutor and one for the student) at each table; the tables also contain pens and
pencils for the individuals. Another important feature of the center is that there are citation,
grammar, and other writing books available for the tutors and students to use during the sessions.
The overall training will be conducted over a two-week time span with the first week consisting
of three face-to-face training sessions, and two online training sessions. The second week will
take place in the Saunders Writing Center where the new tutors will have one full week to
observe existing tutors and help cotutor in sessions.

Transfer Context
Once the face-to-face and online tutor training concludes, the new writing tutors will be
able to use their new knowledge and skills during the tutoring sessions with the existing writing
center tutors, as well as put their training into practice once they are conducting one-to-one
tutoring sessions on their own. While the training is only a one time process, the tutors will be
learning new techniques and skills throughout their employment at The Saunders Writing Center.
The new tutors will have the ability to ask the existing tutors questions if they need any help or
information, as well as have direct contact (via phone, e-mail, and in person meetings) with the
director of the writing center if the tutors have any questions or concerns. The Saunders Writing
Center Director should remain in contact with the new tutors and existing tutors to ensure that
the writing center is moving smoothly, and that the tutors and students are given a safe and
educational place to work.
Task Analysis
The type of Task Analysis that will be used is a Procedural Analysis because the new
tutors will be expected to know the process of scheduling tutor appointments over the telephone,

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Instructional Design Project


conducting a tutoring session, inputting the tutoring session data into the computer system after
the session is complete, and finally, delivering the tutor slips to the professors mailbox. Each
process will be broken down into steps in which the tutors will be able to follow depending on if
they are scheduling an appointment over the telephone, conducting a tutoring session, inputting
information into the computer system, or delivering the tutor slips to the professors mailbox.
The Procedural Analysis will be able to layout each step for the new tutors until they understand
and learn the steps in each process.
1. Scheduling an appointment over the telephone
a. Answer the telephone
i.
Lift the phone receiver to answer the phone call
b. Use standard greeting
i.
Hello, thank you for calling The Saunders Writing Center, this is ________ speaking, how may
c.
i.
ii.
iii.
1.
iv.
1.
2.
v.
vi.
d.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
e.
i.

I help you?
Collect necessary student information to schedule the appointment
Verify the students name
Verify the day and time the student would like to schedule an appointment
Verify the due date of the assignment
If the assignment is due the next day, the student will not be able to schedule an appointment
Verify the length of the assignment
If the assignment is under four pages, the student only needs one session (30 minutes)
If the assignment is over four pages, the student will need two sessions (1 hour)
Verify the professors name and the course this assignment is for
Verify a phone number in which the student can be contacted
Fill out the appointment sheet
Depending on the length of the assignment, choose the app
Find the day and time the student would like to come in
Fill out the students name
Fill out the assignment due date
Fill out the professors name and the course
Fill out the students phone number
End the phone call
Just to confirm your appointment, your appointment is scheduled for (month, day, and time)

with (the tutors name). Have a great day.


2. Conducting a one-to-one tutoring session
a. Welcome the student when he/she arrives at the writing center
i.
Welcome to the Saunders Writing Center, do you have an appointment?
b. Ask the student for their name

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i.

What is your name so that I can see what time your appointment is and who will be conducting

ii.

the session.
Look at the schedule to determine the time of the appointment, and who will be conducting the

tutoring session
c. Give the student a tutoring slip, and ask them to please take a seat at one of the tables
i.
Take one of the white tutoring slips and hand it to the student before they have a seat at one of
ii.

the tables
Have the student choose a seat at one of the open tutoring tables located in the back of the

iii.

Saunders Writing Center


Give the student enough time to get settled and fill out the slip before starting the session (about

3-4minutes)
d. Begin the tutoring session
i.
Make sure that the student has a hard copy of the paper or has it on their personal laptop for you
to view
1. The tutor will not be able to help the student unless there is a physical paper (printed out or on a
laptop) present
Explain to the student that you will not be able to physically write on their paper or make

ii.

corrections on the laptop because it is their assignment, and you are only able to give
suggestions/feedback
1. The tutor is not allowed to write on the paper or physically make corrections. It is the students
responsibility to write the corrections, suggestions, and feedback
Ask the student briefly describe their assignment or ask for a document that has the assignment

iii.

written out
1. This allows the tutor to understand what the assignment is before going through the assignment
iv.
1.
2.
v.
1.
2.
vi.
1.
a.

with the student


Ask the student what he or she wants to focus on during the session
This allows to tutor to focus on exactly what the student wants
Grammar, sentence structure, transitions, sentence formation, run on sentences, etc.
Ask the student if he or she want to read the paper out loud or have you read the paper out loud
When reading the paper out loud, make sure to frequently stop and ask questions
Read the paper at a slow pace to ensure that you or the student is not skipping any information
Touch upon the 6 PQ Method of Discovery Learning
Preface questions
Questions that are caring and broad

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2.
a.
3.
a.
4.
a.
5.
a.
6.
a.
e.
i.
ii.
iii.
3.
a.
i.
b.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
c.
i.
1.
ii.
1.
iii.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
iv.
1.
2.
3.
d.
i.

Pace questions
Questions that set the tone for the remainder of the session
Probe questions
Questions that dig deep to evaluate complete understanding of the topic
Prod questions
Questions that encourage the student to speculate and guess
Prompt questions
Questions that guide the student step-by-step to discover for themselves
Processing questions
Questions that allow the student to think through the information - by restating what they learned
Conclude the session
Ask the student if he or she has any further questions that you would you be able to help with
Tell the student that they are welcome to schedule a follow up appointment after they make their
revisions to the paper
Thank the student for coming into the writing center
Inputting the data into the computer system after the tutoring session
Collect the slip from the student
Take the slip once the tutoring session is complete
Check the slip to ensure that all of the information is filled out
Students name
Students ID number
Students phone number
Tutors name
Todays Date
Professors Name
Date in which the assignment is due
Enter the information into the system
Turn on the computer if the computer is not already on
Press the on/start button
Open the tutoring software
Find the icon on the computer desktop that brings you to the tutoring software
Enter in the information that was listed on the slip
Students name
Students ID number
Students phone number
Tutors name
Todays Date
Professors Name
Date in which the assignment is due
Write a summary of the tutoring session
What you and the student worked on
What the student may have had trouble with
Any other additional information that would be important to note
Print out the slip
Double check that the information is correct before printing

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ii.

Press the print button


e. Place the printed slip into the slip basket for delivery
i.
Once the slip is printed and checked, place the slip into the slip bin located near the main
4.
a.
i.

b.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
c.
i.

computer
Delivering the tutoring session slips
Collect the tutoring slips from the basket near the main computer
The tutoring slips will be in a small basket near the Saunders Writing Center computer
Make sure the information on the slips are filled out appropriately
Students name
Students ID number
Students phone number
Tutors name
Todays Date
Professors Name
Course Name
Date in which the assignment is due
Bring the slips down to the mailboxes located on the second floor of Plant Hall (room 211)
One tutor will bring down the completed slips to the mailbox room (tutors are asked to deliver

the slips two to three times a week during their scheduled working times)
d. Place the tutoring slips into the appropriate mailboxes
i.
The tutor will know which mailbox to place the slips into by referring to the Professors name
located on the slip

Instructional Objectives
1. Writing tutors will be able to schedule tutoring appointments with students over the phone and in
person in a timely manner.
2. Writing tutors will be able to conduct an effective one-to-one tutoring session within the
Saunders Writing Center.
3. Writing tutors will be able to form questions based on the 6PQ Method of Discovery Learning to
provide efficient tutoring.
4. Writing tutors will be able to locate writing errors with the students during a tutoring session.
5. Writing tutors will be able to explain writing errors with the students during a tutoring session.

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6. Writing tutors will be able to input the tutoring session data into the Saunders Writing Center
computer system for review.
7. Writing tutors will be able to deliver the tutoring session slips to the appropriate instructor
mailboxes.

Objectives Sequencing
The New Tutor Training will need to present the training objectives and educational content in a
real-world sequence. A real-world sequence will allow the new writing tutors to learn the natural
flow and proper steps in which they need to take to become effective tutors. Since the learners
are new tutors, the sequencing needs to take into consideration that most, if not all of the new
tutors do not have experience being a writing tutor. The sequence needs to exemplify a realworld tutoring session, beginning at scheduling an appointment, through delivering the
completed tutor form to the instructors mailbox.
1. Writing tutors will be able to schedule tutoring appointments with students over the phone and in
person in a timely manner.
2. Writing tutors will be able to conduct an effective one-to-one tutoring session within the
Saunders Writing Center.
3. Writing tutors will be able to form questions based on the 6PQ Method of Discovery Learning to
provide efficient tutoring.
4. Writing tutors will be able to locate writing errors with the students during a tutoring session.
5. Writing tutors will be able to explain writing errors with the students during a tutoring session.
6. Writing tutors will be able to input the tutoring session data into the Saunders Writing Center
computer system for review.
7. Writing tutors will be able to deliver the tutoring session slips to the appropriate instructor
mailboxes.

Objectives Strategies

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1. Writing tutors will be able to schedule tutoring appointments with students over the phone and in
person in a timely manner.
Initial Presentation: The instructor will provide a training video online which
demonstrates how to schedule a tutoring appointment in a timely manner on the phone
and in person.
Generative Strategy: After watching the training video online, the learner will recall the
appropriate steps in order to schedule a tutoring appointment in a timely manner on the
phone and in person, as well as be able to demonstrate on a mock call.
2. Writing tutors will be able to conduct an effective one-to-one tutoring session within the
Saunders Writing Center.
Initial Presentation: The instructor will provide a training video online which
demonstrates all of the steps required to conduct a one-to-one tutoring session. The
learner is encouraged to take notes during the instructional video. Additionally, the
learners will be given scenarios in which they need to act out as if this was a real tutoring
session.
Generative Strategy: After watching the training video, tutors will be expected to recall
the steps required to perform a one-to-one training session by participating in mock
scenarios in the face-to-face training portion.
3. Writing tutors will be able to form questions based on the 6PQ Method of Discovery Learning to
provide efficient tutoring.
Initial Presentation: The instructor will provide an online voice over PowerPoint that
explains the 6PQ Method of Discovery Learning. Additionally, provide an online

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interactive program that allows the tutors to learn which 6PQ question is appropriate to
ask depending on the scenario presented.
Generative Strategy: After viewing the PowerPoint and participating in the interactive
program, the learners will be expected to identify the 6PQ Method of Discovery
Learning, and be able to formulate questions during a mock tutoring session during the
face-to-face training.
4. Writing tutors will be able to locate writing errors with the students during a tutoring session.
Initial Presentation: The instructor will provide online documents of writing samples
that highlight important writing errors that the learning will be expected to identify.
Generative Strategy: After reviewing the online writing samples, the tutors will take a
short quiz that tests their knowledge on finding and correcting errors in sample excerpts.
The tutors will also have to put this into practice when they begin to co-tutor and tutor
session.
5. Writing tutors will be able to explain writing errors with the students during a tutoring session.
Initial Presentation: The instructor will provide a short tutoring video online, which
shows a tutoring session and how the tutor should explain writing errors to the student.
Generative Strategy: After watching this short video, the tutor will be expected to
participate in an online program that generates scenarios and writing errors, and the tutor
must select the appropriate way he/she should go about explaining that writing error to
the student. The tutor will also have to participate in a mock tutoring session in the faceto-face training in which the instructor plays the role of a student coming in their paper

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and a new tutor plays the role of a writing tutor. The writing tutor must find writing
errors, as well as explain the errors correctly to the student.

6. Writing tutors will be able to input the tutoring session data into the Saunders Writing Center
computer system for review.
Initial Presentation: The instructor will provide an online video which shows how to
access the Saunders Writing Center computer system, and the necessary steps the tutor
must take to input the tutoring session data.
Generative Strategy: After watching this video, the new tutors will have a chance to
access and enter in fake data into the computer system during the face-to-face training.
7. Writing tutors will be able to deliver the tutoring session slips to the appropriate instructor
mailboxes.
Initial Presentation: The instructor will provide an online video which shows the proper
steps the new tutors need to take in order to deliver the tutoring session slips to the
instructor mailboxes.
Generative Strategy: After watching this video, the new tutors will have a chance to
deliver slips to the mailbox room in the face-to-face training.