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# 5

:1
. .N -
) :1 (
)( k 1
)( k 1
) (k
.N
N f f + g -
f N - g -
:
)( k 1
.N
f + g -
: : (u , v ) E
)( k 1
( f + g )(u , v ) = f (u , v) + g (u , v ) f (u , v) + (c
)(u , v) f (u , v) ) = c ( k 1) (u , v
- : : (u , v ) E
) ( f + g )(u , v ) = f (u , v ) + g (u , v ) = f (v, u ) g (v, u ) = ( f (v, u ) + g (v, u ) ) = ( f + g )(v, u
: }: u V \ {s, t
( f + g )(u , v) = ( f (u, v) + g (u, v) ) = f (u, v) + g (u, v) =0 + 0 = 0
( u ,v )E

( u ,v )E

( u ,v )E

( u ,v )E

. f + g = f + g
+ g

( f ( s, v) + g ( s, v) ) = f ( s, v) = + g ( s, v) = f
( s ,v )E

( s ,v )E

= ) ( f + g )( s, v

( s ,v )E

= f +g

( s ,v )E

:
:2 f N - f : N - s- t-. N f -
,2 f + g . N ( k 1) -
, k = 0 fN (1) -
) . N (f 0 N (f 0 ) = N f N -

,0- , ,
g s- t- N - f + g .N -
. '' L s- .t- 5
) ) O (V log E + E ( .
, L .
. M k ) 2 k , ) .( N (f k
N (f k ) - . M k 2 k . k = L, L 1,......,1,0
: N (f L ) , k = L 2 L ) (u , v

. c ( L ) (u , v ) = 2 L s- t - M L
2 L N (f L ) - . M L 2 L
: ) N (f k +1 . M k +1 2 k +1

: ) N (f k . M k 2 k
g N (f k +1) - . g M k +1 2 k +1 min-
, cut max-flow N (f k +1) - . g . ) c kf +1 (u , v ) (u , v
2 k +1 ) c (fk++g1) (u , v ) 0 ) (u , v ( ) c (fk+)g (u , v
) (u , v N (kf +)g 2 k N (kf +)g M k 2 k
N (kf +)g - . M k 2 k
- N (kf ) -
N (kf ) - M k 2 k N (kf ) -

2 k . M k
:
.N
:1 ,k+1 f -
: f ' - k+1 g -
)( k +1

) N (f k +1 ',

f '+ g = f . N ( k +1) -
:2 = ) (S,T : u S , v T
)( k +1
.( c
)) f (u , v) = c ( k +1) (u , v ) (u , v ) N ( k +1 (u , v) = 0
n ( k ) = a k 2 k + n ( k +1) :3 }. a k {0,1
: ) (u , v )) (S,T :( N ( k +1) -
. c ( k ) (u , v) f (u , v) = a k (u , v) 2 k + c ( k +1) (u , v) f (u , v) = a k (u , v) 2 k
: ) (u , v ) N (f k . a k (u , v) = 1 . M k 2 k

U . .N - .N -
(1 : , ) O ( E BFS ) O (V
. '' ) . O ( E V
(2 ) O (V'' t- .s- ,
N - s- t-
U ) . O (U V
) . O ( E V + U V
N (f k ) . M k . 2 k )( , -
) N (f k , M k , )( , N (f k ) -
) . O ( M k V
L

. M = M k g N (kf ) - ) O ( M k V ''
k =0

N - ) . O ( M k V ) = O ( M V
k =0

M : .

: ) (u , v . 1 k -
) N (f k , M k ) , N (f k k -
, M k , k - .
L

M = M k .
k =0

:2
A = {a1 , a 2 ,......, a k } - . D = {d 1 , d 2 ,......, d n } -
d i ri a j . D j
. ) N = ((V , E ), c, s, t -
}V = D A {s, t
E = E1 E 2 E 3
} E1 = {( s, d i ) : d j Dc( s, d i ) = ri -

c ( d i , a j ) = 1 -

} E 2 = {( d i , a j ) : a j A, d i D j
}E 3 = {(a j , t ) : a j A

( s, d i ) E1

c ( a j , t ) = -

(d i , a j ) E 2

(a j , t ) E1

a1

1
1

d1

a2

d2

.
.
.

1
1

.
.
.

ak

r1
r2

s
rn

dn

, f .N -
n

## f < ri " ".

i =1

, L1 , L2 ,......, Lk . L j = {d i : f (d i , a j ) = 1} -
L1 , L2 ,......, Lk L j D j . L j
n

, f = ri - ( s, d i ) E1 c( s, d i ) = ri ,
i =1

d i - ri , d i - 1 ri
d i - 1 d i ri d i
.

. ) N = ((V , E ), c, s, t -
'
j

} V = D A A'{s, t }A' = {a : a j A
E = E1 E 2 E 3 E 4

}E1 = {( s, d i ) : d j D

c( s, d i ) = ri -

c ( d i , a j ) = 1 -

} E 2 = {(d i , a j ) : a j A, d i D j
}E3 = {(a j , t ) : a j A

( s, d i ) E1

c ( a j , t ) = -

(d i , a j ) E 2

(a j , t ) E1
'
j

'
j

## } E5 = {(d i , a 'j ) : a 'j A' , d i D j

c(d i , a 'j ) = 1 -

(a , t ) E 4

c ( a , t ) = C -

(d i , a 'j ) E5

a1

1
1

d1

a2

d2

.
.
.

1
1
1

ak
C

.
.
.

'a1

.
.
.

r1
r2

s
rn

dn

'a k

, f .N -
n

## f < ri " ".

i =1

'
j

, L1 , L2 ,......, Lk . L j = {d i : f (d i , a j ) = 1 f (d i , a ) = 1} -
L1 , L2 ,......, Lk L j D j . L j
n

, f = ri - ( s, d i ) E1 c( s, d i ) = ri ,
i =1

d i - ri , d i - 1 ri
d i - 1 d i ri ) -
d i ,( a j d i . , -
' A t C a 'j C C

a 'j - a j C .

## . ' ) : True , f = ri ,(False

i =1

'' C - , C = 0,1,2,4,8,..... C
, True ] [2 log C 1 , 2 log C = C .C
C log C .

:3
. ) (
. L
. L f s- t- .m m+1 .
L f - - L - R s- t- L f - (m 3) / 2 ,
, - R- L , (m 3) / 2 " ".
)-( L L f -
) . L / ((m 3) / 2) = 2 L /(m 3 L f - ). 2 L /(m 3
,10 L f - N f
). 2 L /(m 3
. ) . 2 L /(m 3 ,

, ,1 N f - )2 L /(m 3
). 2 L /(m 3
= m 2 L /(m 3) +
. L V - ). m + 2 V /(m 3

= m ) = O( V

2V

V +

V 3
, 1 ) O( E
) . O(| E | V

:4
.:
M E . M
C (u , v) M u C v C C
C M .
.:
M E . M ,8
) N = (( L R, E ), c, s, t M f. N -
) (S,T) N - ( ) N f S -
) s - (s T- ( . . M
s - L - R - ) t -
L - .(R -
S

C2

C1
T

) C1 = ( L T ) C 2 = ( R S
C = C1 C 2 : . M
:
C M C1 - u L ) ( s, u
C 2 - v R ) (v, t
C - . M -
C . L1 = L \ C1 . R1 = R \ C 2
L1 - R1 - L1 -
C 2 - '' , C 2 R1 - C1 -
'' . C1 L - R - '' .C
. :
' .
' .
.

:5
.:
n 1

A = B x

n 1

a x = b x
i

i =0

). A( x) = B ( x

i =0

A B 1 1000 -A( x) = B ( x) -
A B ) A( x B ( x) - .n-1
C ( x) = A( x) B ( x) 0 , n-1
]) P[ A( x) = B ( x ]. Pr[C ( x) = 0
C ( x) - , n-1 ) ( C ( x) - n-1,
r . C (r ) = 0
n 1
1
] , Prr{0,1,....,q 1} [C (r ) = 0 A B 1 1000 -

1000n 1000
) . A(r ) = B (r

.:
. q > 1000n
r } {0,1,2,....., q 1 ) A(r }) . {r , A(r
) B (r . A(r ) -
) A(r ) = B (r 1 .0
, ) O(log q ) = O(log n .