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Mathematics Program of Studies for K-12 in Alberta

Philosophy:

Students are active learners, and learn by attaching meaning to the work they
do

Have to construct their own personal meanings in mathematics

Learning proceeds from simple to complex, and concrete to abstract

Unique individual and with their own interests, abilities, and needs

Variety of pedagogical approaches

Students have knowledge that they bring to the classroom

Example: First Nations, Metis, and Inuit students traditionally favour oral
communication and practical applications over tedious written work

positive learning environment

Students should be taught to set achievable goals and to take ownership of


reaching these goals

Students are comfortable taking risks and be aware that it is acceptable to


solve problems in different ways

The learning of mathematics is a multi-faceted process where students should


learn to become autonomous and responsible learners

The goals for the K-12 Mathematics curriculum are to prepare students to:
Use mathematics confidently to solve problems
Communicate and reason mathematically
Appreciate and value mathematics
Make connections between mathematics and its applications
Commit themselves to lifelong learning

Become mathematically literate adults, using mathematics to contribute to


society
Make informed decisions as contributors to society

Mathematical Processes:
There are critical components and skills that students must encounter throughout
their mathematics learning in order to achieve the goals above and continue to be
effective learners throughout their lives.

[C]

Communication: communicate in order to learn and express their


understanding.

[CN]

Connections: connect mathematical ideas to other concepts in mathematics, to


everyday experiences and to other disciplines.

[ME]

Mental Mathematics and Estimation: demonstrate fluency with mental


mathematics and estimation.

[PS]
[R]
[T]
[V]

Problem Solving: develop and apply new mathematical knowledge through


problem solving.
Reasoning: develop mathematical reasoning.
Technology: select and use technologies as tools for learning and for solving
problems.

Visualization: develop visualization skills to assist in processing information,


making connections and The K-9 Program of Studies Scope:
There are four main strands which split into eight sub-strands, each with one
General Learning Outcome. These eight sub-stands are constant from kindergarten through
to grade nine. While these sub-strands appear to function like discrete, stand-alone units,
they were not designed to be divided and taught separately. Ideally, students should be able
to draw connections between concepts both within and across the strands to make
mathematical experiences meaningful. This will lead students to develop an understanding
of mathematics through specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes among and between
strands from Kindergarten through to the end of grade nine. In this sense, the strands work
like gears all interlocked together from K to 9.
Number

Number: GLO - Develop number sense.

Patterns and Relations

Patterns: GLO - Use patterns to describe the world and to solve problems.

Variables and Equations: GLO - Represent algebraic expressions in multiple ways.

Shape and Space

Measurement: GLO - Use direct and indirect measurement to solve problems.

3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes: GLO - Describe the characteristics of 3-D objects and
2-D shapes, and analyze the relationships among them.

Transformations: GLO - Describe and analyze position and motion of objects and
shapes.

Statistics and Probability

Data analysis: GLO - Collect, display and analyze data to solve problems.

Chance & Uncertainty: GLO - Use experimental or theoretical probabilities to


represent and solve problems involving uncertainty.

Reflection Question: Try to think about what you learned in K-9 math, which
GLOs above do those concepts best fit in with?

Specific Example:

Grade and
Strand

General Learning
Outcome

Specific Learning Outcome

Grade 6

4) Construct and compare triangles,


Including:
Describe the
- scalene
Shape and Space characteristics of 3-D
- isosceles
(3-D objects and objects and 2-D shapes,
and
analyze
the
2-D Shapes)
relationships among them - equilateral
- right
- obtuse
- acute
in different orientations.
[C, PS, R, V]

Activity:
1) Introduce the topic by showing kids short video from YouTube called All the different
types of Triangle Euclid. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdNfOmEiNzs)
2) This video has the artist telling a little story about triangles, and drawing illustrations
as he is reading. This keeps students engaged, and shows them the types of triangles
in a very simple and easy to follow form
3) Have a chart prepared with the six types of triangles listed call on students to
define each type
4) Bring up Smart Notebook lesson with several triangle shapes on it and have students
drag to one of six boxes labeled by type hint that there are some triangles could
go in more than one type.
5) Have students work in partners to complete double sided worksheet involving
labeling the type of triangles on one side, and having to draw triangles that match a
description on the back.
6) In closing, review that students can now define, describe, and illustrate the six
different types of triangles studied. Have students complete an exit slip saying which
type they find the hardest to remember and why.

The Grade 10-12 Program of Studies Scope:


In the high school grades the program of studies takes a significantly different
approach than that of the K-9 curriculum. Several different levels or streams of math are
offered to meet the unique needs of different students. As a result, there are a great deal
more strands for grades 10-12, but each class only uses 3-5 of these strands directly. The
strands each have one General Learning Outcome, much like the sub-strands for K-9.
See below for all of the strands used in grade 10-12 mathematics:
Relations and
Algebra and
Measurement
Functions
Trigonometry
Number Sense

Develop
spatial sense
sense
Develop spatial
and
and proportional
proportional
reasoning
reasoning

Geometry
Develop
sense
Develop spatial
spatial sense

Develop
algebraic
Develop algebraic
reasoning and
number
reasoning
and number
sense
sense

Develop
Develop algebraic
algebraic and
and
graphical
graphical reasoning
reasoning
through
the study
through the
study of
of
relations
relations

Number and Logic

Statistics

Develop
number sense
Develop number
sense
and
reasoning
and logical
logical reasoning

Develop
statistical
Develop statistical
reasoning
reasoning

Probability
Develop
critical thinking
thinking
Develop critical
skills
related to
to
skills related
uncertainty
uncertainty

Permutations,
Combinations and
Binomial Theorem

Develop
Develop trigonometric
trigonometric
reasoning
reasoning

Develop
Develop algebraic
algebraic and
and
numeric
numeric reasoning
reasoning that
that
involves
combinatorics
involves combinatorics

Mathematics
Research Project

Logical Reasoning

Develop
an appreciation
Develop an
appreciation
of
the role
role of
of
of the
mathematics
mathematics in
in society
society

Number

Algebra

Develop
number sense
Develop number
sense
and
and critical
critical thinking
thinking skills
skills

Develop
Develop algebraic
algebraic
reasoning
reasoning

Develop
Develop logical
logical reasoning
reasoning

While its good to know all the strands and General Learning Outcomes as a
teacher, what I feel is even more important is noticing how the different streams
approach the material. See the chart below, and notice the patterns seen in the
-1, -2, and -3 classes. The -3 stream focuses on mostly the same strands like the
K-9 program, where the -1 and -2 strands slowly build up skills from simple to
complex, and concrete to abstract.

Strands used in Math for Grades


10-12
Measurement
Algebra and Number
Relations and Functions
Trigonometry
Permutations, Combinations, and
Binomial Theorem
Geometry
Number and Logic
Statistics
Math Research Project
Logical Reasoning

10C
X
X
X

201
X
X
X

301

202
X

302

X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X

103
X

203
X

303
X

Probability
Number
Algebra

X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X

10C: Mix of -1 and -2 topics allowing students more


time to choose the direction right for them
-1: Prepare students for university calculus
-2: Prepare students for university programs not
requiring additional math courses
-3: Prepare students for most trades or to directly
enter the workforce

To Summarize: The mathematics program of studies gives students an interlocking set of


strands and processes which will ensure every student is prepared for high school. In
Grades 10-12 students are able to find the stream that best suits their needs for life beyond
school, and enjoy a math curriculum that is sensitive to those unique goals. Ideally, the
program of studies ensures that when students graduate in Alberta they will have achieved
the goals of the math curriculum and are ready to take on whatever challenges face them