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Chapter 45.

Endocrine System
Hormones

AP Biology

2004-2005

Regulation & Communication


Animals rely on 2 systems for
regulation

endocrine system
secrete chemical signals directly into

blood
slow, long-lasting response

nervous system
system of neurons, central

nerve system
fast, short-lasting response

AP Biology

2004-2005

Regulation by chemical messengers


Neurotransmitters released by neurons
Hormones release by endocrine glands
Endocrine gland
Axon

Neurotransmitter
Hormone
carried
by blood
Receptor
proteins

AP Biology

Target cell

2004-2005

How do hormones act on target cells


Lipid-based hormones
lipid-soluble
diffuse across membrane & enter cells

usually bind to receptor proteins in nucleus

AP Biology

bind to DNA as transcription factors

2004-2005

Action of steroid (lipid) hormones


Cytoplasm
S

Steroid
S hormone
2

4
S

Nucleus

AP Biology

5 Protein

passes through plasma


membrane.
Inside target cell, the steroid
hormone binds to a specific
receptor protein in the
cytoplasm or nucleus.

Hormone-receptor complex
enters nucleus & binds to
DNA, causing gene
transcription

Protein synthesis is induced.

Protein is
produced.
2004-2005

3
mRNA

1
Protein
carrier
Plasma membrane
1 Steroid hormone (S)
2

DNA

Blood plasma

How do hormones act on target cells


Protein-based hormones

hydrophilic & water soluble


cant diffuse across

Signal molecule
Cell surface
receptor
enzyme

membrane

trigger secondary
messenger pathway
signal transduction
multi-step cascade
activate cellular response

cAMP

G protein

ATP
Target
protein

Nucleus

AP Biology

Cytoplasm

2004-2005

Action of protein hormones


1

Protein
hormone

activates
enzyme

G protein

cAMP

Receptor
protein

ATP

GTP

Cytoplasm
AP Biology

activates
enzyme
activates
enzyme

Produces an action

protein
messenger
cascade
2004-2005

Action of epinephrine (adrenalin)


Liver cell

Epinephrine

activates
G protein

Receptor
protein

adrenal gland

adenylyl cyclase

cAMP

ATP
activates
protein kinase-A

GTP

Cytoplasm
AP Biology

activates
phosphorylase

Glycogen

released
to blood

Glucose

2004-2005

Benefits of a secondary messenger system


1
Signal molecule

Receptor protein

Activated adenylyl cyclase

Not yet
activated

2 Amplification
4 Amplification
3
GTP

cAMP
5

G protein

Protein kinase
6 Amplification

Amplification!
AP Biology

Enzyme
7 Amplification
Enzymatic product
2004-2005

Endocrine & Nervous system links

Hypothalamus = master control center


nervous system
receives information from nerves around
body about conditions
regulates release of hormones from pituitary

Pituitary gland = master gland


endocrine system
secretes broad range
of hormones
regulating other
glands

AP Biology

2004-2005

Hypothalamus

on

rm

tin
ac

)
RL

Gr
ow
th

(P

ho

ol
Pr

(G
H

Thyroid-stimulating
Antidiuretic
Hormone
Posterior
hormone
(TSH)
pituitary (ADH)
Thyroid gland
pic
o
Anterior
r
t
o
c
i
Kidney
t
r
)
o
H
c
pituitary
M
T
o
n
C
tubules
el
Ox
Adremone (A
a
yt
no
hor
cy ocin
Muscles
te
-s
of uterus
tim
Gonadotropic
ul
at
hormones:
in
Adrenal
g
Follicleho
cortex
stimulating
rm
(M on
hormone (FSH)
SH e
& luteinizing
)
hormone (LH)
Melanocyte
in amphibian

Bone
and muscle
AP Biology

Testis

Ovary

Mammary
glands
in mammals

2004-2005

Hormones & Homeostasis


Negative feedback Inhibition

stimulus triggers
control mechanism
that inhibits further
change
body temperature
sugar metabolism

Positive feedback

AP Biology

stimulus triggers
control mechanism
that amplifies effect
lactation
labor contractions

Hypothalamus

Releasing hormones
(TRH, CRH, GnRH)

Anterior pituitary

Inhibition

Tropic hormones
(TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH)

Target glands
(thyroid, adrenal cortex, gonads)

Hormones
2004-2005