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ARPES

Presented By:
Vidur Raj

Energetics of the photoemission proces

Pictorial representation of three-step and one-step model descriptions of the


photoemission process

Electrons
are emitted by photoelectric effect and escape

in vacuum in all directions. By collecting the


photoelectrons with an electron energy analyzer
characterized by a finite acceptance angle, one
measures their kinetic energy Ekin for a given emission
direction. This way, the wave vector or momentum
K=p/ of the photoelectrons in vacuum is also
completely determined.
|K| =
k|| = K|| =

sin

(because k|| = kx + ky )

where k|| is the component parallel to the surface of the


electron crystal momentum in the extended-zone
scheme (upon going to larger angles, one actually
probes electrons with k|| lying in higher-order Brillouin
zones; by subtracting the corresponding reciprocallattice vector G||; the reduced electron crystal
momentum in the first Brillouin zone is obtained).
The absorption of the photon provides the electron
with the additional energy it needs to get to the excited

||

cos .

it is clear that the momentum resolution is better at lower photon energy (i.e., lower E kin), and
larger polar angles (one can effectively improve the momentum resolution by extending the
measurements to momenta outside the first Brillouin zone).

ARPES experiments are performed in the ultraviolet (typically for h < 100 eV). An
additional advantage is
that at low photon energies one can disregard the photon momentum which is very low
in comparison to brillouin zone dimension.