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BIOFLOC TECHNOLOGY-BASED CULTURE

OF Litopenaeus vannamei USING


LOCAL CARBON SOURCES
Leovigildo Rey S. Alaban
Valeriano L. Corre Jr.
1Northern

Iloilo Polytechnic State College, Estancia, Iloilo


2University of the Philippines Visayas, Miag ao, Iloilo
*lr_alaban@yahoo.com

INTRODUCTION
Era of Aquaculture

The era of aquaculture brings hope to the


idea of a food secure future
However, constraints should be addressed
to enable the aquaculture sector to meet the
present and future needs and challenges

INTRODUCTION
Nitrogenous Waste Sequestration

In aquaculture, it is most ironic that food in the


form of feeds is the major source of waste
NH4+ + 1.18C6H12O6 + HCO3- + 2.06O2

C5H7O2N + 3.07 CO2

Heterotrophic
Figure 1: Heterotrophic pathway for carbon nitrogen conversion.
The stoichiometric equation was taken from Ebeling et. al (2006)

INTRODUCTION
The Concept of Biofloc

Figure 2. Biofloc structure. Figure on the left shows the components of


biofloc while the figure on the right shows a protozoan grazing on the biofloc.
Photos from De Schyver et. al. (2008)

INTRODUCTION
Research Framework

Figure 3. The conceptual framework discusses the direct and indirect (through
biofloc formation) effect of carbon addition in a BFT culture system.

METHODOLOGY
Experimental Inputs
Litopenaeus vannamei Post Larvae (0.38+0.01 g) were
purchased from a local hatchery and subjected to
pathogen screening
Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in a recirculating
system and acclimated to saline water were used in
greenwater production
Carbon sources were purchased from local suppliers.
Commercial feed was used. The carbon sources and feed
were subjected to proximate analysis.

METHODOLOGY
Experimental Treatment
Table 1. Carbon Sources Evaluated in the Study
Treatment Variable

Protocol

Control

Standard Water Change 50% water change every sampling period

RB

Rice Bran

Balanced with Feed

Tap

Tapioca

Balanced with Feed

Mol

Molasses

Balanced with Feed

COMBI

Molasses + Rice Bran

50% addition each based on Carbon


content

METHODOLOGY
Experimental Set-up
The system was designed to be
self-contained. Thus, the tanks were covered
with prefabricated transparent plastic.
Water change (Control) and water addition
(treatment) to account for water loss due to
evaporation was done with overhead flume.
Airlift aerators were placed at the sides and
center for aeration, circulation and solids
suspension.
Figure 4. BFT culture system used in the experiment

METHODOLOGY
Carbon Nitrogen Balance
Table 2. Equations for Balanced Carbon/Nitrogen Ratio

Eq. 1 PTAN = F x PC x 0.144 (taken from Ebeling et. al. 2006)


PTAN = ammonia production (Kg/day or g/day),
F = feeding rate (kg/day)
PC = protein content of feeds and 0.144 = constant for closed system

Eq. 2 Carbreq = (PTAN x 15.17) (F x Carbfeed)


Carbreq (g) = amount of carbohydrates needed to balance the
PTAN, 15.17 = amount of carbohydrates required for 1 unit of ammonia produced and
Carbfeed = carbohydrate content of feeds

Eq. 3 Carbadd = Carbreq/Carbcon


Carbadd is amount of carbon source to be added in the tank (grams)
Carbcon = Carbohydrates in carbon source [(crude protein in carbon source/6.25)
x 15.17] or the available carbohydrates in the carbon source

METHODOLOGY
Carbon Constant (Carbcon)

Table 3. Values for Carbon-Nitrogen Balance


Sample
Tap
Molasses Rice Bran
Crude Protein 2.7
2.0
12.8
Carbohydrates 87.0
64.0
42.1
Carbcon
80.45
59.15
11.0

Feeds
36.3
30.45

METHODOLOGY
Experimental Parameters

The parameters taken include the Dissolved Oxygen,


Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN), and Nitrite Nitrogen
(NO2-N)
Growth and yield parameters taken include: Average
Body Weight (ABW), Specific Growth Rate (SGR),
Survival and Biomass
Other Physico-chemical parameters were also taken
at regular interval and maintained at optimum

DISCUSSION of RESULTS
BFT as Zero-water Exchange
Culture System

Figure 5. Nitrogenous waste- Total Ammonia Nitrogen (b) and Nitrite Nitrogen
(c), and Dissolved Oxygen (a) values obtained in the experiment

DISCUSSION of RESULTS
BFT as Viable Culture System
Table 4. Growth and Yield Parameters
Treatment Final ABW (g) SGR
Survival
(percent)
Control
6.62(+0.306) 4.75 96.90(+1.88)a

958.64(+050.73)a

Mol

6.71(+0.432)

4.77

95.48(+3.77)a

950.02(+041.95)a

Tap

7.39(+0.130)

4.94

99.50(+0.50)a 1,111.90(+029.47)a

RB

8.22(+1.155)

5.08

5.36(+3.81)b

61.85(+046.61)c

COMBI

7.94(+0.985)

5.03

25.59(+9.39)b

307.36(+126.75)b

Mean Values(+SEM), n = 4 except Final ABW and SGR for RB and COMBI where n = 3
Superscripts indicate significance ( = 0.05) ONE-WAY ANOVA

Total Biomass
(g/m3)

DISCUSSION of RESULTS
Growth of Cultured Organism

ABW (grams)

Days of Culture (DOC)

Days of Culture (DOC)


Figure 6. Average Body Weight (ABW) for each treatment for the entire culture period. Mean
ABW values based on n = 4 except for RB and COMBI in the final sampling where n = 3.

DISCUSSION of RESULTS
BFT as Biosecure and Climate
Resilient Culture System

During the conduct of the experiment, outbreaks of


wssv occurred in adjacent ponds. However, the
experiment was not affected. The very minimal
requirement for water (water addition to account for
evaporation) enabled an effective biosecure strategy
The use of green house also prevented possible
infection as it renders the system self-contained
Being self contained does not only lead to biosecurity;
it also becomes a climate resilient system

SYNTHESIS
Summary
In BFT culture, the feed which becomes waste is
converted back into food in the form of biofloc.
BFT as Zero-water Exchange Culture System
BFT as Viable Culture System
BFT as Biosecure and Climate Resilient Culture System

SYNTHESIS
Conclusions

The study showed that locally available plantbased products and by products with high
carbohydrate content and low crude protein
content can be viable carbon sources
Further, the study provides the first practical
formula in achieving a balanced C/N ratio for
the BFT based culture of L. vananmei.

SYNTHESIS
Recommendations

Economic evaluation of BFT system should be


conducted to determine the cost of carbon
sources used and the cost of increased energy use
There should be refinements in the technology,
such as the water aeration and circulation as well
as the dosing of carbon sources
Other carbohydrate-rich materials should also be
evaluated, such as those without or with low
economic value

References
Avnimelech, Y. 2012. Biofloc technology- a practical guide book (second edition).
The World Aquaculture Society. Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.
Corre, V.L, Caipang, C.M., Janeo, R., Calpe, A. 1999. Sustainable shrimp culture
techniques: use of probiotics and reservoirs with green water. Philippine Council
for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development, Los Banos, Laguna and
University of the Philippines Visayas, Miag ao, Iloilo. 32 pages.
De Schryver, D., R. Crab, T. Defoirdt, N. Boon and W. Verstraete. 2008. The basics of
bio-flocs technology: The added value for aquaculture. Aquaculture 277: 125-137
Ebeling, J.M, Timmons, M.B., Bisogni, J. 2006. Engineering analysis of the
stoichiometry of photoautotrophic, autotrophic, and heterotrophic removal of
ammonia-nitrogen in aquaculture systems. Aquaculture 257: 346-358.

THANK YOU

Triiodothyronine (T3 ) and Diet Enhance Metamorphosis


of Snubnose Pompano Trachinotus blochii

Jomel Guadalquiver Baobao


Research Specialist

Bohol Island State University Calape

5th BFAR- NFRDI Scientific Conference

10.15.2013

Snubnose pompano
Trachinotus blochii (Lacepede, 1801)
Potential for aquaculture:
easier and faster to grow in
floating cages
more resilient to diseases and
erratic changes in the
environment
commands good price

Improvement of larviculture

Objective
Know the interactive effects of triiodothyronine
(T3) and different diet types (Artemia, artificial
diet and combination of these diets) in
snubnose pompano larvae on
a. morphology and metamorphosis
b. survival & larval growth (AGR, SGR, total length)

Production of thyroid hormones

The cascade of thyroid hormone production (Yamano, 2005)

TH is a small liposoluble molecule with two bioactive forms,


tetraiodo-L-thyronine (thyroxine, T4) and triiodo-L-thyronine (T3)

TH role in metamorphosis

Changes in thyroid hormone levels during flounder metamorphosis (Yamano, 2005)

Materials and Methods

Experimental design
Six treatments with three replicates each run in a CRD in a
factorial set up
Feed/Hormone

T3 (0)

T3 (0.01 ppm)

Artemia

Artemia

Artemia + T3

Artificial Diet

Artificial Diet

Artificial Diet + T3

Artemia + Artificial Diet (50/50)

Artemia + Artificial Diet

Artemia + Artificial Diet + T3

Set up 1

Daily sampling from 16-30 DAH

Morphology and metamorphosis


(preopercular spine, pigmentation, total
length)

Initial sampling (16 DAH)

Set up 2

Final sampling (30 DAH)

Growth (absolute growth rate and specific


growth rate)
Survival (total stocks less mortality)

Hormone preparation

T3 (3,3,5-triiodoL-thyronine
sodium salt Sigma, USA-T2752, 98%
purity)

0.01 ppm = (980 ppm X


0.612 ml) / 60,000 ml

10% or
98,000
ppm

1% or
9,800 ppm

0.1% or 980
ppm

Experimental larval rearing


14 dah

16 dah

30 dah

rearing
acclimation

hormone treatment

14 dah larvae were stocked at 2 ind l-1 in the 60-l oblong-shaped


fiber glass tanks

Water management

Water quality maintenance (30 ppt; 25-30oC; DO 5-6


mg l-1) , daily water change at 80% and cleaning of
tanks,

Feeding and hormone treatment

Feeding 8 am, 12 pm & 4 pm (Artemia) 8 am, 9:30 am,


11 pm, 1:00 pm, 2:30 pm, 4:00 pm (artificial diet)
Daily of application of hormone until full metamorphosis
of stocks

Feeding scheme (daily)


DAH/Feed Types

Artemia naupli &


metanaupli

Artemia naupli &


metanaupli+
artificial diet

Artificial diet

16 19 dah

8 ind ml-1

4 ind ml-1 + 0.35 g


tank-1

0.7 g tank-1

20-25 dah

1.1 g tank-1
8 ind ml -1 + 0.5 ind 4 ind ml + 0.5 ind
ml-1
ml-1 biomass + 0.55
g tank-1

26-30 dah

8 ind ml -1 + 1.0 ind 4 ind ml + 1.0 ind


1.3 g tank-1
ml-1
ml-1 biomass + 0.65
g tank-1

Ingredients and dietary composition of


the artificial diet (250 microns)
Composition
(g/100g)
Danish fish meal
38.13
Shrimp meal (Acetes sp.) first 5.00
class
Soybean concentrate
20.00
Squid meal
5.00
Bread flour
6.00
Ingredients

Ingredients
-carrageenan
carotene

Composition
(g/100g)
2.00
0.025

tocopherol
0.01
Rice bran
7.335
Proximate composition by dry weight analyzed

Cod liver oil

6.00

Crude protein

49.46

Soybean oil

2.00

Crude fat

11.32

Vitamin & mineral mix

5.00

Crude fiber

2.15

Vitamin C

0.5

Nitrogen free extract

21.67

Lecithin

3.00

Ash

15.40

Morphological observation

Daily sampling (3 larvae tank-1)


Photographed in Cole Palmer stereo camera microscope
Observed the resorption of preopercular spines, pigmentation and
measured total length

Growth

Growth rate - absolute growth rate (AGR) as g/day,


specific growth rate (SGR) as %BW/day (Hopkins,
1992) and total length evolution
AGR = (FBW-IBW) / t
SGR=[(ln FBW ln IBW)/D] 100,
FBW is final body weight (g), IBW is initial
body weight (g) and D = number of days

Survival

Remaining fish were counted


30 fish per tank were sampled for final length and weight

Statistical analysis

All data were subjected to two-way ANOVA.


Differences were considered significant at
the p < 0.05 level.

Results

Metamorphosis

preflexion

flexion

postflexion

Morphology

Premetamorphic
larvae
o
dark
pigmentation
o
elongated
preopercular
spines

Metamorphic larvae
o
silvery
pigmentation
o
completely
or
nearly resorbed
preopercular
spines

Morphology

Artemia

Artemia+Artificial Diet

Artificial Diet

Artemia+T3

Artemia+Artificial Diet+T3

Artificial Die+T3

1st week no apparent variation among the treatment


groups

Morphology

Artemia

Artemia+Artificial Diet

Artificial Diet

Artemia+T3

2nd week variation was evident

Artemia+Artificial Diet+T3

Artificial Die+T3

Behavioral changes

A phase of being pelagic and becoming benthic after transformation

Metamorphosis
c

Metamorphosis

Difference in the morphology after 30 dah. Left to right: Artemia, Artemia+Artificial


Diet, Artificial Diet, Artemia+T3 , Artemia+Artificial Diet+T3, Artificial Diet+T3

Absolute Growth Rate


d

Specific Growth Rate


d
e
a

c
c

Total length

Survival
c

b
b

Cannibalism

Conclusion
T3 is appropriate for acceleration of
metamorphosis, enhancement of growth
and improvement of survival in snubnose
pompano larvae fed with Artemia and
combination of Artemia + artificial diet.

Hormone preparation
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

g/ml = 1 ppm
mg/l X (1000g/1g) x (1 l/1000ml) = mg/l
1g/10ml = 100,000 ppm (10%)
1 ml x 100,000 ppm/ 10 ml= 10,000 ppm(1%)
1 mlx10,000 ppm/10 m ml=1000 ppm (.1%)

Computation of dry weight


naupli
weight of petridish
with wet artemia
with dry artemia
net weight of artemia
density of artemia (1 l)
weight of ind. artemia

total artemia requirement


4 ind/ml (1100/ml)
8 ind/ml (1100/ml)
.05 ind/ml (200/ml)
1 ind/ml (200/ml)

metanaupli

43.6189
66.7638
45.2074
1.5885
1100000
1.44409E-06

total artemia requirement


240000
480000
30000
60000

42.3146
65.4123
44.3573
2.0427
200000
1.02135E-05
weight of the artificial diet
equivalent to dry weight artemia
0.35 g
0.69 g
0.31 g
0.61 g

6 g/ton
12 g/ton
5 g/ton
10 g/ton

EVALUATION OF PHYTASES OF THREE BACILLUS SPP.


IN THE DIET OF SEX-REVERSED Oreochromis
mossambicus FINGERLINGS ON GROWTH,
FEED EFFICIENCY AND MINERAL
DEPOSITION

RANDE B. DECHAVEZ , PhD


AUGUSTO E. SERRANO, JR., PhD

A paper presented during the 5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference


Manila Ocean Park, Luneta, Manila
October 14 15, 2013

RATIONALE
Most scientific work on phytases have been done
employing microbes as sources, specifically
those from filamentous fungi
Bacteria are also a source of phytase and Bacillus
subtilis is the most studied species in this respect.
We have previously studied and compared the
biochemical characteristics of four Bacilli phytases,
namely: B. pumilus, B. megaterium, B. coagulans,
and B. licheniformis .

The crude phytases were optimally active between


pH 5.5 and 7.0 at 37oC, with high activity
retention at temperatures up to 80oC, and with
remarkably high thermo- and pH stability.
These properties indicated that the Bacillus
phytases appear to be suitable for animal feed
supplementation in aquaculture to improve the
bioavailability of phosphorus.
Bacterial phytases from Bacillus are an alternative to
fungal enzymes because of their high thermal stability,
calcium-phytate complex, substrate specificity, pH
profile, and proteolytic resistance .

The phytases from Bacillus are suitable as feed


additives for animals with neutral digestive tracts,
such as some aquatic species.

Phosphorous (P) is an essential nutrient for


growth, skeletal development (Asgard & Shearer,
1997) ) and reproduction (Hardy & Shearer, 1985)
in fish.
Phosphate uptake from water is negligible in fish
and dietary P are more important than water to
satisfy P requirement.

P is a critical pollutant in bodies of water. Excessive


P levels are the most common cause of
eutrophication of rivers, lakes and reservoirs
(Correll, 1999)
Researches on incorporating microbial
phytases in fish diets are driven by the need to
reduce P excretion and its loss into the
environment, where P pollution threatens
water quality.
Knowledge of the effects of different sources of
bacterial phytase in fish is lacking.

To our knowledge, this is the first time that


comparison of efficacy of phytases from three
Bacillus species was done in fish.

OBJECTIVES
This study aims to compare the effects of
phytases from various Bacillus species on
growth, feed efficiency and deposition of
minerals in sex-reversed Oreochromis
mossambicus.

Table 1. Formulation and proximate compositions of plant-based and commercial


diets for the sex-reversed Oreochromis mossambicus (gkg-1 DM)
Ingredient
(g kg-1 as fed basis)

Negative
control
Diet (NaP)

Bacillus
pumilus
Diet (BaP)

Bacillus
megaterium
Diet (BaM)

Bacillus
licheniformis
Diet (BaL)

150

150

150

150

Soybean meal

410.9

410.9

410.9

410.9

Corn meal

349.1

349.1

349.1

349.1

Cassava leaf meal

50

50

50

50

Cassava starch (binder)

(50)

(50)

(50)

(50)

Cod liver oil

20

20

20

20

Vitamins/ mineral mix

20

20

20

20

Fish meal

Bacillus pumilus
Bacillus megaterium
Bacillus licheniformis

Commercial
Diet (ComD)

500 FTU
500 FTU
500 FTU
Prize Catch

The experimental set up

P, Ca and Mg analysis in whole body and scales

Flame AAS for Ca & Mg

Flame AAS monitor

whole body

samples ready for


analysis

Tilapia
samples
scales

dried at 1100C

acid digestion

550 0 C for 4h

measured at 430 nm for P

P, Ca and Mg analysis in bone and vertebrae

Tilapia
samples

Flame AAS for Ca & Mg

Flame AAS monitor

dried at 110 0C

samples ready for


analysis
acid digestion
Steam for 15 min

Bone & vertebrae

immersed ethyl
alcohol for 1wk

550 0 C for 4h

measured at 430 nm for P

Analytical Procedure
Proximate analysis of feeds, fish and feces were
conducted at SEAFDEC/AQD Fish Nutrition
Laboratory
Phosphorus was determined using ammonium
molybdate method (AOAC, 1975) at the Institute of
Aquaculture Research Laboratory of the UPV
Calcium and magnesium were analyzed using Flame
Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after wet ashing and
acid digestion at the CAS of the UPV

Statistical analysis
Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of
variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukeys test if
there are significant differences for the different
means. Results were considered significant at 5%
level of significance (P0.05).

Results
Table 2.Growth performance of sex reversed O. mossambicus fingerlings fed
commercial diet, plant-based diet alone or supplemented with Bacillus phytases
for 60 days.
Diets

Initial

Final

Feed

Weight

Specific

Survival

Feed

Protein

Protein

ABW (g)

ABW (g)

Intake

Gain (g)

Growth

Rate

Conversion

Efficiency

Retention

Efficiency

Ratio

Rate
NoP

3.50 0.57

24.20 1.08

29.51.9

22.92 0.98

3.34 0.04

93.3 4.62

80.9 1.3b

2.33 0.11b

49.420.16

BaP

3.50 0.36

26.48 0.87

27.34.0

20.70 0.91

3.23 0.08

96.0 6.93

82.10 1.0b

2.30 0.12b

48.580.13

BaM

3.56 0.16

26.51 0.93

27.60.8

22.95 0.75

3.40 0.15

98.6 2.31

89.46 1.0a

2.54 0.05a

52.840.22

BaL

3.61 0.36

25.47 1.23

28.42.5

21.81 0.90

3.26 0.10

98.7 4.04

82.67 1.0ab

2.35 0.14ab 48.900.23

ComD

3.56 0.13

26.49 0.43

29.50.8

22.93 0.32

3.35 0.05

100 0.00

83.32 1.0ab

2.36 0.06ab 47.100.17

NS

NS

NS

NS

NS

NS

P 0.05

P 0.05

Values are means of triplicate groups, values in the same column not sharing a common superscript are significantly different (P<0.05)

NS

Table 3. Final concentration (g kg-1 DM) of ash, P, Ca and Mg in scale and bone of sex-reversed O.
mossambicus fingerlings fed commercial diet, plant-based diet alone or supplemented with
Bacillus phytases for 60 days.
Diet

Scales
Ash

Bone & vertebrae


Ca

Mg

Ash

P
Feces

Ca

Mg

NoP

32.8 0.51c

3.1 0.08c

11.8 0.27b

0.44 0.03b

44.8 0.76

3.7 0.18c

15.4 0.38d

0.68 0.02b

1.35 0.06c

BaP

34.1 1.08bc

3.8 0.19ab

12.3 0.32ab

0.46 0.03b

45.6 2.00

4.5 0.25b

16.4 0.15c

0.71 0.03b

1.1 0.02ab

BaM

35.9 0.11a

4.2 0.24a

13.4 0.61a

0.48 0.01b

48.1 3.20

5.0 0.15a

19.0 0.10a

0.83 0.01a

0.87 0.14a

35.7 0.69ab

4.0 0.23a

13.2 0.22a

0.56 0.01a

47.9 1.41

4.8 0.19ab

18.2 0.13b

0.81 0.01a

0.93 0.07a

11.5 0.69b

0.46 0.003b

45.1 2.18

4.6 0.04ab

15.9 0.22cd

0.69 0.03b

1.2 0.03bc

P<0.05

NS

P<0.05

P<0.05

P<0.05

P<0.05

BaL
ComD
P

34.4 0.45abc 3.3 0.33bc


P<0.05

P<0.05

P<0.05

Values are means of triplicate groups, values in the same column not sharing a common superscript are significantly different (P<0.05)

Table 4. Body composition (g kg-1 DM) of sex reversed O. mossambicus fingerlings fed commercial
diet, plant-based diet alone or supplemented singly with a Bacillus phytase for 60 days.
Diets

Moisture

Crude Protein

Crude Fat

Ash

Ca

Mg

NoP

750.5 7.2

626.7 18.3ab

222.3 5.0

126.4 3.2b

13.4 0.4b

28.5 0.9b

2.26 0.10

BaP

745.9 3.6

626.1 10.4ab

220.9 9.9

125.1 2.6b

14.6 0.3ab

39.0 2.9a

2.44 0.10

BaM

754.3 10.2

627.9 2.7a

221.2 6.7

132.7 2.7a

17.2 2.2a

40.7 0.7a

2.63 0.20

622.9 8.4ab

222.0 9.4

129.6 4.4ab

16.2 1.5ab

39.5 1.1a

2.51 0.10

BaL

744.5 8.3

ComD

733.9 7.6

601.9 1.7b

239.5 9.3

127.3 0.5b

14.2 0.1ab

39.0 1.8a

2.40 0.30

NS

P<0.05

NS

P<0.05

P<0.05

P<0.05

NS

Values are means of triplicate groups, values in the same column not sharing a common superscript are significantly different (P<0.05)

CONCLUSION
1. Bacillus megaterium phytase improved the feed
utilization efficiency of the diet the most.
2. All the Bacillus phytases improved the final carcass
protein.
3. Carcass ash was improved the most by B.
megaterium and B. licheniformis phytases while
carcass P and Ca were increased by all three
Bacillus phytases.

4. Scale ash was increased the most by both B.


megaterium and B. licheniformis phytases while
scale P and Ca by all three Bacillus phytases.
5. Scale Mg was increased the most by B. licheniformis.
Bone ash was unaffected by all the dietary treatments
while bone P and Mg were increased the most by B.
megaterium and B. licheniformis phytases; bone Ca
was increased the most by B. megaterium.

6. P load were the lowest when all Bacillus phytases


were added to the diet while the N load was most
reduced by the B. megaterium phytase.
7. All the Bacillus phytases were effective in
reducing the fecal P of tilapia. Thus, the B.
megaterium and B. licheniformis phytases were
most effective in hydrolyzing phytate P and in
ameliorating water quality.

F E LY D . L A U R E N O , G L E N D A S . S A L E S ,
A L M A R . B A S M AY O R , R E D E N T O R L . B U E T R E

Partido state university , sagnay campus


Nato, sagnay, camarines sur

Rationale
Organic fertilization is environment friendly.
Organic fertilizer contain less of N, P, K and

introduces carbon dioxide in photosynthesis.


Organic aquaculture is cost effective.
Republic Act 10068 - Organic Agriculture
Act of 2010, meant for the development and
promotion of Organic Agriculture of the
country.

General Objective
Determine the growth performance,
and survival of Tilapia (GET EXCEL)
using rice straw and cow dung as
organic fertilizers.

Specific Objectives
1. Determine

the growth rate of Tilapia (GET


EXCEL) in pond after 90 days culture period
using rice straw and cow dung.
2. Determine the survival rate of Tilapia (GET
EXCEL) in pond using organic fertilizers.

Methodology
Experimental Research utilizing Parallel group

design.
The control pond was the pond stocked with tilapia
without the application of any fertilizer,
The experimental groups were those ponds that
utilized the decomposed rice straw and cow
manure as fertilizers.

Table 1:The Experimental Treatments and Stocking


Density

TREATMENTS

Stocking Density
R1

R2

R3

T1

Decomposed rice straw

221

221

221

T2

Cow Manure

221

221

221

Control

No fertilizer

221

221

221

Plate 1. Experimental Site

Preparation of the Experimental Pond


Leveling
Application of decomposed rice straws
Application of cow manure.
Water management
Stocking
Sampling
Harvesting

Plate 2. The Experimental Set-up

Data Gathering

Collecting Samples

Growth Rate.
Growth Rate = Wf-Wi days of culture (1)
Where :
Wf
= final weight
Wi
= Initial weight
Survival Rate.
% Survival = No. of survival x 100/original
number of stock (2)

Statistical Tool Used


The mean weight every sampling was

computed.
Gathered data were analyzed using Ttest in order to determine the significant
difference between treatment.

Results and Findings

Table 2 . Average Growth Rate of Tilapia in Grams


every 15 days of culture
Sampling
Period

Result of sampling weight (g)

Decomposed
rice straw
9

Cow manure

Control

7.88

8.26

10

9.4

8.4

10.8

10.6

8.74

12.8

12.3

10.3

15.6

14.7

12.1

19.3

17.8

15.0

Mean(X)
Growth
Rate

12.92
2.15/15 days

12.11
2.01/15 days

10.46
1.7/15 days

Table 3. Percent Survival of Tilapia after 90 days


culture period
Treatments

Initial Stock

90 days

%
Survival

T1 Decomposed rice straw

663

606

91

T2- Cow manure

663

579

87

Control

663

553

83

Figure 1 .Mean Weight per sampling of Tilapia every


fifteen days (15 days)
25
20
15

cow dung
rice straw

10

control

5
0
15

30

45

60

Days culture

75

90

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

14.3
12.8
10
W.G
Column2
Column1

T1

T2

Treatments

Table 4.T Test Table

Between Treatments

t- value

Result

Decomposed rice straw VS Control

2.77

Ho rejected

Cow Manure VS Control

3.96

Ho rejected

Manure VS Decomposed rice straw

1.60

Ho accepted

CONCLUSIONS
Tilapia in pond fertilized with decomposed rice

straw got the highest growth rate of 14.3 gms.


With this the researchers could conclude that
decomposed rice straw is a good organic fertilizer
comparable with cow manure .
Tilapia cultured in pond fertilized with Decomposed
rice straw got the highest survival.
Fish culture using organic fertilizer is a promising
technology.

There exist a significant difference in growth of


tilapia in pond fertilized with decomposed rice straw
and in pond fertilized with cow manure with that of
tilapia growth in pond with no fertilization.

Recommendations
More

verification trials be made on the growth and


survival of tilapia using organic fertilizers considering
the season, water quality and the water source.
For further study the authors recommended to use
four treatments using Treatment 4 as the
combination of T2 and T3.
Study on economic viability of using organic fertilizer
is vital.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
BFAR- Region V
Regional Soils Laboratory- Naga City
PSU-Sagnay Administration
BSF students

Effect of Photoperiod and Salinity Levels on


the Hatching Rate of Cuttlefish (Sepia sp.) Eggs

Arthur L. Panganiban, Jr.


College of Fisheries and Applied Sciences
Zamboanga State College of Marine Sciences and Technology
Fort Pilar, Zamboanga City, 7000, Philippines

I. INTRODUCTION

Cuttlefish (Sepia sp.) belongs to Class Cephalopoda under


Phylum Molusca. It is economically important.
In the Philippines, production of cuttlefish is solely
derived from the capture fisheries utilizing various
fishing gears and none from the aquaculture sector.
Cuttlefish posses desirable biological characteristics that
make them a potential species for high-saline pond
aquaculture, mariculture, stock enhancement and sea
ranching.

Why cuttlefish?
First, juveniles can be mass produced in the hatchery
(large hatchlings easy to rear; mortality to adulthood negligible; can be cultured to
several consecutive generations Forsythe, Derusha and Hanlon, 1994)
Secondly, cuttlefish eat a variety of live and dead feeds
(Derusha et al., 1989; Lee et al., 1991)
and accepts surimi and pelleted diets
(Hanlon, Turk and Lee, 1991; Castro and Lee, 1994; Castro et al., 1993)
Thirdly, it grows fast
(at rates 3-4% of body weight/day Hanlon, Turk and Lee, 1991)

Fourthly, it can tolerate crowding


(can be group cultured in high densities - Forsythe, Derusha and Hanlon, 1994;
Hanlon, Turk and Lee, 1991)

Fifthly, it tolerates ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, and pH


(similar to the levels for tropical fishes and invertebrates - Forsythe, Derusha and
Hanlon, 1994)

Sixthly, it is tolerant to handling and shipping


(Forsythe, Derusha and Hanlon, 1994; Hanlon, Turk and Lee, 1991)

There is no documented research on cuttlefish


aquaculture in the country yet to date.
Growout culture in ponds, pens or cages require a steady
and sustainable source of post juveniles.

Thus, this study primarily aimed to improve the


production of cuttlefish during egg incubation.

Specific Objectives:
a. To determine the duration of hatching cuttlefish eggs
incubated at varying photoperiod and salinity levels;
b. To determine the interaction effect of photoperiod and
salinity levels to the hatching rate of cuttlefish eggs; and
c. To relate some of the physical and chemical water quality
parameters to the hatching rate of cuttlefish eggs.

II. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1

Source and Transport of Cuttlefish Eggs

Cuttlefish eggs belonging to the same batch were purchased


from the cuttlefish catchers of Barangay Bolong, which is
located 35 km east of Zamboanga City
The eggs were transported in plastic bags with oxygenated
water and placed inside Styrofoam boxes (Travel time was
about one hour by land)
Upon arrival at the ZSCMST Hatchery and Wet Laboratory,
the eggs were acclimated gradually to the new water in a
wooden tank before distribution to glass aquaria

2.2

Experimental Set-Up

The study adopted the completely randomized design,


in 2 x 6 factorial arrangement with two replications,
totaling 24 glass aquaria
The glass aquaria each measured 30cm x 60cm x 30cm,
were filled with 40L water each with its desired salinity,
and provided with an aeration system
Each aquaria was stocked with 35 cuttlefish eggs,
and incubated in ambient temperature

Figure 1. Incubating cuttlefish eggs in a glass aquarium.

Factor A were the two levels of photoperiod:


12 hours dark and 24 hours dark,
were simulated using an opaque sheet of jute sack
material to cover the aquaria

Figure 2. Experimental set-up covered with jute sack material.

Factor B were the six levels of salinity:


25ppt, 30ppt, 35ppt, 40ppt, 45ppt, and 50ppt
Salinity was adjusted by dilution with freshwater to obtain
the lower salinity levels
To obtain the higher salinity levels, common table salt
(NaCl) was added
Salinity was adjusted using the following formula:
S1V 1 = S2V 2
Where: S1 Initial salinity; V1 Initial volume;
S2 Final salinity; V2 Final salinity

Figure 3. Experimental set-up without the jute sack cover.

2.3

Water Maintenance and Monitoring

Fifty percent of the incubating water was changed once a


week
Marine water used in the study passed through the sand
filter of the HWL and stocked in a reservoir tank
Freshwater for dilution was tap water stored in a reservoir
tank and aerated for at least 24 hours before use
Water quality parameters were monitored twice daily at
7:00am and 5:00pm

Table 1. Water Quality Parameters Measured


Parameter

Frequency

Instrument/
Method

Salinity

Twice daily

Refractometer (Model SA10T,


Todays Instruments Co, Ltd.)

Temperature

Twice daily

Alcohol thermometer

pH

Twice daily

pH meter (Model 300i/SET,


WTW Wissenschaftlich
Technische Werkstatten)

Ammonia

One day before


stocking; and Once
a week before water
change

Spectrophotometer/Strictland
and Parsons

2.4

Egg Hatch Monitoring

Hatched eggs were checked every day at 7:00am


Newly hatched cuttlefish are counted and placed on a
floating plastic tray within the same aquarium to allow the
counting of those yet to hatch
Hatching was computed following the formula:
Hatching Rate (%) = Total number of hatched eggs x 100
hatched + unhatched eggs

2.5

Statistical Analysis

The effect of the different combinations of photoperiod and


salinity levels on the egg hatching rate was evaluated
statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) for
completely randomized design (CRD) in a factorial set-up.
Arcsine or square root transformation was used on
percentage data before computing for ANOVA.
Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used for
treatment comparison.
All statistical analyses were done at 5% level.

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1

Incubation and Hatching

The cuttlefish eggs started to hatch on the 17th day of


incubation and continued to hatch up to the 21st day.

Figure 4. Newly hatched cuttlefish placed in a floating plastic tray.

This result is similar with the study on the embryonic


development and post hatching survival of the sepiolid
squid under laboratory conditions (Arnold, Singly and Williams, 1972).
Table 2 show the combinations of factors A and factors B
with the mean cuttlefish eggs hatched, hatching rate,
arcsine values and statistical difference.
Factor A photoperiods: 12 hours dark, 12 hours light
24 hours dark, 0 hour light
Factor B salinity levels:

25ppt, 30ppt, 35ppt,


40ppt, 45ppt, 50ppt

Table 2. Cuttlefish hatching rates in relation to factors.


Factor
A
Photoperiod
(hours dark)

B
Salinity (ppt)

Mean Eggs
Hatch
(in duplicates)

12
24
12
24
12
24
12
24
12
24
12
24

25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50

0
0
28.5
32.5
33.5
29.5
32
31
0
0
0
0

Hatching Rate
(%)

0
0
81.42
92.85
95.71
84.28
91.42
88.57
0
0
0
0

Arcsine

0.77b
0.77b
65.31a
83.50a
86.09a
68.93a
73.23a
70.36a
0.77b
0.77b
0.77b
0.77b

Means having the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level.

Factor A photoperiods at 12 and 24 hours dark, were


found not significantly different between each other
This indicates that the presence or absence of light have no
effect on the hatching rate of cuttlefish eggs
Factor B - at 25ppt, 45ppt and 50ppt NOT ONE cuttlefish
egg hatch
at 30ppt, 35ppt and 40ppt have high hatching rates
(ranging from 81.42% to 95.71%) that were not
significantly different among each other

The high hatching rate at 30ppt, 35ppt and 40ppt indicate


that the embryonic fluids and ions are isosmotic and
isotonic with the marine water environment
The zero hatching rates at 25ppt, 45ppt and 50ppt shows
that the embryos were unable to maintain osmotic
equilibrium with seawater
No interaction effect of both factors (photoperiod and
salinity levels) on the hatching rates of cuttlefish eggs was
detected
Table 3 show the water quality measured readings/range

Table 3. Range of Water Quality Parameters.


Parameter

Measured Reading/Range

Salinity

Maintained with designated treatment salinity


(25ppt, 30ppt, 35ppt, 40ppt, 45ppt & 50ppt)

Temperature

24oC 30oC

pH

6.38 8.33

Ammonia

0.1855ppm 0.336ppm

Salinity in designated aquaria were maintained by dilution


or addition of NaCl during water replenishment
The partial water change in the glass aquaria every week
could have kept the water quality parameters within
tolerable limits especially for water pH and ammonia
Dissolved oxygen was not a factor as aeration was provided
throughout the study

IV. CONCLUSIONS

Cuttlefish eggs could be hatched under controlled conditions

The presence or absence of light have no effect on the


hatching rate of cuttlefish eggs

Salinity levels inhibited hatching of egg at 25ppt (hypotonic


seawater condition) and at 45ppt and 50ppt (hypertonic
seawater condition)

Cuttlefish eggs can only tolerate a short range of water


salinity (stenohaline) of 30ppt to 40ppt

No interaction effect between photoperiod and salinity

The water pH, temperature and ammonia levels were within


the tolerable range for cuttlefish embryo

V. RECOMMENDATIONS

A similar study simulating the natural coastal waters where


the cuttlefish eggs are laid, such as a flow-through or
recirculating water system, could be carried out to improve
hatching rate to probably 100%

The species of the cuttlefish eggs should be ascertained in


future studies as it is believed that several species of
cuttlefish abound the coastal waters of Zamboanga City

VI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The presenter is indebted and thankful to the following


persons who helped in the conduct of the study:

Prof. Mateo T. Ontolan


Prof. William M. Asuncion
Dr. Rosalio D. Tenorio
Mr. Adonis P. Bendao
Ms. Monera I. Agpa

The study was made possible through the financial support


provided by the Department of Science and Technology
Regional Office IX, Zamboanga City, Philippines.

VII. REFERENCES

1. FAO, 2010. Global Capture Production. Food and Agriculture


Organization of the United Nations, Fisheries and Aquaculture
Department. Online: http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/globalcapture-production
2. Pauly, D., R. Watson, and J. Aider, 2005. Global trends in world fisheries:
impact on marine ecosystems and food security. Philos Trans R Soc
B Biol Sci., 360 (1453): 5-12, Jan, 2005.
3. DENR, 2001. Philippine Coastal Management Guidebook No. 6: Managing
Municipal Fisheries. Department of Environment and Natural
Resources, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources of the
Department of Agriculture, and Department of the Interior and Local
Government, 2001. Coastal Resource Management Project of the
Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Cebu City,
Philippines, 122p. Online: http://www.oneocean.org/download/dbfiles/
crm guidebook6.pdf
4. BFAR, 2009. Philippine Fisheries Profile. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic
Resources.Online:www.bfar.da.gov.ph/pages/AboutUs/maintabs/pub
lications/ pdffiles/2009 FisheriesProfile(final print).pdf

5.

FAO, 2013. Food and Agriculture Glossary of Aquaculture.


Online: www.fao.org/fi/glossary/aquaculture

6. Focus On, 2011. The Ocean and the World in Creatures of the Deep.
Manila, Philippines: WS Pacific Publications, Inc., p. 6.
7. Forsythe, J.W., R.H. Derusha, and T.T. Hanlon, 1994. Growth,
Reproduction and Life Span of Sepia officialis (Cephalopoda:
Mollusca) Cultures Through Seven Consecutive Generations. J. Zool
233:175-192.
8. Derusha, R.H., J.W. Forsythe, F.P. Dimarco, and T.T. Hanlon, 1989.
Alternative Diets for Maintaining and Rearing Cephalopods in
Captivity. Lab. Anim. Sci. 39: 306-312.
9. Lee, P.G., J.W. Forsythe, F.P Dimarco, R.H. Derusha, and R.T. Hanlon,
1991. Initial Palatability and Growth Trials on Pelleted Diets for
Cephalopods. Bull. Mar. Sci. 49: 656-667.
10. Hanlon, R.T., P.E. Turk, and P.G. Lee, 1991. Squid and Cuttlefish
Mariculture: An updated Perspective, J. Ceph. Biol. 2(1): 31-40.

11. Castro, B.G. and P.G. Lee, 1994. The Effects of Semi-Purified Diets on
Growth and Condition of Sepia Officialis L. Mollusca: Cephalopoda.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 109A: 1007-1016.
12. Castro, B.G., F.P. Dimarco, R.H. Derusha, and P.G. Lee, 1993. The Effects
of Surimi and Pelleted Diets on the Laboratory Survival, Growth, and
Feeding Rate of the Cuttlefish, Sepia officialis L. J. Exp. Mar. Biol.
Ecol. 170: 241-252.
13. Strictland, J.D. and T.R. Parsons, 1972, A Practiucal Handbook of
Seawater Analysis, 2nd edition, Ottawa, Canada, Fisheries Research
Board of Canada, 1972, 310p.
14. Gomez, K.A. and A.A. Gomez, 1976. Statistical Procedures for
Agriculture Research with Emphasis on Rice, Los Baos, Laguna,
Philippines: International Rice Research Institute, 1976, 680p.
15. Arnold, J.M., C.T. Singly and L.D. Williams, 1972. Embryonic development
and post hatching survival of the sepiolid squid, Euprema scallops,
under laboratory condition. Development Biology, pp.198-206.

16. Odum, E.P., 1971. Fundamentals of Ecology, 3rd ed. Philadelphia. W.B.
Saunders Company. p.229.
17. Stoskope, M., 1993. Fish Medicine, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders
Company. p.48-57.
18. Palmegiano, G.B. and M.P. DApote, 1983. Combined effects of
temperature and salinity on cuttlefish (Sepia oficinalis L.) hatching.
Aquaculture, vol.35, pp.259-264.

Thank You for Listening

Cuttlefish eggs & hatchlings:

Cuttlefish hatchlings and juveniles:

Rapid Assessment
of Angelwing Clam
Resource of Kalibo,
Aklan
Remia A. Aparri1, Joel T. Abalayan1, Ma.
Lissette F. Permocillo1 and Joelyn M. Sentina2
1Regional

Fisheries Research and Development


Center, BFAR Regional Office 6, Iloilo City
2INFOFISH, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

5th BFAR NFRDI Scientific Conference


Manila Ocean Park, Luneta, Manila October 15, 2013

Background
Angelwings
marine bivalve molluscs belonging to Family Pholadidae
highly-specialized bivalves adapted to burrowing into relatively
hard substrate of stiff clay, limestone, sandstone or wood.

Three Pholadid species found in the Philippines


Pholas orientalis, which is the most commercially exploited;
Barnea dilatata now barely found in the local market;
B. manilensis which is declared as a threatened species.

Background
Natural beds of are
found in few coastal
areas in the
provinces of Negros
Occidental, Capiz,
Iloilo and Aklan.
Natural habitat:
associated with
areas near river
mouth located along
littoral to sublittoral
zone
sticky to compact
sandy mud rich in
silt and detritus.

Background
Diwal is sought after for
its excellent flavor,
attractive white shell,
large size and believed to
be an aphrodisiac.
It is marketed either fresh
or dried
Highly valued for their
meat and being exported
to Hong Kong and Taiwan.

Background
Angelwing became highly exploited in the
early 90s which also marks the depletion of
the traditional grounds.
Since the late 1990s it have been extremely
hard to find in the fish markets in the
Philippines.
Overfishing
Habitat destruction

Background
Strategies undertaken to restore natural
population
Studies on reproductive biology
Hatchery potential and stock enhancement
Reseeding
Local ordinances

Rationale
The oriental angelwing is identified as one of the
priority fisheries commodities of Region 6 in the
RIRDEAP 2011 2016.
During consultation with LGU-Aklan and Kalibo, it
was identified to be present in Kalibo, Aklan.
The LGU-Kalibo has an existing ordinance to regulate
the gathering of angelwing that was passed in 2009 as
precautionary measure to manage the resource.
The LGU identified that despite the existence of the
Municipal Ordinance it has limited baseline data of
the resource.

Rationale
The conduct of resource assessment was
identified by the LGU and BFAR 6 Regional
Fisheries Research and Development Center
(RFRDC) to generate data on the current
status of the resource.

Objectives:
Establish baseline information of angelwing
clam resource at Kalibo, Aklan.
Collate primary and secondary information related
to the angelwing clam fishery of Kalibo, Aklan
Quantitatively describe the natural beds of
angelwing clam
Come up with strategies for the comprehensive
assessment.

Methods
Structured interview
Focused Group Discussion
Resource Mapping
Area mapping

Methods
Structured interview and FGD
Used to obtain qualitative
information on oriental
angelwing resource with local
people as key informants.
Thirty (30) oriental angelwing
gatherers were invited to be the
respondent of the survey using a
guide questionnaire on January
25-26, 2011.
Resource mapping was
performed by the respondents
during the focused group
discussion.

Methods
Area mapping
Visual presentation of
resource information in maps
Map is the most efficient
method of displaying the
necessary resource
information
Site survey
Water and soil sampling
Documentation of harvest
method
Sampling of harvested
angelwing

Results
28 diwal gatherers are male and 2 are female
Age bracket: 15 66 years old
Mostly are married (63%) and at their late 20s
and older.
Majority (70%) has 4-6 household members
80% identified fishing as their major livelihood

Results
Oriental angelwing was seen in Kalibo as early
as 1970s and gathering began in the 1990s.
Most of the respondents (79%) actively
engaged into gathering in 2002 2006
Oriental angelwing are harvested manually
with bare hands aided by a piece of bamboo
shovel
Current gathering is only in coastal waters along Brgy.
Pook, Kalibo, Aklan

Results
Seasonal Calendar
Months
Variables
Jan
Production

Sizes of oriental
angelwing
Prevailing
Moonsoon

Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Jul Aug Sep Oct

Nov

Dec

Lean Season

Harvest Period
Peak Season from May to September

Lean
Season

1-2 inches

2-5 inches

Spawning

Amihan

Habagat

Amihan

Results
Volume of daily harvest during peak season is
averaged at 5.33 kg.
Smallest harvest volume is 1 kg and largest is 15
kg.

They go out to harvest oriental angelwing 4


times a week and spend 4-6 hours per day.

Results
Market
Kalibo Public Market, restaurant in Kalibo and
Boracay or through middlemen who marketed it in
Manila.

Market price: PhP 80.00 to PhP 100.00 per


kilo.

Results
Problems encountered
Unfavorable environmental conditions
Flooding
itchy water
siltation
lessening of harvest.

Area Mapping

Andagao

Pook

11.6 ha
(528.5 m x 219. 5 m)

Caano

Caano
Pook
Andagao

SL 2
RV 2

a3

SL 1

RV 1
MC

HS 2

a4

11.6 ha

a1

(528.5 m x 219. 5 m)

HS 1
Coordinates
Code
A1
A2
A3
A4
HS 1
HS 2
SL1
SL2
RV 1
RV 2
MC
PP

N
1141"49.14'
1141"52.45'
1141"34.61'
1141"37.35'
1141"50'
1141"38'
1141"47'
1141"35.09'
1141"49'
1141"43'
1141"55'
1142"04'

E
12223"49.54'
12223"56.28'
12223"58.70'
12223"5.08'
12223"54'
12224"01'
12223"49'
12223"56.30'
12223"47'
12223"50'
12223"44'
12223"50'

Legend:

a2

400 m

PP

Results
Physico-Chemical Parameters
Parameters
Salinity (ppt)
DO (ppm)
pH
% Organic Matter

Water
32.5
1.7
6.55

Soil

5.67
7.18

Results
nipa and mangroves fringing the upper
shoreline
sandy beach parallel to the oriental angelwing
beds
rocky bottom are dominated with oyster and
barnacle
Going seaward, the area is barren with no sign
of floral assemblages

Results
Fishing with gears such as
fish coral and hook & line.
Coastal water of Pook and
adjacent barangays of
Caano, Buswang, Bakhaw
and Mabilo are natural fry
grounds of milkfish and
shrimps

Results
Sampling Coordinates
Shell
Shell Width
Point
Length (cm)
(cm)
1
1141"50'E
10.10
3.16
12223"54'N
2
1141"38'E
8.12
2.72
12224"01'N

Density
(ind./m)
7
12

Discussion
Taxonomic Identification: Pholas orientalis

Thin shell whitish in color with prominent ridge of short spines


in the anterior region.

External accessory: trigonal; long and narrow.

Internal apophysis present

Discussion
Oriental angelwing, is calledparros by the
locals.
Exploitation of the species in 1990s coincides
with the same period of active harvesting at
traditional beds in Negros, Iloilo and Capiz.

Discussion
At present the traditional beds are now
overexploited as manifested by the erratic
production and population depletion.
Natural oriental angelwing population is still
present in Kalibo when other natural beds
were already restocked in order to revive the
population of the species.

Discussion
Natural population of the species in Pook,
Kalibo was able to sustain active harvesting.
Potential source of broodstock
average clam density of 7 per sq meter of size 92
mm SL (SEAFDEC-AQD, 2009).

Discussion
In other areas, the resource is threatened by
overexploitation
stock enhancement activities were already
undertaken to restore the population.

Though stock enhancement initiatives resulted


into successful recruitment, still the effective
management of natural populations of the
species can never be outweighed by any
technological intervention (Junio-Meez, 2004).

Discussion
The area covered where oriental angelwing
can be found is computed at 11.6 ha.
The area is relatively large compared to other
areas
Roxas City: 700 m to 4 ha and area covered by
diwal population in
Negros Occidental: 150 m to 30 ha

Discussion
Area mapping showed that there are 2 rivers in Pook
that empties in the area where oriental angelwing
thrives.
In Negros Occidental, occurrence of oriental angelwing is
concentrated near river mouth (Laureta et al, 2011).
Laureta et al (2011) suggest that the fluctuating changes in
water quality that the river may bring into the growing are
favorable to the population.
Nutrient control hypothesis: euthrophic environment are
dominated by oyster and mussel in rocky shores and
burrowing gastropods in soft bottom (Berthou et al,
2005).

Discussion
Water parameters in the site is comparable to
that in Negros with salinity of 29- 31 ppt, 7.4
7.6 pH and DO of 1.32 2.39 ppm.

Discussion
Oriental angelwing thrives in a productive
environment however accessible and
subjected to various human activities.
The area is a multiple use zone
Fishing with hook and line and fish corral
Natural fry grounds of milkfish and shrimp
Recreational site/ beach area
Fish landing site

Discussion
Threats to the resource
Environmental conditions: coastal erosion, flooding
Anthropogenic factors: coastal development, upland
activities

In shellfish fishery, suitable environment is more


critical than population size to obtain successful
recruitment and sustainable population (Berthou
et al, 2005)
Capiz shell rebounds after stock enhancement
Angelwing recruitment after reseeding

Discussion
Oriental angelwing in Kalibo is a million peso
fishery
Annual computed harvest: is 12,780 kg.

Estimated daily harvest: 5.33 kg


4 harvest days per week.
5 months of open season
There are 30 oriental angelwing gatherers in Kalibo

Valued at PhP 1.5 million.


Local market price is averaged at 90.00 per kilo.

Discussion
Highest production of Negros Occidental in
2009 was valued at 25.11 million.
65 MT was harvested in Capiz in 2005
Production in Kalibo is comparatively low
Production maybe underestimated due to lack of
official statistics
There is limit in the number of fisherfolk that were
given permit to gather angelwing

Discussion
Oriental angelwing can be considered as high
value marine species
local market price of 80.00 to 100.00 per kilo and
may reach as much as 350.00 per kilo in other
areas
Common bivalves (green shell, oyster, nylon shell)
that are sold locally fetch a price of less than
100.00 per kilo

Discussion
Seasonality of the resource was observed by the
gatherer.
Spawning is observed during the onset of amihan or
Northeast Moonsoon
Give chance for the spawning population to contribute to
the recruitment.
Oriental angelwing are lecitotrophic species and have
reduced planktonic stage and restrict dispersal
Spawning pattern in Negros Occidental is observed during
June to July (Laureta et al, 2005) which Habagat prevails
and brings strong waves and current.
This spawning pattern needs further investigation in order
to establish correlation.

Discussion
Harvest size of 2 inches is small and
considered as immature based on the
minimum shell length of matured oriental
angelwing at 5.9-6.4 cm for male and female
(Laureta and Marasigan, 2000), respectively.
Ordinance No. 2009-007 imposed an
allowable harvest size of 3 inches (7.62 cm).

Discussion
The oriental angelwing resource of Kalibo
supports the livelihood of the local fisherfolk
and provides income to the household.
There is a high dependence to the resource as
80% of the gatherer derives income from
harvesting and selling of the shellfish during
harvest season.

It is a male dominated fishery. However, it


does not hinder participation of women in a
physically demanding form of fishing activity.

Summary
Oriental angelwing is a valuable resource of
Kalibo
endemic in the area
economically important
Social value

Highly vulnerable
Sedentary species
Occurs in inshore waters

Recommendations
The local angelwing clam resource should be
managed effectively in order to sustain the
social and economic benefits derived from the
resource.
The existing ordinance must not be a stand-alone
measure to manage the resource.
It must be coupled with effective implementation
and technical intervention.

Recommendations
Develop the aquaculture potential of the species
Conduct of comprehensive stock assessment
determination of recruitment abundance, spatial
distribution, population size
Assess and scout nearby areas or with past
known occurrence of oriental angelwing for
possible reintroduction
Creation of management plan for the oriental
angelwing resource.

Thank you

Morphomeristics and Observations


on Growth of Rock Flagtail Kuhlia
rupestris (Lacepede, 1802), An
Indigenous Species in Catubig River,
Northern Samar, Philippines

AA Salvador and RC Salvador*


Fisheries Department, College of Agriculture, Fisheries and
Natural Resources
University of Eastern Philippines, Catarman, Northern
Samar; email:roneliesalvador@yahoo.com

Kuhlia Morphomeristics

Introduction
Morphological
data
Genetics/
Molecular data

Species
identification

Physiological
data

Behavioural
data

Ecological
data

Indigenous Species : an important


component of biodiversity

food of the rural residents in riparian zones.

also called native species


species naturally occurring in a local
ecosystem
not placed or introduced by humans, either
intentionally or accidentally, in the ecosystem
or community in which they naturally occur

Introduction: Kuhlia Morphomeristics

Taxonomic classification of Kuhlia rupestris


Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Perciformes

Family

Kuhliidae

Genus

Kuhlia

Species

rupestris

Common name

Rock flagtail

Identification characteristics of Kuhliidae


Single, deeply notched dorsal fin with
x spines and 9-12 soft rays

Dark bands/blotches in
caudal and dorsal fins

Photo by: EB Moyar & RC Salvador

2 spines on opercle

Black-edged scales

Anal fin with III spines


and 9-13 soft rays
(Carpenter, 2001)

Distribution of Kuhlia rupestris

36 countries (Africa to Asia and


Oceania: East Africa to Samoa,
north to the Ryukyu Islands,
south to Queensland, Australia
and New Caledonia)
Reported use:
subsistence/commercial
fisheries, aquarium

Source: Froese and Pauly (2011)

Kuhlia rupestris Country Information : Philippines


Common Name

No common name

Occurrence

Native

Salinity

Freshwater

Abundance

Ref

Importance

Ref.

Aquaculture

Never/rarely

Regulations

Ref.

Uses

No recorded uses

Comments

Recorded from Malatgaw River, Palawan (Ref. 41640).


Specimens in VisCA museum collected from Kawasan
waterfall in Cebu (Ref. 7223). Reported from Lake Taal (Ref.
80679, 13446) and Lake Naujan (Ref. 13446)

National Checklist
Country Information

https/www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rp.html

National Fisheries Authority


Occurrences
Main Ref
National Database

Randall, JE and H.A. Randall (2001)

Kuhlia rupestris Country Information : Philippines (Froese and Pauly, 2011)


Year

Collector

Identifier

Catalog No

Depth

Locality

No year

Thompson, JC

SU 28621

Zambales Province

No year

Herre,Albert W

SU 27298

Dumaguete

No year

Herre,Albert W

SU 27297

Tanjay, near
Dumaguete

No year

Herre,Albert W

SU 27296

Concepcion,
Busuanga

No year

McGregor, Richard C.

SU 20521

No year

R.B. Fox

CAS 51736

No year

F. Millan

JE Randall /
Aug 2000

CAS 210346

Elev. 800 ft; deep


pools

No year

A.W. Herre

CAS 127298

Dumaguete

CAS 210346

Elev. 800 ft; deep


pools

No year

Villar,

Source
Portal: FB
Source: SU

Portal: FB
Source: CAS

Portal: GBIF
Source: CAS
Data from GBIF data
index-original values

1935

Herre ded. 12.XI.1935

1962

Fox, R.B.

1996

Umali, A.F.

ZMH 14234

NMI 4397

346690.5253418

San Ramon,
Zamboanga

Portal : FB
Source:ZMH
Portal : FB
Source: NMI

Quezon, Gen
Nakar, Agos River,
Bgy Anoling

Portal: GBIF
Source: USNM
Data from GBIF data
index-original values

Kuhlia rupestris Country Information : Philippines


Number of species found

Number of records found


2
Number of records with coordinates 0

No. Collection name Country


Locality
1. Kuhlia rupestris Philippines -blank localityMore info | Plus d'info | Mais info

2. Kuhlia rupestris

Philippines

Year Catalog No.


1962 NMI 4397

FishBase

San Ramon, Zamboanga,


1935
Prov. Mindanao,
Philippines

ZMH 14234

cfm script by eagbayani, 20.03.00 , php script by celloran, 20.04.10 , last modified
by cmilitante, 21.09.11
(Froese and Pauly, 2011)

Catubig
River
L= 46 km
E= 14 m above MSL
Max. D=25.3 m
12o3113.26 N
125o0022.83E

Kuhlia Morphomeristics
Downstream

Midstream

Width (m): 24 - 57
Upstream
Depth (m): 0.52 11.3
Salinity (ppt): 0
Alkalinity (ppm): 172-202
Hardness (ppm): 237- 302
Total dissolved solids (ppm): 240-280
pH: 7.1 7.2
Temperature (0C): 25 - 26
Substrate type: rocky to sandy loam
Max. elevation (m above MSL) : 14

Collection areas
of K. rupestris in
Catubig River

Subsistence fisheries
of Catubig River

Kuhlia Morphomeristics

CBF Project 1- Database of riverine fauna


and flora

Total collections
Indigenous fish species - 68
Introduced fish species - 1
Indigenous palaemonids - 14
Indigenous crabs -2
Gastropods 2
Bivalves 3
Macroflora - 6

Kuhlia Morphomeristics

OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to:
confirm taxonomic identification of K.
rupestris collected from Catubig River
using morphometric and meristic data
determine landmark distances as
benchmark information for K. rupestris
evaluate potential of K. rupestris in
aquaculture based on morphological
data and growth performance in
captivity and in-mixed species culture.

Methodology

Kuhlia Morphomeristics

o Collection of specimens
(August 2010- December 2011)

16

Methodology

o Measurement of morphometric
characters

Standard Length (SL)

1.5 cm

Fork Length (FL)


Total Length (TL)

16

Methodology

o Measurement of morphometric characters


Pre-dorsal Length

Pre-orbital
Length

Body
Depth
Eye
diameter
Prepectoral
Length
Head Length (HL)
Pre-pelvic Length
Pre-anal Length

Methodology

o determination of meristic characters


Dorsal fin rays

Caudal fin
rays

Pectoral fin rays


Anal fin rays
Ventral fin rays

Methodology

o determination of meristic characters


Lateral dorsal scales
Predorsal scales
Lateral peduncle
scales
Lateral line
scales

Lateral ventral
scales

Methodology

o Measurement of landmark distances


4
6

10

1
9
3
Midsaggital anatomical landmarks
1- upper tip of premaxilla at symphysis
2- anterior edge of frontal lobe
3- anterior base of the first ventral fin spine
4- anterior base of the first dorsal fin spine
5 anterior base of first anal fin spine
6- anterior base of the first dorsal fin ray

11

7 - anterior base of the first anal fin ray


8 - posterior base of the last dorsal fin ray
9 - posterior base of the anal dorsal fin ray
10 - anterior base of the first dorsal
procurrent caudal fin ray
11- anterior base of the first ventral
procurrent caudal fin ray
(Gorospe and Demayo, 2013; Strauss and Bond, 1990)

Methodology
o Search for

information

o Species identification
o Culture in tanks (for 120 days)
Specific growth rate = InWf - InWi 100
t

Kuhlia Morphomeristics

Results

Morphology of K. rupestris

Body coloration :
Silvery, scales dorsally on body with black edges, those on
side with a black bar or spot.
Body shape : fusiform
( Reference : Keith et al., 1999, as cited by Froese and Pauly, 2011)

Scale type : cycloid

Morphology of K. rupestris

Caudal fin morphology :


Emarginate, lobes somewhat rounded; each lobe with a large, whiteedged black spot (Keith et al., 1999, as cited by Froese and Pauly, 2011).
Shallow emargination and bluntly rounded lobes, median rays more than
half length of the outer rays; with oblique blotch across each lobe or broad
dark bar across posterior part of fish (Allen, 1991, as cited by Froese and
Pauly, 2011).

Morphology of K. rupestris

Mouth form :
Large, maxilla reaching below posterior half of eye (Keith et al., 1999)
Maxilla extending to below middle of eye or beyond (Allen, 1991).

Morphometric data of K. rupestris


K. rupestris collected from Catubig river

Characteristics

Mean (n=10)

Size (cm)

11.75 SL

Total length (TL)

14.34 cm

Standard length (SL)

81.85 %TL

Fork length

95.42 %TL

Range

FishBase Data
(Froese and
Pauly, 2011)
18.6 SL, 23.1 TL

11.5-16.5 cm

583 pixels
86.1 % TL

11.0-16.0 cm

96.7 % TL

Pre-anal length

57.77 %SL; 47.01%TL

50.3 % TL

Pre-dorsal length

43.10 % SL; 35.21 %TL

31.4 % TL

Pre-pelvic length

49.93 % SL; 40.79 % TL

30.5 % TL

Pre-pectoral length

36.58 % SL; 29.89%TL

25.0 % TL

38.38 % SL; 31.24 % TL

30.9 % TL

Head length (HL)

26.64 % TL

25.9 % TL

Eye diameter

25.65 % HL

22.5 % HL

Pre-orbital length

23.89% HL

26.5 % HL

Body depth

Aspect ratio of caudal fin


Body weight (g)

1.90729
48.90

20.0-85.0

Meristic data of K. rupestris


Characteristics

K. rupestris collected from


Catubig river (n=10)

FishBase Data (Froese


and Pauly, 2011)

Lateral line scales

43 -44

38-45

Gill rakers on lower limb of


1st branchial arch

17 - 18

17-19

Gill rakers on upper limb of


1st branchial arch

8-9

7-9

Dorsal fin spines, soft rays

10, 10-11

10, 10-12

1 (notched)

1 (notched)

Anal fin spines, soft rays

3, 10-11

3,9-11

Pectoral fin spines, soft rays

0, 11-12

0, 13-14

0, 6

----

Predorsal scales

12 - 13

-----

Lateral dorsal scales

31 - 34

-----

Lateral ventral scales

21 - 24

------

Lateral peduncle scales

8 - 12

------

Number of dorsal fin


Anal fin, number

Pelvic fin spine, rays

Landmark distances in K. rupestris collected from Catubig River, N. Samar


Anatomical Landmarks
From
1
(upper tip of premaxilla at symphysis)
2
(anterior edge of frontal lobe)
3
(anterior base of the first ventral fin spine)
4
(anterior base of the first dorsal fin spine)
5
(anterior base of the first anal fin spine)
6
(anterior base of the first dorsal fin ray)
7
(anterior base of the first anal fin ray)
8
(posterior base of the last dorsal fin ray)
9
(posterior base of the last anal fin ray)
10
(anterior base of the first dorsal procurrent caudal fin ray)
11
(anterior base of the first ventral procurrent ccaudal fin ray)

To
2
3
3
5
4
4
5
5
6
7
6
7
7
8
9
8
9
9
10
11
10
11
11

Landmark distances
(mm)
8.0
65.3
60.5
104.3
57.0
59.0
43.8
76.5
49.0
79.0
61.8
11.0
59.5
34.6
57.0
56.6
35.2
31.0
26.3
41.4
34.2
23.6
23.4

Methodology

o Landmark distances
4
6

2
1

Q2

Q1

10

Q3

Q4
9

11

Figure __. Truss network of measured distances between


midsaggital anatomical landmarks in K. rupestris consisting
of four truss cells (non-overlapping quadrilaterals).

Growth data

Initial weight (g)* = 45 g


Final weight (g) * = 228.2 g (max. = 430 g)
Culture period = 120 days
Survival rate = 100 %
Culture system = mixed-species culture (5/30; 5
individuals/m3) in concrete tanks (reared with 4 other
indigenous species collected from Catubig river)
Specific growth rate (% day-1) = 1.35%
*Mean of n=5

Kuhlia Morphomeristics

Conclusions

Samples collected from Catubig river correctly identified as


Kuhlia rupestris
Kuhlia rupestris is a promising aquaculture commodity
- good taste
- white meat (meat yield = 78.57% of TBW)
- can be grown in polyculture/ IMTA systems
- maximum reported weight = 2.7 kg (Froese & Pauly, 2011)
- can be cultured in IMTA/polyculture systems
subsistence
fishery

sustainable- commercial
aquaculture

Kuhlia Morphomeristics

Recommendations
Promote Kuhlia rupestris and other indigenous
species as an aquaculture commodity
Shift in aquaculture R and D thrusts in the
country

technology import
(+ alien species)
ex. Pangasius sp.

Development of
technologies for breeding
and sustainable culture of
indigenous species

More Recommendations

Stock assessment of Kuhlia rupestris (size


structures, abundance)
Reproductive biology studies and development
of breeding/hatchery techniques
Conduct grow-out experiments in ponds or
cages, in IMTA or monoculture systems, or in
rice-fish farming systems

Kuhlia Morphomeristics

Preservation of
ecological integrity

Food security and


improvement of the
quality of life of fisherfolk
communities

Thank you

Community-based Participatory Action


Research (CPAR) on Seaweed Culture in
Panobolon, Nueva Valencia, Guimaras
Remia A. Aparri1, Joel T. Abalayan1, Ma. Lissette Permocillo1 and Joelyn M. Sentina2
1Regional Fisheries Research and Development Center, BFAR Regional Office 6, Iloilo City;
2INFOFISH, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
5th BFAR NFRDI Scientific Conference Manila Ocean Park, Luneta, Manila October 15, 2013

Background

The fisheries have been a recognized sector that


contributes significantly to the countrys
productivity.
Philippines ranked 6th among the top 10 fish
producing countries in the world (Fisheries
Profile, 2010)

Despite the performance of


the Philippine fisheries, the
countrys main fish species
and marine organisms are
showing signs of overfishing
(Green et al, 2003)

The total production of 5.08M MT of fish,


crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants
(including seaweeds) contributes 3.12% to the
162.8M MT total world production
Seaweeds production of the Philippines, that
ranked third 3rd after China and Indonesia,
accounts for 10.03% (or 1.74M MT) of world
production.

Background
Community-based Participatory Action
Research(CPAR)
One of the flagship programs of BAR
Generating significant information by verifying the
technical and economic feasibility study of mature
technologies
Develop support mechanism for sustainable
agriculture- based development of selected
commodity
A collaborative approach to research with community
participation

Background
Discussion of BFAR RFRDC 6 with the LGU
and fisherfolk come up with a collaboration in
order to address the issue in the community.
Participatory Rural Appraisal
Conducted in 2008 at Panobolon, Nueva Valencia,
Guimaras
The community is dependent to fishing as their
main livelihood.
Problems identified: low fish catch low income

Rationale
Seaweed culture is one of the existing
supplemental livelihood of the fisherfolk
-Productive period is six (6) months (Aug to Feb)
Seaweed has short gestation period
Has stable market as source of raw materials for
carrageenan
- positive impact to the environment
easily adapted by the fisherfolk

Rationale
Solar salt making is also one of the existing
livelihoods in the barangay during summer
season (March to May).
It is one of the post harvest system that can
reduce reliance on fishing during off season of
seaweeds.
Responsive to the needs of fish drying in the
province
Requires minimal capital

Rationale
The farming of seaweed is one of the successful,
productive and environment friendly form of
livelihood among coastal communities (Trono,
1999).
Seaweed farming was shown to be compatible
with traditional and subsistence used of the
inshore marine environment such as fishing
(South, 1993 as cited by Lal and Vuki, 2010,
Zamroni and Yamao, 2011).

Objectives
The CPAR project aims to establish and promote
improve production system among fisherfolk in
Panobolon for increased productivity and profitability
increase seaweeds production by 25% and solar salt
production for marketing;
provide supplemental livelihood to the fisherfolk;
encourage community participation in project
operationalization and sustainability;
empower and strengthen fisherfolk organization; and
increase the number of fisherfolk adapting the technology

Project Title: Community-based Participatory


Action Research (CPAR) on Seaweed Culture in
Panobolon, Nueva Valencia, Guimaras
Project Cost: PhP 1 million
Implemented in 2009 to 2012
Project Partners: BAR, BFAR 6, Local Government
Unit (LGU) of Nueva Valencia, PLGU-Guimaras
and Panobolon Seaweed Growers and Traders
Association (PSGTA)

Project Site
Legend: Municipality
Buenavista
Jordan
Nueva Valencia
San Lorenzo
Sibunag

Provincial Capitol

Municipal Hall
Seaweed Trading Center

Cabalagnan
Panobolon

Project Cooperators
Members of the Panobolon Seaweed Growers and Traders
Association (PSGTA).
PSGTA is registered with DOLE on February 9, 2006.
There are fourteen (14) families that served as project cooperator.
Each family is represented a family head.
One family is consisting of 2-3 seaweed farmer members.
The project directly involved a total of 36 seaweed growers.

The association has expressed their willingness to counterpart for


the project implementation primarily the cost of labor.
The members were also willing to learn and share their knowledge
and experiences.

Methods
Phase I

Phase II

Phase III

Consultation with LGU


and Community

Proposal Submission
to BAR and Funding

Project
Implementation

Conduct of
Participatory Rural
Appraisal

Formulation of CPAR
Pre-implementing
Guidelines

Provision of Project
Inputs

Data Presentation and


Validation

Conduct of Project
Orientation

Development of
Project Proposal

Capability Building

Proposal Validation
and Finalization

Training on Seaweed
Culture and Solar Salt
Production

Technical assistance,
Monitoring, Data
Collection

Conduct of Meetings
and FGDs
Data Collation and
Report Writing

Scheme of Project Implementation


Provision of project input was conducted in two
batches based
First batch: 7 project cooperators covers a project period
of August 2009 to July 2011
Second batch: 7 cooperators for the second batch covers
project period of August 2010 to July 2012.

Based on the seasonal calendar


Seaweeds culture with fishpot was first operationalized
Solar salt production was implemented after the planting
season of seaweeds. (March May)

Project Components
3 Components: seaweed culture, solar salt
production and fishpot

Seaweed Culture Component

7m

One module of seaweed farm with an area of ha was


managed by one family.
The fixed-off bottom method is the culture method being
practiced by the CPAR project cooperator.

Kappaphycus spp Barako

Kappaphycus striatum Sacol


(brown and green color
morphotypes)

Fixed Off-Bottom Farm Layout


Clockwise: 1) Section of cultivation
line showing few days old planted
seaweeds; 2) CPAR seaweed farm
exposed during low tide; 3) CPAR
seaweed farm at high tide wherein
the floater keep the seaweeds
suspended along the water column

Solar Salt Production Component


One (1) solar salt
production module is
managed by 2
cooperators.
Each module has an
area of 120 m.
Total aggregate area
of solar salt beds is
1,680 m.

Fishpot Component
Local design and
specification of
fishpot in Panobolon.
Made up of bamboo
rind
Rectangular shape
with dimension of 50
cm x 35 cm x 20 cm
with single opening
Each project
cooperator was
provided with 60
units of fishpots.

Data gathering and Monitoring


A CPAR Team was
organized for the
implementation of the
project.
The BFAR-RFRDC 6 staff
spearheaded the conduct
of project monitoring,
data gathering, FGDs and
data consolidation.
A technical staff was
assigned to provide
technical assistance,
coordination and
monitoring of the project

Seaweed Production and Value


Project Cycle
2009 August
2010 July1
2010 August
2011 July2
2011 August
2012 July3

Fresh Seaweeds
Quantity
(kg)
Value

Dried Seaweeds
Quantity
(kg)
Value

Total Value

10,315

123,780

9,678

406,476

530,256

29,219

350,628

25,195

1,113,364

1,463,992

5,751

68,858

6,004

224,085

292,943

Total
45,285 543,266
40,877 1,743,925
2,287,191
1Modules 1-7 operationalized with 1.75 ha total area
2Modules 1-14 operationalized with 3.5 ha total area
3Only production of modules 8-14 was accounted with 1.75 ha total
area.

Results: Seaweed Culture

Production
-Seaweed production increased by 62% from 2MT to 4MT
Year-round production of seaweed culture during the operationalization of CPAR project.
There was a change in the weather patterns in the area that favors culture of seaweeds during
off-season period of the past years.

Diseases
The seaweed culture experienced recurring occurrence of ice-ice diseasess during the whole
project cycle.
Epiphytism was also observed and caused damaged to seaweed stocks on the first and second
quarter of CY 2012.
Cooperators transferred the cultivation line to other areas when they observed occurrence of
farm malaise.
During extreme conditions, they do emergency harvest.

Results: Seaweed Culture


Cultured Species:
Cultured species shifted from majority of
sacol during the start of the project to
barako in the third project cycle.
Barako was observed to thrive well and has
more robust thallus than sacol.
An estimated 80% of seedlings that were
source out from outside Panobolon was
damaged.

Results: Seaweed Culture


Marketing:
Selling of dried seaweed in Sibunag prior to and during the first
year of project implementation.
Buying and consolidating of dried seaweeds produced in
Panobolon by 4 residents of Panobolon.

Other product form


The cooperators were able to produce 80 kg of seaweed pickles.
Average price: PhP 200.00/kg
Brought to exhibits, served in local restaurant and some even
brought abroad as local delicacy.

Results
Production and Value: Solar Salt
Module Salt Production
(kg)
1*
150
2
1,850
3*
34
4
2,000
7
300
Total
4,334

No. of
Sacks
6
74
1.36
80
12
173.36

Market Price
(per sack)

Value

300.00

22,200.00

300.00
300.00

24,000.00
3,600.00
49,800.00

*Modules 1 and 3 production was utilized for family consumption


Modules 5 and 6 not able to set-up solar salt production beds

Result: Solar Salt Production


Operationalized for one season only, from February to
May 2010
Production was not continued during the second and
third production cycle due to changes in the weather
condition.
Rainfall was frequent during summer months of 2011 and
2012 that hinders successful salt production.

The cooperators purchased fishing net and seaweed


seedlings from the fund intended for solar salt
production

Results: Operation of fish pot


Production and Value: Fish
Total production: 75 kg
Species caught: samaral (siganid, big), moy-moy
(parrotfish), palata (damselfish), ngisi-ngisi (siganid,
small), kilawan (emperor fish), sulay bagyo (triggerfish),
lokos (squid), palad (flatfish), bukaw-bukaw (big eye),
butiti (pufferfish).

Result: Fishpot
Cooperators observed that smaller fish thrives
in the seaweed culture in shallow areas and
cannot be caught with fishpot due to large
mesh size.
Fishpot were transferred to deeper areas.

Results
Annual Income of Cooperator
Annual income gained by each
cooperator is PhP 62,836.25 50,655.86

Result: Rollover and Adoptors


The roll-over scheme of the project engaged
the other members of the association to
participate in the CPAR project.
First batch rolled-over to 23 members of
association
Second batch rolled-over to 27 members

In 2011, there are 49 adoptors of the seaweed


culture and have established seaweed farms
in Panobolon.

Discussion
Seaweed culture component of the CPAR project is the
one that was sustained and recorded a positive result.
The seaweed culture has a positive result with 41 MT dried
and 45 MT fresh seaweeds
Annual average yield of CPAR seaweed farms of 6.0 MT dry
weight per hectare
Increase in dried seaweed production: from 2.5 MT to 4.0
MT per ha
Field experiment of fixed-off bottom seaweed culture in
Caluya, Antique at 8.0 MT dry weight per hectare at 60
days culture period (Hurtado et al, 2001)

Discussion
PhP 5,000.00 -10,000.00 annual income per
family was noted in 2008.
71% of cooperators still fall below the average
annual regional family income of PhP
99,000.00 (NSCB, 2009).

Discussion
Most successful seaweed farms are those that
are tended with skill, diligence and a "green
thumb (Neish, 2008).

Discussion: impact on production


Seaweed farming area in Panobolon expanded
from 15 hectares in 2008 to 30 hectares in 2012.
Relatively larger compared to other major
seaweed farming areas in Guimaras
Sabang, Sibunag- 16.5 ha
Sebaste, Sibunag - 12.1 ha
Nadulao Island - 4.5 ha

Discussion: impact on production


The roll-over scheme has also contributed to the increased
in production as well as in the expansion of seaweed farms
From 36 initial cooperators to 86 cooperators

In 2011, there are 49 identified adoptors of the seaweed


culture and have established seaweed farms in Panobolon.
Adoptors are either residents of Panobolon or private investors
that ventured into seaweed farming as motivated by the
positive performance of the seaweed culture project.

Discussion: impact on production


The support of the leaders in Panobolon also
contributed to the success of the CPAR project
and the rest of the seaweed farming in the
community.
This positive effect of leadership was also
noted among seaweed farming village in
Pacific Islands (Namudu and Pickering, 2006).

Discussion: impact on production


The solar production, though, was not sustained
can also be a source of additional livelihood.
The CPAR project demonstrated that fisheries-based
livelihood can complement with each other given the
proper timing of season.
It also shows that with proper financial management,
the fisherfolk can diversify into other projects that are
complementary to seaweed culture.

Discussion: impact on production


The fishpot component was not able to serve its
purpose as deterrent to grazing and for fish
production.
The effect of grazing becomes negligible due to the
increase of seaweed farms.
Increasing seaweed biomass wherein any effect of
grazing pressure becomes insignificant to total
biomass and production is the widest method of
dealing with grazers (Neish, 2008).

Discussion: impact on organization


and community
The CPAR on seaweed culture project provide
supplemental livelihood of the seaweed
growers.
The CPAR cooperator can now afford to have solar
panels that is a source of electricity of the
household.
Purchase of motor engine for paddled banca

Discussion: impact on organization


and community
Promote cooperation among members of the
association and strengthen unity in the
community.
Members of the association shares seedlings to
other members.
Collectively contribute to the overall production of
seaweed and produce large quantity that is
attractive to buyers.

Discussion: impact on organization


and community
As observed, the cooperators are now easier
to mobilize during meeting and discussion.
There are perceptions before that they just attend
meeting or participate in the project because of
the free assistance or incentives.
Now, they already have the will and are motivated
to participate during meetings and group
discussions

Discussion: impact on organization


and community
The trainings and interaction with technical persons
widens their understanding of the technology being
imparted to them.
They become more aware of the technical considerations
of the project, thus they are able to mitigate the negative
impact of diseases and unfavourable environmental
conditions.

Some cooperators were already invited by BFAR to


participate in the conferences and even share their
experiences to others.

Constraints: Limited capability on financial


management.
Training and assistance are required to develop
financial management skills or the association to
develop into an enterprise

Learning:
Importance of community organizing
Presence of extension officers is vital to the community
in providing technical services
Seaweed culture is a sustainable viable livelihood for
the fisherfolk
Development of value chain road map for seaweeds,
that is the integration of production and post
production operation of seaweed growers.
Positive impact to the environment
Reduce fishing pressure
Mitigating measure to climate change

Summary and Conclusion


The CPAR on Seaweed Culture in Panobolon, Nueva Valencia,
Guimaras project was able to realized its objectives.
It provided additional income to the fisherfolk
Expanded production area from 15 ha to 30 ha
It contributed to the increase in seaweed production of the
community by 62%
The cooperators and the community have now the will and are
motivated to sustain the project.
The members of the fisherfolk association have developed the values
of sharing of resources and knowledge.

Summary and Conclusion


The CPAR project was able to create tangible
result to the community and provide venue
for learning research in the community.

Thank you

Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE
(October 14-15, 2013)

Manila Ocean Park


Luneta, Manila

Exploring new opportunities


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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

2 in 1 plus Mariculture Farming System


(A Livelihood Development Strategy for Coastal Families)

Valentino V. Prado, Gerry N. Galvez*, Richard N. Rivera


Ida C. Junio, Enone V. Tepait, and Lourdes P. Bisco
5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference
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Luneta, Manila

Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

Project Location of
2 in 1 mariculture farm
Coastal Waters of
the Balaoan, La Union.

Balaoan, La Union

The intertidal zone


of this locality was known to
have a coralline, seaweed
and seagrass beds.
DMMMSU North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research & Training Institute
2517 Balaoan, La Union
5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference
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October 14-15, 2013


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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute

Overview

Balaoan 2517 La Union

Country/Area

World
Production of
Seaweed
(AlgoRythme,
No.31CEVA,
France)

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Seaweed
(million tons)

World
Production(%)

China

4.093

50

Korea

0.771

11

Japan

0.737

10

Philippines

0.404

Far East Countries

6.283

90

Norway

0.185

2.6

Chile

0.182

2.6

USA

0.116

1.6

France

0.079

1.1

European countries

0.302

4.3

Total

6.941
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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

..overview

Trend on
Seaweed
production
from 1997
2002
(Source: DABFAR,2004
from BAS)

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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

..overview

Seaweed
production by
Region, 2002
(Source: DABFAR,2004

5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference


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Exploring new opportunities


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October 14-15, 2013


Luneta, Manila

Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference


Manila Ocean Park, Luneta, Manila

..overview

Exploring new opportunities


through fisheries research and development

October 14-15, 2013


Luneta, Manila

Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute

..overview

Balaoan 2517 La Union

Sea urchin
Tripneustes gratilla

-belongs to Class Echinoidea


*It is small and spiny sea creature found in oceans
- edible
- good source of vitamins and minerals
- a high-valued fishery commodity

its roe is expensive in foreign market;

5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference


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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

..overview

Coastal farming of sea


urchin provides employment
opportunity, thus contributes
in alleviating poverty among
coastal dwellers

T. gratilla as a fishery industry


should be sustainable
5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference
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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute

..overview

Balaoan 2517 La Union

World production declining


1995 = 119,647 mt fresh wt
1998 = 89,918 mt

Local production
1992 = 1,100 mt fresh wt
1998 = 392 mt
-due to overexploitation
-loss of multimillion pesos fisheries
and source of livelihood of numerous
coastal families

Sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

source:Juinio-Menez et al., 1997

5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference


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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

..overview

seafarming practices
seaweed farming
- monoline
- bamboo

urchin farming
- cage
- ranching

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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

Current marketing practice

Public /direct consumers


Exporters

restaurants / other buyers

5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference


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October 14-15, 2013


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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

Current marketing practice

Processor / cooperative/s
Public /direct consumers

Exporters

5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference


Manila Ocean Park, Luneta, Manila

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October 14-15, 2013


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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

Objectives
Generally, the paper
aims to present the potential of
farming both seaweed and sea
urchin in a 200 square meter
coastal farm or space.
It specifically seeks to
describe the farming system for
production and processing as
integral activity of a coastal
family to increase their
productivity.
5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference
Manila Ocean Park, Luneta, Manila

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October 14-15, 2013


Luneta, Manila

Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

Methodology
A holistic farming system on the culture
of seaweed at the upper water surface
column, sea urchin culture at the bottom in a
200m2 coastal space and, the processing of
both was developed. The technology
maximizes the potential use of a limited
mariculture space.
Experimental trials and demofarm results
on the culture, production and processing
technologies of seaweed and sea urchin were
analyzed (Junio,2006; Tepait,2007; Prado and
Tepait, 2007). Said technologies and farming
practices were used to come up an integrated
mariculture farming system where a coastal
family may explore to optimize productivity
of the household. Return on expenses of
respective technologies were established.

5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference


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2
in
1
(200m2 )
Seaweed
(water surface)

Sea urchin
(bottom)

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October 14-15, 2013


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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

2 in 1plus Mariculture Farming System


is an innovative livelihood strategy
for coastal families

the technology

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-optimizes use of limited coastal space


- lessens navigational conflicts among fisherfolks
-increases family productivity
-promotes better social interaction among family
members

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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

2
In

..overview of the 2in1plus FS

integrated mariculture system in 200m2


culture area

Post-harvest technologies

plus

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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute

Results

Balaoan 2517 La Union

Return
on
fresh seaweed

expenses
2 in 1
200sq.m.

(%)
fresh urchin

5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference


Manila Ocean Park, Luneta, Manila

Exploring new opportunities


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October 14-15, 2013


Luneta, Manila

Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

results

Seaweed culture

(fresh seaweed)

Number of Crops/year
Culture days

(fresh urchin)

Number of Crops/year

50-60

Production Area/m

Sea urchin culture

120-150

Production Area/m

200

No. of Culture Modules

No. of Cages(2x1x..5m)

No. of Culture Lines/Module

10

Stocking Density/Cage

500

Initial weight(g) of seedlings/hang

150

Total Stockings(pcs)

2000

No.of hangs/line

50

Mortality rate(10%)

200

Total Weight of seedlings(kg)

..overview

Culture days

200

(roe)

Harvest

per line(kg)

7.5

pc.

1800

1800

per module(kg)

75

kg.

200

18kg roe

module x2(kg)

150

Yield
@7%growth rate/day

900

Net Yield

750

FarmGate Price(Php)

35.00

Sales/Cycle(Php)

22,500.00

Sales/Year(Php)

90 000.00

Yield

Php50/kg

10000.00

Php 200/kg roe


Sales/year

Less:

14400.00
20000.00

28800.00

15600.00

17200.00

Less:

Production Cost(Php)

47 950.00

Production Cost(Php)

a. Labor

14 400.00

Cost of Cages(Php)

8000.00

8000.00

b. Seedlings

21 600.00

Cost of Stocks(Php)

4000.00

4000.00

Labor

3600.00

5200.00

NET INCOME

8000.00

11600.00

28.00%

67.44%

c. Cost of Materials
NET INCOME
Return-on-Expenses:
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11 950.00
42 050.00
87%

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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

results

Particular
Product

750 kg
FSW

Table 2.
The plus
technology
options for
female family
household
members.

Cost
(Php)

4 821.00

35.7kg
BSW to
Flakes

7,140.00

35.7kg
BSW to
Candies

7,140.00

35.7kg
BSW to
Pickles

7.140.00

Yield

107.14 kg
DSW

22 500.00

107.14 kg
DSW to
BSW

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Technology
Description

Cost
(Php)

ROE%
Remarks

4 821.00

(-)

35.7kg BSW

5,355.00
7,140.00

24.3
65.7

27.168kg
flakes

24 451.20

23

Mixture of seaweed
gel,milk.sugar,fruit
cooked until thick.
(30 man-days)

28.3kg
73 580
candies

5 600.00
183 950.00

14.4

Mixture of seaweed,
vinegar, sugar, salt,
carrots, onions, ginger,
bell pepper & chili

1 440
bottles of
seaweed
pickles

50 400.00

56

Sun-drying of newly
harvested seaweeds for 23days with a moisture
content ranging from 2835% (3 man-days)

Dried seaweeds are


washed thoroughly with
fresh potable water to
remove salt , dirt and
fishy odor then sun dried
for 2 days (2 man-days)

Fresh Seaweed (FSW) to


Dried Seaweed (DSW)
DSW-dried seaweed
@150/kg
@200/kg
BSW prevailing market
price is PhP500.00
Labor cost -150/man-day

@0.90/gram
Flakes prevailing price is
1000/kg
A new product from
seaweed used as binder,
wrapper, thickener and
main ingredient in the
preparation of
desserts,etc

@200/kg
@2.50/pc
prevailing price is 3.00/pc

@35.00/bot. (prevailing
price P40.00/bot.)

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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

..results

return on expenses
(%)

plus
65.7

(post-harvest)

87%

bleached seaweed

28%

67.44
processed roe
5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference
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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

87%

28%
(-)

65%

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67%

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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

65%

t
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
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Manila Ocean Park, Luneta, Manila

14%
56%
23%

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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


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Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

..results

as binder
Siomai

as main ingredient
Lumpiang
Shanghai

candy

Meatballs

as thickener

Ice cream

Fruit shake

80% iodine

Gelatine

Maja Special

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Soup

Noodles

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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

Summary / Conclusion
The 2 in 1 plus mariculture technology involves the 1)
production of seaweed e.i. kappaphycus or eucheuma
spp. In combination with sea urchin (T.gratilla) in a 20x10m2
coastal space and product development of the produce
particularly on seaweed. Considering the production area
of 200m2 a family optimizes productivity while maximizing
the potential use of limited space.
Direct benefits derived from the 2 in 1 (simultaneous
culture of seaweed and sea urchin) is a return-onexpenses of about 87% and 28-67% respectively, and plus
value-added technologies ranging from 14%-65%. Indirect
benefit includes social progression within the family in
particular and the community in general hence, resulting to
community productivity.

5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference


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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

Target beneficiaries: Families = Communities


2 in 1

plus

F
A
M
I
L
Y
other families
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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

Recommendation
As to the foregoing, pilot implementation of the 2 in 1 plus
mariculture farming system as a coastal family livelihood
opportunity in specific areas of the region is recommended with
the involvement of key players. A strong partnership and
cooperation among key players and stakeholders particularly
government implementing fisheries and coastal development in the
region is necessary to attain sustainable family-based 2 in 1plus
technology adoption.
With appropriate training and market assistance, adoption of the
2 in 1plus technology commodities promotes family enterprise in
particular and consequently, the community in general.

5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference


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Exploring new opportunities


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Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute

Recommendation

Balaoan 2517 La Union

System for Technology Adoption


of the 2 in 1plus Mariculture Technology for coastal families
input / process

Output

Piloting of
GOs

2 in 1 Farming
Technical
assistance/
trainings

Processing

NGOs

Market
assistance/
promotions

*Community-based
Seaweed-Sea Urchin
Production & Processing
(Family enterprise)

LGU_______________________________________

5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference


Manila Ocean Park, Luneta, Manila

Exploring new opportunities


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October 14-15, 2013


Luneta, Manila

Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University


North La Union Campus
Fisheries Research and Training Institute
Balaoan 2517 La Union

2 in 1plus
Exploring new opportunities
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5th BFAR-NFRDI Scientific Conference
Manila Ocean Park, Luneta, Manila

October 14-15, 2013


Luneta, Manila