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Isenberg, J.P., and N.

Quisenberry. 2002. Play:
Essential for All Children;
A Position Paper.
Association for Childhood
Education International, 9

Orsega-Smith, E., A.J.

Mowen, L.L. Payne, and G.
Godbey. 2004. The
Interaction of Stress and
Park Use on PsychoPhysiological Health in
Older Adults. Journal of
Leisure Research 36, 2:

This source mainly
discussed the benefits of
nature on children. Specific
studies were conducted on
children and their cognitive
abilities after being
exposed to play time, or
time outside. The studies
were very effective in
proving the effects on
nature on the children were
very positive. The group
exposed to nature scored
better on tests, were easier
to manage in class, and
overall more susceptible to
learning and participating
in school. The group not
regularly exposed to nature
showed the adverse
effects. The children were
more irritable, harder to
teach, and parents
recorded an increase in
difficulty in attempting to
prepare the children for
school. Older children also
showed signs of increased
ability and drive to
participate in exploration
and building activities.
These activities
subsequently help the
students with their problem
solving skills and ability to
work in groups.
This source described the
use of nature as an
alternative form of therapy
for older patients suffering
from dementia and
Alzheimers. The results
were astoundingly in favor
of my topic and my
argument. Evidence shows
that the patients exposed
to nature showed

This source allowed me to
gather information about
my topic but in a different
way. By the information
applying to children it
allows me to produce an
argument applying to
multiple groups of people,
further proving me point.

This source, similarly like

others, shows nature not
only to positively affect one
group of people, but a large
variety of people from all
age groups. Also this source
positively affects my
argument as nature being
used as a form of
alternative medicine.

Anon. 2007. Ecotherapy:

The Green Agenda for
Mental Health. Mind: For
better mental health,
London, pp., 36 pp.

significant signs of positive

change from the effects of
their disease. After being
exposed to nature, such as
taking a walk in the park or
a garden for even a short
amount of time patients
showed positive effects.
Patients with dementia had
improved memory and had
even been noted to
remember members of
their family they had not
remembered. Patients with
Alzheimers were reported
easier to manage and less
difficult to deal with on a
day to day basis. The study
even noted a dramatic
change in violent outbreaks
as a result of nature
exposure. Patients not
exposed to nature had an
upwards of 600% more
violent outbreaks than
patients who were exposed
to nature.
This source provided data,
and information about the
experiment describing
nature and its effects on
depression and ADD. A
psychologist who had
diagnosed patients afflicted
with either ADD or
depression was subject to
immersion in nature.
Correlating with my topic
the group subjected to
nature and being immersed
in it showed significant
signs of increased ability to
cope with their condition.
Patients who were labeled
depressed proved to feel
happier, and showed
significant signs to prove
this fact. The group

This source speaks more

toward the alternative
medicine side of my
argument, however it is a
powerful argument for
applying to my topic,
providing ample amount of
positive evidence
supporting my topic.

Krause, N., and B.A. Shaw.

2000. Giving Social
Support to Others,
Socioeconomic Status,
and Changes in SelfEsteem in Late Life. The
Journals of Gerontology.
Series B, Psychological
Sciences and Social
Sciences 55, 6: S323.

Lohr, V.I., C.H. PearsonMims, and G.K. Goodwin.

1996. Interior Plants May
Improve Worker
Productivity and Reduce
Stress in a Windowless
Environment. Journal of

diagnosed with ADD

showed increased ability to
focus on general day to day
activities without the help
of medication. The
subsequent group who was
not exposed to nature but
rather group therapy
activities showed marginal
improvement, but not
significantly comparably to
the nature group.
This source did not provide
raw data of the experiment
conducted however it did
share results and how the
experiment resulted. The
experiment was shown to
improve the self-esteem of
people in a general sense
as a result of nature. This
source also contained
evidence supporting a more
cohesive and more
effective way of conducting
a business meeting in
nature to promote
cohesiveness. As in respect
to meetings taking place in
traditional environments,
the participants seemed
more reluctant to change,
or did not fully appreciate
and respect another
persons feedback. The
study also showed that
simply being outside,
whether at a restaurant or
in a courtyard with a small
amount of foliage provided
these effects.
This source provided ample
amounts of evidence
proving the fact that nature
improves the ability to
produce better work. A
study conducted in an
office setting that included

This source is effective in

showing positive effects of
nature in situations that
would not normally involve
nature, such as a business

This source provides

employers information as a
way to improve productivity
as well as improve the
relationships between their
workers to improve the
quality and readiness of

Horticulture 14, 97-100

Tennessen, C.M., and B.

Cimprich. 1995. Views to
Nature: Effects on
Attention. Journal of
Environmental Psychology
15, 1: 77-85.

plants and other pieces of

nature in the office had a
higher work ethic than the
less natural counterparts.
Workers also proved to be
less irritable and enjoyed
coming to work more than
the workers located in an
office lacking in natural
elements. The workers also
proved to have better
relationships with their
coworkers, as well as their
bosses, in the environment
with natural elements.
Rates of being absent,
taking sick days, and
overall low morale dropped
dramatically by the simple
addition of plants to the
work place. The amount of
serious health problems
was also found to be
dramatically less than the
group subject to a
traditional office setting.
This source, applying to the
study of effects of nature
being subliminally involved
in the day to day basis of a
college student provides
ample evidence supporting
my argument. Students
how lived on campus and
had a dormitory
overlooking a rural area or
a highly forested area
proved to have higher tests
scores, generally increased
mood, and more
susceptible to participate in
social activities, not
involving drinking or drug
use. The other group who
had dormitories with views
not as green as the other
group, suffered. These
students were more


This source, most

applicable to me and my
peers, is invaluable as it
shows ways students can
help deal with stress and
cope with a heavy class

irritable, stressed, and

more likely to remain in
their rooms, or participate
in less constructive social
activities more often than
the latter group. The
students exposed to nature
also pursued the help of
others and their professors
more often than the group
who did not.

Kahn Jr., P.H., R.L.

Severson, and J.H.
Ruckert. 2009. The Human
Relation with Nature and
Technological Nature.
Current Directions in
Psychological Science 18,
1: 37.

This source, a rather

interesting one also
discusses alternatives to
having actual access to
nature in areas where it
may be harder than other.
Where the results did not
prove as effective as actual
nature exposure workers
were relaxed and produced
better work in areas that
had large screens
producing images of
nature, such as forests or
waterfalls. The screens
producing these images
resulted in the workers
increased sense of wellbeing in the work place as
well as had a higher pulse
rate than those located in
an office setting with blank
walls or scarce windows.
Where the results were not
as dramatic as those
incorporating real nature,
the studies show and
support a positive change
in a humans personal
nature. The respective
study between the large
screens and actual windows
proves this fact, as the
actual windows provided a
much more applicable and
noticeable change in work

This source is a rather

important one. In modern
areas where nature is
scarce and hard to provide
exposure to an office
setting, this information
offers an alternative
method of providing similar
effects to workers in an
office environment.

and behavior.

Berto, R., M.R. Baroni, A.

Zainaghi, and S. Bettella.
2010. An Exploratory
Study of the Effect of High
and Low Fascination
Environments on
Attentional Fatigue.
Journal of Environmental
Psychology 30, 4: 494500.

This source proved very

interesting to my research as
it discussed the measured
levels of fascination with
respect to different
environments. By discussing
how exactly nature influences
us as humans and how we are
affected by it provides great
understanding to my research.
The studies show that simple
visions trigger positive or
negative cognitive responses.
Nature, as perceived by our
minds, is highly fascinating as
it involves intricate life forms
and complex arrangements.
This creates a general positive
response and fascinates us as
humans. Such personal
fascination provides beneficial
impacts on the brain as
essentially providing a workout
for interpreting what we see in
nature. This subliminal study
we are all subject to when
exposed to nature, improves
our ability to retain knowledge
as well our ability to pay

This source is the basis of

all data recovered from all
experiments confirming my
argument, by providing the
reason why nature
positively affects us as

Cimprich, B., and D.L.

Ronis. 2003. An
Intervention to Restore
Attention in Women with
Newly Diagnosed Breast
Cancer. Cancer Nursing
26, 4: 284.

This source, another one

proving the effectiveness
as nature as a form of
alternative medicine. The
study conducted on
recently diagnosed breast
cancer patients and how
nature affects them.
Studies have shown that
patients engaging in nature
related therapy proved to
have lower stress levels
and higher ability to cope
with their diagnosis. Later
in treatment patients also
have shown to have an
overall more positive
outlook on their treatment,
and subsequently their
recovery. Overall the

This source, further

solidifying the argument of
nature being an effective
form of alternative
medicine, as well as a way
for recently diagnosed
cancer patients to cope
with their diagnosis.

Hull, R.B., and S.E.

Michael. 1995. NatureBased Recreation, Mood
Change, and Stress
Restoration. Leisure
Sciences 17, 1: 1-14.

success rates of the

treatments were much
more effective for the
group who were immersed
in nature, than the group
who went to conventional
group therapy.
This source, a very broad
source, provided a large
amount of data concerning
nature and how it relieves
stress. Many studies
conducted on people who
experience nature in an
urban setting shows a
significant decrease in
stress. This source,
compiling over 100
different studies on the
topic all show a decrease in
stress at even the slightest
immersion of nature.
Studies also have shown a
positive correlation
between time spent in the
park and decrease of
stress. These studies also
show that simply the color
green, much like foliage,
decreases levels of stress
within humans, and offer
some of the same effects
as being immersed in

3 Column Notes

This source offers a large

amount evidence proving
my argument, and by giving
overwhelming support for
my argument with almost
no counter arguments.