Anda di halaman 1dari 26

HYPERTENSION

(HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE)


THE SILENT KILLER

By: Jade Jefferson, Brenda Link, and Maxine Wallace

INTRODUCTION
Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against

the walls of the arteries (Normal-Systolic: 120


Diastolic: 80)

Pre-Hypertension is slightly elevated blood pressure

that can eventually lead to hypertension (Systolic:


120-139 Diastolic: 80-89)

Hypertension is a common condition in which the

force of blood against your artery walls is high enough


that it may eventually cause health problems, such as
heart disease (Systolic: 140 Diastolic: 90)

HOW IS BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURED

Sphygmomanomete
r or Dynamap
Machine

INTRODUCTION
Systolic vs. Diastolic
Systolic is the top number, which is also the higher number of

the two numbers, that measures the pressure in the arteries


when the heart beats
Contraction

Diastolic is the bottom number, which is also the lower

number of the two numbers, that measures the pressure in


the arteries between heart beats
Relaxation

HYPERTENSION PATHOLOGY

PATHOLOGY

WHAT CAUSES HYPERTENSION?


There are two types of

hypertension
Primary (essential) hypertension
No identifiable cause
Develops gradually over many
years
Secondary hypertension
Kidney problems
Certain medications
Illegal drugs
Alcohol abuse
Obstructive sleep apnea

MAJOR RISK FACTORS


Age
The risk of high blood pressure

increases as you age


Race
High blood pressure is more

common among blacks


Family History
Being Physically Inactive
Using Tobacco

Drinking too much Alcohol


Heavy drinking can damage

your heart
Stress
Certain Chronic Conditions
High Sodium Intake

MAJOR RISK FACTORS

Manifestation of Hypertension
Common symptoms
severe headache
fatigue or confusion

blood in urine
pounding in your
chest, neck, or ears

vision problems
chest pain
difficulty breathing
Irregular heartbeat

*There are no
observable signs or
symptoms*

Blood Pressure Levels


Normal

Systolic: less than


120mmHg
Diastolic: less than
80mmHg

At risk (prehypertension)

Systolic: 120-139mmHg
Diastolic: 80-89mmHg

High

Systolic: 140mmHg
Diastolic: 90mmHg

GLOBAL SCALE
http://www.cardiosour
ce.org/en/NewsMedia/Publications/Ca
rdiologyMagazine/2013/05/Hig
h-Blood-PressureEducation-Month-ALook-at-HypertensionPrevalence-Aroundthe-World.aspx

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE DOWN SOUTH

ANOTHER PERSPECTIVE

MEN AND WOMEN


Sex
Male 5,854 30.5 (29.0 1.9** 6.6

31.9)

42.7 (38.3 -23.1

12.8*
47.2) *

Fema 5,928 28.6 (27.4 Ref.


le

29.7)

55.5 (51.8 Ref.

59.3)

Ref.

Ref.

DIABETES, OBESITY, DISABILTY


Diagnosed diabetes status

Yes

1,421

59.4

No
10,352 27.7
(refere
nt)

(54.1 31.7
64.7)

114.4

63.6

(56.2 Ref.
71.1)

Ref.

(26.6 Ref.
28.8)

Ref.

45.4

(41.7 -28.6
49.0) 18.2**

Obesity status (persons aged 20 years)

Yes

4,197

40.5

(39.0 15.5
41.9)

62.0

54.0

(50.2 Ref.
57.8)

No
6,890
(refere
nt)

25.0

(23.5 Ref.
26.4)

Ref.

41.4

(36.5 -23.3
46.3) 12.6**

2,612

40.2

(37.6 11.2
42.9)

38.6

59.3

(53.2 Ref.
65.3)

No
8,613
(refere
nt)

29.0

(27.8 Ref.
30.1)

Ref.

45.0

(41.2 -24.1
48.8) 14.3**

Disability
Yes

Ref.

Ref.

AGE AND RACE/ETHNICITY


Age group (yrs), unadjusted

1844

5,051

9.8

(8.910.7) Ref.

Ref.

40.9

(34.4
47.5)

-12.4**

-23.3

4564

3,854

40.4

(37.9
43.0)

30.6**

312.2

53.3

(49.8
56.8)

Ref.

Ref.

65

2,877

71.6

(68.4
74.7)

61.8**

630.6

51.4

(48.2
54.6)

-1.9

-3.6

5,559

28.6

(27.1
30.2)

0.9

3.2

52.6

(48.8
56.5)

Ref.

Ref.

Black, non- 2,305


Hispanic

41.3

(39.1
43.5)

13.6**

49.1

42.5

(37.6
47.5)

-10.1**

-19.2

Hispanic

3,372

27.7

(26.4
29.1)

Ref.

Ref.

34.4

(30.7
38.2)

-18.2**

-34.6

Mexican
American

2,121

27.5

(25.8
29.2)

NA

NA

30.3

(26.1
34.5)

-22.3**

-42.4

Race/Ethnicity
White,
nonHispanic

MARITAL STATUS
Marital status (persons aged 20 years)
Never
1,885
married

31.8

(29.4
34.3)

1.7

5.6

34.9

(29.1
40.6)

-15.7** -31.0

Married 6,678
or
living
with
partner

30.1

(28.6
31.6)

Ref.

Ref.

50.6

(46.8
54.5)

Ref.

Ref.

Divorce 2,656
d/separ
ated or
widowe
d

31.1

(29.2
33.1)

1.0

3.3

50.4

(42.3
58.4)

-0.2

-0.4

EDUCATION LEVEL
Educational attainment (persons aged 25 years)
Less
than
high
school

3,127

36.9

(34.5
39.4)

8.9**

31.8

41.8

(33.9
49.6)

-10.8

-20.5

High
2,422
school
graduate
or
equivale
nt

36.3

(34.2
38.4)

8.3**

29.6

51.6

(45.6
57.7)

-1.0

-1.9

Some
college
or AA
degree

2,677

34.5

(32.7
36.4)

6.5**

23.2

49.3

(44.3
54.2)

-3.3

-6.3

College 2,096
graduate
or higher

28.0

(25.3
30.6)

Ref.

Ref.

52.6

(46.0
59.2)

Ref.

Ref.

LIFESTYLE CHANGES

FOOD AND NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS

Dash Diet

Grains: 7-8 daily servings


Vegetables: 4-5 daily servings

Whats a serving?

1/2 cup cooked rice or pasta


1 slice bread

Fruits: 4-5 daily servings

1 cup raw vegetables or fruit

Low-fat or fat-free dairy products: 2-3

1/2 cup cooked veggies or

daily servings
Meat, poultry, and fish: 2 or less daily

servings
Nuts, seeds, and dry beans: 4-5

servings per week


Fats and oils: 2-3 daily servings
Sweets: try to limit to less than 5

servings per week

fruit
8 ounces of milk
1 teaspoon of olive oil (or any

other oil)
3 ounces cooked meat

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EXERCISE RECOMMENDATIONS


Aerobic exercises
Light jogging, swimming, riding

your bike

STRETCH
Tai chi, yoga, pilates

Strength training
Lifting weights, weight baring

exercise.

MEDICATIONS

Diuretics
Help get rid of excess water and sodium. Usually through urination. Major

side effects include loss of potassium, weakness, leg cramps and in some
cases impotence.
Ex :Lasix

Beta Blockers
Reduce heart rate by reducing the affect of adrenaline. Major side effects

include insomnia, tiredness, depression, and in some cases impotence.


Ex:Toprol-XL

Vasodilators
Causes muscle in the walls of the blood vessel to relax and open up. Last

resort drug. Can cause head aches, joint and muscle pain, heart palpations,
and weight retention.

Ex: Hydralzine

OTHER IMPORTANT LIFESTYLE CHANGES


Stress
Alcohol
Tobacco

END OF
PRESENTATION
ENCOURAGEMEN
T

140 can be many things but


its too high for blood
pressure!

REFERENCES
Causes of High Blood Pressure: Weight, Diet, Age, and More. (n.d.). Retrieved
November 7, 2014. http://
www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/blood-pressure-causes
High Blood Pressure Facts. (2014, October 29). Retrieved November 10, 2014.
http://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/facts.htm
High Blood Pressure or Hypertension. (n.d.). Retrieved November 10, 2014.
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/High-Blood-Pressu
re-or-Hypertension_UCM_002020_SubHomePage.jsp
High blood pressure (hypertension). (n.d.). Retrieved November 10, 2014.
http://
www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/basics/definition/con20019580