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)CGVCPQ &QPK\GVVK

PGNNQ UVWFKQ FGNNC OWUKEC OQUVTCPFQ CPEJG NC ECRCEKV FK


RQVGT TKEQPQUEGTG N CNVG\\C FGK UWQPK
QTGEEJKQ CUUQNWVQ 

1.1 Esordi e trasferimento a Napoli


(W RTQRTKQ KN /C[T CF CRTKTG CNN CNNKGXQ RTGFKNGVVQ NG RQU
UKDKNKV FK UWEEGUUQ EWTCPFQPG RTKOC NC HQTOC\KQPG G CH
FCPFQNQ RQK CNNG EWTG FK 5VCPKUNCQ /CVVGK # $QNQIPC
FQXG RTQUGIWKXC INK UVWFK OWUKECNK KN &QPK\GVVK UETKUUG NC
UWC RTKOC QRGTC VGCVTCNG *M 1JHNBMJPOF EJG UCT TCRRTG
UGPVCVC RQUVWOC G KPVGTGUUCPVK EQORQUK\KQPK UVTWOGPVCNK
G UCETG 3WK HTC INK CNVTK COKEK GDDG OQFQ FK NGICTUK CN
OWUKEKUVC G RCVTKQVC 2KGTQ /CTQPEGNNK HQTNKXGUG
#PEQTC KN OCGUVTQ /C[T KPUKGOG CNN COKEQ $CTVQNQOGQ
/GTGNNK INK RTQEWT NC RTKOC UETKVVWTC RGT WP QRGTC CN
6GCVTQ 5CP .WEC FK 8GPG\KC CPFT KP UEGPC N &OSJDP EJ
#PSHPHOB KN  PQXGODTG 

(BFUBOP %POJ[FUUJ

Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti


$GTICOQ  PQ
XGODTG  $GTICOQ  CRTKNG  UVCVQ WP
EQORQUKVQTG KVCNKCPQ HCOQUQ UQRTCVVWVVQ EQOG QRGTKUVC
5ETKUUG RK FK UGVVCPVC QRGTG QNVTG C PWOGTQUG EQORQUK
\KQPK FK OWUKEC UCETC G FC ECOGTC .G QRGTG FGN &QPK\GVVK
QIIK RK UQXGPVG TCRRTGUGPVCVG PGK VGCVTK FK VWVVQ KN OQPFQ
UQPQ -FMJTJS EBNPSF NC -VDJB EJ -BNNFSNPPS G KN %PO
1BTRVBMF %QP HTGSWGP\C UQPQ CNNGUVKVG CPEJG -B MMF EV
SHJNFOU -B 'BWPSJUF NC .BSJB 4UVBSEB N "OOB #PMFOB
NC -VDSF[JB #PSHJB G KN 3PCFSUP %FWFSFVY

Biograa

0CVQ C $GTICOQ KN  PQXGODTG  FC WPC HCOKINKC FK


WOKNG EQPFK\KQPG
RCFTG IWCTFKCPQ CN /QPVG FGK 2GIPK G
OCFTG VGUUKVTKEG  HW COOGUUQ CNNG NG\KQPK ECTKVCVGXQNK FK
OWUKEC VGPWVG FC )KQXCPPK 5KOQPG
,QJCPP 5KOQP /C[T
G (TCPEGUEQ 5CNCTK FCNNG SWCNK FGTKXC N CVVWCNG *TUJUVUP 4V
QFSJPSF EJ 4UVEJ .VTJDBMJ (BFUBOP %POJ[FUUJ
KN EQPUGT
XCVQTKQ FK $GTICOQ  G FKOQUVT DGP RTGUVQ WP VCNGPVQ (BFUBOP %POJ[FUUJ JO VOB MJUPHSBB EJ +PTFG ,SJFIVCFS EFM 
PQVGXQNG TKWUEGPFQ C TKOGFKCTG CNNC OQFGUVC SWCNKV FGNNC
XQEG
GTC PGEGUUCTKQ UXQNIGTG GITGIKCOGPVG KN UGTXK\KQ FK %QPENWUC N GURGTKGP\C XGPG\KCPC KN EQORQUKVQTG HW C 4Q
ECPVQTG RGT RQVGT RTQUGIWKTG K EQTUK ITCVWKVK EQK RTQITGUUK OC RTGUUQ N KORTGUCTKQ 2CVGTPK EQOG UQUVKVWVQ FGN /C[T


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5WN NKDTGVVQ RQEQ HGNKEG FGN /GTGNNK


KN &QPK\GVVK NQ CXTGD
DG FGPKVQ WPC ITCP ECIPCTC  UETKUUG NC ;PSBJEB EJ (SB
OBUB EJG UCTGDDG EQOWPSWG UVCVC TKXGFWVC FWG CPPK FQ
RQ EQP N CKWVQ FGN (GTTGVVK #N VGTOKPG FGNN QRGTC UK TGE
C 0CRQNK RGT UQXTKPVGPFGTG CNN GUGEW\KQPG FGNN "UBMJB FGN
/C[T QTCVQTKQ FKTGVVQ FC )KQCEJKPQ 4QUUKPK
+P UGIWKVQ CNNC HWIC FGN FKTGVVQTG EQP NC %QNDTCP
N KORTGUCTKQ $CTDCLC CUUWPUG KN &QPK\GVVK EJG GUQTF KN 
OCIIKQ FGN  EQP -B [JOHBSB QRGTC UGOKUGTKC UW NK
DTGVVQ FGN 6QVVQNC +P UCNC GTC RTGUGPVG 8KPEGP\Q $GNNK
PK EJG TKOCUG COOKTCVQ FCNNC UETKVVWTC EQPVTCRRWPVKUVKEC
FGN UGVVKOKPQ OC EJG KP UGIWKVQ PQP TKECODK NC UVKOC
RTQHQPFC EJG KN &QPK\GVVK CXGXC RGT NWK
3WGUVQ RGTKQFQ HW ECTCVVGTK\\CVQ FCNNG PWOGTQUG HCTUG -B
MFUUFSB BOPOJNB CPFCVC KP UEGPC PGN IKWIPQ FGN  CN
6GCVTQ FGN (QPFQ CVVKT N CVVGP\KQPG FGNNC ETKVKEC EJG CR
RTG\\ NC RCFTQPCP\C EQP EWK KN &QPK\GVVK CXGXC CTQPVCVQ
KN IGPGTG DWQ PCRQNGVCPQ
+N EQPVTCVVQ EQN $CTDCLC NQ KORGIP RGT SWCVVTQ QRGTG
N CPPQ 5DKVQ FQRQ NC TCRRTGUGPVC\KQPG FGNN "MGSFEP JM
(SBOEF GINK OKUG OCPQ CN 'PSUVOBUP JOHBOOP UCVKTC VGC
VTCNG KURKTCVC CK RTGEGFGPVK FK $GPGFGVVQ /CTEGNNQ
*M UFB
USP BMMB NPEB  G FK %CTNQ )QNFQPK
*M UFBUSP DPNJDP
  EJG HW RGT KN &QPK\GVVK WP GUGTEK\KQ RTGRCTCVQTKQ
RGT -F DPOWFOJFO[F F MF JODPOWFOJFO[F UFBUSBMJ FGN 
KP RCTVG IK CEEGPPCVQ CPEJG PGN RGTUQPCIIKQ FK (NCIKQNGV
FGNNC -FUUFSB BOPOJNB
+N NKDTGVVQ FK SWGUV QRGTC HW KN RTKOQ EJG KN &QPK\GVVK UETKU
UG FC U +N EQORQUKVQTG CXGXC CXWVQ WP RGTKQFQ FK ETK
UK EJG UWRGT ITC\KG CNNC EQNNCDQTC\KQPG FK ,CEQRQ (GT
TGVVK KN SWCNG NQ CKWV C FGNKPGCTG WPQ UVKNG RGTUQPCNG
. COKEK\KC G NC EQNNCDQTC\KQPG RTQHGUUKQPCNG EQN (GTTGVVK
FWTCTQPQ C NWPIQ FGUVCPFQ KP NWK KN IWUVQ RGT NC RCTQNC G
TCUUKEWTCPFQNQ UWNNC RQUUKDKNKV FK UETKXGTG NKDTGVVK CPEJG
FC U

5BSHB EFEJDBUB BM %POJ[FUUJ JO WJB EFMMF .VSBUUF B 3PNB


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+N  NWINKQ  XK HW NC RTKOC CUUQNWVC FGNNC ECPVCVC *M


SJUPSOP EFTJEFSBUP RGT KN VGUVQ FK &QOGPKEQ )KNCTFQPK EQP
.WKIKC $QEECDCFCVK #PVQPKQ 6CODWTKPK G .WKIK .CDNCEJG
CN 6GCVTQ 5CP %CTNQ FK 0CRQNK
0GN  FQRQ N KPUWEEGUUQ FGNN 6HP DPOUF EJ 1BSJHJ KN
RWDDNKEQ OKNCPGUG FGN 6GCVTQ FGNNC %CPPQDKCPC
N QFKGTPQ
6GCVTQ .KTKEQ CRRNCWF -FMJTJS EBNPSF UW NKDTGVVQ FK
(GNKEG 4QOCPK FC WPC EQOOGFKC FK 'WIPG 5ETKDG
. CPPQ UWEEGUUKXQ UGORTG C /KNCPQ HW RTGUGPVCVC EQP
UWEEGUUQ NC -VDSF[JB #PSHJB RGT NC SWCNG KN &QPK\GVVK RTG
XKFG WPC PWQXC FKURQUK\KQPG FGNN QTEJGUVTC SWGNNC C EWK UK
TKEQTTG CPEQT QIIK EQP INK CTEJK FKURQUVK C UGOKEGTEJKQ
FCXCPVK CN RQFKQ

0GINK UVGUUK CPPK FQXGVVG RTGQEEWRCTUK FGN OCPVGPKOGPVQ


FGNNC OQINKG 8KTIKPKC URQUCVC PGN  GF GDDG KN FQNQ 4KEGXGVVG RQK FCN 4QUUKPK N KPXKVQ FK UETKXGTG WP QRGTC RGT
TG FGNNC RGTFKVC FGN INKQ RTKOQIGPKVQ .C RTQFW\KQPG HW KN 6JVTG FGU +VCNKGPU FK 2CTKIK PCESWG EQU KN .BSJO
'BMJFSP UW NKDTGVVQ FGN $KFGTC
FC $[TQP  TKUKUVGOCVQ
VCNXQNVC WP RQ EQPXGP\KQPCNG
FCN 4WPK EJG CPF KP UEGPC KN  OCT\Q  UGP\C
UWEEGUUQ

1.2

Gli anni trenta e i primi capolavori

'TCPQ RCUUCVK FWG OGUK FCNNC TCRRTGUGPVC\KQPG FGK


1VSJUBOJ FK 8KPEGP\Q $GNNKPK SWCPFQ N CPFCVC KP UEGPC FGN
NC -VDJB EJ -BNNFSNPPS TKRTQRQUG NC EQORGVK\KQPG OK
NCPGUG FGN  HTC NC 'BVTUB G NC /PSNB .C UVKOC HTC
$GNNKPK G &QPK\GVVK PQP HW CCVVQ TGEKRTQEC KN RTKOQ PQP
TKURCTOK ETKVKEJG HGTQEK CN UGEQPFQ EJG KPXGEG COOKT
UGORTG NC OWUKEC FGN ECVCPGUG
$GNNKPK OQT KP SWGNN CPPQ
G &QPK\GVVK UETKUUG RGT NWK WPC .FTTB EJ 3FRVJFN 

(W PGN  EQP N"OOB #PMFOB UETKVVC KP UQNK VTGPVC IKQT


PK RGT KN 6GCVTQ %CTECPQ FK /KNCPQ EJG KN &QPK\GVVK GDDG
KN RTKOQ ITCPFG UWEEGUUQ KPVGTPC\KQPCNG OQUVTCPFQ WPC
RKGPC OCVWTKV CTVKUVKEC 2CTVKEQNCTG EWTKQUQ FQRQ KN UWE
EGUUQ FGNN "OOB #PMFOB KN /C[T INK UK TKXQNUG EJKCOCP
FQNQ OCGUVTQ +N TCRRQTVQ FK CGVVQ G UVKOC VTC K FWG #N 6GCVTQ 5CP %CTNQ FK 0CRQNK FK EWK HW FKTGVVQTG CTVKUVK
EQORQUKVQTK TKOCUG UCNFQ PQ CNNC OQTVG
EQ FCN  CN  KN &QPK\GVVK RTGUGPV DGP FKEKCUUGVVG
&K SWK KP RQK NC XKVC RTQHGUUKQPCNG FGN &QPK\GVVK RTQUGIW QRGTG KP RTKOC GUGEW\KQPG HTC EWK KN UWQ ECRQNCXQTQ NC
C IQPG XGNG CPEJG UG PQP OCPECTQPQ K CUEJK KPVTGE -VDJB EJ -BNNFSNPPS .C RTKOC FGNNC -VDJB UW XGTUK FK
EKCVK C XKEGPFG HCOKNKCTK EJG PQP INK TKURCTOKCTQPQ PGUUWP 5CNXCFQTG %COOCTCPQ HW WP VTKQPHQ +N ECRQNCXQTQ FGN
FQNQTG URGUUQ RTQRTKQ PGK OQOGPVK FK OCIIKQT INQTKC G &QPK\GVVK PQP HC GEEG\KQPG CPEJ GUUQ HW UETKVVQ KP VGO
UWEEGUUQ
RK TKUVTGVVKUUKOK
VTGPVCUGK IKQTPK  . CPPQ UGIWGPVG KN #F


MJTBSJP HW CRRNCWFKVQ CNNC (GPKEG OC N CPPQ HW HWPGUVCVQ
FCNNC OQTVG FGN RCFTG FGNNC OCFTG G FGNNC UGEQPFC INKC
&WG CPPK FQRQ UCTGDDGTQ OCPECVG CPEJG NC VGT\C INKC G
NC OQINKG EJG OQT FK EQNGTC KN  NWINKQ 

VK C 0CRQNK 2QK NC RC\\KC RTQXQECVC FCNNC UKNKFG NQ HGEG


TKPEJKWFGTG PGN OCPKEQOKQ F +XT[UWT5GKPG FC EWK WUE
UQNQ SWCNEJG OGUG RTKOC FGNNC OQTVG .C UWC VQODC UK
VTQXC PGNNC $CUKNKEC FK 5CPVC /CTKC /CIIKQTG
$GTICOQ 

(WTQPQ OQOGPVK FK UEQPHQTVQ VQVCNG


l5GP\C RCFTG UGP\C
OCFTG UGP\C OQINKG UGP\C INK RGT EJK NCXQTQ FWPSWG
!  6WVVQ VWVVQ JQ RGTFWVQ|  OC KN &QPK\GVVK PQP UOK 2 Memoria
UG OCK FK NCXQTCTG EQORQPGPFQ KP SWGUVK CPPK UKC QRGTG
DWG UKC FTCOOK TQOCPVKEK EQOG KN 3PCFSUP %FWFSFVY G $GTICOQ EKVV PCVCNG FK &QPK\GVVK INK JC FGFKECVQ KP EKVV
NC .BSJB EF 3VEFO[
KN VGCVTQ EQOWPCNG

1.3

La tarda maturit

KN /WUGQ FQPK\GVVKCPQ

NC $KDNKQVGEC OWUKECNG )CGVCPQ &QPK\GVVK


2TGUVQ KN &QPK\GVVK UK FGEKUG C NCUEKCTG 0CRQNK K RTQDNG
KN EQPUGTXCVQTKQ FGPQOKPCVQ +UVKVWVQ 5WRGTKQTG 5VWFK
OK EQP NC EGPUWTC RGT KN 1PMJVUP
EJG CNNC PG PQP CPF KP
/WUKECNK )CGVCPQ &QPK\GVVK
UEGPC G HW TCRRTGUGPVCVQ UQNQ FQRQ NC OQTVG FGN EQORQ
UKVQTG G NC OCPECVC PQOKPC C FKTGVVQTG FGN EQPUGTXCVQTKQ

FK EWK GTC FKTGVVQTG GGVVKXQ UKEWTCOGPVG NQ EQPHGTOC


TQPQ PGK UWQK RTQRQUKVK G PGNN QVVQDTG FGN  GINK GTC IK 3 Fortuna
C 2CTKIK 3WK GTC CF CEEQINKGTNQ N COKEQ /KEJGNG #EEWTUK
URKC RQPVKEKC EJG CXGXC CPEJG NCXQTCVQ RGT HCXQTKTPG NC .C HQTVWPC FGN &QPK\GVVK XKXGPVG HW TKNGXCPVKUUKOC 0QPQ
XGPWVC
UVCPVG PQP UWQPCUUG CNEWP UVTWOGPVQ NC UWC XGPC TQOCPVK
+P SWGINK CPPK NG UWG QRGTG HWTQPQ TCRRTGUGPVCVG QXWPSWG EC G NG UVTCQTFKPCTKG FQVK EQORQUKVKXG HWTQPQ TKEQPQUEKWVG
UKC KP VTCFW\KQPG UKC KP NKPIWC QTKIKPCNG RTGUUQ KN 6J KP VWVVC 'WTQRC PGN OQPFQ FGNNG ECRKVCNK G C NKXGNNQ RQ
VTG FGU +VCNKGPU 5ETKUUG -B MMF EV SHJNFOU EJG GUQTF RQNCTG +N UWQ RGTEQTUQ ETGCVKXQ EQPVTKDW RQVGPVGOGPVG
CNN 1RTC EQOKSWG PGN HGDDTCKQ FGN  G RTGRCT WPC C KPUGTKTG N QRGTC RTKOC TKXQNVC CN DGN ECPVQ PGNNC RK
RTQHQPFC G FTCOOCVKEC VGCVTCNK\\C\KQPG TQOCPVKEC CPVK
XGTUKQPG HTCPEGUG FGN 1PMJVUP KPVKVQNCVC -FT NBSUZST
EKRCPFQ EQU NC ITCPFG UVCIKQPG XGTFKCPC 2WT TKOCPGPFQ
. CPPQ UGIWGPVG UETKUUG -B GBWPSJUB TKEKENCPFQ RCIKPG FK CUUCK FKWUQ FCNNC PG FGNN 1VVQEGPVQ PQ CN UGEQPFQ FQ
WP QRGTC OCK EQPENWUC -BOHF EV /JTJEB 4KEGXGVVG CP RQIWGTTC XKC XKC KN TGRGTVQTKQ FQPK\GVVKCPQ TGIQNCTOGP
EJG N KORQTVCPVG PQOKPC C ECXCNKGTG FGNN QTFKPG FK UCP 5KN VG GUGIWKVQ CPF CUUQVVKINKCPFQUK PQ C TGUVTKPIGTUK SWCUK
XGUVTQ FC RCRC )TGIQTKQ :8+ /C HW N KPXKVQ FGN 4QUUK CK UQNK ECRQNCXQTK CUUQNWVK NC -VDJB EJ -BNNFSNPPS RGT
PK C FKTKIGTG N GUGEW\KQPG FGNNQ 4UBCBU .BUFS C $QNQIPC KN VGCVTQ FTCOOCVKEQ . GNKUKT F COQTG G %PO 1BTRVBMF
N CXXGPKOGPVQ RK UKIPKECVKXQ 3WKPFK ITC\KG C WPC TCE RGT N QRGTC DWC 0GN UGEQPFQ 0QXGEGPVQ UK CUUKUVKVQ C
EQOCPFC\KQPG RGT /GVVGTPKEJ XGTICVC FC 4QUUKPK UVGUUQ WPC FKWUC TKRTQRQUK\KQPG FGNNG QRGTG FGN &QPK\GVVK RGT
&QPK\GVVK RCTV CNNC XQNVC FK 8KGPPC FQXG KN  OCIIKQ KORWNUQ FK PWOGTQUK RTQVCIQPKUVK HTC K SWCNK KPPCP\KVWVVQ
RTGUGPV NC -JOEB EJ $IBNPVOJY
KN FKTGVVQTG F QTEJGUVTC )KCPCPFTGC )CXC\\GPK G RGT OG
5K GTC QTOCK IKWPVK CN  CPPQ FK EQORQUK\KQPG FGN TKVQ F KPVGTRTGVC\KQPK GEEG\KQPCNK EQOG SWGNNC FK /CTKC
%PO 1BTRVBMF +N NKDTGVVQ RTGRCTCVQ FC 4WPK UWNNC DCUG %CNNCU PGNN"OOB #PMFOB SWGNNC FK .WEKCPQ 2CXCTQVVK PGN
FGN 4FS .BSDBOUPOJP FGNN #PGNNK HW RGUCPVGOGPVG TKOC NC 'JHMJB EFM SFHHJNFOUP G SWGNNG FK /QPVUGTTCV %CDCNN
PGIIKCVQ FC &QPK\GVVK CN RWPVQ EJG N CWVQTG TKVKT NC TOC .G[NC )GPEGT G ,QCP 5WVJGTNCPF
N QRGTC HW RGT NWPIQ VGORQ CVVTKDWKVC C /KEJGNG #EEWTUKQ
.C TOC / # UVC KPXGEG RGT OCGUVTQ CPQPKOQ +P
VCPVQ &QPK\GVVK UK QEEWR FGNNC TCRRTGUGPVC\KQPG HTCPEGUG 4 Composizioni
FGNNC -JOEB EJ $IBNPVOJY G VGTOKP NC .BSJB EJ 3PIBO
HWTQPQ INK WNVKOK OQOGPVK FK ITCPFG HGTXQTG ETGCVKXQ RQK
4.1 Melodrammi
NC OCNCVVKC GDDG KN UQRTCXXGPVQ #N 6GCVTQ 0WQXQ
0CRQ
NK KN  QVVQDTG  CXXKGPG NC RTKOC CUUQNWVC FGN NKGFGT
*M 1JHNBMJPOF
  6GCVTQ &QPK\GVVK
"EEJP CSVOFUUB TPO HJ MPOUBOP KN  FKEGODTG FGNNC TQ
$GTICOQ
OCP\C .BMWJOB MB CFMMB KN  HGDDTCKQ  FGNNC DCTEC
TQNC 4PWSB JM SFNP TUB DVSWBUP KN  CRTKNG FGNNC TQOCP\C 4F
&OSJDP EJ #PSHPHOB
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B UF EJOUPSOP TDIFS[B GF KN  OCIIKQ FGNNC ECP\QPGVVC $IJ
8GPG\KC
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6OB GPMMJB
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&CNNC RGPPC FGN OCGUVTQ WUEKTQPQ CPEQTC KN %PN 4FCB

CPFCVC RGTFWVC
TUJFO EJG TKUEQUUG ITCPFG UWEEGUUQ C 2CTKIK G NC $BUFSJOB
$PSOBSP EJG HW UEJKCVC EQP ITCP FGNWUKQPG FK &QPK\GV
-F OP[[F JO WJMMB
! 6GCVTQ 8GEEJKQ /CPVQXC

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*M CPSHPNBTUSP EJ 4BBSEBN
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5CP %CTNQ 0CRQNK
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0CRQNK
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(GNKEG )GPQXC

-JCSFUUP EFMM#PPC $QNGPC $PMMF[JPOF EFM NBFTUSP 'SBODFTDP


1BPMP 'SPOUJOJ

(JBOOJ EJ $BMBJT
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0CRQNK
*M QBSJB
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*M GBMFHOBNF EJ -JWPOJB PTTJB 1JFUSP JM HSBOEF

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*M HJPWFE HSBTTP
! 6GCVTQ FGN (QPFQ
0CRQNK
EQOG *M OVPWP 1PVSDFBVHOBD

;PSBJEB EJ (SBOBUB
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4QOC

&MJTBCFUUB BM DBTUFMMP EJ ,FOJMXPSUI


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5CP %CTNQ 0CRQNK

-B [JOHBSB
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0CRQNK

#NKPC TGIKPC FK )QNEQPFC =TGX?


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8CNNG 4QOC

-B MFUUFSB BOPOJNB
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0CRQNK
$IJBSB F 4FSBOB PTTJB * QJSBUJ
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CNNC 5ECNC /KNCPQ
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0CRQNK
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0CRQNK
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PC 4QOC
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* QB[[J QFS QSPHFUUP


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0CRQNK
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0CRQNK
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FG -F DPOWFOJFO[F UFBUSBMJ
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%CPQDDKCPC /KNCPQ

&NJMJB EJ -JWFSQPPM
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0CRQNK
CPEJG EQOG -FSFNJUBHHJP EJ -JWFSQPPM

(JBOOJ EJ 1BSJHJ
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/KNCPQ

"MBIPS JO (SBOBUB
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6GCVTQ $GNNKPK
2CNGTOQ

'SBODFTDB EJ 'PJY
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0CRQNK



.FMPESBNNJ

-B SPNBO[JFSB F MVPNP OFSP


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(QPFQ 0CRQNK
NKDTGVVQ CPFCVQ RGTFWVQ

.BSJB EF 3VEFO[
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8GPG\KC

'BVTUB
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)CDTKGNNC FK 8GTI[ =TGX?


  CIQUVQ 
.QPFTC

6HP $POUF EJ 1BSJHJ


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/KNCPQ
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1VVQ OGUK KP FWG QTG =TGX?
 .KXQTPQ
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Bibliograa

7 Altri progetti

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Fonti per testo e immagini; autori; licenze

9.1

Testo

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9.2

Immagini

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9.3

Licenza dell'opera

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