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A GUIDE FOR SELF-ERECTING

TOWER CRANE OPERATORS

TRAINERS EDITION 2005

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Disclaimer
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obligations under the various workers compensation and occupational health and safety legislation that WorkCover NSW administers. To ensure you
comply with your legal obligations you must refer to the appropriate legislation.
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A GUIDE FOR SELF-ERECTING TOWER CRANE OPERATORS


TRAINERS EDITION
This guide outlines the information and requirements for a trainer to instruct a trainee on the facets
of self-erecting tower crane operation.
This guide follows the information supplied in the compiled learners edition.
How to use this manual

Each section related to the relevant sections in the accompanying learners guide.

Both booklets are required to be utilised hand in hand.

Related questions from the assessment instrument are included at the end of each section to
facilitate easy understanding for the trainee.

Some general questions are taken from the cranes National Certificate of Competency Written
Assessment for Cranes August 2000.

Page 1

CONTENTS
SECTION 1 Competency for self-erecting tower crane operators

SECTION 2 Types of self-erecting tower cranes

SECTION 3 Features of self-erecting tower cranes

SECTION 4 Crane controls

SECTION 5 Set-up crane

SECTION 6 Assembly/disassembly

SECTION 7 Limit switches

SECTION 8 Load/radius indicators

SECTION 9 Brakes

SECTION 10 Site/job planning

SECTION 11 Maintenance procedures

13

SECTION 12 Pre-operational

13

SECTION 13 Crane operation

16

SECTION 14 Loads and self-erecting tower

19

SECTION 15 Special operations

26

SECTION 16 Shutdown crane

27

SECTION 17 Rule of thumb and working load limits

29

SECTION 18 Load factors

31

SECTION 19 Rules to follow when slinging and handling a load

34

SECTION 20 Stacking

36

SECTION 21 Personal protective equipment

36

SECTION 22 Communication

36

SECTION 23 Flexible steel wire rope

37

SECTION 24 Wedge rope sockets

39

SECTION 25 Sheaves and drums for flexible steel wire rope

40

SECTION 26 Lifting chain

42

SECTION 27 Flat webbing and round synthetic slings

44

SECTION 28 Fibre rope

45

SECTION 29 Accessories

46

SECTION 30 Calculation

49

APPENDIX (I) Tables of masses

52

Page 2

SECTION 1
COMPETENCY FOR SELF-ERECTING TOWER CRANE OPERATORS
Points for trainer

Explain to the trainee the process of obtaining an assessment for a self-erecting tower crane operators
competencies.

SECTION 2
TYPES OF SELF-ERECTING TOWER CRANES
Points for trainer

Relate this section to the particular self-erecting tower crane to be used for the training practical
sessions.

Ensure the trainee understands crane terminology in relation to self-erecting tower cranes.

Explain to the trainee the different types of self-erecting tower cranes.

Describe to the trainee the main functions and motions of a self-erecting tower crane.

Practical session

Show the trainee the various components on the specific self-erecting tower crane used for the practical
training.

Media application

Using a scale model, explain to the trainee the terminology for the various components on a self-erecting
tower crane.

Use overhead transparencies to explain terminology for a self-erecting tower crane.

Trainers notes

SECTION 3
FEATURES OF SELF-ERECTING TOWER CRANES
Points for trainer

Explain to the trainee that some of these features may or may not be included for the particular selferecting tower crane used in the training session.

Explain to the trainee the specific features of the self-erecting tower crane used in the training session.

Practical session

Show the trainee the particular use of various features on the specific self-erecting tower crane used for
the training sessions. Features include cabin (where applicable), the outriggers, electrical apparatus, hook
blocks and sheaves.

Trainers notes

Page 3

SECTION 4
CRANE CONTROLS
Points for trainer

Review this section to ensure the trainee understands the use of each crane control and their particular
function.

Practical session

Demonstrate to the trainee the use of the crane controls and their application for the particular selferecting tower crane used in the session.

Explain to the trainee the use of the emergency stop button for the particular self-erecting tower crane
used in the training session.

Trainers notes

SECTION 5
SET-UP CRANE
Points for trainer

Review this section to ensure the trainee understands the issues involved in setting up/assembly of a selferecting tower crane.

Explain to the trainee the purpose and use of properly set-up outriggers.

Explain to the trainee the hazards of unstable ground or footings and reason for adequate packing of
outriggers.

Explain to the trainee the importance of adequate bearing for support of the tower crane.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

Explain the requirements for preventing personnel from entering the counterweight-slewing radius of the
crane?
Answer The area must be thoroughly barricaded.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 25

Question 2

Should a self-erecting tower crane be set-up/assembled next to open trenches or excavations? Explain
your answer.
Answer No. The self-erecting tower crane should not be set-up/assembled close to an excavation as the
weight of the crane creates additional pressure to the adjoining soil and can cause the excavation to
collapse resulting in the crane overturning. An engineer may need to approve the cranes position.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 39

Page 4

Question 3

What principles would apply to setting up/assembling a self-erecting tower crane next to an open
trench/excavation?
Answer The self-erecting tower crane base (ie pad) area should be certified by an engineer.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 40

Question 4

What action would be required if an excavation was dug adjacent to the base of the self-erecting tower
crane?
Answers Stop operation and have the excavation immediately backfilled and compacted.
Have the ground assessed by a qualified person.
Barricade the area thoroughly to prevent a reoccurrence.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 41

Question 5

Where is the information found to determine the area of packing required under outriggers?
Answer In the manufacturers manual or seek approval from an engineer.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 42

Question 6

List three points that should be considered when setting up outriggers?


Answers All outriggers must be used as per the manufacturers instructions.
All beams must be fully extended or as per the manufacturers instructions.
Correct selection of footplate or packing.
Outrigger pads must be securely pinned or connected to the outrigger beams.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 43

Question 7

Why must the self-erecting tower crane be set-up/assembled level?


Answer To ensure the self-erecting tower crane is stable and the crane can be operated at it rated
capacity.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 45

Question 8

When setting up/assembling a self-erecting tower crane what items need to be considered in regards to
crane clearances?
Answers Ensure the counterweight tail radius is clear to slew 360 degrees to satisfy safety requirements for
the particular worksite.
Ensure all site hazards in the slewing radius of the self-erecting tower crane have been assessed.
Ensure barricades or fencing of a minimum one metre in height are used to prevent personnel gaining
entry to the slewing counterweight area of the self-erecting tower crane.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 46

Question 9

When setting up/assembling a self-erecting tower crane where the ground or soil value cannot be
identified (eg on a bitumen or concrete road), what precautionary methods would need to be taken?
Answer Assess the situation and ensure the assembly is set-up as determined by an engineer.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 49

Question 10

What risks occur when packing is placed halfway along the outrigger beam to support the crane?
Answer This creates an inside tipping point and reduces stability, possibly causing the self-erecting tower
crane to overturn.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 50

Page 5

Question 11

A self-erecting tower crane has been set-up/assembled on a new site, which requires unloading of trucks
from a street over a busy pedestrian footpath. What hazard controls are required to progress with the
operation ensuring public safety?
Answers A hoarding and gantry must be in place that conforms to the relevant standard.
Barricades, detours or pedestrian control could be utilised.
Traffic control may be required.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 61

Practical session

Demonstrate to the trainee the procedure for location of hazard controls before setting up/assembling the
crane.

Demonstrate to the trainee the procedure for set-up/assembly of the particular self-erecting tower crane
used in the training session.

Explain to the trainee the preparations for set-up/assembly of the crane on a new site. The following
points must be taken into consideration.
The position of the self-erecting tower crane is satisfactory in relation to the task to be undertaken.
Outriggers or stabilisers are extended, packed and set-up as per manufacturers specifications.
Base levelled and bearing on all outriggers or stablisers.
Counterweight is erected and adequate as per the manufacturers specifications or according to load
chart requirements.
Reference: Performance assessment section F

Trainers notes

SECTION 6
ASSEMBLY/DISASSEMBLY
Points for trainer

Review this section to ensure the trainee understands the issues involved in assembly and disassembly of a
self-erecting tower crane.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

What qualification must be held by personnel to assemble a self-erecting tower crane?


Answer An intermediate or advanced riggers certificate
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 47

Page 6

Question 2

When can additional counterweight be added to the crane?


Answer As per manufacturers recommendation that apply to the specific self-erecting tower crane.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 48

Practical application

Ensure the trainee understands the following points in assembly of the tower crane.
Self erecting tower crane transported to site
Assess hazards and implement a risk assessment or work method statement
Assess individual environmental conditions such as weather and wind conditions
Check engineers compliance certificate
Erect barricades and ensure public safety
Surface prepared for crane set-up
Adequate clearances to assemble and unfold the crane as per manufacturers specifications
Outriggers positioned and packed
Self erecting tower crane levelled by using jacks
Earth crane to the ground
Connect the power supply
Base counterweights installed or as per manufacturers specifications
Trolley and hook block must be in correct position for unfolding of jib or as per manufacturers
specifications
The crane mast and jib must be unfolded in correct sequence against the prevailing wind. (Note:
Extreme caution is necessary during the unfolding procedure to ensure each section is assembled
correctly.) Follow the manufacturers specifications.
Remainder of counterweights are installed or as per manufacturers specifications
Complete unfolding remainder of jib sections as per the manufacturers specifications
Check all limits and all governors for correct functioning
Load testing self-erecting tower crane under the supervision of a competent person
Reference: Performance assessment section G

Ensure the trainee understands the following points in disassembly of the tower crane.
Note: Particular attention must be considered for the correct sequence of counterweight removal.
Trainers must use manufacturers manuals for each complete crane disassembly.
Reference: Performance assessment section H

Media application

Use a scale model or use OHPS to display the system and procedure involved in assembly and disassembling
of a self-erecting tower crane.

Use a video supplied by the manufacturer to display the assembly and disassembling procedure for a
specific self-erecting tower crane.

Trainers notes

Page 7

SECTION 7
LIMIT SWITCHES
Points for trainer

Explain to the trainee the importance of checking limit switches for correct functioning on each
operational workday of a self-erecting tower crane.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

Why is it important to check the hoist limit or cut out switch prior to using the crane?
Answer To ensure that it is operating correctly so that double blocking does not occur.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 36

Question 2

Why is it important that all motion limits are checked for correct functioning?
Answer To ensure that all limits are working to avoid causing any damage or injury.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 75

Question 3

If you suspect a load sensor or limit switch is not functioning correctly, what action would you take?
Answer Cease operation, report relevant personnel and await advice regarding action.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 81

Practical session

Demonstrate the role of limit switches and point out the common locations of these switches.

Demonstrate how the limits work by slowly running each motion into the limit activation point.

Trainers notes

SECTION 8
LOAD/RADIUS INDICATORS
Points for trainer

Explain to the trainee the importance of the load movement indicators and load weight indicators being in
correlation with radius indicators. These devices must be accurate and correct for self-erecting tower
crane operation.

Ensure the trainee understands the term operating radius.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

How often should the load mass (weight) indicator be calibrated?


Answer Every six months or by picking up a known weight in accordance with the manufacturers
specifications.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 97

Page 8

Practical session

Show the trainee the location of load radius indicator both electronic and mechanical where applicable.

Show the trainee the connection between the load chart and the load radius indicators.

Trainers notes

SECTION 9
BRAKES
Points for trainer

Explain to the trainee the importance of checking braking systems before starting operation. Inform the
trainee on the procedure where any slippage or malfunction of braking systems is detected.

Practical session

Show the trainee the location of braking systems for the crane used in the training.

Trainers notes

SECTION 10
SITE/JOB PLANNING
Points for trainer

Explain to the trainee the importance of rules and procedures for industry and how they relate to the
trainees particular area of work.

Explain to the trainee the responsibilities for crane operators and crane crews.

Explain to the trainee the importance of understanding this section as this information relates to the
occupational health and safety (OHS) requirements for industry.

Explain to the trainee the importance of implementing an operational plan before work commences.

Practical session

Perform an onsite hazard assessment of the worksite with the trainee.

With the trainee, draw up an operational plan for the particular crane operation.

Page 9

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

List four job and/or site procedures that should be considered before you set up a self-erecting tower
crane?
Answers Job requirements
Priorities
Workplace rules
Specific site procedures
Identify hazards
Hazard control measures
Site specific induction
Lifting plans including lifting radii requirements
Emergency procedures
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 12

Question 2

List six hazards that would need to be taken into account in your crane set up plan?
Answers Powerlines
Trees
Surrounding structures
Overhead service lines (steam, gas, fuel lines)
Underground services (phone, gas, power, drainage, sewage)
Dangerous goods/hazardous substances
Weather conditions
Personnel working around the crane or near the counterweight slewing arc of the crane
Obstructions (scaffolding, ladders, excavations, stored materials and other plant)
Other equipment (cranes, piling rigs, forklifts, elevating work platforms)
Facilities (office, amenities and lunch rooms)
Soil conditions eg recently filled trenches
Inadequate lighting for night operations.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 13

Question 3

List five methods of reducing hazards on site.


Answers Identify/detect all site hazards
Use barriers
Use warning signs
Utilise PPE for crane personnel
Use spotters
Use traffic control
Use risk assessment processes
Utilise hoardings and overhead gantries
Implement adequate lighting for night operations
Use visual identification on powerlines (eg tiger tails)
Ensure awareness of public safety requirements
Obtain relevant information (material safety data sheets, expert advice from councils and statutory
authorities)
Correct siting of crane.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 14

Page 10

Question 4

What precautions must be observed when working near powerlines? List four precautions.
Answers
Never work closer than the minimum distance specified in AS2550.1 or State regulations
Ensure the crane is correctly earthed
Barricades are erected around the work area and crane base for public safety
PPE to be utilised
Traffic signs/cones and barricades should be placed around the work area
Follow procedures in AS2550.1.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 15

Question 5

What is the minimum distance any part of a crane or load is allowed to approach live electrical parts?
Answer Relevant distances must be obtained from State authority regulations.
Note: Assessors must ensure that the applicant is aware of State authority regulations
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 16

Question 6

List five essential procedures, which must be followed if the crane was to come into contact with the
powerlines?
Answers
Try to move the crane away from the conductors using the crane cabin/remote controls.
Warn all other people nearby.
Remain in the crane cabin until power is disconnected.
If it becomes essential to leave the crane cabin (if applicable) or the immediate vicinity of the crane,
jump clear as far away from the crane as possible and avoid touching the crane and the ground at the
same. When moving away from the crane, shuffle or hop.
Machine checked prior to future use.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 17

Question 7

A person dogging a load puts a hand on the hook and receives an electric shock. What would be your initial
action and what would you do to ensure the hazard is investigated?
Answers
If possible, lift the hook clear of the person dogging the load to break contact with the earth.
Follow relevant first aid procedure, as required.
If required, get somebody to assist.
Report the hazard to an authorised person.
Report the hazard to the authorities.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 18

Question 8

Why is it important to consult with relevant workplace personnel and OHS officers before commencing
work on sites?
Answer To ensure that the operator is aware of any workplace site rules and procedures.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 22

Question 9

What is the importance of having workplace emergency procedures?


Answer To lay out a sequence that should be followed in case of an emergency.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 23

Page 11

Question 10

What must be provided for the crane working at night or in a darkened area?
Answer There should be sufficient lighting over the whole work area.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 27

Question 11

In the case of an emergency, why is it important to communicate with the person dogging the load prior to
leaving the crane?
Answers
To be made aware of any areas that be unsafe to pass.
To be advised of the nature of the emergency.
To ensure that someone is aware that the crane operator is making their way down to a predesignated
muster point.
To be advised if it is safer to stay in crane cabin until the emergency passes.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 31

Question 12

What is the importance of taking lighting of the workplace into account when planning your job?
Answers
To make sure work can be undertaken safely.
To ensure lighted access and exit locations for emergency situations.
To make sure adequate natural lighting or artificial lighting is provided to work safely under all
conditions.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 32

Practical session

Show the trainee the pre-set up/assembly inspection requirements for the tower crane on arrival to the
worksite for the first time. Included in this list is other information that must be sourced before operation
of the tower crane.
Check the site plan for working radii at given locations from the self-erecting tower crane.
Check the self-erecting tower crane outrigger pad area for proper bearing and adequate packing in
accordance with the manufacturers recommendation.
Identify the maximum free-standing height of the self-erecting tower crane for the particular
worksite.
Obtain the manufacturers manual and daily operational logbook. Familiarise yourself with the
manufacturers manual before operating.
Check for engineers compliance certificate for the crane standing.
Check for commissioning tests for the crane standing.
Check for a dedicated safe operating area for the operator.
Reference: Performance assessment section A

Trainers notes

Page 12

SECTION 11
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
Points for trainer

Explain to the trainee the importance of proper maintenance procedures for the crane operation.

Explain to the trainee the maintenance procedures for the particular crane used in the training.

Explain to the trainee that all guards must be in place to restrict personnel from moving and rotating
parts.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

Why is it important to separate defective equipment?


Answer To eliminate the possibility of further use of unsafe equipment.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 38

Practical session

Show the trainee the lubrication points on the crane; explain how often these points need to be greased.

Trainers notes

SECTION 12
PRE-OPERATIONAL
Points for trainer

Put emphasis in regards to the trainees obligations in performing pre-operational checks and inspections
to ensure the self-erecting tower crane is ready to operate in a safe condition.

Review this section to ensure these points are covered as this section relates also to the performance
assessment.

Before starting the tower crane ensure all motion controls are disabled or in the neutral brake on
position before turning on the main switch or power.

Perform a test of all motion controls, brakes and limit switches before operation.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

Why should the maintenance service logbook be used?


Answer To record an accurate account of all services, maintenance and repairs of the self-erecting tower
crane.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 1

Question 2

If you found a defect in one of the main controls that would place the crane and/or personnel at risk,
what would you do?
Answers
Secure area and the machine and report to an authorised person.
Ensure the machine is repaired before re-commencing work.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 2

Page 13

Question 3

On checking the tower/mast, you notice a loose bolt at one of the tower/mast connections. What action
should you take?
Answer Immediately stop work and contact an authorised person for a complete inspection of all
tower/mast bolts and pins.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 3

Question 4

On a pre-inspection, you discover the gearbox is leaking oil. What action should you take?
Answer tag the machine and report the defect to the supervisor or authorised person before commencing
operation.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 4

Question 5

What action would you take if the crane is discovered to be out of level during a pre-operational check?
Answers
Check the screw jacks and footings
Check ground conditions
Check for structural damage to stabiliser/outrigger components
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 6

Question 6

On checking the control panel you notice water in and around the panel. What action would you take?
Answer Tag the machine and report to the supervisor or authorised person.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 7

Question 7

How do you ensure the self-erecting tower crane level?


Answer By checking the inbuilt level gauge fitted to the self-erecting tower crane or by using a spirit
level on the base section.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 8

Question 8

You notice loose and flaking paint on the mast of the crane. What action would you take?
Answer Cease operation, tag the machine and immediately report to the supervisor or authorised person
to arrange for an inspection of job welds for damage and wear.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 10

Question 9

You noticed that one of the job section connection pins was loose, what would you do?
Answer immediately stop work, tag the machine and contact and authorised person for a complete
inspection of all pins.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 33

Question 10

When interference (tampering) is identified, what action must be taken?


Answer Tag the machine and report to an authorised person or supervisor.
Reference: Oral/written assessment for cranes question 51

Practical session

Demonstrate the use of the service logbook for the particular type of self-erecting tower crane used for
the training.
Reference: Performance assessment section B

Demonstrate the pre-operational checks for the particular type of self-erecting tower crane used for
training. Checks include:
Visually check for any maintenance personnel or servicemen working on or near the self-erecting
tower crane.
Ensure there are no safety tags on the main isolation switch.

Page 14

Inspect the travel mechanism and bogies.


Check for oil leaks on slewing platform or on the ground.
Inspect the travel limits.
Check that the counterweights are in place and secure.
Inspect the slew mechanism.
Check that the tower bolts are secure.
Inspect for any structural damage to the mast or tower.
Identify any structural damage to the crane jib or structure.
Inspect access ladders and kick plates (cabin type).
Access to the cabin (if applicable) is unobstructed.
Disable weather vane mode.
Inspect outrigger footings for adequate bearing.
Connect pendant control (where applicable).
Check that outrigger locking pins are in place.
Check that limits and all governors are in place.
Reference: Performance assessment section C

Demonstrate the checks that should be made before the self-erecting tower crane is started. Checks
include:
Ensure barricades are in position around the counterweight slewing arc.
Perform a visual check of the electrical cabinet and electrical system.
Perform a visual check of the power supply.
Examine all wire ropes, anchorages, splices and hooks.
Check all oil levels eg hydraulic.
Inspect the rope drums.
Examine all brake mechanisms.
Ensure there is adequate lubrication on all moving and rotating parts.
Check the communication systems is operational.
Ensure the rated capacity and manufacturers data plate is on the crane.
Check the load radius indicator is in place.
Check the load chart is in place.
Ensure the fire extinguisher is present.
Visual check of all mechanical equipment.
Reference: Performance assessment section D

Demonstrate the checks that should be made after the self-erecting tower crane is energised or started.
Checks include:
Start up the self-erecting tower crane as per the manufacturers instructions
Emergency stop switch is operational
Check wind gauge is operating correctly
Communication system is operational
The back up signalling system is operational
Travel brakes (rail mounted)
Horn/lights/drive indicator
Clear vision from cabin
All gauges are in correct operating ranges
Radius indicator
Load moment indicator
Load indicator/weight gauge
Slew brake/lock/pin

Page 15

Hoist brake tested


Trolley brake tested
Maximum radius limit tested
Minimum radius limit tested
Hoist limit tested
Warning systems/devices checked for correct operation
Reference: Performance assessment section E
Trainers notes

SECTION 13
CRANE OPERATION
Points for the trainer

Review this section to ensure these points are covered as this section relates to the performance
assessment.

Explain to the trainee the responsibilities of controlled load movement when operating the tower crane.

Explain to the trainee that excessive wind speeds can restrict or abate crane operations. Wind speeds for
in service operations are specified by the manufacturer and can be measured by an on-board
anemometer.

Ensure the trainee understands the limits of operation such as slewing, radii and load limits.

Inform the trainee on worked near radio transmission towers as the crane can become charged thereby
heating up certain components such as lifting slings.

Explain to the trainee the aspects of cabin controlled and remote controlled operation. In cabin controlled
operation the operator is an integral part of the crane with the operator being on board and sensing all
movements whereas the remote control operation deprive the operator of any feel of the crane
movements.

Inform the trainee on keeping a watchful eye in all crane movements where possible. If the operator has
to talk to somebody all crane motions must stop until full attention is back on the crane movements.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 4

An outrigger pad sinks when lifting a load on the self-erecting tower crane. What immediate action should
be taken?
Answer Lower the load, assess the situation and seek assistance.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 52

Question 5

What is the maximum wind speed that self-erecting tower cranes can work in?
Answer As per manufacturers recommendations
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 53

Question 6

When crane operations are effected by extreme winds what should you do?
Answers
Lower the load to the ground
Put counterweight to the wind
Shut the self-erecting tower crane down as per the manufacturers instructions.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 55

Page 16

Question 7

If you heard abnormal noises coming from the crane what would you check?
Answer Check all lifting gear, running gear, structural and mechanical components.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 56

Question 8

If any signals are observed through warning lights, cut outs or alarms, what actions would you take to have
the problem rectified?
Answer Identify the problem and take appropriate corrective action.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 57

Question 9

The crane will hoist up but will not hoist down. What action should be taken?
Answer Identify the problem and take appropriate corrective action. A competent person may be
required to assist or the load may need to be manually lowered with assistance.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 58

Question 10

What qualification must be held by a person directing a load out of view of the self-erecting tower crane
operator?
Answer A doggers certificate.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 60

Question 11

If you heard a loud noise or felt vibration coming from the jib section, what would do?
Answer Lower the load, cease operation immediately and notify the person dogging the load. Have an
inspection carried out to identify whether damage has occurred during the lift.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 63

Question 12

What hazards exist when using steel ladders or crane towers in wet weather?
Answer The tower access ladder will be slippery and it would be easy for the operator to slip and fall.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 65

Question 13

During operation of the tower crane, electrical power failure/fault occurs. What would you do?
Answer Communicate with the person dogging the load and advise of the problem for rectification.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 67

Question 14

Why is it important to have the jib head positioned correctly over the hook and load?
Answer To reduce the risk of overloading or collapsing the crane and to precent the load from swinging
on the lift.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 70

Question 15

Can you use the jib of a self-erecting tower crane as a ladder to access a worksite or as a work platform?
Explain your answer.
Answer No. Under no circumstances must the jib of a self-erecting tower crane be used as a method of
access or as a work platform because it is unsafe and is not designed as an access route.
Reference: Oral/written assessment for cranes question 73

Question 16

Are you permitted to allow a person to ride upon the lifting hook, sling attachment or suspended load?
Explain your answer.
Answer No. A person can only be suspended by a self-erecting tower crane in a suitable work box
specifically designed to incorporate the necessary features.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 74

Page 17

Question 17

What would you do if you heard a sudden loud noise and felt a vibration coming from an area lower down
on the base section of the tower crane?
Answer Lower the load, immediately cease operation and communicate with the person dogging the
load. Organise an inspection of the crane base and tower to identify whether some form of heavy plant
has struck the crane. Check for damage and report to an authorised person.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 76

Question 18

List four precautions that must be taken when long travelling a self-erecting tower crane?
Answers
Prior to operating, ensure that there are no obstructions or personnel on the rails.
Ensure that the working radius has been calculated prior to travelling.
When travelling the self-erecting tower crane, siren and flashing lights must be operational.
Ensure that the load is controlled by the person dogging the load with the use of taglines where
necessary.
Ensure that people pushers or wheel guards are in place.
Travel at minimum speeds.
Ensure that the travelling self-erecting tower crane is mechanically stopped prior to reaching end
stops.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 77

Question 19

If you detected a defect in one of the main controls, who would you report this to for rectification and
who would responsible for the rectification work?
Answer To an authorised person or supervisor, who would then contact a competent person for
corrective action.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 78

Question 20

If the hook has landed on the ground, causing a slack rope, what would the correct procedure when respooling the rope?
Answer The weight of the hook or overhauling weight or applied weight must be on the rope when respooling. This can be achieved by luffing the jib or telescoping the angled jib outwards.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 79

Question 21

If the self-erecting tower crane is located near aircraft traffic zones, what action must be taken?
Answers
A red warning light should be installed at the upper most point of the crane.
Directions from airport authority may state operational hours for the crane operation.
Information from the airport authority may state maximum jib elevations for any luffing type
operations.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 82

Question 22

If a heavy load is to be lifted what precautions would you take to work within a given radius?
Answer Ensure the jib or boom deflection is taken into consideration. Adjust boom angle or trolley radius
to maintain vertical lifting application.
Reference: Oral/written assessment for cranes question ?

Media application

Use a whiteboard and make up a list of hazardous occurrences that could effect crane operation.

Practical session

Using close supervision allow the trainee to control the motions of the crane. Note: This must be
performed under strict close supervision.

Demonstrate to the trainee the process of catching the hook. (Use a scale model or other device.)

Page 18

Demonstrate to the trainee the process of crane operation addressing the points below.
Load secure
Load correctly slung
Conduct trial lift
Lift conforms with load chart
Jib positioned over load correctly
Hoist load
Move load
Lower load
Luff up (where applicable)
Luff down (where applicable)
Slew load
Telescope boom
Travel with load
All movements smooth/adequate speed
Tag line used
Signals interpreted correctly
Load placed correctly on dunnage
Load unslung
Raise hook and attachment to safe height.
Reference: Performance assessment section J

Trainers notes

SECTION 14
LOADS AND SELF-ERECTING TOWER CRANES
Points for trainer

Explain to the trainee how the operating radius is displayed on the crane.

Show the trainee the methods of determining the load mass of various materials and loads.

Show the trainee how multiple fall hoist reeving is applied.

Explain to the trainee the dangers associated with snigging and dragging loads.

Sling and lift and load slightly off the ground and show the trainee the checks that must be performed
before lifting further.

Explain to the trainee the application of lifting a personnel lifting box with personnel aboard.

Show the trainee how to read and interpret a load chart on the crane. Explain the deductions required to
calculate the net capacity. Deduct items such as the load mass, the weight of the hook block and
attachments such as spreader beams and slings. Where specified the weight of the hoist rope may be
deducted.

Page 19

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

Explain how the hook radius is indicated on the crane?


Answer The hook radius is displayed on the control device and may also be displayed on flags or signs
installed on the underside of the jib or as per specific crane design.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 5

Question 2

How do you determine the rated capacity if the self-erecting tower crane?
Answer By checking the load chart plate fitted to the crane or control unit.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 9

Question 3

Who should be involved in the process of assessing the load before lifting?
Answer A person dogging a load and the crane operator or rigger if applicable.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 29

Question 4

Who would be responsible for checking all lifting gear for example chains and slings?
Answer The crane operator in conjunction with the person dogging the load.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 37

Question 5

How do you know when the multiple load falls are required?
Answer As per the load cart specifications.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 44

Question 6

Give three different ways in which the mass (weight) of a load can be determined?
Answers
Delivery dockets
Public weighbridge certification
The manufacturers information
Weight may appear on the load itself
Calculate or estimate.
Reference: Oral/written assessment for cranes question ?

Question 7

State three reasons why you are not permitted to drag or snig a load.
Answers
Load swing may occur
The load may topple
Damage to the sling may occur
Structural damage to the crane by exceeding the rated capacity of the crane may occur.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 66

Question 8

With the load suspended just off the lifting surface, what three observations and checks need to be made?
Answers
The load is securely slung.
All crane equipment is functioning correctly.
Stabiliser/outrigger footing is secure.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 69

Page 20

Question 9

List six requirements that would permit you to lift personnel using the crane.
Answers
The unit must be specifically designed as a workbox.
Tare weight of the workbox must be displayed on the box.
The maximum number of occupants allowed in the box must be displayed on the box.
The maximum mass that can be carried in kilograms must be displayed on the box.
The identification reference must be displayed on the workbox.
The workbox must not contain more than three persons, one of who must be competent in crane
signals.
The workbox must be in a safe working condition.
Slings shall be permanently attached to the workbox by locked shackles or other similar means.
The workbox must have a provision for attachment of safety harnesses for personnel.
The workbox must be painted in high visibility colours.
Where an access door is fitted, it shall open inwards and be provided with means to secure the door.
The workbox is only to be used to lift persons and their equipment.
The crane lifting the workbox shall be fitted with a safety hook.
The crane lifting the workbox shall be equipped with controls that return to the neutral position when
released the motion to stop.
The crane lifting the workbox shall be equipped with power lowering.
The crane lifting the workbox shall be equipped with a lockout control to prevent free-fall of the
workbox and its contents.
The crane lifting the workbox shall be fitted with an up limit switch on the hoist motion.
The crane lifting the workbox shall be fitted with a down limit switch if the workbox is to be lowered
below the cranes supporting surface.
The crane operator shall remain at the controls of the crane when the workbox is suspended with
personnel.
The crane operator shall ensure that at the maximum radius of the task to be performed the crane
has a minimum rated capacity of 1000kgs.
The crane operator shall ensure that when the jib is at the maximum radius for the task to be
performed, the rated capacity for the crane in this condition, when divided by two, is equal or
greater than the total load of the workbox and its contents.
The crane operator shall ensure that they have a means of communication with any person in the
workbox.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 83

Question 10

State three essential items of information you would expect to obtain from a load chart.
Answers
The mass of the hook block
The winch line pull measure in tonnes or kilograms
The rated capacity for an applied crane configuration
Multiple rope fall capacities (eg two fall and four fall hook block configurations).
Note: Other answers may also be considered applicable.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 123

Question 11

List three items that need to be deducted from the (ie stated rated) capacity of a crane to determine its
payload ie the load the crane can lift.
Answers
The mass of the hook block.
The mass of any lifting attachments such as spreader beams, ladies or kibbles.
The mass of the lifting slings.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 124

Page 21

Question 12

When dealing with a crane load chart, what is meant by the term operating radius?
Answer The operating radius is the measurement from the cranes centre of rotation to the vertical
freely suspended hoist line.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 125

Question 13

When the precise reading is between load chart capacities, do you increase or decrease the rated
capacity?
Answer Use the lower rated capacity.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 127

Question 14

If the jib is luffed up to a 10 degree angle does this alter the rated load capacities of the crane? Refer to
load chart Q.
Answer Yes
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 128

Question 15

If the jib is in a folded configuration, where only the base section of the jib is available, does this alter
the rated capacities of the crane compared to using a fully extended jib section? Refer to load chart Q.
Answer Yes
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 129

Question 16
Refer to load chart Q

A self-erecting tower crane with load chart Q is set up as follows:


Main jib length 30.00 metres
Working radius 21.00 metres
Work area 360 degrees
Fitted with a two-fall hook block
Jib fully extended
i.

What is the maximum load that can be raised on the hook block at the specified radius?

ii.

If the hook block is re-reeved to a four-part configuration, what is the new capacity at the same
radius as question i?

iii.

What is the maximum capacity of the four-fall hook block configuration? (Do not take radius into
consideration.)

Answer Refer to load chart Q: 30.00 metre jib at a 21.00 metre radius with the jib fully extended using
a two-fall hook block configuration.
i.

Rated capacity (SWL):


Hook mass deductions:

ii.

120kgs

Net load:

1410kgs

Rated capacity (SWL):

1480kgs

Deductions:
iii.

1530kgs

205kgs

Net load:

1275kgs

Rated capacity (SWL):

4000kgs

Deductions:
Net load:

205kgs
3795kgs
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 133

Page 22

Question 17
Refer to load chart Q

A self-erecting tower crane with load chart Q is set up as follows:


Main jib length 30.00 metres
Working radius 29.00 metres
Work area 360 degrees
Fitted with a four-fall hook block
Jib fully extended
i.

What is the maximum load that can be raised on the hook block at the specified radius?

ii.

If the hook block is re-reeved to a two-part configuration, what is the new capacity at the same
radius as in question i?

iii.

What is the maximum capacity of the two-fall hook block configuration? (Do not take radius into
consideration.)

Answer Refer to load chart Q: 30.00 metre jib at a 29.00 metre radius with the jib fully extended using
a four-fall hook block configuration.
i.

Rated capacity (SWL):


Hook mass deductions:
Net load:

ii.

Rated capacity (SWL):

iii.

1000kgs
205kgs
795kgs
1050kgs

Deductions:

120kgs

Net load:

930kgs

Rated capacity (SWL):


Deductions:
Net load:

2000kgs
120kgs
1880kgs
Reference: Oral/written assessment for cranes question ?

Question 18
Refer to load chart Q

A self-erecting tower crane with load chart Q is set up as follows:


Main jib length 30.00 metres
Working radius 13.00 metres
Work area 360 degrees
Fitted with a four-fall hook block
Jib folded
i.

What is the maximum load that can be raised on the hook block at the specified radius?

ii.

If the jib is unfolded and fully extended what is the new capacity at the same radius as question i?

iii.

What is the maximum capacity of the four-fall hook block configuration? (Do not take radius into
consideration.)

Answer Refer to load chart Q: 30.00 metre jib at a 13.00 metre radius with the jib folded using a fourfall hook configuration.
i.

Rated capacity (SWL):


Hook mass deductions:
Net load:

3300kgs
205kgs
3092kgs

Page 23

ii.

Rated capacity (SWL):


Deductions:

2380kgs
205kgs

Net load:

2175kgs

Rated capacity (SWL):

4000kgs

Deductions:
Net load:

205kgs
3795kgs
Reference: Oral/written assessment for cranes question ?

Question 19
Refer to load chart Q

A self-erecting tower crane with load chart Q is set up as follows:


Main jib 24.00 metres
Working radius 21.00 metres
Work area 360 degrees
Fitted with a two-fall hook block
Jib fully extended
i.

What is the maximum load that can be raised on the hook block at the specified radius?

ii.

If the hook block is re-reeved to a four-part configuration, what is the new capacity at the same
radius as question i?

iii.

What is the maximum capacity of the two-fall hook block configuration? (Do not take radius into
consideration.)

Answer Refer to load chart Q: 24.00 metres jib at a 21.00 metre radius with the jib fully extended using
a two-fall hook block configuration.
i.

Rated capacity (SWL):


Hook mass deductions:

ii.

120kgs

Net load:

1550kgs

Rated capacity (SWL):

1720kgs

Deductions:
iii.

1670kgs

205kgs

Net load:

1515kgs

Rated capacity (SWL):

2000kgs

Deductions:
Net load:

120kgs
1880kgs
Reference: Oral/written assessment for cranes question ?

Question 20
Refer to load chart Q

A self-erecting tower crane with load chart Q is set up as follows:


Main jib length 24.00 metres
Working radius 23.00 metres
Work area 360 degrees
Fitted with two-fall hook block
Jib fully extended
i.

What is the maximum load that can be raised on the hook block at the specified radius?

ii.

If the hook is re-reeved to a four-part configuration, what is the new capacity at the same radius
as question i?

iii.

What is the maximum capacity if the four-fall hook block configuration? (Do not take radius into
consideration.)

Page 24

Answer Refer to load chart Q: 24.00 metre jib at a 23.00 metre radius with the jib fully extended using
a two-fall hook block configuration.
i.

Rated capacity (SWL):


Hook mass deductions:

ii.

120kgs

Net load:

1380kgs

Rated capacity (SWL):

1550kgs

Deductions:
iii.

1500kgs

205kgs

Net load:

1345kgs

Rated capacity (SWL):

4000kgs

Deductions:
Net load:

205kgs
3795kgs
Reference: Oral/written assessment question ?

Question 21
Refer to load chart Q

A self-erecting tower crane with load chart Q is set up as follows:


Main jib length 24.00 metres
Working radius 13.00 metres
Work area 360 degrees
Fitted with a four-fall hook block
Jib folded
i.

What is the maximum load that can be raised on the hook block at the specified radius?

ii.

If the jib is unfolded and fully extended, what is the new capacity at the same radius as question
i?

iii.

What is the maximum capacity of the four-fall hook block configuration? (Do not take radius into
consideration.)

Answer Refer to load chart Q: 24.00 metre jib at a 13.00 metre radius with the jib folded using a fourfall hook block configuration.
i.

Rated capacity (SWL): 3300kgs


Hook mass deductions:
Net load:

ii.

205kgs
3095kgs

Rated capacity (SWL): 3180kgs


Deductions:
Net load:

iii.

205kgs
2975kgs

Rated capacity (SW): 4000kgs


Deductions:
Net load:

205kgs
3795kgs
Reference: Oral/written assessment question ?

Question 22
Refer to load chart Q

A self-erecting tower crane with load chart Q is set up as follows:


Main jib length 24.00 metres
Working radius 14.00 metres
Work area 360 degrees
Fitted with a four-fall hook block
Jib folded

Page 25

i.

What is the maximum load that can be raised on the hook block at the specified radius?

ii.

If the jib is unfolded and fully extended, what is the new capacity at the same radius as question
i?

iii.

What is the maximum capacity of the four-fall hook block configuration? (Do not take radius into
consideration.)

Answer Refer to load chart Q: 24.00 metre jib at a 14.00 metre radius with the jib folded using a fourfall block configuration.
i.

Rated capacity (SWL):


Hook mass deductions:

ii.

205kgs

Net load:

3095kgs

Rated capacity (SWL):

3180kgs

Deductions:
iii.

3300kgs

205kgs

Net load:

2975kgs

Rated capacity (SWL):

4000kgs

Deductions:
Net load:

205kgs
3795kgs
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 134

Media application

Use the load chart Q to explain the load chart applications required for written assessment.

Use a variety of other load charts relating to different self-erecting tower cranes to assess the trainees
understanding of load chart interpretation.

Practical session

Show the trainee how to lift loads with the crane, working within the rated capacity specified by the crane
manufacturer.

Explain to the trainee how the radius indicator is displayed. Show the trainee where the load radius is
displayed.

Explain the load chart and its capabilities to the trainee using different jib angles/configurations.
Reference: Performance assessment section L

Trainers notes

SECTION 15
SPECIAL OPERATIONS
Points for trainer

Explain to the trainee the regulations regarding multiple crane lifts.

Explain to the trainee the system of climbing the crane where applicable.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

How do you lower the load in the event of a power failure?


Answer As per manufacturers recommendations.
Note: This operation differs from crane to crane. Operators must know their particular crane and be able
to describe to the assessor exactly how it is done. Operators have a responsibility to ensure that they can
emergency lower on any self-erecting tower crane that they operate. It is essential for the applicant to
know this. If not, then they should not be assessed as competent.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 96

Page 26

Question 2

Is it permitted to carry out a multiple crane lift with a self-erecting tower crane and another crane?
Answer No.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 98

Question 3

Where is the information found to show how to climb the self-erecting tower crane (if applicable) by
inserting extra tower sections?
Answer In the manufacturers manual for the self-erecting tower crane.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 99

Media application

Show a video or scale model to the trainee regarding climbing of the crane where applicable.

Practical session

Show the trainee how to lower the hook manually using manual lowering techniques in case of an
emergency situation.

Describe to the trainee how to climb (jack the crane vertically) by demonstrating the procedure
appropriate to the self-erecting tower crane, where applicable.

Show the trainee how to unfold and fold the jib on a self-erecting tower crane by demonstrating the
procedure appropriate to the tower crane, where applicable.
Reference: Performance assessment section N

Trainers notes

SECTION 16
SHUTDOWN CRANE
Points for trainer

Explain to the trainee the shutdown procedures for overnight out of service requirements.

Ensure the hook is positioned appropriately for out of service conditions.

Face the crane jib downwind (wind at the back of the crane) on shutdown before engaging weathervane
mode.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

Can any load remain suspended from the hook following shut down or when the crane is unattended?
Explain your answer.
Answer No, this is unsafe. If during the course of a lift the crane operator must leave the controls, the
load should be placed on the ground with the crane shut down in the prescribed manner as per the
manufacturers instructions.
Note: No operator, no load.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 85

Page 27

Question 2

How should a self-erecting tower crane be left unattended overnight?


Answers
Load to be removed
Jib folded to manufacturers specifications
Crane is weathervaned to engineers recommendations or manufacturers specifications.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 86

Question 3

What would you do with the platform access hatch (if applicable) on shut down?
Answer Ensure that it is securely closed and locked with a key lock.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 87

Question 4

What must be done to the base of a travelling tower self-erecting tower crane on shut down in regards to
securing the crane.
Answers
Ensure that the blocks are placed at the base of wheels to prevent movement of self-erecting tower
crane.
Make sure that the electric motor to the travelling wheel mechanism is isolated and locked.
Reference: Oral/written assessment for cranes question ?

Question 5

On shutting down an electric powered self-erecting tower crane, what is an important consideration?
Answer Ensure that all electric circuits are fully isolated and locked off.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 89

Question 6

If the self-erecting tower crane is to be left in free slew, why is it important that you raise the jib and
hook clear of obstructions for the full 360 degrees around the crane?
Answer When in free slew the self-erecting tower crane can paravane (spin rapidly) in a severe storm or
cyclonic winds. The crane must clear surrounding buildings and other obstructions or the jib or crane may
be folded down.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 90

Question 7

You are operating a self-erecting tower crane that is on a travelling base. Why is it essential that travel
locks be clipped to the rails as you leave the crane?
Answer These locks stop the self-erecting tower crane from being blown uncontrollably down the rails by
strong winds.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 93

Question 8

On a self-erecting tower crane why is the trolley and hook brought in close proximity to the tower for
parking?
Answer So that the trolley-hook assembly creates less wind resistance thereby eliminating excessive
forces on the outriggers and foundations.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 94

Question 9

An operational self-erecting tower crane is situated very close to a neighbouring building. The building is
under the jib-slewing radius of the self-erecting tower crane. What special precautions must be
undertaken to shutdown?
Answers
The self-erecting tower crane must not be weathervaned as a collision with the building could occur.
The crane jib may be luffed up to avoid collision with the building.
The self-erecting tower crane may be locked off as per the manufacturers instructions.
The self-erecting tower crane may be packed up as per manufacturers specifications.
Guying of the crane jib may require an engineers approval.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 95

Page 28

Practical session

Explain to the trainee the process of shutting down the tower crane covering these points.
Ensure barricades are in position.
Ensure the hook block/trolley assembly is suitably positioned for stowing as per the manufacturers
specifications.
Lower/retract jib in accordance with the manufacturers specifications.
Slings removed.
Weathervane self-erecting tower crane in accordance with the manufacturers specifications.
Raise hook to maximum height.
Lock and secure remote control unit.
Lock and secure self-erecting tower crane.
Turn the isolator switch off and secure.
Reference: Performance assessment section M

Trainers notes

SECTION 17
RULE OF THUMB AND WORKING LOAD LIMITS
Points for trainer

Explain to the trainee the rule of thumb formulae used to identify working load limits (WLL) for all sling
types such as fibre, flexible steel wire rope (FSWR) and lifting chain.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

What is the formula or rule of thumb for determining the working load limit (WLL) for an unidentified
synthetic rope?
Answer Diameter in millimetres squared = the WLL in kilograms
Note: If unknown, the formula for fibre rope should apply or be accepted.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 1

Question 2

Calculate the WLL for one of the following


i.

12mm diameter unidentified synthetic rope

ii.

15mm diameter unidentified synthetic rope

iii.

20mm unidentified synthetic rope.

Answers
i.

Diameter in mm2 = 12mm = 12 x 12 = 144kg WLL

ii.

Diameter in mm2 = 15mm = 15 x 15 = 225kg WLL

iii.

Diameter in mm2 = 20mm = 20 x 20 = 400kg WLL

Note: if unknown, formula for fibre rope should apply or be accepted.


Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 2

Page 29

Question 3

What is the rule of thumb formula used to calculate the WLL of a flexible steel wire rope (FSWR)?
Answer Diameter in millimetres squared x 8 = the WLL in kilograms
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 12

Question 4

Calculate the WLL of one of the following:


i.

15mm diameter FSWR

ii.

20mm diameter FSWR

iii.

25mm diameter FSWR

Answers
i.

Diameter in mm2 x 8 = 15 x 15 x 8 = 1800kg WLL

ii.

Diameter in mm2 x 8 = 20 x 20 x 8 = 3200kg WLL

iii.

Diameter in mm2 x 8 = 25 x 25 x 8 = 5000kg WLL


Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 13

Question 5

What is the rule of thumb for calculating the WLL for a grade 80 high tensile chain?
Answers
Diameter in millimetres squared x grade x 0.4 = WLL in kilograms; or
Diameter in millimetres squared x 32 = WLL in kilograms
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 20

Question 6

Calculate the WLL of grade 80 high tensile chain at one of the following diameters:
i.

10mm

ii.

12mm

iii.

15mm

Answers
i.

Diameter in mm2 x 32 = 10 x 10 x 32 = 3200kg WLL

ii.

Diameter in mm2 x 32 = 12 x 12 x 32 = 4608kg WLL

iii.

Diameter in mm2 x 32 = 15 x 15 x 32 = 7200kg WLL


Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 21

Practical session

Demonstrate to the trainee the process of identifying WLLs for a specified sling type used on the tower
crane.

Trainers notes

Page 30

SECTION 18
LOAD FACTORS
Points for trainer

Discuss with trainee the application of utilising load and reeve factors for determining actual sling ratings
on lifting.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

A sling of 2.0 tonnes WLL is reeved around a circular load. What is the sling now capable of lifting?
Answer 2.0 tonnes x 0.75 load factor = 1.5 tonnes
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 73

Question 2

A sling of 8.0 tonnes WLL is reeved around a circular load. What is the sling now capable of lifting?
Answer 8.0 tonnes x 0.75 load factor = 6.0 tonnes
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 74

Question 3

A sling of 4.0 tonnes WLL is reeved around a circular load. What is the sling now capable of lifting?
Answer 4.0 tonnes x 0.75 load factor = 3.0 tonnes
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 75

Question 4

A sling of 6.0 tonnes WLL is reeved around a circular load. What is the sling now capable of lifting?
Answer 6.0 tonnes x 0.75 load factor = 4.5 tonnes
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 76

Question 5

A sling of 5.0 tonnes WLL is reeved around a square load. What is the sling now capable of lifting?
Answer 5.0 tonnes x 0.5 load factor = 2.5 tonnes
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 77

Question 6

A sling of 4.0 tonnes WLL is reeved around a square load. What is the sling now capable of lifting?
Answer 4.0 tonnes x 0.5 load factor = 2 tonnes
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 78

Question 7

A sling of 3.0 tonnes WLL is reeved around a square load. What is the sling now capable of lifting?
Answer 1.5 tonnes x 2.00 load factor x 0.5 reduction factor square load = 1.5 tonnes
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 79

Question 8

A sling of 1.5 tonnes WLL is used in a basket hitch around a square load. What is the sling capable of lifting
now?
Answer 1.5 tonnes x 2.00 load factor x 0.5 reduction factor square load = 1.5 tonnes
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 83

Question 9

A sling of 1.5 tonne WLL is reeved around a square load. What is the sling now capable of lifting?
Answer 1.5 tonnes x 0.5 load factor = 0.75 tonnes
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 84

Page 31

Question 10

A lifting beam with a mass (weight) of 300kg is supported by a two


legged sling shackled to the beam forming an included angle of 90
degrees at the crane hook (see diagram). Two slings are shackled to
the underside of the lifting beam and vertically down to lifting eyes
on a machine if mass 2500kg. What is the minimum WWl required of
each of the four slings?
Answer
Slings between the machine and beam =
Total weight of 2500kg divided by the load factor of 2.00 = 2500
2.00 = 1250kgs for each sling.
The slings between the beam and hook =
A total weight of 2800kg divided by the load factor of 1.41 (for a 90
degree included sling angle) = 2800 1.41 = 1986kg for each of the
upper slings.
Upper slings require a WWL of 1986kgs each.
Lower slings require a WWL of 1250kg each
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 85

Question 11

If two slings are spread at an included angle of 90 degrees, what is the load factor applied to the load
being lifted?
Answer For a 90 degree included angle the load factor is 1.41.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 86

Question 12

If two slings are spread at an included angle of 30 degrees, what is the load factor applied to the load
being lifted?
Answer For a 30 degree included angle the load factor is 1.91.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 87

Question 13

If two slings are spread at an included angle of 60 degrees, what is the load factor applied to the load
being lifted?
Answer For a 60 degree included angle the load factor is 1.73.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 88

Question 14

If two slings are spread at an included angle of 120 degrees, what is the load factor applied to the load
being lifted?
Answer For a 120 degree included angle the load factor is 1.00.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 89

Page 32

Question 15

From the drawings below select the included angle closest to 90 degrees.

Answer D is the correct diagram


Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 90
Question 16

What reduction must be made to the WLL of a FSWR sling when it is reeved on a round load?
Answer A 25 per cent reduction.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 91

Question 17

What reduction must be made to the WLL of a FSWR sling when a basket hitch is used to cradle a square
load?
Answer A 50 per cent reduction.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 92

Question 18

What load factor must be applied to the WLL of a FSWR sling when a basket hitch is used to cradle a
square load?
Answer Load factor of 1 is applied. The rated capacity (SWL) remains the same as the WLL.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 93

Question 19

What safety factor must be applied to the WLL of a FSWR sling when a basket hitch is used to cradle a
round load?
Answer Load factor 2 is applied. The rated capacity (SWL) is double the WLL.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 94

Practical session

Demonstrate to the trainee how load factors effect operations in sling application and sling configurations.

Trainers notes

Page 33

SECTION 19
RULES TO FOLLOW WHEN SLINGING AND HANDLING A LOAD
Points for trainer

Describe to the trainee approved methods of utilising lifting gear and equipment.

Discuss with the trainee the benefits of using tag lines for load control.

Discuss with the trainee the hazards involved with stuck loads such as formwork shutters, sheet pile or
concrete pre-cast panels.

Explain to the trainee the hazards involved with wind affected loads such as shutters, roofing iron and
cladding.

Discuss with the trainee the application of using multiple sling arrangements and which slings are taking
the load.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

What factors should be considered when using taglines? Give at least four examples.
Answers
Weather conditions
Electrical hazards
Tagline change over may be required at designated point in the lift.
Person holding the tagline should wear PPE.
Ensure that the line is not fouled.
Taglines should be held correctly.
Tagline length requirement.
Tagline size requirements.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 34

Question 2

When lifting concrete formwork shutters in gusting wind conditions, what measures would you ensure are
undertaken to control the load?
Answers
Load must be attached to taglines.
Shutters may be laid down and lifted horizontally with taglines attached.
Operations may have to cease until wind conditions reduce sufficiently.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 72

Question 3

A long load of reinforcement steel bars is to be lifted off a truck close to the sheeted scaffolding
perimeters of the site. How can the load be controlled to prevent contact and subsequent snagging with
the scaffold?
Answer The person dogging the load should control the load with a hand held tagline.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 62

Question 4

An internal lift formwork shutter to green concrete weighing two tonnes is to be lifted. The weight is
taken and the shutter does not budge, what should you do?
Answers
Stop hoisting if the load on the crane is over two tonnes.
The shutter may be jammed; this may require some levering by the formworkers.
Ensure all personnel are clear of the shutter in case the shutter springs off the lift shaft wall.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 64

Page 34

Question 5

List three reasons why packing or dunnage is used when slinging or landing a load.
Answers
To protect the load.
To facilitate the connection/disconnection.
To prevent damage to lifting gear.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 68

Question 6

You have formwork shutters to lower from the top of a building when a strong wind blows up. What are
the hazards?
Answer Shutters are large in area but light in weight, therefore they could flap/spin around in the wind
so will need to be secured. The wind loading with such a large surface area could destabilise the selferecting tower crane.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 71

Question 7

Why must you pack/lag the edges/corners of sharp loads?


Answer To protect load slings and lifting gear from damage.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 42

Question 8

A four legged bridle sling arrangement is attached to a rigid load. How many sling legs would be assumed
to support the load?
Answer two diagonally opposite sling legs must be capable of supporting the load.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 80

Question 9

A three legged bridle sling arrangement is attached to a rigid load. How many sling legs would be assumed
to support the load.
Answer Any two legs of the sling arrangement.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 81

Question 10

A four legged bridle sling arrangement is attached to a flexible load. How many sling legs would be
assumed to support the load?
Answer The entire four sling legs.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 82

Practical session

Demonstrate to the trainee the application of various sling loads. The loads should be lifted using different
sling arrangements to cover this section.

Trainers notes

Page 35

SECTION 20
STACKING
Points for trainer

Explain to the trainee the process of stacking loads allowing for proper clearance whilst ensuring stability
of the load.

Trainers notes

SECTION 21
PERSONNEL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Points for trainer

Ensure the trainee understands the requirements for personnel protective equipment (PPE) whilst
operating a self-erecting tower crane.

Trainers notes

SECTION 22
COMMUNICATION
Points for trainer

Converse with the trainee regarding the use of communication techniques where a dogger is used with
provide signals.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

What communication equipment can the crane operator utilise other than two-way radio?
Answers
Hand signals
Whistles, hooters
Light signals
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 28

Page 36

Question 2

If given a stop signal by someone other than the person dogging the load, what would you do?
Answer Stop operations immediately and await further directions.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 80

Practical session

Ensure the trainee understands and knows the applicable crane whistle signals for operation.
Reference: Performance assessment section I

Trainers notes

SECTION 23
FLEXIBLE STEEL WIRE ROPE
Points for trainer

Discuss with the trainee the application of wire rope usage in hoist ropes, suspension ropes and sling
configurations.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

What is the minimum allowable size FSWR for load handling purposes?
Answer 5mm diameter
Reference: Written assessment question 14

Question 2

What is the maximum allowable temperature that FSWR can be exposed to before it is unsafe for lifting
purposes?
Answer 950C
Reference: Written assessment question 15

Question 3

What is the formula that indicates the maximum amount of broken wires permitted in FSWR?
Answer Where 10 per cent of the total numbers of wires are broken in one rope lay or in eight diameters
of rope.
Reference: Written assessment question 16

Question 4

Using the formula for maximum amount of broken wires in FSWR, work out one of the following:
i.

The construction of the rope is 6/19 and 12mm diameter.

ii.

The construction of the rope of is 6/24 and 20mm diameter.

iii.

The construction of the rope is 6/36 and 54mm diameter.

Answers
i.

6/19 = 6 x 19 = 114 wires


10% x 114 = 11.4 wires
Therefore, in one rope lay 11 wires.
Rope length to inspect = 12mm x 8 = 96mm

Page 37

ii.

6/24 = 6 x 24 = 144 wires


10% x 144 = 14.4 wires
Therefore, in one rope lay 14 wires.
Rope length to inspect = 20mm x 8 = 160mm

iii.

6/36 = 6 x 36 = 216 wires


10% x 216 = 21.6 wires
Therefore, in one rope lay 21 wires.
Rope length to inspect = 54mm x 8 = 432mm
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 17

Question 5

What is meant by the term core slippage?


Answer Core slippage occurs when the outer wire strands slip over the inner core of the opposite lay.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 18

Question 6

What will condemn a FSWR sling from safe use? List at least six defects.
Answers
Kink or fractures from bending or reeving
Crushed or jammed strands
Damaged splice
Exposure to high temperatures
Core collapse
Bird-caging - where the strands loosen from their proper tight lay
Stretched or overloaded
High stranding
Corrosion loose and springy wires indicate serious corrosion
Knotted sections
Wear caused by badly maintained or aligned sheaves
The number of broken wire exceeding allowable limit.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 19

Question 7

Explain the use and advantages of a wire rope thimble?


Answer Thimbles are designed to protect the load bearing area inside the crown of the eye from chafing
and distortion and to form a hard eye in a rope.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 50

Question 8

Explain the reason for using swaged aluminium alloy fitting or a thimble fitting.
Answer to form an eye splice or thimble eye in a wire rope (FSWR).
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 70

Question 9

What are the most obvious indications of a defective swage fitting?


Answers
The tail of the FSWR has slipped inside the swage fitting.
The steel collar thimble is loose on the rope.
The fitting is loose.
There is a broken wire at either end of the swaged fitting.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 71

Page 38

Practical session

Using a number of defective slings, have the trainee determine the defects that cause condemnation of a
FSWR sling.

Trainers notes

SECTION 24
WEDGE ROPE SOCKETS
Points for trainer

Converse with the trainee regarding the proper use of wedge sockets.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

From the diagrams below, select the correct methods of reeving a hoist rope in a wedge rope socket.

Answer Correct answer is D or E.


Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 48
Question 2

Are you permitted to use wire rope (bulldog) grips to connect two lengths of wire rope for lifting purposes?
Explain your answer.
Answer No, the wire rope could crush or pull through the bulldog grip.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 49

Question 3

Should the wedge protrude outside the narrow end of the socket fitting? (As shown in the diagram.)

Answer Under no circumstances should the wedge protrude at the narrow end of the socket.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 67
Question 4

What is the minimum amount of tail projection for the dead end of a rope used with a wedge socket?
Answer In most cases, the tail on the dead end of the rope should project at least 200mm.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 68

Page 39

Question 5

What should be secured to the tail of a rope when in use with a wedge socket fitting to indicate slippage?
Answer A bulldog grip must be applied only to the tail of the rope below the socket.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 69

Practical session

Demonstrate to the trainee the correct assembly of a wedge socket and a bulldog grip.

Trainers notes

SECTION 25
SHEAVES AND DRUMS FOR FLEXIBLE STEEL WIRE ROPE
Points for trainer

Converse with the trainee regarding the application of sheaves and wind drums for FSWR.

Explain the defects that can affect a sheave.

Explain the occurrence of two blocking.

Explain to the trainee the process of inspecting sheaves, drums and running ropes on the crane before
starting the operation.

Show the trainee the process of changing the hook block from a two fall to a four fall reeving
configuration.

Question for trainee/s


Question 1

What will condemn a sheave from safe use? List at least three defects.
Answers
Excessive wear in the groove of the sheave.
Cracks or any damage in the flange of the sheave.
Twisted/deformed or out of shape.
Worn sheave pins, hinge pin wear.
Damaged cheek plates or cheek plate wall/partition is too close to too far from sheave.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 29

Question 2

List two effects double blocking can have on the crane and equipment.
Answers
Can cause the FSWR to break.
Can cause the load to drop.
Can damage the sheave.
Can cause structural damage to the crane.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 30

Question 3

When the rope construction is unknown, what is the rule of thumb method used to calculate a sheave
size?
Answer the basic rule of thumb used to calculate sheave size is rope diameter x 20.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 31

Page 40

Question 4

How much of the FSWR should sit neatly in the base of the groove of a sheave?
Answer one third or 120 degrees.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 32

Question 5

How deep must the sheave groove be in relation to the rope diameter being used?
Answer the sheave groove should not be less than 1.5 times the diameter of the FSWR being used.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 33

Question 6

When the maximum number of turns is wound on a drum, how far must the flange of the drum extend
about the outer layer of rope?
Answer The drum flange must extend above the outer layer of the wire rope by at least two rope
diameters.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 34

Question 7

What is the advantage of using a jockey sheave?


Answer A jockey sheave ensure that the hoist rope remains at the correct fleet angle to the winch drum.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 35

Question 8

What will occur if the sheave groove is too large for the diameter of the given rope?
Answer This will cause rope flattening of the rope.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 36

Question 9

What will occur if the sheave groove is too small for the diameter of the given rope?
Answer This will cause rope pinching and sever abrasion.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 37

Question 10

How is the diameter of a sheave measured?


Answer A sheave is measured across the face of the sheave to the inside of the grooves on either side in
millimetres.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 38

Question 11

When the hook or the block is at the lowest possible point, what is the minimum amount of full turns of
wire rope that must remain on the winch drum?
Answer A minimum of two full turns.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 39

Question 12

What happens if the fleet angle of the hoist rope is incorrect?


Answers
Spooling or uneven coiling of the hoist rope on the hoist drum.
The hoist rope may be pulled off the sheave and subsequently jam.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 40

Question 13

What problem would occur if the jockey sheave seized?


Spooling or uneven coiling of the hoist rope on the hoist drum.
The hoist rope may be pulled off the sheave and subsequently jam.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 41

Page 41

Question 14

What are the approved methods of fixing the hoist wire to the boom head? List two methods.
Answers
By using a hambone wedge socket.
By using hand splice or machine splice with thimble.
By using wire adjusters.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 44

Question 15

List two methods used to secure/fix the tail of the hoist rope to the winch drum.
Answers
Socket and wedge
Clamp and bolts.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 47

Practical session

Have the trainee inspect each sheave on the crane where applicable. The trainee can state which defects
can affect sheaves.

Trainers notes

SECTION 26
LIFTING CHAIN
Points for trainer

Use a high tensile lifting chain set for the trainee to inspect for defects.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

What is the smallest size diameter chain allowable for safe load handling for:
i.

Grade 30 chain?

ii.

High tensile grade 80 chain?

Answers
i.

Basic grade 30 = 8mm

ii.

High tensile grade 80 = 5.5mm


Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 22

Question 2

What is the maximum temperature that a sling can be subjected to before the rated capacity (SWL) is
affected for:
i.

Grade 30 chain sling?

ii.

High tensile grade 80 chain sling?

Answers
i.

Basic grade 30 2600C

ii.

High tensile grade 800C 4000C

Note: If 2600C is exceeded, the WLL of the chain is reduced.


Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 23

Page 42

Question 3

What is the maximum amount of wear permitted in the link of a chain?


Answer The maximum amount of wear permitted in a chain is ten per cent of the diametrical cross
section.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 24

Question 4

Where on a chain link is wear most likely to occur? List two points.
Answers
Links will wear at the link ends from the metal wear down.
Links will wear on the outer sides of the link from being dragged.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 25

Question 5

What will condemn a chain from safe use? List at least four defects.
Answers
Twisted, kinked, knotted
Stretch, locked or does not move freely
Gouged, cut or crushed more than 10 per cent of the links original diameter
Pitting
More than 10 per cent wear in the diameter of the link
Exposed to excessive heat
Cracked or spot welded.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 26

Question 6

What action would you take if a chain has:


i.

no WLL tag?

ii.

no WLL tag and grade marking?

Answers
i.

Check the markings and use accordingly until a new tag is obtained. If unsure about markings,
treat as mild steel grade 30 until manufacturer/supplier or competent person checks chain.

ii.

It should be removed from service immediately as it is not a load chain.


Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 27

Question 7

What does the marking on a link of chain indicate?


Answers
The marking indicates the grade of a chain.
Note: Most chains are marked with an identification letter or number every 20th link or at intervals of not
more than one metre.
Examples:
Grade (L) indicates 30 mild steel grade /= or 30 or 3.
Grade (M) indicates 40 grade /= M or 40 or 4 or 04.
Grade (P) or 5 or 05.
Grade (S) indicates 60 alloy steel grade /= S or 60 or 06.
If unsure, refer to the manufacturer.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 28

Practical session

Show the trainee the method of detecting the grade of a chain.

Explain to the trainee the defects that affect a lifting chain.

Page 43

Trainers notes

SECTION 27
FLAT WEBBING AND ROUND SYNTHETIC SLINGS
Points for trainer

Explain to the trainee the advantages and disadvantages of using synthetic slugs for lifting.

Question for trainee/s


Question 1

How is the working load limit (WLL) determined for synthetic webbing slings?
Answer By reading the manufacturers tag or by the colour code chart.
Note: If no manufacturers tag, do not use.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 8

Question 2

What factors should be considered when inspecting synthetic webbing slings for safe use? List at least six
points.
Answers
No external wear eg abrasions.
No internal wear. This is often indicated by the thickness of the cling or the presence of grit and dirt.
No damage caused by high temperatures, sunlight or chemicals.
No damage to the label/tag or stitching.
No damage to the eyes, terminal attachments or end fittings.
Check label/tag has not been removed/destroyed or is illegible.
No damage to sleeve or protective coating.
Nylon sling has not come into contact with acid; polyester sling has not come into contact with
organic solvents such as pain, coal tar or paint stripper etc.
No visible cuts or contusions.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 9

Question 3

When should a synthetic webbing sling be discarded? List at least six points.
Answers Label/tag has been removed/destroyed or is illegible.
Damage to sleeve is evident.
Evidence of external wear and abrasions.
Evidence of internal wear.
If damaged by high temperatures, sunlight or chemicals.
Damage to stitching.
Damage to eyes, terminal attachments or end fittings.
Nylon sling has come into contact with acid; polyester sling has come into contact with organic
solvents such as pain, coal tar or paint stripper etc.
There are visible cuts or tears.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 10

Page 44

Question 4

List at least three requirements for the safe storage of synthetic webbing slings.
Stored in a clean, dry and well-ventilated place.
Never store on the ground or floor.
Store out of direct sunlight, ultra-violet light or fluorescent lighting.
Store undercover.
Store away from chemicals.
Store away from oils.
Store away from sand/grit.
Store away from machinery.
Store in a vermin free environment.
Note: The working life of synthetic slings will be shortened if exposed to any of the above.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 11

Practical session

Show the trainee the method of detecting the WLL of a synthetic sling.

Explain to the trainee the defects that affect synthetic slings.

Trainers notes

SECTION 28
FIBRE ROPE
Points for the trainer

Explain to the trainee the advantages and disadvantages of using fibre rope slings for lifting.

Put an emphasis on using fibre ropes of the non-conductive type for use as a tagline for control of loads by
hand.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

What is the minimum size diameter of a hand-held tagline?


Answer 16mm diameter
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 27

Question 2

What is the smallest size diameter synthetic rope allowed for load lifting purposes?
Answer 12mm diameter
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 3

Question 3

What is the smallest size diameter fibre rope allowed for use as a hand-held tagline?
Answer 16mm diameter
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 4

Page 45

Question 4

What will condemn a fibre rope from safe use for lifting purposes? List at least six defects.
Answers
Strands are fraying
Strands are cut
Rope rotted by acid or alkali
Rope affected by mildew
Rope affected by heat or sun rot
Rope has been overloaded
Rope is chafed inside or outside
Unlaid strands
Knotted rope.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 5

Question 5

What is maximum temperature that a fibre rope can be exposed to before it is unsafe for lifting purposes?
Answer 650C
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 6

Question 6

Is it safe to use slings to raise or lower loads near or over people?


Answer No, not under any circumstances.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 7

Practical session

Explain to the trainee the defects that affect fibre rope.

Revise the bend and hitches to ensure the trainee can tie a tagline to a load.

Trainers notes

SECTION 29
ACCESSORIES
Points for trainers

Explain to the trainee the use of accessories such as shackles, plate clamps, rings, hooks, spreader beams
and eyebolts.

Explain the application and loads that these accessories are used on.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

How can the lifting capacity of a hook be identified?


Answer It should be stamped or marked on the hook in WWL.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 43

Question 2

What may be fitted (where applicable) to the hook to prevent slings from dislodging?
Answer A safety latch/device shall be fitted (where applicable) across the mouth of the hook.
Note: Mousing is another acceptable method but should only be used in a temporary situation.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 45

Page 46

Question 3

If the hook spins rapidly what may it indicate? List two examples.
Answers
The rope has been twisted when running onto the drum.
The rope used may be the wrong type (eg rotating FSWR).
The rope may be incorrectly fixed at the head of the boom.
The rope may be incorrectly fixed to the winch drum.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 46

Question 4

Name the two principal shapes of shackles.


Answer The D and bow shackle.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 51

Question 5

What must be marked on a shackle to be used for load handling?


Answer The shackle must be clearly marked with its WLL.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 52

Question 6

Which types of shackle should be used for multi-legged slings? Explain your answer.
Answer The bow shackle should be used, which allows more room around the inside of the crown
for sling legs. Pin section of the shackle to be placed on hook.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 53

Question 7

Why is unsafe to interchange components of a shackle?


Answers
Shackle failure could occur causing a load to drop.
Shackles could be of different WLLs or material grade.
Incorrect fitting or loose fitting.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 54

Question 8

Name two types of lifting eyebolts.


Answer Collared and incollared.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 55

Question 9

Is it permissible to reeve a sling through or two or more eyebolts and what effect does this have on the
eyebolts?
Answer No, slings should never be reeved through two or more eyebolts. The strain on the eyebolt is
doubled. This action could damage or bend the eyebolt.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 56

Question 10

Which type of eyebolt should be used for lifts where the pull on the cling is off centre to the axis of the
eyebolt?
Answer A collared eyebolt.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 57

Question 11

What precautions should be taken when using a single eyebolt for lifting?
Answer Ensure that the eyebolt is firmly tightened and secured to prevent unwinding when load is
suspended.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 59

Page 47

Question 12

Select the correct method of using eyebolts with


a two-legged sling.
Answer Correct answer is C

Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 58


Question 13

Why is important to mouse a lifting hook or seize the pin of a shackle?


Answer This action will stop the dislodging of loads from the hook and the shackle pin from unscrewing.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 60

Question 14

What should a lifting ring and the slings attached to it have in common?
Answer the lifting ring and the sling should have equal WLL.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 61

Question 15

What defects can occur in lifting rings, eyebolts and shackles? List two defects.
Answers
More than 10 per cent wear
For a lifting ring five per cent wear
Gouged, cut or nicked
Stretched or elongated
Twisted or kinked
No rated capacity (SWL)/WLL displayed and/or legible
Exposure to excessive heat
Fractures
Incorrect fitting pins.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 62

Question 16

If a lifting ring or shackle is placed on a hook and it does not hang freely, what does this indicate?
Answer The shackle or lifting ring is too small for the hook.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 63

Question 17

What will condemn a hook from use? List two defects.


Answers Cuts, gouges more than 10 per cent
Crack, twists and overloaded hook
Exposed to excessive heat (2800C)
The bill has been stretched more than five per cent.
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 66

Page 48

Question 18

What details are displayed on a spreader-lifting beam? List at least three.


Answers
Tare weight of the beam
WLL
Approval plate
Registration number
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 72

Media application

Practical session

Explain to the trainee the method of determining WLL of a lifting hook.

Explain to the trainee the method to prevent slings dislodging from a lifting hook.

Explain to the trainee the reasons for spinning lifting hook.

Show the trainee the types of shackles used for lifting purposes and the WLL markings required for lifting.

Show the trainee the types of eyebolts used for lifting purposes and the method of use.

Demonstrate to the trainee the method of using shackles.

Trainers notes

SECTION 30
CALCULATION
Points for trainer

Ensure the trainee understands basic mathematics and arithmetic with the use of a calculator.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

What is the weight of 25mm thick steel plate, 3 metres long and 2 metres wide? Note: Structural steel
weighs 7840kg per cubic metre.
Answer
Weight of steel plate

= 25mm (convert to metres) x 3m x 2m x 7840kg


= 0.025m x 3m x 2m x 7840kg
= 1176kg
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 95

Page 49

Question 2

What is the weight of a 25mm thick steel plate, 3 metres long and 3 metres wide? Note: Structural steel
weighs 7840kg per cubic metre.
Answer
Weight of steel plate

= 25mm (convert to metres) x 3m x 3m x 7840kg


= 0.025m x 3m x 3m x 7840kg
= 1764kg
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 96

Question 3

What is the weight of a 1.5 cubic metre concrete kibble filled with concrete, if the tare weight of the
kibble is 600kg? Note: Concrete weighs 2400kg per cubic metre.
Answer
Weight of concrete kibble

= 1.5 cubic metres x 2400kg + 600kg (tare)


= 4200kg
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 97

Question 4

What is the weight of a 2 cubic metre concrete kibble filled with concrete if the tare weight of the kibble
is 700kg? Note: Concrete weighs 2400kg per cubic metre.
Answer
Weight of concrete kibble

= 2 cubic metres x 2400kg +700kg (tare)


= 5500kg
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 98

Question 5

What is the weight of a 50mm thick steel plate, 5 metres long and 2 metres wide? Note: Structural steel
weighs 7840kg per cubic metre.
Answer
Weight of steel plate

= 50mm (convert to metres) x 5m x 2m x 7840kg


= 0.05m x 5m x 2m x 3m x 7840kg
= 3920kg
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 99

Question 6

What is the weight of a 50mm thick steel plate, 3 metres long and 3 metres wide? Note: Structural steel
weighs 7840kg per cubic metre.
Answer
Weight of steel plate

= 50mm (convert to metres) x 3m x 3m x 7840kg


= 0.05m x 3m x 3m x 7840kg
= 3528kg
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 100

Question 7

What is the weight of a 25mm thick steel plate, 5 metres long and 2 metres wide? Note: Structural steel
weighs 7840kg per cubic metre.
Answer
Weight of steel plate

= 25mm (convert to metres) x 5m x 2m x 7840kg


= 0.025m x 5m x 2m x 7840kg
= 1960kg
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 101

Page 50

Question 8

One metre of universal beam weighs 125kg. One metre of scaffold plank weighs 7kg. One square metre of
mild steel plate weighs 156kg. Find the total weights of a load made up of the following:
4 universal beams each 8 metres long
15 scaffold planks each 4.4 metres long
2 mild steel plates 4 metres long and 0.5 metres wide.
Answer
Universal beams

= 4 x 8m x 125kg (weight)
= 4000kgs

Scaffold planks

= 15 x 4.4m x 7kg (weight)


= 462kgs

Mild steel plates

= 2 x 4m long x 0.5m wide x 156kg (weight)


= 624kgs

Total weight

= 4000kg + 462kgs + 624kgs


= 5086kgs
Reference: Written assessment for cranes question 102

Trainers notes

Page 51

APPENDIX (I)
TABLES OF MASSES
Points for trainer

Ensure the trainee understands the table of masses displayed in the learners guide.

Questions for trainee/s


Question 1

What is the mass (weight) of a cubic metre of hardwood?


Answer 1.1 tonne or 1000kg.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 57

Question 2

What is the mass (weight) of a cubic metre of water?


Answer 1.1 tonne or 1000kg.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 58

Question 3

What is the mass (weight) of a cubic metre of aluminium?


Answer 2.7 tonnes or 2700kgs.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 59

Question 4

What is the mass (weight) of a cubic metre of dry sand?


Answer 2 tonnes or 2000kgs.
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 60

Question 5

What is the mass (weight) of a cubic metre of concrete?


Answer 2.4 tonnes or 2400kgs
Reference: Oral/written assessment question 61

Media application

Practical session

Point out some items and loads on site and estimate their mass or weight in kilograms using calculation
and the table of masses.

Trainers notes

Page 52

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