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Engaging the Disengaged: How English Teachers can Effectively


Accommodate Students with ADHD

Patrick Mulier
May 10th 2015
TE 408
ISearch Paper

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Setting the Stage
The classroom in which I held my case study and research on differentiated instruction was set in
a Bath middle school, a small public rural school a few miles north of Lansing Michigan. The city of
Bath is a small farming township, consisting of just over 11,000 residents, primarily white, and some
suburban homes at its center. It was a 7th grade English Language Arts class, with its focus being very
introductory in the reading and writing of various genres in the English language. For instance there was
a Drama unit in which students listened to several theatrical-plays and identified literary elements at work
in the texts, and another unit was writing for social justice, where students researched and wrote a
problem-solution paper on a problem in the world.
A typical day of class consisted of students walking into the room, pulling out a short article
among a collection of them and reading it for a recorded 60-seconds, recording their number of errors and
number of words read. Students were daily practicing their fluency of English reading, and worked to
increase their reading skill levels. After that the teacher would have the students read from a text in class
and then respond to it in a whole class discussion. Theyd be assigned to record their ideas on a graphic
organizer which had prompted questions. These organizers were often composed in book report
formats, where theyd identify the plot, a theme, and various other literary elements in the story. Preservice teacher Mr. Cochran and myself would join the class on Tuesdays and Thursdays and execute a
lesson we had prepared. Wed still teach the texts assigned in the school curriculum, but we implemented
more creative activitiessuch as singing a creation myth while playing the guitar, then having students
individually draw that story on an ancient urnwhile always working to follow the Common Core State
Standards. Most of the students were in this 7th grade class because of their age (at 12-13 years old), and
some students were moved in and out of it due to their academic performances.

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Findings from My Interview with Corey
Are you ready for our interview Corey? I questioned one morning, as the two of us prepared to
step into the hall and inhabit the lobby for our interview. There was a drafted list of about a dozen
questions I was ready to ask him. Yeah, lets go, Corey replied, picking up his things.
The first question I asked Corey went along the lines of do you like your English class? Why or
why not? pretty quickly I gathered some of the main reasons why he, and many other students, are
turned off to the English Language Arts. No, its boring. I hate reading. I never get to read books I want
to read, and the ones in class are boring. I like video games instead. Corey found no enjoyment or
interest in engaging in a book. This was partly because many of the texts in class just didnt interest him;
they had little relevance or importance to his own life; it was something he was just told to do in class.
Are there any books you do want to read? I questioned him. Yeah, he said, his eyes brightening up,
I want to learn about Martin Luther King and black history. Corey was interested and totally willing to
read a book about Dr. King and the African American Civil Rights movement, he expressed to me, but the
class didnt allow him to explore that interest, it only imposed texts hed never heard of. I asked him why
he wanted to read that, and he said, my friend Marco is black, and we were talking about how we never
read books about black people. Great point. Literature on ethnic minorities, especially ones relating to
students in the school, were rarely touched upon in Baths 7th curriculum. Corey also shows us the need to
give students autonomy in the choosing of their texts. Theyll surely read what they want to read.
Part of Coreys problem with English class is that he is unused to reading books, but very well
versed in video game texts. The latter are more fun to him because their interactive and he gets to play
with friends. I propose that we teach middle school students to analyze a video game as if it were a book,
and use them as bridges into developing their reading of other types of literature (like books or plays). A
vast majority of (primarily) boys are captivated by video games. I believe our disengaged book haters
would change take a 180 degree turn, If we analyzed their games as texts with literary elements and them
showed them how books and video games are more similar than different. For example, both have people

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interactively responding to the text, and both are communal because they can be used in small usergroups. Corey and his friends would be deeply enthralled to play and study the video game experience in
class. Its a literacy highly relevant to their lives.
Heres another question I asked Corey that brought a harvest of insight: what is your favorite
subject in school... And why? Coreys response was similar to that of many boys in his grade. When Id
ask some of the boys what theyd done over the weekend (at different points throughout the year) theyd
respond with I played basketball, or games outside or I made a fort in my basement. Exercise,
games and sports were commonplace. Corey responded to my question, Gym class is the best. I just
have a lot of energy and want to run around and play sports. I cant sit still in English class. I lose focus,
and I just want to be moving. It began to dawn on me that Corey had some form of Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder. And more than that he was a boy that learned best in action, not sitting passively
in a classroom. Interesting, I said to Corey, Im similar. Are there any ways you think we can change
English class to make it more physically active and thus engaging, like your PE class? Corey was alight
with ideas. They were solutions thatd fit any other energy-bounding, ADHD-prescribed kids like him.
You could have us do pushups as a reward or punishment for those of us who want it Like the teacher
can say drop down and give me ten if Im late, Id love that! And I can read or focus a lot better with
gum in my mouth. Or a squishy ball to squeeze. Corey presents wisdom to the teacher with class full of
restless students: think of ways to get their energy out. Coreys ideas could work. Teachers can also have
their students take work breaks and do stretch exercises and do jumping jacks. They can have students
walk around the room and share their work with students during activities instead of just sitting, (gallery
walks). One thing is certain, our ADHD-labeled students who need more moving and experiential
learning, like my friend Corey, would certainly benefit from English teachers creating new and innovative
activities that are more kinesthetically active.
My interview with Corey was progressing wonderfully. He had many things to say, and I was
writing at a furious pace, happy with his ideas. Okay Corey, Ive gotten a pretty good sense of who you

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are as a learner. Now a final question, are there any frustrations or problems you face in English class
that you wish could change? A furrow began to settle upon Coreys brow. Nodding slowly he retorted,
yeah, sometimes I feel bad when I get in trouble from the teacher for making jokes or talking to my
friends during class. She doesnt understand, I just like to make people laugh, thats not a bad thing!
Corey, I came to learn, is a naturally humorous and social human being, like many of the rest of us.
Putting out the flame of his humor and socializing tendency may seem like a good thing to a teacher, as
they are getting control of the class, but to the students, its dehumanizing. I dont like how were
always were so often expected to be like robots in class, always silent and submissive to the teacher,
Corey added. Even though some students do better with such class-structure, Coreys example shows us
that teachers need to be careful how they treat the trouble-makers, goof-offs, and chatter-boxes in their
classrooms. When we think disciplining them is doing them good, we are often hurting them and
rejecting their learning style. To accommodate such learners, we can approach ADHD studentsoften
tagged as disruptivewith a positive attitude, seeing them not as bad, but as different. We can also
take pedagogical measures to help them flourish. We can give those students the option to work with
others on normally individual assignments, allowing them the space for the needed dialogue. We can
make class presentations of students ideas more normal, giving them space to speak their mind and
make the class laugh in a more academically acceptable mannerinstead of talking when the teacher
needs silence. Even constructing actives that allow students more agency to write original texts of their
ownsuch as writing a script acting out their interpretation of a scene from a bookand then share with
the class. All of the students with their unique writing voiceseven the jokesters like Coreywill shine!

Research Findings on Helping Students with ADD/ADHD

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As I sorted through my interview with Corey it struck me that he displayed many symptoms of a
student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Discorder (ADHD). Although it is unknown to me if Corey
is actually diagnosed with this psychological disorder, I decided to put him under this category, as well as
being an unmotivated and disengaged student, who displays more social, kinesthetic and spatial
intelligences in class. Moreover, because Ive encountered so many students like Corey, I decided to
focus my research on differentiating instruction on how to more effectively teach and accommodate
students with ADD/ADHD. The goals of my research became two-fold: (1) what general knowledge
about ADHD should educators know to be prepared for their students, and (2) what are some practical
strategies English teachers can implement to more effectively engage and teach students with
ADD/ADHD? The findings I will soon discuss are points I find most important, because theyve arisen
across multiple sources. I believe these findings are highly beneficial for all secondary teachers to
consider, because as the AACAP estimates, all teachers have at least one child with ADHD (Dunne 2007).
According to Scholastic, teachers have ascribed an estimated 25 percent of students having attention
problemsthis issue is prevalent in all of our classrooms! (10 Common Challenges and Best Practices
for Teaching Students with ADHD 2015).
To begin, many of the articles I took to reading about teaching students with ADD/ADHD spoke
about the need for teachers to have a basic knowledge of the psychological disorder. We may first deduce
that the disorder is not just a student being unwilling to learn in class, but there are inhibitive processes
happening in their brains which make them incapable of staying calm and focused in the classroom. Like
any other student, they want to engage and enjoy learning, but their minds inherently wont let them.
Often times a student will need medication for the disorder, but the teacher must be aware that its not
their place to make that call. Instead, itd be more useful to be in communication with the parents of the
differentiated students, as well as the school counselor, so as to best know where the student is at and the
teachers role in their development. In fact, modifying class instruction and accommodating the ADHDstruggling student may breed just as much success as if the student had received medication (Top 10

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Common Challenges 2015). Applying a few class-changes would be fixing the problem at another
angle. Lastly, its important for teachers to know the symptoms of ADHD, so that they may identify a
student with the disorder and make changes to meet their needs accordingly. According to Jeanne Segal,
Melinda Smith and Lawrence Robinson in their article Signs and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder
in Kids, ADHD is characterized in three ways: inattentiveness, (doesnt pay attention to details, makes
careless mistakes, has trouble staying focused but is easily distracted, gets bored and misplaces
homework), hyperactivity (constantly fidgets, often leaves his or her seat when quiet sitting is expected,
moves around constantly, talks excessively, has difficulty relaxing) and impulsivity (acts without thinking,
blurts out answers in class, often interrupts others, and displaying an inability to keep powerful emotions
in check), (Smith 2015). Though their brainpower is there, they just cant seem to focus on the material
your working hard to deliver, and they take time from instruction and disrupt the class (Segal 2015). This
is why teachers need to be ready to spot a student with ADHD. Solving it will benefit the focus and
learning experience of all people in the classroom, because both the teacher and the classmates of the
child with ADHD wont be distracted. And teachers also need to know that they can make all the
difference in the world with how a child feels about himself or herself, as Beth Kaplanek said.
Educators can play a big part in the success of students with ADHD. How do exactly do we teach a
student who wont settle down and listen? Mental health experts Jeanne Segal and Melinda Smith give us
an answer: With a lot of patience, creativity and consistency. As a teacher, your role is to evaluate each
childs individual needs and strengths. Then you can develop strategies that will help students with
ADD/ADHD focus, stay on task and learn to their full capabilities (Segal 2015). The next few
paragraphs will draw out some strategies that will help students do just that: reach their full potential.
Firstly, a teacher can make a big impact on students with ADHD by creating a class environment
with conditions that work to decrease distractions and keep the students on task. Diana Dunne puts it like
this Because children with ADHD do better when their lives are ordered and predictable, the most
important things teachers can do for those children is establish a calm, structured classroom environment

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with clear and consistent rules and regular classroom routines, (Dunne 2007). Such qualities of the class
atmosphereordered, predictable, calm structured, clear--which allow success for ADHD students, need
to become to core values of teachers who are accommodating students with ADHD. One way of
arranging such a calm and learning-conducive atmosphere is to eliminate distractions in the classroom (by
closing the door, turning off cell phones, closing the window if its noisy outside). And if the student
works best with sounds such as music or calming noises, allowing them to study with such conditions do
more help than harm in their classwork attentiveness. Moreover, placing a particular ADHD student
who needs his own work-spacein the back or the far edge of the class, to allow them to work more
undistractedly, will help them stay focused. Seating students strategically can have a big impact on their
learning (Segal 2015). For example, placing a student with ADHD close a role model student (or even
the teacher) can increase their engagement and productivity by taking after their example. The teacher
can also create a classroom culture where its rules and norms are clearly and concisely laid out at the start
of the class. Students will know what behaviors will be rewarded and expected, and which ones will reap
negative consequences. Their awareness of these class-laws will solve many behavior problems as
students are held accountable for their actions throughout the year. And if a ADHD student is being
disruptive in class, making the teacher-move to stand next to their student, or giving them an
unobtrusive cue (such as touching their shoulder) usually sends a signal to the student to quiet down and
get back on task. If the student doesnt stop, educational-writer Kellie Hayden in her article Top 5
Classroom Management Strategies encourages us to take the student into the hallway and ask them Are
you okay? Usually the student will open up on an issue in their life, and the problem gets solved. If
they are defiant, Kellie says, send them to the principals office (Hayden 2014). The negative
reinforcement will get the message through. And creating such a class atmosphere of accountability and
respect works well to keep ADHD students engaged in class.
Secondly, teachers can meet the needs of students diagnosed with ADHD by modifying their
pedagogy and in-class instruction style in various ways. As we touched upon earlier, the forgetfulness
and lack of paying attention in ADHD students may be solved by communicating everything the students

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need to know to succeed clearly, concisely, and repetitively each day. This includes writing the days
learning objectives on the board (and speaking it), giving them explicit instructions for each task they
need to do for assignments, having them playback to the teacher what needs to be done for homework,
and then summarizing the key points at the end of class lessons (Segal 2015). Such repetition and review,
when spoken comprehensibly, will give ADHD students exactly the structure and support they need to
keeping up with everything in class. Moreover, Hayden encourages teachers to do the following for
keeping their students engaged in class: keep the lesson moving. If you have a forty-five minute period,
plan three different activities. Try to get them up out of their seats at least once during the class period.
Those students with pent up energy will thank you for it (Hayden 2014). Having short, consistent, and
frequent breaks within each class period allows many benefits for students, especially for the hyperactive
ones. It allows them the necessary rest for their tired minds, it keeps blood flowing to their brains, and it
allows more effective learning to occur due to the shorter activities. And it may be done by standing up,
stretching, doing aerobics or breathing exercises, or letting the class-activities give students opportunities
to move about the classroom. Class instruction may further be modified to capture ADHD students
attention and engage them to learn, employing all of their senses. This may be done by teaching with
visuals: charts, pictures, color coding (using color-coded highlighters during a reading activity), outlines,
videos, songs, and other forms of digital media. Not only will these captivate students, but so will
incorporating different and creative sorts of activities. Mike Anderson, who won the national Milken
Educator award for excellence in teaching, recommends that we engage students by making our activities
more meaningful, purposeful, fun and collaborative. He says when youre creating activities from the
perspectives of your students, you might find yourself inventing games, creating class debates or making
videos with them, (Ferlazzo 2007). Students who struggle with ADHD, like Corey, love having fun in
class. Mental Health Expert Jeanne Segal confirms this notion, many students with ADHD do well with
competitive games or other activities that are rapid and intense, (Segal 2015). They also do well
working in small groups, instead of big groups, because its less distracting. Educators need to continue
to think about what pedagogical choices they can make to most effectively engage their students.

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Lastly, there are specific accommodations a teacher can make to increase the engagement of
ADHD students and their success in the classroom. These are the one-on-one actions teachers carry out
with their student to meet their needs. Vice principle Jim Peterson advises us to do walk and talks with
our struggling students, in which we walk and talk them through the successful completion of one small
task at a time (instead all they need to accomplish for the entire year), affirm them in their self-efficacy of
having completed a specific learning goal, and then repeat the process another time with a different
academic task. As students continue to realize they can work hard and achieve highly, success breed
success and they become confident and highly motivated learners (Ferlazzo 2007). When a teacher
gives individualized help to ADHD students, or delegates to tutor the one on one work with them, the
students success flourishes. And their long term projects need to be divided up into segments and
assigned a completion-goal for each segment (Segal 2015). Furthermore, Beth Kaplanek reminds us of
the power of giving rewards and positive reinforcement to students for specific behaviors: it encourages
students and helps them believe they can achieve in school. She praised a special education teacher
who helped her son for being the most caring teacher who pointed out his successes whenever she
could The best thing a teacher can do, Kaplanek states, is to look for the small milestones with kids
with ADHD (Weaver). Indeed, acknowledging student successes, in an immediate and consistent
manner, can work miracles for the growth of a student with ADHD. Another accommodation strategy
teachers can take, which is consistent in research, is helping the student with ADHD become more
organized. Helping them follow a system in which they are writing down their assignments and
important dates (by using a calendar or a daily planner) will have powerful results in increasing the
success of students. Even a master notebook or a three-ringed binder can be to the the scatter-brained
learner a helpful tool in keeping their materials together and thus having an improved learning
experience. ADHD students benefit from these supports. And knowing that they will often turn things in
late or forget to do homeworkaccepting their late work and giving partial credit for partial work will
also help the students receive the grace and help they need to also be achieve highly in the classroom
(Segal 2015).

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Applying the Findings to my Vango Lesson Plan


I sat down with a cup of coffee and pondered the question, how can I change my lesson plan on
Vango: Between Earth and Sky to be more suited to Coreys learning needs? As I reread the old lesson
plan, which had students construct a sequel of what happens next following the novel, many lightbulbs
when off in my head about how Coreys disengaged and ADHD learning style could be accommodated.
To start, knowing that Corey may not have remembered much about the book as a whole because
it may not have received his whole attention, I saw it fit to reawaken his prior knowledge on the book,
and the necessary elements to the project. So in the act of introducing the project to students Id have a
whole-class review discussion on what they remembered about the end of the novel, about the different
characters who can inform Vangos identity, on characterization, and lastly on the basics of readerresponse theory. Then knowing that a clear, concise and explicit layout of the project that is to be done
would help my ADHD students who need a sense of structure and directionId write down these blue
prints on the board, and give instructions each day about the tasks theyd need to complete. Before each
day, I purposed that that my students would be fully aware of what work was expected of them, especially
because the tasks and learning objectives would be written on the board. Itd also be clear to them what
materials theyd need for the day. These ideas are great! I thought, Corey and the rest of my students
wont be able to say I didnt know what we needed to do or I forgot my homework because it was
iterated succinctly each day!
As I grazed my eyes over day one, upon the part where students gather into groups and make
decision for how theyd craft their project, I was encouragedthis small group work and autonomydriven planning process is good for a student with ADHD! I knew Corey would be more engaged
working with a couple students than on his own. And I knew if I gave him freedom with them to be
creative about their additional ending sequel, in any form/genre his group desired, hed be all about it! So

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I thought, Ill walk over to Coreys small group and be there to help like a guard rail in case he leads
them to be too chatty and unproductive and like a counselor to listen and offer advice on their project
as its needed. This sort of individualized support, like a walk-and-talk, I rationed, is exactly what
research calls for to increase the engagement and success of students like Corey with ADHD. Even if Im
just there for 2 minutes, my presence and words can profoundly influence the trajectory of their project
for the better.
Day two was the next object of my focus. Hmm, I thought, this day seems like it has a lot of
disciplined writing and thinking involved. Corey will get restless. Considering the nature of ADHD and
his need to take a break from the intensive intellectual work, I thought, lets add a 5 minute stretch to keep
the blood flowing and mind in the game! I knew letting Coreys hyperactivity, which expresses itself in
his love for gym class, would be best accommodated by a 5 minute break. As I continued to look through
day two, I realized, wow, this authors statement seems to be super complex! I really want my students to
reflect on theses learning objectives so instead of cutting down the prompt, Ill help Corey and other
disengaged students stay on task by walking them through the writing process. This meant beginning the
activity by telling the students, Okay class, pull out a sheet of paper and think of yourself as the author
who is writing a statement to your audience and critics. They want to know your rationale behind your
work. So answer the question in just a few sentences, why did I make the choices I made in creating
this sequel to Vango? What prompted me? As soon as you finish writing your thoughts, look up to me and
youll answer the second part of your authors statement. After a few minutes, and having written that
question on the board with a number 1 next to it, Id go onto the second question in the authors
statement, walking them through the prompt with explicit instructions. Hm, Corey may likely stop
listening. Ill be sure to stand near him at this time to make him more engaged! These strategies were
directly recommended by researchers on the teaching students with ADHD. I was on the right track.
Day three, I thought. Its the final day. How can unmotivated, inattentive, hyperactive social
learners be best reached today? The first thing I thought was, yes! What a great way to cure Coreys
boredom. The fast paced, competitive and energy-releasing nature of these oral presentations are perfect

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for engaging Corey. So I assumed hed flourish by being given this opportunity to get out of his desk and
apply his spatial intelligence. If Corey and his group were to give a skit, do spoken work poetry, or some
other creative genre in front of the class, surely hed benefit from this sort of active learning. As I
considered how his attention span still may be short while listening to presentations, and hed need to be
held accountable to reach the attentive listening and questioning learning goal, I thoughtwhy not
have them write down their thoughts after each presentation? So there it is, students would be more
focused listeners, more engaged in the learning, by writing down their reactions and questions to their
classmates presentations. This would also create lively short discussions as students would share their
ideas after the presentations. And lastly, I thought, sipping the last of my coffee, what better opportunity
do I have than now to give positive reinforcement to my students? Allowing students to hear my positive
feedback to their presentations (by word of mouth in the moment, and by written feedback in their final
assessments), as well as students feedback, would be a good way to affirm Corey and other students
become more engaged. Pointing out how they succeeded, the parts of their work that worked, would
increase their self-confidence. Then I thought maybe when class is over I can tell Corey how I
appreciated the hard work he put into the project, as well as his attentiveness in class, if I do see that
occurring. Rewarding his good work and positive learning-behavior, I reckoned, is a surefire way to
reaching him effectively as a student with ADHD.

Vango Lesson Plan


Patrick Mulier
February 15th, 2015
TE 408

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Lesson Plan: What Happens Next with Vango?


Modified to fit the learning style of a differentiated learner (Corey), who is characterized by
disengagement, ADHD, distracted, bored, overly-social with guy friends and hates to read.
# of Days

Prior
Knowledge

Students have read the Book Vango Between Earth and Sky and are familiar with the
content of the book. They have already studied various characters personalities and
development in the text; they have already begun thinking about how the multiple
characters add perspective upon Vangos identity. Students have some understanding
with literary elements such as characterization. Students have already studied reader
response theory. Theyve worked with argumentative writing before. (due to ADHD
and disengagement Corey will likely have thought little on these subjects and will need
refreshers)

Lesson
Objective(s)

Students take the role of author and director of Vango by furthering the story thats
already established with their own addition of what happens next. Students engage
with multiple characters (including Vango) using what they already know about each
character (their personality, motives, experiences, ect.) cited with textual evidence to an
argumentative piece that they believe would likely have happened next in the story. In
small groups creatively engage in a format of their choice; such as a written-epilogue, a
scripted skit, a sneak-peak trailer of movie sequel, an essay, a poem, or a song. (Corey
will appreciate this because its fun and meaningful to complete his assignment in the
genre of his choice, and as a teacher I may recommend his group does a more
physical activity like a skit). Students will write a short authors statement
afterwards to justify their choices for their work, and how they further answer the
question who is Vango by adding meaning to his identity. Students interpretations of
Vango and their choices of how it would perpetuate reflects the reader response theory
lens which they are engaging the text with.

Lesson
Assessment

Students presentations to the class will be assessed, their written pieces, as well as the
authors statements to be turned in. Within each of the three, the work will be graded
on their inclusion and integration multiple characters, and whether or not the characters
are consistent with the rest of the novel by textual parallels; their work should be a
reflection of their own creative interpretation of the storys progression (which would
include their own thoughts, ideas, and personal experiences); students adequately
justify their choices for the text and work to further develop the identity of Vango, (for
the essential question). A rubric on these three main elements will be used to assess, as
well as space for written feedback from the teacher.

Standards

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.3
Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations)
develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or
develop the theme.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.1
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says
explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.5
Analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within

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it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects
as mystery, tension, or surprise.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.4
Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically
such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development,
substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
Materials
Needed

Pens, notebooks, Vango: Between Earth and Sky, additional creative tools and materials
(camera, costumes, markers, paint/canvas, instrument, magazines for a collage) Layout
for the students at the beginning of each day what materials they will need to
successfully complete each task.

Time

Learning Task

Methods or Procedures

Students fully understand the prompt.


Theyve constructed a definition
(theoretical and practical) of
characterization and reader response
theory. By seeing the teachers model
project as well as proposed ideas, they
see how these two can play out in
creating a additional ending to Vango.

Clarify the assignment prompt, with


whole class give them room for questions.
Show them my own response to the
assignment (an exemplary-model of what
it could look like). Share possible ideas and
artistic mediums with which to do the
project. Define on the chalk-board
characterization and reader response with
the class (collectively), show how these
elements are at work in my modeladditional ending (to scaffold). Propose
ideas for students to possibly roll with and
encourage creativity.

Day 1
15 minutes

*(Informing students in advance to


reread the last chapter will give
disengaged students a firmer grasp and
preparedness for the project)

*All the steps in the assignment required of


the students are written on the board, and
the learning objectives are clearly defined
35 minutes

Gather into small groups and


collaborate to decision-make and plan
the project, entering into into the
collaborative and creative writing
process.

Have students choose their partners,


forming groups of 3-5, have them spend 5
to 10 minutes brainstorming, configuring
and proposing to the teacher their story.
Theyll consider central tenants of the
prompt: (1) which characters to analyze and
(Allowing students to work in small
integrate (using textual support), (2) how
groups collaboratively will engage Corey they will let their own personal
more deeply in the learning experience
interpretations and subjective experiences
because he is a social learner. Giving
to influence their work, (3) how these will
him freedom to choose the direction of
factors will further add meaning to the
the assignment will breed a sense of
essential question who is Vango? They
ownership and thus motivation to work begin to write their additional ending. If
hard on this assignment.
students need any additional tools (such as
a camera, magazines, or an instrument) they
can delegate people to bring in materials for

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next class.
Day 2
35 minutes

Continue to collaboratively and


creatively write additional ending text
to Vango, utilizing any necessary
materials that were brought into class.

Students gather into their small groups and


continue to work on their projects, writing
it, reviewing it and refurbishing it to be
ready to present to the class.

After their additional ending is written,


the teacher has students stand up and do
some stretches, taking a five minute
break to prepare their minds for the next
activity.
15 minutes

Students engage in reflective writing of


their what happens next project. They
fill the shoes of the author and consider
the authors choices, think about how
reader-response theory became
manifest in their work, and also how
they characterized in order to develop
a theme.
(give clear and concise instruction to
reinforce the ideas well for ADHD
students, and write the prompt on the
board)

Students individually write a one paged


authors statement about the piece they
collaboratively made. Theyll write to the
audience of the public and literary critics,
considering the three questions: (1) why did
they make the choices they did? (2) How
did their own personal thoughts and
experiences play into their interpretation
and creation of the additional ending, (3)
how their inclusion and integration of
certain characters added meaning to
Vangos mysterious identity. Students must
include 2-4 textual references from Vango
to justify their decisions, in order to show it
has alignment with the original story.
Students finish their authors statement for
homework, and come in ready to present
the next day.
Guide the students through these tasks one
at a time, instead of all at once. Walk over
to Corey to make sure he understands the
prompt and assist as necessary.

Day 3
45 minutes

Students practice their oral presentation


skills to build confidence and ability in
public speaking. They practice citing
strong textual evidence from Vango in the
authors statement. They feel valued and
proud of the work they completed with
their group. Listening students practice
attentive listening and questioning skills.
Positive Reinforcement:

Small group presentations what happens


next story to the whole class, then share their
authors statement, justifying their decisions
for its creation, and allow some time for
questions. Groups take 4-7 minutes per
presentation in front of class. After class they
turn everything in.
Coreys spatial/kinesthetic intelligence is
accessed as he gives his class presentation

Mulier 17

*(Affirm with Corey and other students


(instead of merely learning in a sit-still
with encouraging words before and after manner at his desk).
they present, such as Im excited for your
work, I loved this about your project!)

Works Cited
Dunne, Diane Weaver. "How Can Teachers Help Students With ADHD?" Education World. N.p., 20 Sept. 2007.
Web. 10 May 2015.
Ferlazzo, Larry. "Response: Several Ways to Connect With Disengaged Students." Education Week. Editorial
Projects in Education, 29 May 2007. Web. 10 May 2015.

Mulier 18

Hayden, Kellie. "Top 5 Classroom Management Strategies." Bright Hub Education. Bright Hub Inc., 17 Oct.
2014. Web. 10 May 2015.
Segal, Jeanne, and Melinda Smith. "Teaching Students with ADD / ADHD." : Tips for Teachers to Help Students
Succeed at School. Helpguide.org, Apr. 2015. Web. 10 May 2015.
Smith, Melinda, Lawrence Robinson, and Jeanne Segal. "ADD / ADHD in Children." : Signs and Symptoms of
Attention Deficit Disorder in Kids. Helpguide.org, Apr. 2015. Web. 10 May 2015.
"10 Common Challenges and Best Practices for Teaching Students With ADHD | Scholastic.com." Scholastic
Teachers. Scholastic Inc., n.d. Web. 10 May 2015.