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Rumus-rumus berikut boleh membantu anda menjawab soalan. Simbol-simbol yang


diberi adalah yang biasa digunakan.
The following formulae may be helpful in answering the questions. The symbols given
are the ones commonly used.
ALGEBRA
b b 2 4ac
2a

1.

x =

2.

am an = am + n
m

mn

log c b
log c a

8.

log a b =

9.

Tn = a + (n 1)d

10.

Sn =

11.

Tn = ar n 1

n
{2a + (n 1)d }
2

3.

a a = a

4.

(am)n = am n

5.

loga mn = loga m + loga n

12.

Sn =

a ( r n 1)
a (1 r n )
=
, r 1
r 1
1 r

6.

loga

m
= loga m loga n
n

13.

S =

a
, |r|<1
1 r

7.

loga mn = n loga m

KALKULUS (CALCULUS)
1.

y = uv

4.

dv
dy
du
+v
=u
dx
dx
dx

2.

Luas di bawah lengkung


(Area under a curve)
b

y dx atau (or)
a

du
dv
v
u
u dy
= dx 2 dx
y= ,
v dx
v

x dy
a

3.

5.

dy
du
dy
=

dx
dx
du

Isipadu janaan (Volume of revolution)


b

2
y dx atau (or)

a
b

2
x dy

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STATISTIK (STATISTICS)

Wi I i
Wi

1.

x
N

7.

I =

2.

fx
f

8.

Pr =

n!
(n r ) !

3.

( x x)
N

9.

Cr =

n!
(n r ) ! r !

P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B)

2
f ( x x)
f

10.

4.

11.

p ( X = r) =

12.

Min (Mean) = np

13.

14.

Z =

2
x
x
N

5.

6.

2
fx
x
f

NF
C
m = L+
fm

1
2

I =

Cr p r q n r , p + q = 1

npq
X

Q1
100
Q0

GEOMETRI (GEOMETRY)
1.

Jarak (Distance)

4.
1

= ( x1 x 2 ) 2 + ( y1 y 2 ) 2

2.

3.

Luas segi tiga (Area of triangle) =


( x1 y 2 + x 2 y 3 + x 3 y1 ) ( x 2 y1 + x 3 y 2 + x1 y 3 )

Titik tengah (Midpoint)


y + y2
x + x2
(x, y) = 1
, 1

2
2

5.

Titik yang membahagi suatu


tembereng garis
(A point dividing a segment of a line)

6.

r =

ny1 + my2
nx + mx2
(x, y) = 1
,

m+n
m+n

x2 + y2

xi + y j
x2 + y2

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TRIGONOMETRI (TRIGONOMETRY)
1.

8.

Panjang lengkok, s = j
Arc length, s = r

2.

Luas sektor, L =

sin ( A B ) = sinA cosB cosA sinB

9.

j2

Area of sector =

cos ( A B ) = cosA cosB m sinA sinB


r

5.

tan ( A B) =

11.

tan 2A =

12.

a
b
c
=
=
sin A
sin B
sin C

13.

a2 = b2 + c2 2bc kosA

sek 2 A = 1 + tan 2 A

sec 2 A = 1 + tan 2 A
kosek 2 A = 1 + kot 2 A
2

tan A tan B
1 m tan A tan B

10.

sin 2 A + kos 2 A = 1
sin 2 A + cos 2 A = 1

4.

kos ( A B) = kosA kosB m sinA sinB

3.

sin ( A B ) = sinA kosB kosA sinB

2 tan A
1 tan 2 A

a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cosA

cosec A = 1 + cot A

14.
6

sin 2A = 2 sinA kosA


=

sin 2A = 2 sinA cosA


7.

Luas segi tiga (Area of triangle)

kos 2A

= kos2 A sin2 A
= 2 kos2 A 1
= 1 2 sin2 A

cos 2A

= cos2 A sin2 A
= 2 cos2 A 1
= 1 2 sin2 A

ab sin C

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