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REFFERENCES:

1. Fogler, H.S., 2004. Elements of Chemical Reaction


Engineering. 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, New Delhi.

2. Harriott, P., 2003. Chemical Reactor Design, Marcel


Dekker, Inc., NY.
3. Nauman, B.E., 2008. Chemical Reactor Design,
Optimization, and Scale Up. 2nd ed. John Wiley &
Sons, Inc.,New Jersey.

Factors to be taken into account in determining


the type of reactor

Homogeneity/heterogeneity
Reaction rate
Reaction temperature and pressure
side reactions
Strictness of control of the temperature

SINGLE
PHASE
SLURRY
REACTOR

REACTOR

MULTIPHASE

FLUIDIZED BED
REACTOR
FIXED BED
REACTOR

Situations where adoption of a multiphase reaction


process is unavoidable:

1. in the case where phase difference occurs


among reactants, impurities in feed,
heterogeneous catalysts and microorganisms:
1. in the case where phase difference occurs
amongst products and byproducts

Examples of case 1

a) gas-solid or liquid-solid reactions;


b) gas-liquid reactions;

c) reactions between immiscible liquids;


d) solid-solid reactions;
e) gas or liquid reactions with immobilized catalysts,
immobilized enzymes or micro-organisms.

Examples of case 2

a) Reactions forming gases or solids from liquids;


b) reactions forming liquids or solids from gases;
c) reactions forming gases or liquids from solids