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Gas Exchanges

Jennifer Bui

Gas exchanges in the LUNGS

In the lungs, oxygen and carbon


dioxide are exchanged in the
small air sacs which is known as
the alveoli at towards the end of
the bronchial tubes.

The alveoli are surrounded by


the capillaries.

When you inhale the oxygens


move from the alveoli to the
other surrounding capillaries and
into bloodstream.

Carbon dioxide comes out when

Gas exchanges with Body Cells


Oxygen is needed by cells to
get energy from organic
molecules for example
sugars, fatty acids, and
amino acids.
Oxygen is needed by cells.
The reason to this is to
extract energy from organic
molecules. For example such
as fatty acids, sugars, and
acids. Carbon dioxide is then
produced during this process
and should be disposed.

Gas Transport in the Blood: Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

When oxygen is transported it will mostly


attach to hemoglobin molecules.
This occurs inside the red blood cells, and
forms oxyhemoglobin. A tiny amount of
oxygen is dissolved and then carried in the
plasma.
Carbon dioxide is mostly transports in the
blood like a bicarbonate ion.
Around 20-30% of transported CO2 is
carry inside the red blood cells that are
bound to the hemoglobin.
Carbon dioxide carried in the red blood
cells will join along with the hemoglobin at
a different place than oxygen does. This
happens because it does not interrupt the
oxygen transport.

Breathing: Inhalation & Exhalation as a function of Volume (space) and


air pressure (diaphragm movement)

The thoracic cavity has a tiny, negative


pressure that assists in keeping the
airways of the lungs open.
The lung volume will expand in process
of inhaling as a result of contraction of
the diaphragm and muscles.
The pressure is decreased because the
increase in volume. This decrease of
pressure mainly in the thoracic cavity
makes the cavity pressure less than the
atmospheric pressure .
This pressure will allow air to rush into
the lungs when inhalation happens.

Brain Control of Breathing Rate (diaphragm


movement)

During inspiration the diaphragm and the


external intercostal muscles will contract.
The diaphragm will move downward which
increases the volume of the thoracic cavity.
This increase of volume will lower the air
pressure in our lungs.
Resting expiration in the diaphragm and
external intercostal muscles relaxes, whom
restores the thoracic cavity to its original
volume, and forcing air out of the lungs into
the atmosphere.

* Measuring Lung Capacity: Spirometer / Data and


Explanation

* Asthma and other Respiratory Disorders

Asthma has two main components that makes it


difficult to breathe: inflammation which is swelling
and excess mucus amongst the airways, the
second one is airway constriction known as
tightening of muscles around the airways.

Asthma is very common and is a chronic


respiratory disease.

You must

Treating both components of the disease is


necessary.

Sources
http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/gas-exchange-in-the-lungs
http://www.biologyreference.com/Fo-Gr/Gas-Exchange.html
https://www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/
the-respiratory-system-39/breathing-221/the-mechanics-of-human-breathin
g-838-12083/
http://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/Breathing.html
https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/resources/lung/naci/asthma-info/