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CHAPTER 2: TOURISM AS A LANGUAGE........................................................................

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Four Major Theoretical Perspectives on Tourism and Their Sociolinguistic Correlates............................................3

CHAPTER 3: PROPRIETIES OF THE LANGUAGE OF TOURISM....................................3


Stages of sight sacralization (MacCannall)......................................................................................................................3

Indexical transference........................................................................................................................................................3

Structure..............................................................................................................................................................................3

Tense....................................................................................................................................................................................4

Magic....................................................................................................................................................................................4

Lack of sender identification ...........................................................................................................................................4

Monologue...........................................................................................................................................................................4

Euphoria..............................................................................................................................................................................4

Tautology.............................................................................................................................................................................4

CHAPTER 4: TOURISM AS A LANGUAGE OF SOCIAL CONTROL.................................5


Tourism as a Language of Social Control in Prototypical Forms of Tourism..............................................................5

Tourism as a Language of Social Control in Contemporary Tourism..........................................................................6

The Linguistic Underpinnings (basis) of Tourism as a Language of Social Control...................................................7


Imperative in pre-trip situation........................................................................................................................................7
Imperative in on-trip situation.........................................................................................................................................7

Tourism as a Language of Social Control in Promotional Material..............................................................................7

Tourism as a Language of Social Control in Hotels and Resorts...................................................................................7


Hotels ..............................................................................................................................................................................7
Resorts.............................................................................................................................................................................8

Tourism as a Language of Social Control in Touring.....................................................................................................8


Touring at the site............................................................................................................................................................8
The Organized coach tours .............................................................................................................................................9
Adventure Tours .............................................................................................................................................................9
Walking tours...................................................................................................................................................................9

Orientalism..........................................................................................................................................................................9

CHAPTER 5: THE TOURIST AS A CHILD.........................................................................10


3 Rs.....................................................................................................................................................................................10
Romanticism..................................................................................................................................................................10
Regression......................................................................................................................................................................10
Rebirth...........................................................................................................................................................................10

3 Hs.....................................................................................................................................................................................11
Happiness.......................................................................................................................................................................11

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Hedonistic......................................................................................................................................................................11
Heliocentrism.................................................................................................................................................................11

3 Fs .................................................................................................................................................................................11
Fun.................................................................................................................................................................................11
Fantasy...........................................................................................................................................................................11
Fairy Tales.....................................................................................................................................................................12

3 Ss.....................................................................................................................................................................................12
Sea..................................................................................................................................................................................12
Sex ................................................................................................................................................................................12
Socialization..................................................................................................................................................................12

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Graham Dann
The language of Tourism
Chapter 2: Tourism as a Language
Four Major Theoretical Perspectives on Tourism and Their
Sociolinguistic Correlates

THEORETICAL SOCIOLINGUISTIC Explanation


APPROACHES CORRELATES or macro
models for tourism promotion
text
The authenticity perspective Language of authentications Tourism events as pure,
genuine; not superficial like the
every day life ones (ANTI-
TOURIST)
The strangerhood perspective Language of differentiation Normal life is different from
holiday
The play perspective Language of recreation Ludic, hedonistic, child
experience (POST-TOURIST)
The conflict perspective Language of appropriation How tourists perceive
“otherness”, domination of the
unknown

Chapter 3: Proprieties of the language of tourism


Stages of sight sacralization (MacCannall)
How does a sight become a tourist attraction?
Naming stage: the sight is authenticated or marked as worth of presentation.
Framing and elevation stage: boundaries are placed around the sight in order to protect and
enhance it. This stage emerges as the guide engages in welcoming conversation on various topics.
Enshrinement stage: attention becomes focused on every valuable attraction which is contained
within the boundaries of the sight.
Mechanical reproduction stage: photograph and souvenirs are made in order to make the sight
memorable and to encourage tourists to see the reality they depict.
Social reproduction stage: places and groups name themselves after the attraction is been set up.

Indexical transference
It is the connotative meaning transfer from the picture of the promoted product to the viewer.

Structure
The basic formats are: slogan, photograph, emblematic theme, purchasing formulae, written text.
The structure components are: headline, body copy, baseline, slogan, signature, which can be
combined in different skeletons and a few elements may miss. Usually ads play with semantic
opponent: such as happiness and sorrow; life and death and so on.

As far as language functions are concerned in Brochure: the first section is conative, the second one
both conative and informative, the last one just informative.

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Tense
Tourism in a sense, it is not only a journey through space but through time as well; from every day
present into the past and seldom into the future.
Tourists who simply are content to sit around a swimming pool to sunbathe have less time
constraints than the ones who have imparted timetable included in their package tour.
Denial of time: holiday as a symbolic inversion of every day life time in which the weekday
becomes the weekend. And the worker transformed himself into a person of leisure.
To time as standing still to eternal time: although the travel experience has already take place the
writer adopts the present tense (historical presen), a strategy to reinforce timelessness and to
involve the reader.
The past far superior to the present: it is taken on because of the nostalgia feeling, but it refers to
the myth as well with archetypes in opposition to modern life such as mountain, snow villages and
oceans. The destinations are described as immanent, eternal, limitless (e.g.: beaches vast and
desert).
Tense Switching: change from past tense to historic present is a typical features of storytelling in
museums.
Pointing to the future: the massage is direct to us: if we buy the product, we will change. The
action is projected in to the future.
The future is far from being restricted to the wonders of theme park technology. When the past is
projected as a desirable alternative to the present; the advertiser is actually selling the past to the
future.

Magic
Magic is an organizing mythology (=a set of beliefs) through which instant transformations can
take place without any other explanation than the power of magic itself.
“We can be magically transport out of nature and transformed into person other than ourselves”.
Tourism ads are in first place based on bewitchment, glamour or creation of envy.
“This is a special place, far from ordinary”.
An attempt to transform a hotel in an enchanted place is naming it for example Excalibur Hotel (Las
Vegas) with its obvious allusions to King Arthur.
“In the kingdom of Las Vegas stands a castle like no other. ’Tis a castle with a casino of epic
splendour”.
The nomenclature is a powerful element in the language of tourism. When an area is unattractive a
change of name can make the difference (E.g.: Swansea to Dylan Thomas, Buccaneer Bay).

Lack of sender identification


We don’t know who the speaker is, most of the time we are unaware of identities of the brochure
compiler.

Monologue
There is no direct relationship through sender and receiver in tourist language. The tourism
language is monologue since the tourist remains detached from the communication. And the
tourism industry is aware of this detachment.

Euphoria
The language of tourism speaks only in positive and glowing terms.

Tautology
“The poet writes poems” (linguistic tautology example)

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Tourist demands more and more pseudo events. They want take that their photos with the same
perspective of the ones they watched on brochures. “We go more and more where we expect to go
and see what we pretend to see”. Brochures invite the tourist to participate to a tautological
display of experience. Moreover brochures spread ethic stereotypes, and verbal cliché are present in
advertisement and journal.

Chapter 4: Tourism as a Language of Social Control


Tourism as a Language of Social Control in Prototypical Forms of
Tourism
Whether we accept the definition of tourist who travel in the leisure time, we have to look to past, in
the Hellenic world, in which the earlier form of tourism began. Because resorts as Canopus and
Thebes (ancient Egypt cities) where open to domestic and international traveller or polis such
Athens and Rhodes where learning centres and famous for the Olympic Games.
There are two distinct philosophical views about the tourist:
 Xenophon (Senofonte) looks at the tourist only by an economical point of view (we have to
provide accommodation, so we’ll get richer).
 Plato underline the negative consequences of intercultural contact.
He urges restriction of freedom of travel outside the polis and institution should
control over departure.
The people who were to be granted to travel at their return had the duty to instruct children
that the customs of other culture were worse than theirs.
But later the institution of Proxenia (hospitality) made the guest sacred under the protection of the
gods.
In the ancient Rome, hill resorts offered boating and bathing to the tourist no longer content to see
gladiatorial displays, wild beast shows and mock sea battle in the Colosseum.
Others leisure time Romans activity were spas, festival, pilgrimages and excesses.
We find evidence of this in Seneca and Cicero’s texts.
Therefore even in this early stage there was a connection between the language of tourism and the
practice of tourism.

The expression “When in Rome do as the Romans do” is a simplification grew from a discourse
between St Gustine and St Ambrose over Romans traditions.
This means that tourists are expected to change their clothing styles, eating habits and topic of
conversation, in accordance with the wishes of the hosts.

Apart from Marco Polo journey to China and pilgrimages of the Middle Age, in the 11th century
there were no tourist travels. And the few who travels were often subject to strict measure of control
by authorities.

In the age of Renaissance Italy became a destination for its cultural heritage. The philosopher
Erasmus persuades tourists to follow their footsteps. The first tours developed such as Voyage to
Italy across Switzerland and Germany.

In response to the hiking and mountaineering fads (=something popular and fashionable)
encouraged by Romanticism, tourism hotel were constructed in 1820s as an answer of growing
demand.
Quickly the resorts fell into the order routine of promenades (=walking next to a beach), taking tea
and soirees (=small private party) devoted music and discourse.

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In 1840s the first guide book were published such as Handbook of Traveller and the Grand Tour
was all over, cause of a great democratization of travels.

In the United States the phenomenon of the advertising was growing, especially about railroads
guide, filled with cities, towns, villages, stations, government fort and camps, mountains, lakes,
river, scenery, watering places and summer resorts.
Even more interesting was that tourists were told where hunt the buffalo, antelope, deer, trout
fishing. The guide told you were to go, what to do, how to go, where to see it. Is not similar to being
sent to a place like a parcel?
Indeed, was so great the control exercised over tourist that they began being seen as flocks, hordes,
swarm and herds, these nouns are still applied to the contemporary tourists.
The success of Thomas Cook (=the inventor of the first tour package and modern tourism in 1841)
performs very effectively today.

Tourism as a Language of Social Control in Contemporary Tourism


All sociologists hesitate before describing any time as totally free, or any experience as freely
chosen. Tourism may be seen as a constraint of social obligation, because tourists may feel
themselves free from the daily routine, but they fall in a new set of constrains.

We cannot go wherever we want; we can only moving along prepared routes, we cannot neglect our
habits, we are influenced by advertisements and stereotypes.

Macro sociological approach: international tourist as a social fact extent to all individualsa
monolithic system.
The tourism limits liberty: places deadline on free time, MULTINATIONALS
regulates decision, controls the demand of market and CONGLOMERATES
drives tourists as they are global merchandise.
TOUR
Order is also required to ensure safety of tourists and to
OPERATOR
protect the industry’s investments.
The control is exercised by a pyramidal fashion, from HOTEL &
multinationals to operators, hotel and resort RESORT

We are all tourists and there is no escape, our freedom


and mobility diminish at the same time their expansion is
proclaimed.
Attention should also focus on those who provide and
organize transporting, accommodating, feedings. They set
up tourist dependency toward services.
Britton: “The great control ensures great profit”. Under the capitalist system framework,
competitions and regulations leads to a reduction of prices and so to a further standardization and
avuncular rhetoric, thus persuading tourists joining an organized tour is simpler.
But controllers (e.g. operators) sometimes are controlled by the environment (e.g. Colosseum
can contain only a limited crowd of tourists). So even the very monuments tourists have been
programmed to behold (observe) appear to dictate attitudes and behaviour. All the prescriptions
assume code-like qualities, to be obeyed like law.
Formal gardens and city parks call for grater control than unexplored regions, in wild and hazardous
experience like rafting the tourist has to tame the nature.
The trip may be constrained by the routine of the every day life.

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The Linguistic Underpinnings (basis) of Tourism as a Language of
Social Control
Imperative is used in tourist text and is associated to illocutionary force, thus a request of
command. It is clear that the speaker want to stress control over the listener, so the language is
essentially oratory and attempts to persuade or dissuade using the rhetoric.
Control and order depend on acknowledgement of the negative (e.g. think about road signs).
In Singapore there is a sense of control and in Changi there are the toilet police ready to fine
whoever hasn’t flushed.

Imperative in pre-trip situation


There is even an imperative of consumption normally associated with the post-modern condition.
Example of imperative statement about sun: “Offer yourself some sunshine; put some sunshine in
your winter”. The structure of these ads is mythical whereby is embedded in social myths like cult
of nature and exaltation of body.

Imperative in on-trip situation


Sightseeing as a rite, a gaze upon what must be seen, so a form of social constrain, an historical
regulation of picturesque which impose what to see.
Thanks to previous glossy (=bright) pictures on the guide of sights, tourists already know what to
see. In the guide the sight are de-contextualised: detached from culture. The tourist becomes a
chaser of myths and images.

Tourism as a Language of Social Control in Promotional Material


Baedeker was the pioneer in the business of worldwide travel guides and was the inventor of the
stars system: two stars were awarded to extraordinary sights, one star marked the less worthy ones.
The various sights described on Baedeker’s guidebook were controlled inasmuch as [in
quanto] they implicated a close circuit. Visiting is always prompted by advertisements.
Language of social control is not only in guidebook but can be found also in travelogues (=a film,
broadcast, or piece of writing that describes someone’s experiences while travelling) where the
author adopts stars approach in order to rank Crete, Chios, Santorini, Capri…providing information
about lodging, dining, travels.
This exemplified that even subjective experience can exert social control in selecting the best
destinations offering advice, encouraging or discouraging.
Even in the case the guides authors are trying to give advices, for instance in an anti-tourist
perspective, the usage of “personally I wouldn’t” or “I would recommend” in the discourse sound as
though there is a hierarchy of priorities, so a system of order.
Here above we have several examples of control mechanisms.
The imperative alone may be no sufficient.
Photography, and more recently videos are other promotional media through which expectations
can be moulded.
“Photograph instructs us in ways of seeing and relating to other people and their cultures”.
For instance in photographic colonialism other cultures’ people are portrayed like servants.
The advertisement teases the tourists by anticipating the story they will tell about the picture when
they return home to their friends; a narrative which belongs to the language of tourism.

Tourism as a Language of Social Control in Hotels and Resorts


Hotels
The hotel can be seen as an establishment which protects tourists from outside dangers.

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“Hotels are in essence agents of social control” because they enables human action in accordance
with social conventions.
Initially hotels were aristocratic institution, later with the process of proletarianization, members of
the bourgeoisies and middle class tried to enter.
Hotels adopted two strategies: exclusion or accommodation.
The former was reflected in the star system, indeed luxury five-star shut the door to lower
categories of budget travellers.
With the advent of package tours, accommodator device were introduced like buffet, coffee
machine, televisions in order to control tourists, moreover by making their bedrooms seem more
like home, the hotels could keep their guest domesticated.
Sexual stratification is common usage in hotels, for example they use to label male room (such as
smoking room) and female room (such as drawing room).
The larger the hotel is the graters are the constraints place upon tourist’s enjoyment.
Organization is essential, non-stop activities are very common. E.g. “When you go on Club Med
holiday, you get a very special welcome, they’re your G.O.’s (Gentils Organisateurs)”
Club Med is a successful accommodation formula full of activities, tuition, children’s club, his
slogan is Club Med. Because life is too short. Precisely because it is too short that requires order
and control.

Resorts
Yet even in all-inclusive resorts there are measures of social control.
A widespread practice is to attach a bracelet to everyone wrist, but with this the ladies will ruin
their suntan.
Free drinks were only available in presence of bracelets, but bartender had to sing for every drink
they hand out, so glanced at the tourists like hawks.
Resorts are really packed with activities such as: safari, casino, beaches, fishing. Only when the
bracelet is removed a person should feel him/herself free.
MacCannel describes resorts as factories of tourism industry.
Description of islands seems to follow a formula: beginning with the location and later running
through its produce, scenery, weather, beaches, sports, resorts, culture, historic sites and
entertainment.

Finally with the computerization of hotels, providing a reservation system in accordance with credit
car companies, control is even more.

Tourism as a Language of Social Control in Touring


When tourists reach their destination, usually the most of them simply stay within the controlled
area of the resort, the hotel as the safe place. However some tourists venture forth on organized
excursions.

Touring at the site


The Jakobson’s language functions are combined with the MacCannel’s stages of sight
sacralization.
e.g Conative f.naming s. (because the guides try to persuade).
And sightseers are encouraged to persuade others. The (book) guides are themselves as a cyclical
process, when they represent sites of memory and impose an external duty to remember.
Tourists go to see what they have been told to see and heritage does not just refer to element of our
past but also the present because it designates things towards which we have an obligation.

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The Organized coach tours
A coach tour not only regulates tourists but also command them. Tours are characterized by
“encapsulation”, “directedness” and “outsideness”.
For example tourists in India are socially isolated in the touring bus; they can’t really experience the
streets. This encapsulation, for instance, prevents them from hear the vivid Indian soundscape and
provides comfort to the tourists because they feel themselves safe; they are further encapsulated in a
luxury hotel.
As far as directedness is concerned tour are scheduled to be split into two stage: before tourists
visit tombs, monuments, ruins… then they visit bazaars, marketplaces…
They visit before the urban elite and then the impoverished masses.
The hotels most frequently are removed from native activity and situated several kilometres outside
the city, so encapsulation lead up to outsideness.
All these three organized coach tour elements are present in brochures and reflect a model of social
control.

Adventure Tours
If coach tour are restrictively one might think adventure or safari tour are not.
But in African wildlife reserve tourists must engage a (human) guide. Thereby the real situation is
that they come under the control of someone who leads their experience. Guides acts like buffer
between tourist and the unknown.
An hunter speech during a safari: “I take on the bus only people who do as they’re told”.
The feeling of oppression explains counter-command behaviours: A few people have been said to
have been ventured solo, and on foot, into the desert and a safari organiser said: “It’s utterly
irresponsible, pure madness, the desert kills!”
The pressure of guides is always present, so the authenticity felt by the tourist during his experience
is socially manipulated by guides and also by head of villages who conspires with guides to stage
authenticity.

Walking tours
Even the freest kind of tour experiences measures of social control.
For example in British locality of Saga sign on the pathway and advices on brochures constrain the
practice of walking. Verbal control is exercised in accordance to this system:
Distance Ascent Time Type of walk
4-6 miles - 3h Easy, fairly level
8-12 750-1250 feet 6h Moderate hills
8-12 1750-2500 6h Mountain walk, boots needed

More independent walking tours encourage individuals to see sights of a place on their own.
For example, on “The Royal Route” in Prague 19 stages are highlighted and imperative form is
used to lead the tourist through it.

The problem is how to introduce constraint preserving tourist individual liberty?

Orientalism
Orientalism (p24): explore the ways that Occidentals achieve a decision with the Orient, it is one of
the recurring images of the others.
Said considered orientalism as a mode of discourse with supporting institutions, vocabulary,
doctrines, colonial bureaucracies and colonial style.
Western style to dominate, restructure and have authority over the Orient control and produce the
Orient. It is denied autonomy.

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Through the language exotic are domesticated, language become a means of creation whereby the
Orient is reconstructed, reassembled and crafted.
The language of tourism become language of deformation, do not describe how the world of Others
is but represent how the other has been wished to be.

As a promotion became more and more successful, promoters become


controllers of tourist masses through the use of language.

Chapter 5: The Tourist as a Child


3 Rs
Romanticism
The bourgeois voyage of romantic primitism contributed to the rise of tourism in nineteenth
century.
People expect their vacation to be romantic and exotic, here freedom relies.
The travel industry to satisfy these requests enhances countryside destinations in contrast with dirty,
polluted, spoilt, noisy, metropolitan everyday life.
The language which promotes bucolic and pastoral destinations is structured in contrast with the
humdrum home activity.
The romanticism and fantasy are successful attempt to extent tourist childlike character.

From to
ENDOTIC STAGE stage of transitional objects EXOTIC STAGE

Dependency on Mother (Dolls and toys) Separation


Illusion area

According to this psychological scheme tourists can achieve the exotic stage only if they have
passed the playing stage represented from playful attractions such as holiday villages, theme park
and cruise ship.

Regression
The phenomenon of regression is a return to Mother, a day-dream in reverse to revisiting childhood
scenes. Infantile regression occurs when tourists return to the bosom of Mother Nature. Thus
tourists try to rediscover the good old days surrounded by nature, for instance, through the myth of
the Golden Age as the myth of Poseidon (the ocean) of Olympus (the mountain).
Thereby the regression is a form of infantilism in mother breast and filled with protection and
safety.
Cook noticed that many great explorers suffered for the lack of parents.
Regression is even a return to eco-ruralism (agritourism, cycling tourism, eco-tourism).
E.g. Ireland wants to be a place of childhood.

Rebirth
Anyone concerned with the motivation of travel has to realize first a desire for tranquillity in the
repetition, or the return to the womb of the mother; in conflict with the desire of discovering the
world. Sum up leaving or staying, this the dilemma.
In a sublimate fashion a trip is therefore a form of rebirth.

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Finland ad e.g.: “The country where you become a new person”.

Wildness could be full of adversity. So rebirth is an opportunity for person grown. You’re going
to put yourself to the test.
The personal travel initiates with the separation from home, friends, parents and the tension advance
until the decision to return happens.

Ad: “Break out with a Thomson holiday this coming winter and you’ll hardly recognize yourself”.

3 Hs
Happiness
It is not only the desire to belong to an independent community to enjoy a fun atmosphere but an
emergence of child narcissism through o voyage of pleasure.
Example about happiness: “Gentle people, who will pamper you with homemade coconut pie,
admire you look soft, giggle at your jokes and weep when you leave”.
Is a lovely life all day long, isn’t it?

Hedonistic
It is different from happiness because hedonism is not real but psychological.
The part of the mind that is unconscious and has hidden wants and needs is the id, but it is
repressed by the superego (the conscience). So a condition of conflict between the pleasure
principle is always in process.
Id dominates the personality when the individual is far away from his accustomed (usual) country,
home and language.
Therefore hedonistic condition is a state of mind without boredom, an escaping from routine
towards sensual gratification: it is not simply eating, drinking, and sex that are pleasurable, but the
thoughts of these activities as well.

Heliocentrism
It is related to the everlasting sun.
The sun is everywhere in tourism picture, usually is depicted in childlike fashion. The
anthropomorphized smiling sun provides well being and ecstasy.
Obtaining a sun tan was not considered desirable until 1920s.
The mythical significance of exposing ourselves to sun is to look for the warmth of Mother.

3 Fs
Fun
The argument of play develops itself in modern condition. Tourist doesn’t really matter if
attractions are genuine: it is the enjoyment that counts. Actually many attractions are high-tech,
and depict the post-modern attitudes of playing.
In the language of tourism everywhere can be fun and everyone can play.

Fantasy
Fantasy concerns all the extravagant expectations that can be fulfilled in everyday life routine.
Mass tourism’s universal fantasy image results in excessive behaviour as tourist on holiday fell free
to abandon all conventions which constrain them at home. As though a surgeon break out
occasionally from the medical role he accepted in order to make it less constrict and more
enjoyable.

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Fairy Tales
Tourists set themselves in a magical tour. They further believe that tourism allows them to enter
into a literature world. The first explorers when discovered new territories told of fairyland.

3 Ss
Sea
Water symbolized the amniotic (=liquid in mother’s womb) fluid surrounded foetus, from which we
gradually emerge. To bathe means abandonment to our mother, allowing her hands to protect us.
Seas convey an idea of far horizons, and on the other hand lakes communicate static quality of
home.
In brochure, see-shores are typically portrayed as lacking of economic and social context, although
they usually include these features. Often a young tourist is shown alone one sand dune.
But the liberation feeling provoked by beaches is only an illusion because environmental building
such as hotels, bars which symbolize structure for social control.

Sex
Sometimes the destination becomes a woman. The language tries to locate erotic feelings in
tourist mind. The accent is on immediate gratification and pleasure. Ads promote “erotic girls
massages and nightspot”. In promoting videos the voice continue to repeat words such as “lust”,
“pleasure” and “sensuality” and promise “excitement”.
Caribbean ad: “We invite you for swimming, scuba, tennis, golf or romance. Just the two of you. Or
all of you. Or one”.

Socialization
This phenomenon is not inhered at birth, but starts from zero and evolves through various stages.
(Meads)
1. Initially the infant become aware of himself through the contact with his mother. The I
component of the self starts to operate, the I dimension is centred on the satisfy of needs All
the further human significant presences (doctor, father...) who enter in child mind indicate
the emerging self that there is an external world.
2. In the second stage the child plays different roles (e.g.: dressing up as a policeman or
playing with puppets…). In this stage the second component of the Self emerges the so-
called Me which is composed of significant others deriving from the basic agent of
socialization (family, school, religion).
3. Finally the child comes to appreciate there is a world out there composed of generalized
others, the Me fully emerges and the child become aware of principal notion of “safety
first”, “fair play”, “team spirit”…in these phase additional agents of socialization are
introduced such as media and people opinions.
Yet the development of the self do not end here, it is an ongoing process of maturation proportional
with the experiences of the other.
Media disseminate information about tourism and tourism itself is considered an agent of
socialization.
The language of tourism provides definition to tourist as child. So it fill up the Me component of
Self with alternative definitions to those produced by hendonistic I.
Guides, cruise directors, tour bus driver treat tourists as children.

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