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GretaBjornson
Ms.Herzog
APLit4
1/12/15

WhenwritingmyseconddraftofmyLitEx,Ifocusedmainlyonorganization,
elaboration,andcombiningideastoshortenmypapertofitwithinthepagelimit.Istruggledthe
mostwithincorporationofmyilluminatingtext,TheWizardofOz.Inthisdraft,Itriedto
reorganizemypaperandconnectthemoviesscriptwithRebeccastextabitmoresmoothlyby
identifyingsimilarideasandmovingthequotestofitinwheretheybestbelonged.Ithadbeen
echoingwhatIhadtalkedaboutinearlierparagraphs,soIstrengthenedmyanalysiswhilealso
improvingtheorganizationofmypaperbymovingtheDorothyquotesandtheiranalysistoan
earlierpointinmypaper.
Onechallengeinthisrewritewascuttingmypaperdown.Ireadthroughitafewtimesto
identifywhatwasrepetitiveandrephrasedsentencestomakethemmoreconcise.Rearranging
myilluminatingtextalsohelpedinreducingthesizeofmypaper,asIputitwithlikeideasand
avoidedunnecessaryrestatingofwhathadalreadybeenmentionedinmyLitEx.WhileIwas
focusingoncuttingdownthenumberofpages,Ialsomadeanefforttoprovidefurtheranalysis
andelaborateonmythesistointegratethefullscopeofthepaper.Cuttingdowntherepetitive
sectionsofmyLitExgavemeroomtofurthermyideasontopicsessentialtothestrengthofmy
thesis,likeMaximscontroloverhiswifeandthedestructionofManderley.
Inadditiontoeditingmyanalysisandstructure,Imadesuretoproofreadverycarefully
inmyseconddraft.ThefirsttimeIwrotethis,Imissedsomecontractionsandrepeatedmyself.
Withmyseconddraft,Isoughttokeepmytoneformalandavoidanygrammaticalerrors.

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GretaBjornson
Ms.Herzog
APLit4
1/12/15
ClassAct:TheEmptinessofWealthinRebecca
Theragstorichesstoryistraditionallygarnishedwithafairytalehappyending,but
DaphneduMauriersRebeccatellsadifferenttale.Mrs.deWinter,thenovelsprotagonist,sees
hermarriagetothewealthyMaximdeWinterasaccesstotheupperclass.However,Mrs.de
Winterdevelopsparanoiaasaresultofherinsecurityfrombeingthrustintoherforeignnewlife
andconstantlycomparesherselftootherwomenasadefensemechanismtohersurroundingsas
wellastogainMaximsaffection.Ultimately,MaximandMrs.deWinterloseeverythingand
fleeasoutlaws,provingthatMrs.deWinterscomparisonsandworrieswerefutile,asshewas
leftwithoutherstatusandwealth.ThislossisasocialcommentarybyduMaurierthatwomen
struggleforpowerintheupperclassandoncetheirstatusiscompromised,wealthycouplesmust
interactonahumanlevel,strugglingtofindhappinessandconnectwithoutthedistractionof
possessions.
Mrs.deWinterslustforapprovalandadmirationbeginsbeforeManderleywithherjob.
ShewasoriginallymiddleclassandtendedtotheaffluentandpompousMrs.VanHopper.Mrs.
deWinterloathedherrole,feelinginferior.Mrs.deWinterrecallssituationslikediningwith
Mrs.VanHopper,whenthewaiterhadlongsensed[Mrs.deWinters]positionasinferiorand
subservientto[Mrs.VanHopper]andstayingwithMrs.VanHopperinahousewherethe
maidneveranswered[Mrs.deWinters]timidbell,orbroughtup[Mrs.deWinters]shoes,and
earlymorningtea,stonecold,wasdumpedoutside[Mrs.deWinters]bedroomdoor(du
Maurier10).Naturally,shewasshockedatthenotionoflivinginamansionandbeingserved,
notservingothers,herrolebeforemarriage.Mrs.deWinterfelthumiliationwhenlookeddown

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uponbywaitersandmaids,thoseintendedtoserveher,yettreatedherasinferior.Herlustfor
theupperclassstemmedfromhertreatmentbythoseinthelowerclass.Unrelentingdisplaysof
disgustanddisregardfromthehelpmadeMrs.deWinterwishtobetreatedhighly,yetalsoled
hertodoubtherplaceinManderleyandplayingtheroleofladyofthehouse,asshehadnever
assumedtherolepriortomovingin.Mrs.deWinterreactedwithparanoiaandobsessiveness
overcementingherplaceintheupperclassbecauseofconstantlybeingsnubbedbythose
sociallybelowher.Sheneededtoconvincenotonlythosearoundher,butherself,thatshewas
worthyofManderleyafterbeingperceivedforsolongasbeingsociallylowerthanamaid.
However,evenbeforeMrs.deWintersetsfootinhernewhome,shedoubtshowwell
suitedsheistoManderleyandwhysheiswantedthereafteralwaysbeentoldshewasinferior.
BeforeMrs.deWinterleavestobemarried,Mrs.VanHoppersaysMaximismarryingher
becausethatemptyhousegotonhisnervestosuchanextentthathenearlywentoffhis
head...Hejustcantgoonlivingtherealone(duMaurier60).Herformeremployersdoubtof
themarriagesauthenticityfuelsMrs.deWintersapprehensiontowardshernewlife.Assheand
herhusbanddrivetoManderley,Mrs.deWinterforcedasmile...gonewas[her]glad
excitement,vanishedherhappypride(duMaurier62).Mrs.deWinterbecomesnervousand
paranoidasaresultofMrs.VanHopperscomments.Insteadofexcitement,shefeelsanxious
andunhappywhenapproachingManderleyafterhearingMrs.VanHoppersdoubts.Despite
leavingherjobbehind,Mrs.deWinterspaststillhauntsherandshecannotshakefeelingsof
inferiorityandmisplacementintheupperclass.
Mrs.deWintersreactiontohernewsurroundingsistoeliminateotherwomenfrom
Maximslifetogainhisaffectionandeliminateanycompetition,thuspreventinganybodyfrom

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tellingherofherinferiority.HerquesttobeMaximssolewomanisherdefensemechanismto
Manderley.ShebecomesfixatedwithMaximsdeadwifeRebecca,whosepresencehauntsMrs.
deWinter.Rebeccawasdepictedastheperfectwife,whichthreatensMrs.deWintersholdon
herhusband.Mrs.deWintergoesasfarastodestroyabookinscribedbyRebeccawhenshe
[takes]aboxofmatchesandset[s]firetothefragments.[Mrs.deWinter]feltbetter,much
better.[Mrs.deWinter]had[a]clean,newfeeling(duMaurier57).Thebookservesasa
reminderthatsheisnotthesolerecipientofherhusbandslove.Shemustobliterateallevidence
ofMaximspastrelationshiptoforgetthatsheisthesecondwifeandnotMaximsfirstlove.Her
furyandmelodramaticdispensingofRebeccaisjustoneinstanceofhowthemoreacute[Mrs.
deWinters]obsessiongrows,themoreinvisibleshebecomes(Pons73).Mrs.deWinterloses
herselfintryingtobetheonlywomanclosetoMaxim.Herjealousydriveshertoextremesto
secureherposition.Indoingso,Mrs.deWintergainspoweroverherhusbandspastand
ensuresherauthoritywithinthepatriarchalstructureofManderleybyincineratinganyevidence
ofRebecca.Mrs.deWinterisintentoncontrollingherhusbandspastanddoesnotspendtime
withhiminthepresentasaresult.Sheistrappedbyherownparanoiaandthereforelivesnot
throughherownmarriageinthepresent,butthroughthepastofherhusband.
BeatriceisveryclosetoherbrotherMaxim,thusMrs.deWinterdetectsherasa
threatshestandsinthewayofMrs.deWinterscontroloverMaximandcompletecommand
ofhisattention.Mrs.deWinterdescribesBeatriceasbroadshouldered,veryhandsome...but
notassmartas[Mrs.deWinter]hadexpected,muchtweedier(duMaurier92).She
immediatelyboxesBeatriceintoamanly,brusquestereotypeandthenknocksherintelligence,
sohercharacterisalsoseenaslessappealing,lessbeautiful,andlessintellectual.Mrs.deWinter

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convincesherselfthatBeatriceisinferiorandundeservingofMaximsattentionthisway,thus
creatingamoresecureenvironmentforherselfandeliminatingthreatstoherrelationship.
However,Mrs.deWintersjealousyandparanoiainterferewithherperceptionofothersand
speaktoherunreliabilityasanarrator.BeatriceiskindandwarmtoMrs.deWinter,engaging
herinconversationandcallinghermydear(duMaurier93).Beatriceusesatermof
endearmentonMrs.deWinter,whoismentallyattackingher.Sheseesnothreatinher
sisterinlawandextendskindnessthroughherwords.MaximgoesasfarastocallBeatriceone
ofthebestpeopleintheworld(duMaurier106).MaximsdescriptionandBeatricesactions
differfromMrs.deWintersimpressionofBeatrice,showingherneedtolookdownonothers
andfitthemneatlyintoarchetypes,makinghersuperior.Mrs.deWinterismoreinvestedin
otherwomenthanherownmarriage,eventhosewhoarenotromanticallylinkedtoMaxim.Due
toherobsession,sheonlyfindsoutthatMaximmurderedhisfirstwifeaftermonthsafterbeing
marriedtohimhervisionwascloudedbyherneedtosecureherstatustosuchadegreethat
Mrs.deWintermarriedamurdererandlivedbesidehimformonths,toodistractedby
competitiontoknowMaxim.
TheWizardofOz,afilmthatwasconsequentlypublishedthesameyearasRebecca,
containssimilaritiesinitsmainprotagonist,asDorothyisenrapturedwiththeextravaganceofan
unknownworld,yetdivergesinthestrongrelationshipssheformswiththoseinOz.WhileMrs.
deWinterusescompetitionasdefensetoManderleysunknownterritory,Dorothytakesthe
oppositeapproachinbefriendingthoseinOz.Dorothysdepartureisfilledwithemotionand
professionsoflove,asshefindssolaceinhercompanions.Whensayinggoodbye,shetellsthe
Tinman,Oh,dontcry!You'llrustsodreadfully...Heresyouroilcan(Fleming,1939)and

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continuestobidfarewelltoothers.DorothyisleavingtheTinmanbehind,butshehasnot
stoppedmakingsurehedoesnotrust,showingherrelentlesscareforothersandcommitmentto
friendship.Sheformedsuchstrongbondsthatthetinmancrieswhensheleaves,showingthe
impactDorothyleftonhimandhowmeaningfulhercompanionshipwas.Dorothyreliedon
friendshiptonavigatethroughherforeignworldandcountedonteamworktofindherwayback
home.Althoughbothwomencamefromthelowerclass,Dorothyknewthatallieswouldpayoff
inOzultimatelytheyarethekeytoherhappinessandattainingwhatshewants.Mrs.deWinter,
however,makesnofriendsatManderleyandmakesenemiesinsteadinotherwomen.Both
womenfacedsimilarcircumstancesofunknownworlds,yettheirendingsstarklydifferasa
resultofhowtheytreatthosearoundthem.Dorothysapproachofwarmthandgenialityhelps
herinherendgoalofreturninghome,yetMrs.deWintersfixationwithstatusandsubsequent
competitionleavesherunhappyandwithanemptymarriage.
Mrs.deWinterissobusywithherstruggleforpoweramongstotherwomenthatshefails
torealizesheisbeingcontrolledwithinherownmarriage.Herhusbandfitsinaliterary
traditionwhichpresentsthepatriarchasanambivalentfigure(Pons)andheisverymuch
unknowntohisownwifeasheisforreaders.Maximhasonlyrevealedthathemurdered
Rebeccaoutofrage,butheisstillverymuchclosedoffandsecretive.Maximtellshiswifehow
tofeelandact,butthedistractionsofwealthandgaininghisaffectionblindher.Mrs.deWinter
neverquestionsherhusband,thuswhenMaximsaysthatRebeccawasevilandviciousand
rotten(duMaurier284),herpersonalfeelingsofinadequacyerased(Nigro148).Mrs.de
WintersdemonicrageoverRebeccadisintegratesafterherhusbandtellsherhowtofeelabout
Rebecca.MaximkilledoutofjealousyandragebecauseofRebeccasaffairs.Hisintentionsin

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marryingMrs.deWinterremainamysteryuntilherevealshismurderouspasthewasalluredby
herinnocenceincontrastthepromiscuityofRebecca,whichthreatenedhismasculinity.Mrs.de
WinterthinksnothingofMaximsayinghewantsherbecause[Mrs.deWinteris]notdressedin
blacksatin,withastringofpearls,nor[isMrs.deWinter]thirtysix(duMaurier37).Maxim
doesnotwantanothermature,sexualwomanafterhismanlinesswasquestionedbyRebecca.He
feltinferiorinhisfirstmarriagesimilarlytohowMrs.deWinterfeelsinferiorwhileat
Manderley.Bothcontrolthosearoundthemforsecurityshefixatesonreducingotherwomen
andMaximcapitalizesonMrs.deWintersinnocencetoensurehisdominance.
Rebeccaistoldinfirstpersonnarration,yetMrs.deWinterisneverevennamedsheis
identifiedonlybyherhusbandsname,illustratingtheultimatecontrolMaximholdsoverher
andherlackofpower.ShehasbeengiventheroleofMaximswifeonlyandcannothavealife
ofherown.Asaresult,itiseveneasierforMaximtocontrolMrs.deWinterbecausesheisan
extensionofhimandnotsignificantenoughtohaveherownname.Herstruggleforpowerand
desiretoeliminateotherwomenreflectsMrs.deWinterslossofidentity.Shehasnoselfand
livesonlyforherhusband,somuchsothatsheneglectstogiveherownname.Maximcontrols
Mrs.deWintersroomaswellbyputtingherinanenclosedwingthatcutsherofffromthe
dangerousliberationofaviewandsoundsofthesea(Wisker91).Theoceanisvastand
endless,showingthepossibilitiesoftheworldoutsideofManderley.Itrepresentschaosandthe
unknown,whichMaximseekstoavoid.Mrs.deWinterisconfinedinaprisonbyherown
husbandsfearoflosinganotherwife.HeexertshiscontrolfurtheranddeniesMrs.deWinter
curiosityorexploration.Mrs.deWinterhasbeentryingtocontrolthewomenaroundher,butis

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naivethatshewasbeingcontrolledbyherhusbandallalongatManderley,renderingher
completelypowerlessinthepatriarchalstructureofherhome.
Whenhermansionburns,Mrs.deWintercomestoseethatshehasneglectedtoknow
anyoneinManderley,especiallyMaxim,asaresultofherinternalcompetition,leavinghernot
onlyhomeless,butlonely.MaximandMrs.deWinterhelplesslywatchtheirhomeburninthe
distance.Mrs.deWinterseesontheroadtoManderleythattherewasnomoon.Theskyabove
[MaximandMrs.deWinters]headswasinkyblack.Buttheskyonthehorizonwasnotdarkat
all.Itwasshotwithcrimson,likeasplashofblood(duMaurier380).Thedestructionofher
homeisdescribedasabattlescene,withdarkcolorsandcrimsonalludingtodeath.Allshe
workedforisgone,provingtheunsubstantialityofwealthandhow,onceitislost,Mrs.de
Winterisleftonlywiththeemptinessthatwealthoncefilledinherlife.Throughlossof
Manderley,shelosesstatusaswell,asthedestructionsignifiestheendofMaximsrule
(Petersen58).Maximisworthnothingwithouthisestate.Dorothysfamousquotetheresno
placelikehome!(Fleming,1939)resonateswiththedeWinterslives.Theirentireexistence
revolvedaroundManderleyandthestatusitbroughtthem.Onceitburns,theretrulyisnoplace
likeitthemansionslegacyandstatuscannotberecreatedandMrs.deWinterwillneverbe
theladyofthehouseagain.Dorothycomestorealizethevalueofherhomeafterbeingaway,but
thedeWintersnevergetthechancetoappreciateManderley.Mrs.deWinterhascommittedher
lifetoamaninexchangeforhisstatus,butsheisleftlivingthelifesheoncefledagainafter
ManderleyburnsandMaximsallure,aswellasherstatus,goeswithit.
OnlyaftershehadallofherpossessionstakenawaydoesMrs.deWinterseethather
upperclasslifewasvacantofjoy.Shereflectsthathappiness,somethingsheneverknewat

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Manderley,isnotapossessiontobeprized,itisaqualityofthought,astateofmind(du
Maurier6).AfterManderleyhasburned,sheseeswhatsheneverhadaccesstoandthatbeing
contentdoesnotequatetobeingwealthy.Whensheislivinginhotelroomsafterfleeing
Manderley,Lastnight[Mrs.deWinter]dreamtthat[she]wenttoManderleyagain(du
Maurier1).Sheisincapableoflettinggoofherpasthomeandalthoughitisimpossibleto
returntoManderley,Mrs.deWintercannotshakethetasteoftheupperclassshefleetingly
experienced.Shethinksofitdaily,butcannotevenescapeitinherdreams.Mr.andMrs.de
Winternowleadboringandmechanicallives(Petersen57)devoidofdancesandornate
furnitureandexcessiveteatimes.Theybarelyknoweachotherbecauseofherobsessionwith
otherwomenandhiscoldnessanddisregardofhiswife.Theirlivesaredullbecausetheyhave
nothingincommon:MaximcannolongerprovidethethrilloftheupperclassandMrs.de
Winterisnolongerpreoccupiedwithherstatus.Withoutthecurtainofwealth,thedeWinters
mustbecomereaquaintedandforcethemselvestolivewithoutexcess.
Mrs.deWintersunexpectedtransitionfrommiddletoupperclassprovestobetoo
overwhelmingforhertohandleandrevealsthehollownessofthewealthy.Herperceptionof
beingMaximswifeishavingaccesstotheworldshehadbeendeniedentrytoherwholelife,
butultimately,Mrs.deWinterlosessightofwhyshewasatManderleyinthefirstplace.The
upperclassmakesMrs.deWinterpowerhungry,butalsoblindshertothecontrolbeing
exercisedbyherhusband.Mrs.deWinterfoughttostayrelevantamongthosewhoonlycared
forthemselves,likeherhusband,whomarriedMrs.deWintertosimplyfillavoidleftby
Rebecca.DuMaurierdepictsacautionarytaleinMrs.deWintersaspirations,illustratingthat
theupperclassdonotalwayshavetheupperhand.

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WorksCited
DuMaurier,Daphne.Rebecca.N.p.:AvonFiction,1938.Print.
Fleming,Victor,dir.TheWizardofOz.MetroGoldwynMayer,1939.Film.
Nigro,KathleenButterly.RebeccaasDesdemona:AMaidThatParagonsDescriptionand
WildFame.CollegeLiterature27.3(2000):14457.JSTOR.Web.12Oct.2014.
Petersen,Teresa.DaphneduMauriersRebecca:TheShadowandtheSubstance.AUMLA:
JournaloftheAustralasianUniversityofModernLanguage112(2009):n.pag.EBSCO.
Web.8Oct.2014.
Pons,AubaLlompart.PatriarchalHauntings:RereadingVillainyandGenderinDaphnedu
MauriersRebecca.JournaloftheSpanishAssociationofAngloAmericanStudies35.1
(2013):6983.EBSCO.Web.5Oct.2014.
Wisker,Gina.DangerousBorders:DaphneduMauriersRebecca:shakingthefoundationsof
theromanceofprivilege,partyingandplace.JournalofGenderStudies12.2(2003):
8397.

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LitExGradingRubric
Name_________________________

_____Thesisclearlyencapsulatesaspecific,provableargument.
_____Paperislogicallyorganizedtopersuasivelymakeyourargument.
_____Conclusionsummarizesandaddsinsightwithoutbeingrepetitive.
_____Eachpointisthoughtfulandsupportedwithwellchosenevidencefromyourtext,
criticism,and/orilluminatingtext.
_____Quotesareblendedandcited.
_____MLAformatisfollowed,includingforWorksCitedpage.
_____Languageisclear,concise,andprecisetoneisscholarly.
_____Paperiswelleditedforgrammarandmechanics.

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