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LEMBAR KEGIATAN SISWA (LKS) 1

Nama: ..................................................
Kelas: ..................................................
No Absen: ..................................................

A. LIMIT FUNGSI ALJABAR


Kalkulus merupakan salah satu cabang matematika yang mempunyai peranan penting dalam
kehidupan, misalnya menghitung isi badan pesawat, dan menentukan laju perubahan kecepatan
pada mobil.
Pada bab ini, kita akan mempelajari pokok bahasan limit fungsi. Lalu apa hubungan limit fungsi
dan kalkulus? Limit merupakan teori yang mendasari kalkulus, sehingga untuk selanjutnya limit
selalu digunakan pada bagian-bagian lain dari kalkulus
Pada lembar kerja siswa berikut ini didesain kegiatan siswa yang melalui tahapan Think --> Pair
Share. Tujuan dari tahapan-tahapan tersebut adalah siswa dapat membangun sebuah konsep
matematika secara benar sehingga siswa pada akhirnya dapat melakukan kegiatan menganalisa,
mencoba, menyimpulkan dan pada akhirnya dapat membuat keputusan dengan tepat dan akurat
serta dapat mengevaluasi.
A.1. Pengertian Limit Fungsi Aljabar
Tujuan Pembelajaran:
Peserta didik dapat memahami dan menghitung limit fungsi aljabar di suatu titik secara intuitif.
Tahap Think
1. Cermatilah fungsi berikut ini f ( x )=x +1
a. Coba tentukan nilai fungsi f ketika :
Nilai x mendekati 2 dari sebelah kiri, dengan mengisi tabel dibawah ini.
x

1 ,6

1,7

1,8

1,9

1,99

1,999

1,9999

1,99999

...

......

......

......

......

......

......

...

..

f ( x) ......

......

......

Nilai
x

x mendekati 2 dari sebelah kanan, dengan mengisi tabel dibawah ini.


2,4

2,3

2,2

2,1

2,01

2,001

2,0001

2,00001

...

Masalah Pertama

f ( x) ......

......

......

......

......

......

......

......

...

..
......

Berdasarkan temuan kalian pada tabel, bagaimanakah nilai fungsi


mendekati 2 dari sebelah kiri dan

ketika

x mendekati 2 dari sebelah kanan?

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b. Coba tentukan nilai fungsi f ketika :


Nilai x mendekati 4 dari sebelah kiri, dengan mengisi tabel dibawah ini.
x

3,6

3,7

3,8

3,9

3,99

3,999

3,9999

3,99999

...

......

......

......

......

......

......

...

..

f ( x) ......

......

......

Nilai
x

x mendekati 4 dari sebelah kanan, dengan mengisi tabel dibawah ini.

4,4

4,3

4,2

4,1

4,01

4,001

4,0001

4,00001

...

...

..

f ( x)

.......

.......

.......

.......

.......

.......

.......

.......

......

Berdasarkan temuan kalian pada tabel, bagaimanakah nilai fungsi


mendekati 4 dari sebelah kiri dan

ketika

x mendekati 4 dari sebelah kanan?

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c. Gambarkanlah grafik fungsi f pada bidang koordinat Cartesius dibawah ini.

Di dalam matematika, kata hampir atau mendekati disebut limit.


Kegiatan menghitung nilai fungsi disekitar titik dengan mendekati dari sebelah kiri disebut juga
dengan mengitung limit kiri dari suatu fungsi dinotasikan

x a f (x)
lim
.

Kegiatan menghitung nilai fungsi disekitar titik dengan mendekati dari sebelah kanan disebut juga
Untuk kondisi pada soal 1(a), f (x) mempunyai limit ketika
pada soal 1(b), f ( x ) mempunyai limit ketika
f ( x) ketika

x mendekati 2 dan

x mendekati 4. Sehingga, limit

x mendekati a dapat dinotasikan dengan:


lim f ( x ) =L
x a

Coba simpulkan, suatu fungsi f

akan mempunyai limit jika:

2. Perhatikan grafik-grafik pada soal dibawah ini, coba amati dan tentukan limitnya.

Grafik

Grafik

x 1
a. Pada grafik 1, coba tentukan limit kiri dan limit kanan dari f ( x )= x1

ketika

mendekati 1.
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2
x 1
(
)
x 1 ada? Kemukakan
lim
f
x
=
Berdasarkan penyelidikan kalian, apakah x 1
x1 ,
alasan kalian!
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b. Pada grafik 2, coba tentukan limit kiri dan limit kanan dari

f ( x )= 3, x 1
1, x >1 , ketika

mendekati 1.
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lim f ( x ) = 3, x 1
Berdasarkan penyelidikan kalian, apakah x 1
ada? Kemukakan alasan
1, x >1

kalian!
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Tahap Pair
Diskusikan hasil pengerjaanmu dengan pasanganmu dan coba simpulkanlah hasilnya. Adakah
pendapat kalian yang berbeda? Tentukan dan tuliskanlah kesepakatan dari perbedaan itu pada
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kotak
dibawah ini!
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Tahap Share

Apa yang dapat kalian simpulkan dan presentasikan di depan kelas tentang limit fungsi di suatu titik
secara umum?
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LEMBAR KEGIATAN SISWA (LKS) 2


Nama: ..................................................
Kelas: ..................................................
No Absen: ..................................................

A.2. Menghitung Limit Fungsi Aljabar


Tujuan Pembelajaran:
Peserta didik dapat menghitung limit fungsi aljabar di suatu titik bentuk tak tentu dengan cara-cara
penyelesaian yang terdapat pada buku referensi.

Tahap Think
Selesaikanlah soal-soal berikut ini! Cara apakah yang kalian gunakan untuk menyelesaikan soal-soal
berikut ini? Jangan lupa untuk menuliskan alasanmu menggunakan cara tersebut pada kotak jawaban
yang tersedia.
2

1. Tentukanlah

lim

x 4

x 1
=
x +1

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2

2. Tentukanlah

lim x +3 x4=
x 2

3. Tentukanlah

lim

x 2

x 4
=
x +2

4. Tentukanlah

5. Tentukanlah

lim

x 3

lim

x4

x 4 x+ 3
=
x3

x4
=
1 x3

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6. Tentukanlah

lim

x 2

x2
=
x2 +53

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7. Tentukanlah

lim
x 0

( 1x + x 1x )=
2

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Tahap Pair
Diskusikanlah jawaban kalian dengan pasanganmu. Adakah pendapat kalian yang berbeda?
Tentukan dan tuliskanlah kesepakatan dari perbedaan itu pada kotak dibawah ini!
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Tahap Share
Berdasarkan pengerjaan kalian pada soal nomor 1 sampai dengan nomor 7, simpulkanlah bagaimana
cara kalian menentukan cara yang tepat untuk menyelesaikan soal-soal tentang limit fungsi aljabar?

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LEMBAR KEGIATAN SISWA (LKS) 3


Nama: ..................................................
Kelas: ..................................................
No Absen: ..................................................

A.3. Pengertian Limit Fungsi di Tak Hingga


Tujuan Pembelajaran:
Peserta didik dapat menghitung limit fungsi aljabar di tak hingga.
Tahap Think
Tentukanlah nilai fungsi pada titik berikut ini agar kalian mengetahui pendekatan nilai fungsi ketika
x mendekati tak hingga ( ) .
2
1. Isilah tabel berikut untuk menghitung nilai fungsi f ( x )=x ketika :

10

100

1000

105

108

1015

...

f ( x)

...

Berdasarkan pengamatan kalian pada tabel, jika nilai

x mendekati tak hingga ( ) maka

nilai f (x) ...................


Notasikan fungsi tersebut ke dalam bentuk limit tak hingga!
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1
f ( x )=
2. Isilah tabel berikut untuk menghitung nilai fungsi
x ketika :
x

10

100

10.000

105

108

109

1010

f ( x)

...

...

Berdasarkan pengamatan kalian pada tabel, jika nilai

x mendekati tak hingga ( ) maka

nilai f (x) ...................


Notasikan fungsi tersebut ke dalam bentuk limit tak hingga!
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x1
f ( x )=
3. Isilah tabel berikut untuk menghitung nilai fungsi
x2 ketika :
x

10

100

10000

f ( x)

.....

106
......

1010

1015

1020

Berdasarkan pengamatan kalian pada tabel, jika nilai

x mendekati tak hingga ( ) maka

nilai f (x) mendekati ...................


Notasikan fungsi tersebut ke dalam bentuk limit tak hingga!
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Tahap Pair
Diskusikanlah jawabanmu dengan pasanganmu. Adakah pendapat kalian yang berbeda? Tentukan
dan tuliskanlah kesepakatan dari perbedaan itu pada kotak dibawah ini!

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Tahap Share
Berdasarkan pengerjaan kalian pada soal nomor 1 sampai dengan nomor 3, simpulkanlah bagaimana
nilai limit suatu fungsi aljabar ketika x mendekati tak hingga () ?
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Tahap Think

Jika

f ( )=

maka f (x) diubah dahulu dengan cara dibagi

x pangkat

Berdasarkan konsep yang telah kalian dapatkan dari pengerjaan nomor 1 sampai dengan nomor 3,
Cobalah untuk menentukan penyelesaian dari fungsi-fungsi berikut ini!
4.

lim f ( x )= x 2+ 3 x x 2 + x=

............

a. Berapakah nilai f ( x) jika kalian mensubstitusikan

x= pada fungsi diatas?

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b. Perlukah menggunakan cara lain untuk mengetahui nilai limit dari fungsi tersebut? Cara
apakah yang dapat kalian gunakan?

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5.

lim

2 x 3 +2 x 2 +4 x
=
.............
x 32 x 2 +3 x

a. Berapakah nilai f ( x) jika kalian mensubstitusikan

x= pada fungsi diatas?

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b. Perlukah menggunakan cara lain untuk mengetahui nilai limit dari fungsi tersebut? Cara
apakah yang dapat kalian gunakan?

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Tahap Pair
Diskusikanlah jawabanmu dengan pasanganmu. Adakah pendapat kalian yang berbeda? Tentukan
dan tuliskanlah kesepakatan dari perbedaan itu pada kotak dibawah ini!
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Tahap Share

Berdasarkan pengerjaan kalian pada soal nomor 4 sampai dengan nomor 5, simpulkanlah bagaimana
langkah-langkah kalian untuk mencari nilai limit dari suatu fungsi ketika x mendekati ?
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LATIHAN KELOMPOK
MATERI LIMIT FUNGSI ALJABAR
Pertemuan ke-1
Nama Anggota Kelompok :
1. _______________________4. _______________________
2. _______________________5. _______________________
3. _______________________6. _______________________

Diskusikanlah soal-soal berikut ini bersama teman sekelompokmu, kemudian presentasikan


hasil kerjamu!
1) Cermati grafik fungsi berikut dan apakah
fungsi

mempunyai limit ketika

3) Diketahui

f ( x )=

x 2+ 2 x
; x0
x
5 ; x=0

a. Tentukan nilai fungsi di titik 0!


b. Apakah fungsi diatas mempunyai nilai
limit ketika

x mendekati 0?

Kemukakan alasanmu!
2

x +4
4) Tentukanlah apakah f ( x )= x 2
mempunyai limit ketika
mendekati 1? Kemukakan alasanmu!
2)

x mendekati

3 ? Kemukakan alasanmu!
5)
6)

7)

Jawab :
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8)
9)

10)
11)
12)

LATIHAN KELOMPOK
MATERI LIMIT FUNGSI ALJABAR
Pertemuan ke-2
Nama Anggota Kelompok :
1. _______________________4. _______________________
2. _______________________5. _______________________
3. _______________________6. _______________________

13)
14) Diskusikanlah soal-soal berikut ini bersama teman sekelompokmu, kemudian
presentasikan hasil kerjamu. Jangan lupa untuk menuliskan secara lengkap cara
penyelesaiannya!
15)
2
x 25
lim
=
1.
x 5 x5
2.
3.

lim
x 3

lim

x 5

2 x +1
=
x3
x5
=
2 x +1

4.

lim

x 2

4
1

=
x 4 x 2
2

16)

Jawab :
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17) TUGAS RUMAH 1


18) Nama
: ..................................................................
19) No.Absen : .................................

20)

1. Cermati grafik fungsi berikut dan tentukan


f ( x )=
lim .
x 3

21) Jawab:
22)

23)

2. Cermati grafik fungsi berikut dan tentukan


f ( x )=
lim
x 2

24) Jawab:

25)

3. Cermati grafik fungsi berikut dan tentukan


f ( x )=
lim
x 0

26) Jawab:

27)
28)
29)
30) TUGAS RUMAH 2

31) Nama
: ..................................................................
32) No.Absen : .................................
33)

34)
Selesaikan soal-soal berikut ini dengan benar. Tuliskan cara kalian mengerjakan dengan
lengkap!
2
5.
x 3 x
lim
=
1.
x 3 x 3
6.
x5
( 3 x1 )24
lim
=
lim
=
2.
2
7.
x 5 2 x +1
x 1 x + 4 x5
3.
4.

3 99 x
lim
=
3x
x 0

8.

lim

x 2

4
1

=
x 4 x 2
2

9.

Jawab :
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10. TES SOAL LIMIT FUNGSI ALJABAR


11. Waktu : 45 menit
12.
13. Kerjakan soal-soal di bawah ini dengan benar!

x 1
1. Tentukanlah apa fungsi f ( x )= x1
ketika

yang digambarkan grafik di bawah ini mempunyai limit

x 1 ? Jelaskanlah jawabanmu!

14.

x 29
2. Tunjukkan cara yang kamu gunakan untuk menyelesaikan lim
, berikan alasanmu?
x 3 x 3
15.
16.
Untuk soal no. 3 5 tentukan benar (B) atau salah (S) pernyataan-pernyataan berikut ini.
Tuliskanlah alasan jawabanmu!
2
9x
= 8
4 x2 +7
3. (B/S) Melalui cara substitusi diperoleh
lim
x 3

4. (B/S) Dengan cara pemfaktoran diperoleh

lim

x 2

5. (B/S) Melalui cara penyederhanaan diperoleh

6x
1

=2
2
x 4 x2

( x +3 )225
56
=
2
12
x +2 x 3
lim
x 3

17.