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# How To Use HTRI For Shell & Tube Exchanger Design

Frank Shan
May 18, 2005

Contents
What Can HTRI Do
General Procedures
Example: Liquid-Liquid Exchanger Design
Result Evaluation

Air Cooler

Fire Heater

Hairpin
Exchange
r

S&T Exchanger

## Jacket Pipe Plate-Frame

Exchanger Exchanger

Tube Layout

Vibration
Analysis

General Procedure

Data Sheet

Case Mode
Rating, Simulation, Design

## Shell & Tube Geometry

Process Inlet/Outlet
Fluid (Cold/Hot) Properties

Result Analysis

End

Other Input

Example:
Liquid-Liquid S&T
Exchanger
Standard Data Sheet

1. Create an empty case: select File > New Shell and Tube Exchanger

## 1.1 Xist Main Window

Click for help

Required
Input is
highlighted
in red

Click + to expand

## 3. Select Case Mode

Rating (Default)
You define exchanger geometry and enough process
conditions for Xist to calculate the required heat duty.
Simulation
You define exchanger geometry and fewer process
conditions for Xist to calculate the required heat duty.
Design
You define most exchanger geometry and enough
process conditions for Xist to calculate the required
heat duty.

## Shell and Tube

Exchanger
Selection

Shell Selection
depends on
available P, the
E-type is the least
expensive shell.

(Courtesy of TEMA)

## Shell and Tube

Exchanger
Selection

(Courtesy of GPSA)

Tube Geometry

Tube Dia.:

## 3/4 ~ 1 in are more compact and more economical.

1 inch tube are normally used when fouling is
expected, or low P is required.

## Tube Length: In general, the greater the ratio of tube length to

shell diameter, the more economical the exchanger.
Practically, 16 ft or 20 ft facilitate reasonable plot
space and maintenance for horizontal exchanger.
Tube Pitch Ratio: 1.25, 1.333 are most common
For kettle reboiler operating at low pressure,
1.5 pitch ratio has been proved effective

Tube layout

## A 30-degree layout (default) is most common. Triangular

tube-layouts result in better shellside coefficients and
provide more surface area in a given shell diameter,
whereas square pitch or rotated-square pitch layout are
used when mechanical cleaning of tube outside is required

Baffle Type

## Cut range: 5 30%

For TEMA E Shell,
No.Crosspass = No.Baffle+1

Double-segmental Baffle

## Cut range: 5 30%

Baffle cut (100*h/D): 17% to 35% of shell diameter
A 22% cut is the optimum (HTRI)
Baffle spacing:

## 20% to 100% of shell diameter

(HTRI recommends 40% of shell dia. as start point)

## DT: only for printout

DP: to calculate tubesheet
thickness & bundle-to-shell
clearance for pull-through

## 9. Input Process Data

10. Input Hot Fluid Properties. 10.1 Select Physical Property Input Method

## The component-by-component option is recommended

for single-phase-only fluids for which the variation in fluid
properties is not large.

## Alternate Input Methods

(Process condition & properties)

## Import Case: (need simulator installed)

File>Import Case>change file type
>select simulation file>select exchanger>
generate properties

Property Generator...
Hot/Cold Fluid Properties>Property Generator>select Property package HYSYS
>simulation file>select exchanger>select fluid>generate properties

## HTRIFileGen - developed by Hyprotech to transfer data from simulation

HYSYS extension allow you to develop and run the process simulator while using
the HTRI proprietary methods.

Click
or
File>Run Case
or
Ctrl+F5

Indicate
incomplete input

Result Drawing

## 13. Analyze Final Results

Consider the following, and think of the possibility of a better
design.
Program message

Overdesign factor

Velocities

## Heat transfer coefficients

Distribution of thermal
resistances

Terminal process
conditions

Baffle design

## EMTD and temp profile

Vibration analysis

## Fatal: Problems lead to incorrect results

Warning: Unusual, limiting need your attention
Informative: Unusual data

13.2 Velocity:

## High enough to suppress fouling

Low enough to prevent erosion
higher velocity gives better heat transfer and suppresses fouling,
thus provides a longer run length. But too high a velocity will
cause tube erosion, and/or vibration.
For heavy oil services, consider 4 feet per second on the
tubeside as the design number. Faster is better until you
reach 10-12 fps for water or (density) x velocity^2 of 10,000 to
12,000 (English units).
Shellside velocities are more difficult but anything less than 3
fps will definitely foul when in heavy oil service.

## 13.3 Thermal Resistances

Check thermal resistances for shellside, tubeside, fouling, and tube metal.
Check dominant value.
Shellside Heat Transfer Limited

Action

Result

Watch For

(F,G)

## Increase shellside velocity,

MDMT, and heat transfer
coefficient

Design requirement

Bypassing and
leaking

## Slight increase in heat

transfer coefficient

Tubeside P
increase

Consider finned
tubes

Smaller exchanger

## Reduce E stream with

decreased baffle-to-shell
clearance

Action

Result

Improve tubeside
performance

## Increase tubeside h, velocity

at given shell size

Switch tube/shell
side

## Increase tubeside velocity at

given shell size because of
fewer tubes

Watch For

Increased tubeside
P

## 13.4 Overdesign Factor

Overdesign = (Qcalc Qreqd) / Qreqd x 100
= (Ucalc Ureqd) / Ureqd x 100

B stream:
C and F stream:

## normally at least 60% of total flow for turbulent flow and

40% for laminar flow
Normally should not exceed 10%

## 13.6 Pressure Drop

It is highly undesirable if the exchanger is limited by P, exchangers are larger than
necessary to accommodate allowable P rather than to satisfy heat transfer demands.
For critical exchangers (condenser, reboiler), try to meet the required P.
For heavy streams, no fouling is the first concern over P.
Shellside P Limited
Action

Result

Watch For

## P reduced greatly (TEMA E

to J decrease by up to
factor of 8)

## Investigate multisegmental bundles

Double-segmental baffle P
reduced to about 1/3 of that
for segmental baffle with
same central spacing

Tube vibration is
possible

Investigate NTIW
bundles

## P reduced to 1/4 if window

area large enough

Extreme caution:
inefficient heat
transfer may result

## Increase nozzle sizes

P reduced

Tubeside P Limited
Action

Result

## Increase tube dia.

P reduced sharply,
P~f(d^5)

## Larger tubeside flow area

(more tubes fit into shell)

## P is 1/8 of that of 2tubepass design

Decrease tube
length

P reduced sharply

Increase nozzle
sizes

P reduced

Watch For

## Reduces heat transfer

surface and shellside
flow area.

14. Finishing

Not satisfied

Evaluation

Satisfied

Finish

Thanks !