Anda di halaman 1dari 8

Strategy****

Different models for strategic planning process:


1. Rational Planning model strategic choice, strategic option, strategy in action
2. Johnson & Scholes- 3 levels of strategy > corporate strategy, business strategy, operational
strategy
3. Johnson & Scholes- 3 lenses > experience, ideas, design.
4. Mintzbergs emergent strategies
*****Stakeholders, ethics and culture****
Mendelow matrix mapping (to identify stakeholders)
Johnson & Scholes- ethical position of company
Charles Handy types of culture (power, role, task, people).
Miles & Snow- strategic cultures (defenders, prospectors, analysers, reactors).
Cultural web whether a particular strategy is acceptable to employees. (CORPPS)
***** Environment*****
Johnson & Scholes- key drivers of change (why do things change?) > (market globalization, cost
globalization, global competition, economic, environmental, legal).
PESTEL- analysis of external environment
Porters national diamond- reasons why some companies in a particular country have competitive
advantage than companies from other countries.
*****Competition and markets****
Industry life cycle
Porters 5 forces
***** Strategic capability****
Mckinseys 7S
Porters value chain -appraise internal aspects of org.
porters value network extends the idea of value chain to include customers and suppliers
Product life cycle
TARA framework dealing with risks
*****strategic options****
Ansoff matrix used to generate strategic options
BCG matrix (under product development).
Porters generic strategy (under market penetration). > cost leadership, product differentiation,
focus group.
Strategic clock look at price and added value
*****Strategic choice****
Johnson & Scholes- strategic rationale ways head office can create value in each business they
own > portfolio managers, synergy, parental developers.

Ahsdrige portfolio model > use BCG matrix instead. (Which divisions to keep or get rid of)
Tows analysis
Johnson & Scholes- SFA test
*****Finance*****
Limiting factors
Make or buy
Closure or continuing decisions
Special contracts
ratio analysis
Regression, time series analysis
***** Marketing******
Marketing mix (7 Ps)
CSF and KPIs
*****Business process****
Rummler and Brache- Gaps and disconnecting
Harmons process- strategy mix
*****E business*****
6 stages of using IT (initiation, contagion, control, integration, data administration, maturity).
Supply chain: upstream, downstream
6Is for e-marketing
customer life cycle
*****People in organization*****
Organizational structure (functional, divisional, matrix)
Mintzberg structural configuration (ideology, strategic apex, middle line etc)
*****Project management*****
Project gateways- method to run a project
Wards & Daniels types of benefits (how benefits can be measured)
tuckmans stages of formation stages before starting the project
Belbins personality mix- personalities in the group
******Change and development*****
Balogun & Hope Hailey contextual features for stakeholders to consider before accepting change
Lewins force field analysis forces at work whenever a change is considered
Lewins 3 step process- stages necessary for something to change (unfreeze, freeze, refreeze)

Ch 1: Strategy
Different models for strategic planning process:
1. Rational Planning model strategic choice, strategic option, strategy in action
2. johnson & Scholes- 3 levels of strategy > corporate strategy, business strategy, operational
strategy
3. Johnson & Scholes- 3 lenses > experience, ideas, design.
4. Mintzbergs emergent strategies
Ch 2: Stakeholders, ethics and culture
Mendelow matrix mapping (to identify stakeholders)
Johnson & Scholes- ethical position of company
Charles Handy types of culture (power, role, task, people).
Miles & Snow- strategic cultures (defenders, prospectors, analysers, reactors).
Cultural web whether a particular strategy is acceptable to employees. (CORPPS)
Ch 3: Environment
Johnson & Scholes- key drivers of change (why do things change?) > (market globalisation, cost
globalisation, global competition, economic, environmental, legal).
Pestel- analysis of external environment
Porters national diamond- reasons why some companies in a particular countries have competitive
advantage than companies from other countries.
Ch 4: Competition and markets
Industry life cycle
Porters 5 forces
Ch 5: Strategic capability
Mckinseys 7S
Porters value chain -appraise internal aspects of org.
porters value network extends the idea of value chain to include customers and suppliers
Product life cycle
TARA framework dealing with risks
Ch 6: strategic options
Ansoff matrix used to generate strategic options
BCG matrix (under product development).

Porters generic strategy (under market penetration). > cost leadership, product differentiation,
focus group.
Strategic clock look at price and added value
Ch 7: Strategic choice
Johnson & Scholes- strategic rationale ways head office can create value in each business they
own > portofolio managers, synergy, parental developers.
Ahsdrige portfolio model > use BCG matrix instead. (which divisions to keep or get rid of)
Tows analysis
Johnson & Scholes- SFA test
Ch 8: Finance
Limiting factors
Make or buy
Closure or continuing decisions
Special contracts
ratio analysis
Regression, time series analysis
Ch 9: Marketing
Marketing mix (7 Ps)
CSF and KPIs
Ch 10: Business process
Rummler and Brache- Gaps and disconnecting
Harmons process- strategy mix
Ch 11- Ebusiness
6 stages of using IT (initiation, contagion, control, intergration, data adminstration, maturity).
Suppy chain: upstream, downstream
6Is for e-marketing
customer life cycle
Ch 12: People in organisation
Organisational structure (fuctional, divisional, matrix)
Mintzberg structural configuration (ideology, strategic apex, middle line etc)

Ch 13: Project management


Project gateways- method to run a project
Wards & Daniels types of benefits (how benefits can be measured)
tuckmans stages of formation stages before starting the project
Belbins personality mix- personalities in the group
Ch 14: Change and development
Balogun & Hope Hailey contextual features for stakeholders to consder before accepting change
Lewins force field analysis forces at work whenever a change is considered
Lewins 3 step process- stages necessary for something to change (unfreeze, freeze, refreeze)

Smart~objective should be
Prime ~ objective function
Abcde~value chain create value
Sos tac~planning framework
Smsm erp~turnaround strategy
Coppit~ethic

PID covers OSCAR ( Objectives , Scope , Constraints , Authority , Resources)

IPECC : Stages of Project Life cycle.


Initiation
Planning
Executuon
Control
Completion

IPECC : Stages of Project Life cycle.


Initiation
Planning
Executuon
Control
Completion

C - Competitors existing (threat from competitive rivalry) - # and size of competitors, quality and
other differencies, customer loyality
C - Competitors new (threat from potential entrants) - cost and time of entry, building a brand,
knowledge required, economies on scales, barriers like patents, design rights
C - Customers (customers' bargaining power) - # of customers, size of each order, product and price
differences, price sensitivity
S - Suppliers (supliers' bargaining power) - # and size of suppliers, uniqueness of service, cost of
switiching to other suppliers
S - Substitutes (direct, indirect and monetary) (threats from substitutes) - the existence of
substitutes, the performance of substitute products, relative price, fashion trend

Project initiation document (PID)


Title
Objectives
Scope
Constraints (time &costs)
Authority (Sponsor - make decisions, provide resources, agree changes)
Resources (available for project material, labour, finance resources) Title
Objectives
Scope
Constraints (time &costs)
Authority (Sponsor - make decisions, provide resources, agree changes)
Resources (available for project material, labour, finance resources)

Model #4 ANSOFF's growth vector matrix


Existing Markets * Existing Products = Market Penetration
Existing Markets * New Products = Product Development
New Markets * Existing Products = Market Development
New Markets * New Products = Diversification: Direct + Indirect

Model #5 Porter's Value Chain


IL O OL M&S S
IL - Inbound logisitics - e.g. JIT system
O - Operations - manufacturing the products
OL - Outbound logistics - getting the products to the customers
M&S - Marketing and sales
S - Service- after sales service

Is the process strategically important? (does it tie up with SWOT?)


Is the process complex?
High importance * Complex process = focusing on STAFF (make sure they are able to do it)
High importance * Simple process = use a bespoke ERP soution

Low importance * Complex process = Outsource (Marketing, IT, Legal service)


Low importance * Simple process = Automate (off-the-shelf system)
When Harmon's process was examined in P3 past exam papers?

Model #8 Contextual features - Balogun and Hope Hailey Acceptance of Strategic

Change
Fundamental change is likely to be resisted unless there are good reasons for stakeholders
to accept it.
Balogun and Hope Haley list the contextual features which stakeholders will consider:
Time is the organization in a crisis or is there time for gradual change?
Scope will many people/divisions/depts. be affected or just a few?
Preservation are there processes, competences and staff that will need to be retained?
Diversity different parts of the business may have their own culture and interests. Will the
proposed change impact on these?
Capability do senior mgt. have the knowledge and experience to deal with change?
Capacity does the organization have the resources required to undertake the change?
Readiness are the key stakeholders aware of why change is needed and are they likely to
accept it?
Power can senior managers force change even if it is against the wishes of other
stakeholders?

Model #10 Software selection - 5 stages by Skidmore and Eva

When a company decides to purchase a bespoke software it goes through these 5 stages:
1. Obtain tenders
2. First pass selection
3. Second pass selection
4. Implementation
5. Managing long-term relationships