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Running Head: EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN

Toni Bell
Evaluation Material Design Skeletal System
University of Southern California
EDUC 521: Assessment and Instruction for Diverse English Learners
February 23, 2015
Dr. Emmy Min

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN

The majority of students who want to learn English have a goal of just speaking the
language for conversational purposes. However, there is a growing need for English for Specific
Purposes (ESP). In universities all over the world English classes are being created for students
studying business, medicine, and the law. There are even several journals devoted to the topic
including English for Specific Purposes: An International Research Journal. Many ESP students
already have specific knowledge in their chosen field. The assessment of listening, grammar,
vocabulary, reading, and speaking skills of these students requires that they be evaluated on
knowledge they already posses within an English language context. For this evaluation design, I
created a PowerPoint presentation, a note-taking matrix, and an answer key and rubric for the
speaking portion of the summative assessment (Bell, 2015). The materials focus on macro and
micro skills of reading, writing, speaking, vocabulary, and grammar and will be a guide for
students to test their acquisition of knowledge.
Assessment Design
The lesson will begin with an overview of prepositions and conjunctions. The anatomy
portion will focus upon the skeletal system. In pair work, students will be asked to use
prepositions and conjunctions when describing anatomy and body movements. Students will
have the option of creating flash cards of the vocabulary as they work in pairs. They will be
required to utilize primarily writing, listening, vocabulary, and speaking macro and micro skills
to facilitate their learning. These skills will be informally assessed during the teaching of the

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN

unit. According to Brown & Abeywickrama, Informal assessment can take on the form of
incidental, unplanned commentsalong with coaching (Brown & Abeywickrama, 2010, p.
6). The completed note-taking matrix will provide the students with a clear and concise study
guide for the summative assessment.
Context and Objectives
These materials are intended for intermediate and advanced, college level, English
learners who are taking an anatomy and physiology class. The materials and the assessment can
also be presented to Pre-Med students as well. ESP classes vary in size. However, these materials
and the assessment could be used in small and large classrooms. The entire lesson could be
taught over one week or several depending upon the proficiency levels of the students. Group
and pair work emphasizes a kinesthetic and interpersonal focus when scaffolded appropriately
can take up as much or as little class time as the teacher wants wants.
The objective of the design materials is to prepare the students for the final summative
assessment. In pair work, students will primarily engage in interactive speech focused on
transactional language as students use the vocabulary and grammar (p. 185). One of the micro
skills the students will is the , cohesive devices in spoken discourse, (p. 186) One of the
macroskills of speaking that the students will use during the lesson is, providing a context for
the words, appealing for help, and accurately assessing how their peer understands them, (p.
186). The pair work is directly related to the speaking portion of the summative assessment.
Students will be primarily engaged in academic reading through a top-down approach
and will use their note-taking matrix for writing. While the students are in pairs, the teacher will
informally assess the students writing via the note-taking matrix. In short, the matrix is a very

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN


open ended cloze exercise. One of the reading and writing micro skills assessed will be the
recognition of core and key words (2010).
The listening exercise which focuses on the formation of bone cells will prepare the
students for the oral portion of the summative assessment. The students will watch a short video
and be asked to take notes. They will engage in selective listening during which they will
auditorily scan the text for certain words and jot down their meanings. Brown & Abeywickrama
states that, The purpose of such performance isto be able to comprehend designated
information in a context of longer stretches of a spoken language, (p. 162).

The task based interactive material design includes interpersonal and kinesthetic multiple
intelligence activities (p. 17). Students will have the opportunity to palpate body structures on
themselves and also create replicas of the bones in clay with their peers. As they engage in these
kinesthetic activities, they will be encouraged to repeat vocabulary and grammatical terms as
they create their flashcards. Using multiple intelligences as vehicle for teaching grammar and
vocabulary is rooted in sociocultural theory. It provides a contextual meaning (2010).
Rationale
Sociocultural theory posits multiple ideas about assessment. Learning can be assessed
through participation and interaction. Engaging learners in the negotiation of meaning can be
used for assessment and to provide linguistic feedback. Learners can also be assessed in the use
of key lexical items. This particular lesson has very specific low frequency vocabulary. The
primary goals of the final summative assessment are multifaceted. The vocabulary was chosen to
measure learner proficiency and evaluate learning activity (Nation, 2008). The lesson and
associated activities all encourage vocabulary learning.

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN

The lesson materials provide for a significant number of opportunities for informal peer
assessment. When the students engage in self-palpation and create the bones with their peers out
of clay, they are interacting with one another on kinesthetic level. Encouraging the students to
use vocabulary as the name the various parts leads to the final extension activity of the creation
of flash or word cards. Using word cards will allow the students to test one anothers spelling
and word meaning. Also, any word that is not well know can be put aside for further
learning, (p. 147). This allow the students to be able to focus their study time in preparation for
the summative assessment.
There are concerns in regards to practicality. Practical materials stay with budgetary
guidelines and utilizes available materials (Brown & Abeywickrama, 2010). This assignment
and the suggested materials work well in a high and even medium technology classrooms.
However, schools that have limited resources such as many classrooms in what is considered the
Global South, may not have access to photocopiers or clay to implement this lesson. In this case,
the lesson would have to be adapted by the teacher providing more visuals and increasing
palpation exercises to facilitate the lesson.
The design materials are high in reliability in that they are, consistent and
dependable, (p. 27). The directions and tasks are clear to the learner, teacher and test
administrator. Because the summative assessment is multiple choice there is high inter-rater
reliability. There is also high-test reliability because the test is objective. Objective test, have
predetermined fixed response, (p. 29). The only portion of the summative assessment that
might be contentious is the speaking portion. Although the rubric is specific, the student
response could be construed as subjective particularly if the teacher is engaged in completing the
rubric while the student is still speaking. One way to elevate this problem is to record the student

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN

responses on tape. This way the teacher could act as an active listener, which would lower the
student affective filter. The teacher could listen to the recording later to complete the rubric.
Validity is defined as, the extent to which inferences made from assessment results are
appropriate, meaningful, and useful in terms of the purpose of the assessment, (p. 29). The
assessment and associated materials are high in content-related validity. Face validity is high as
well in that the materials presented in the lesson as well as some of the exercise are in direct
relation to the final summative assessment. The students upon completion of the lesson and
additional study would more than likely consider the test fair.
The design materials and assessment are high in authenticity. Since the materials are
designed for ESP, it is clear that the students will be using the materials in real word
circumstances. Although the language is highly specialized, after much repetition the use of the
language will become more naturalistic. The materials are organized around a specific theme and
are relevant to the specific goals of the students.
There is high positive wash back for the teachers and the students. The note-taking matrix
directly prepares the students for summative assessment. Washback also, ...enhances intrinsic
motivation, autonomy,and strategic investment (p. 38), The students will also have access
to the accompanying PowerPoint presentation as reference as well. The student is provided with
specific information that leads to their learning. Students will be encouraged to continue to work
with the peers outside of the classroom to reinforce their learning.

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN

References
Bell, T. (2015). Summative Assessment, Skeletal System.
Bell, T. & Rubistar. (2015). Summative Assessment Speaking Bone Formation.
Brown & Abeywickrama, (2010). Language Assessment Principles and Classroom Practices:
White Plains, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.
Elson, L. & Kapit, (1993). The Anatomy Coloring Book. New York, NY: Harper Collins
Publishers.
Nation, I.S.P. (2008). Testing vocabulary knowledge. In Teaching Vocabulary: Strategies and
Techniques. Heinle Cenange Learning. Pp. 141-156.

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN


Appendix A Skeletal System Power Point Presentation
See attachment

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN

Appendix B Skeletal System Note Taking Matrix

Skeletal System Note Taking Matrix.


Joints are also known as
___________________________________________________.
Three types of joints and definitions.
1.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
3.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Types of joints and mobility
1.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
3.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

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Six types of synovial joints, descriptions, and associated


movements.
1.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
3.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
5.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
6.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Parts of the long bone and descriptions.
1.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

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2.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
3.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
5.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
6.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
7.._____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Shapes of bones
1.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
3.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

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4.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
5.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Vertebrae & Descriptions
1.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
C1________________________________________________________________
C2________________________________________________________________
2.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
3.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
5.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
How bone is created and broken down (Video Segment)
1.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
3.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4.______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN

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Vocabulary Lists & Definitions

Articulations another name for joints/


Synovial joints freely movable joints that are covered by
articular cartilage.
Fibrous joints immovable and parity movable joints. Also
called sutures.
Cartilaginous joints immovable and partly movable joints. Ex.
Intervertebral disks.
Flexion movement of joint that decrease the angle between
two bones.
Circumduction consists of movements of flexion, abduction,
extension, and adduction.
Rotation the moving of a bone to turn an axis.
Hyperextension extreme extension.
Inversion and eversion movement that occurs at the joints of
the ankle.
Articular cartilage cartilage at the end of the bones of
synovial joints. Also called hyaline cartilage.
Diaphysis the central part of the long bone.
Epiphysis the ends of a long bone.
Periosteum the thin layer of tissue that covers the bone and
does not cover the articular cartilage at the end of the bones.
Red marrow marrow that is composed of red and white blood
cells.
Yellow marrow marrow that is composed of fatty tissue. It no
longer produces blood cells.
Nutrient Artery the artery that is the main supplier of oxygen
and nutrients to a bone.
Medullary cavity the center part or cavity of the diaphysis.
Foramen an opening in a bone that allows for the travelling of
nerves, blood vessel and other materials.
Osteogenic cells - bone stem cells that undergo cell division.
They form osteoblasts.
Osteoblasts create the cells that build bones. They secrete
fibers that build the bone matrix.
Osteocytes mature bone cells that form from osteoblasts
trapped in their matrix secretions.
Osteoclasts break down bone tissue.

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN

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Appendix C Original Summative Assessment


General Instructions
This examination is designed to measure your ability to use English specific to the
skeletal system. There are six different kinds of questions: listening, comprehension,
grammar, and vocabulary, reading comprehension and speaking.

8 listening
8 grammar
8 vocabulary
5 reading
Speaking section

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LISTENING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS


In this part of your test you will hear four paragraphs. Choose the best response
from the choices and mark you answers on the sheet. You may take notes as you
listen. Each question has one answer. The audio segment will be played twice.
There are a total of 8 questions.
Transcript of Audio segment
Classification of Joints
Bones are connected at joints. Another word for joints is articulations. All
movement occurs at joints. There are three types of joints: fibrous,
cartilaginous, or synovial. These joints are classified as moveable, partly
movable, or freely movable.
A fibrous joint can be immovable or partly movable. Bones connect to one
another through fibrous tissue. Two types of fibrous joints are sutures,
which join the bones of the skull and teeth in their sockets.
Cartilaginous joints can be immovable or partly moveable. Bone connects
bone by cartilaginous tissue. The disk between vertebrae or intervertebral
discs is partly moveable cartilaginous joints.
Synovial joints are freely moveable joints. There are six types of synovial
joints: ball & socket, hinge, saddle, ellipsoid, pivot and gliding. Bones that
connect via synovial joints are capped with a special type of cartilage
called articular cartilage.
1. Joints
a.
b.
c.

are also known as


Ligaments
Bones
Articulations

2. Fibrous joints are


a. Freely movable
b. Immovable
c. Partly movable
d. Immovable and partly movable
3. Cartilaginous joints are
a. Freely movable
b. Immovable
c. Partly movable
d. Immovable and partly movable

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN


4. Synovial joints are
a. Freely movable
b. Immovable
c. Partly movable
d. Immovable and partly movable
5. There
a.
b.
c.

are ________ kinds of synovial joints.


Four
Three
Six

6. Intervertebral disks are a types of ___________ joint.


a. Synovial
b. Fibrous
c. Cartilaginous
7. Sutures are types of _____________ joints found in the skull
a. Synovial
b. Fibrous
c. Cartilaginous
8. Synovial joints are covered with _______________ cartilage.
a. Articular
b. Elastic
c. Fibro-

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EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN

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GRAMMAR, VOCABULARY, AND READING INSTRUCTIONS


This section will focus your ability use English grammar and vocabulary and to
understand written English. There are 21 questions. Each question has only one
correct answer. Chose the best answer to the question and mark your answer. You
should mark A, B, or C.

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN

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Grammar Terms of Movements


1. Terms
a.
b.
c.

of movement are applicable to joints ________ bones.


Not
And
By

2. Movements of bones occur ____ joints.


a. Around
b. In
c. At
3. Extension of a joint _________ to generally straighten it.
a. Are
b. Was
c. Is
4. Flexion of a joint is to bend it or decrease the angle ________ the bones of a
joint.
a. Without
b. Apart
c. Between
5. Circumduction consists of movements of flexion, abduction, extension, _____
adduction performed in a sequence.
a. But
b. And
c. Yet
6. Rotation of a joint is ______________ the moving bone about is axis.
a. To turn
b. To repeal
c. To reverse
7. Extreme extension ________ hyperextension.
a. Is named
b. Is called
c. Is addressed as
8. _________ inversion and eversion occur in the joints of the ankle.
a. Neither
b. Nor
c. Both

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EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN


Vocabulary
1. The ____________ is the end of a long bone.
a. Diaphysis
b. Epiphysis
c. Periosteum
2. _____ marrow is composed of red and white blood cells.
a. Red
b. Yellow
c. Gelatinous

3. The ________________ artery is the major supplier of oxygen and nutrient to the
long bone.
a. Femoral
b. Carotid
c. Nutrient
4. The ___________ is the central part of the long bone.
a. Diaphysis
b. Epiphysis
c. Periosteum
5. The ___________ is thin layer of tissue that covers the bone and does not cover
articular cartilage.
a. Periosteum
b. Diaphysis
c. Yellow Marrow
6. ___________ marrow is the fatty tissue that no longer produces blood cells.
a. Red
b. Yellow
c. Nutrient Artery
7. Articular cartilage is also known as __________ cartilage.
a. Hyaline
b. Elastic
c. Spongy
8. __________________ cavity is the cavity of the diaphysis.
a. Brachial
b. Medullary
c. Interosseous

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN

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Reading Bones
1. Bones are classified as the following: long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid.
How are bones classified?
a. By their shape
b. By their action
c. By their location in the body
2. All the bones in the skull except for the temporomandibular joint, a synovial
joint, are fibrous.
How many synovial joints are in the skull?
a. One
b. Two
c. Six
3. The foramen magnum is a large hole at the base of the skull through which
the spinal column connects to the brain. The vertebral foramen is the space
through which the spinal column resides within the vertebral column. The
supraorbital foramen is a small hole through which supraorbital artery
crosses.
What is a foramen?
a. An opening.
b. A suture
c. A joint
4. The atlas (C1) vertebrae is ring shaped and has no body. It pivots around the
axis (C2).
What is the function of the axis (C2)?
a. To rotate the head from left to right.
b. To flex and extend the head.
c. To pronate the head.
5. Although there are only five lumbar vertebrae, they are the largest and most
massive?
How does the massive size of the lumbar vertebrae correlate to
their function?
a. The ribs attach to them.
b. They hold the weight of upper body.
c. They maintain arteries and nerves.

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN

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Speaking How Bones Form


Discuss with your teacher how bone is formed and broken down using three to five
sentences. You may use the using the following vocabulary words as prompts:
osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts.
Answer: Osteogenic cells are stem cells and are the bone cells that undergo cell
division. The resulting cells form into osteoblasts. Osteoblasts create bone-building
cells. They secrete fibers that build the bone matrix. Osteocytes are mature bone
cells that form from osteoblasts trapped in matrix secretions. Osteoclasts break
down bone tissue.

EVALUATION MATERIAL DESIGN


Appendix B Answer Key and Speaking Rubric
Listening Section
1. C
2. D
3. D
4. A
5. C
6. C
7. B
8. A
Grammar Section
1. B
2. C
3. C
4. C
5. B
6. A
7. B
8. C
Vocabulary
1. B
2. A
3. C
4. A
5. A
6. B
7. A
8. B
Reading
1. A
2. B
3. A
4. A
5. B
Speaking Rubric
See Attachment entitled Toni Bell_521_Bone Formation_Assessment Rubric.pdf

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