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The

basic function of the respiratory


system is to obtain and transport
oxygen to every cell in your body
and to remove carbon dioxide as
a waste product.

1.

Air enters the respiratory system


through either 2 nasal cavities (nose)
or the mouth.

1.

The nasal cavities open into an air filled


cavity called the pharynx, or throat.
The pharynx serves as a passageway for
both air and food.

2.

The pharynx branches into the trachea


and the esophagus. Air moves from the
pharynx into the trachea, or windpipe.

The

epiglottis is a flap-like structure


that covers the opening of the
trachea when food is being
swallowed.
At the top of the trachea is the
larynx. It contains the vocal cords.

4.

From the trachea, air moves into 2


large passageways in the chest cavity
called bronchi (singular: bronchus).
Each bronchus leads into one of the
lungs.
The walls of the trachea and bronchi
are reinforced with rings of cartilage.
(holds windpipe open)

4.

Within each lung, the large bronchus


subdivides into smaller bronchi, which
leads to even smaller passageways
called bronchioles.

6.

The bronchioles lead to millions of


tiny air sacs called alveoli.

network of thin-walled capillaries


surrounds each alveolus.
Exchange site of CO2 and O2
Oxygen dissolves in the moisture of
the alveoli and then diffuses into the
blood.
Carbon dioxide in the blood diffuses
in the opposite direction, from the
blood to an alveolus.
Surface Area equivalent to a tennis
court.

Inhaled air passes through the following


series of continuous airways in this
sequence:
Nasal passages
Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi (left and right)
Bronchioles
Alveoli

http://www.brainpop.com/ (Respiratory System)

Large

dust particles get trapped by the


hairs lining the nasal cavity

Some

cells that line the respiratory


system produce mucus. The mucus
moistens the air and traps inhaled
particles of dust or smoke.

Cilia

sweep the trapped particles and


mucus away from the lungs toward the
pharynx- swallowed (acids in stomach
kill bacteria) or spit out. http://www.brainpop.com/ (boogers)

Thoracic

Muscles

Intercostal muscles muscles

between your ribs, when they contract


the rib cage opens -they are only active
during inspiration
Diaphragm a band of muscle that is
attached to the bottom of your lungs.
When it contracts (flattens) it lowers
and is only active during inspiration

When

the breathing muscles contract


(mostly the diaphragm & intercostals) it
pulls on the outer membrane of the
pleural sac (attached to the wall of the
lung).

This

increases the size of the lungs (pleural


cavity) which causes the pressure in the
lungs to drop.

Air

moves into the lungs by a pressure


gradient.

The

lungs are incased in a protective cage


called the Thoracic Cavity. (Spinal
column, ribs and sternum).

The

lungs are attached at the bottom to a


sheet of muscles called: the Diaphragm.
It separates the thoracic and the abdominal

cavities.

pleural sac (membrane) separates


each lung from the thoracic wall.
The pleural cavity is the inside of the
pleural sac.

Left

lung only has 2 lobes to make


room for the heart

There

are respiratory centers in the brain


stem that establish a rhythmic breathing
pattern.

There

are inspiratory and expiratory


neurons in the medullary respiratory
center.

The

inspiratory neurons send signals to the


inspiratory muscles.
When they do not fire signals, the expiratory
center takes over and expiration occurs.

It

provides a route for water loss and


heat elimination.

It

enables various kinds of


vocalizations.

It

defends against inhaled foreign


matter.

Its

part of the sense of smell.

What

are alveoli?

What

is their
function?

Nicotine

and carbon monoxide


paralyze cilia

Cilia

cant sweep away these bad


particles

Mucus

traps smoke/bad particles along


the airways (coughing)

Can

cause chronic bronchitis

Swollen bronchi, clogged with mucus

Can

cause emphysema

Loss of elasticity in lung tissue


Difficult to get enough O2 to tissues and get rid of CO2

Can

cause lung cancer

Cells can spread to other locations

Can

cause heart disease

Blood vessels narrow


BP rises and heart works harder
Circulation and body temperature drop

dramatically after smoking

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f

LbQfMmrISE
(Quitting Smoking Timeline)

Chronic lung disease

Inflamed

and narrowed airways

Wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing


Increased mucus production

http://www.brainpop.com/

Inflammatory

in alveoli
The

alveoli fill
with fluid

infection

Hereditary
Thick

disorder

mucus blocks bronchioles

Difficult

to exchange O2 and CO2

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kCSjfxm1jgY
(Living

with CF/CF Research)