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2013

Net Work Theory

Ameena Saeed - 201101102


Batool Sedaif - 201101409
Fatema Obaid - 201101371
Marwa Abdulla - 201101342
Zainab Naser - 201101711

Bahrain Polytechnic
1/1/2013

Table of content:

Contents
Introduction: ................................................................................................................2
Body:...........................................................................................................................2
The first recommendation: Improve The Urban Planning for The Infrastructure of Bahrains
Roads (Batool). .............................................................................................................3
The second recommendation: Create awareness programs and campaigns to change people
negative mindset about public transport so it increase public transport users and decrease
the usage of private cars (Zainab). ..................................................................................6
The third recommendation: Construct new type of public transport that people could benefit
more from it such as a METRO (Fatema). ....................................................................... 10
The fourth recommendation: Increase number of buses and bus stations (Ameena) .......... 13
The fifth recommendation: Increasing and improving of public transport advertisements in
Kingdom of Bahrain ( Marwa). ...................................................................................... 15
Recommendations: ..................................................................................................... 19
Conclusion: ................................................................................................................ 21
Responsibilities and contribution: ................................................................................. 22
References: ................................................................................................................ 23

Table of figures:
Figure 1 Network theory ................................................................................................2
Figure 2 Public transport modes .....................................................................................2
Figure 3 An Urban area..................................................................................................3
Figure 4 Bahrain urban area infrastructure ......................................................................3
Figure 5 Negative mindset .............................................................................................6
Figure 6 Interview with Mr. abdul Rahmal Al-mawda ........................................................8
Figure 7 Dubai Metro. ................................................................................................. 10
Figure 8 Metro infrastructure. ...................................................................................... 10
Figure 9 Bus stations in Bahrain .................................................................................... 13
Figure 10 advertise annocements ................................................................................. 15
Figure 11 Advertisement stand ..................................................................................... 13
Figure 12 Batelco national advertisement ...................................................................... 16
Figure 13 Advertisement stand. .................................................................................... 17

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Introduction:
(Batool + Marwa)
Purpose:
This report aims to provide several and critical recommendations for developing the public
transport in Kingdom of Bahrain. The recommendation which will be mentioned will help to
solve some important issues that Bahrain suffers from regarding its public transport by
applying Network theory. Thus, these recommendations which will be provided in this
report are going to be analyzed according to the following five NETS:

Infrastructure Network

Traffic Networks

Regulatory Networks

Commutation Networks

Auxiliary Networks

Skill networks

Figure 1 Network theory

Terms of reference:
This report which provides these useful recommendations was requested by Mrs. Tanya
Web, General studies tutor at Bahrain Polytechnic. This report will be submitted to Mrs.
Webb on 16th of June 2013 according to the deadline of this assignment.

Methods:
The report contains much information which was gathered from different resources which
include:
4. Videos

1. Websites

5. Interview

2. Books
3. Academic journal

Also, compression between Public transport in Bahrain and other developed countries have
been done in order to come up with practical and developed recommendations that could
be applied in reality world generally, specifically in Kingdom of Bahrain.
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Body:
(Fatema & Zainab)
Public transport is mostly owned by government but it can be owned by the private sector. It
provides transport services which are scheduled for community that all people from
different areas could share to move from point to another. There are two kinds of public
transport: free services or charged services. There are several modes of public transport
which includes:

Buses

Metros

Trains

Taxicabs

Ferries

Rails

Figure 2 Public transport modes

In addition, Public transport is an essential service for regions that need efficient networks
to operate professionally.as well as that, it solves many issues that is related to community
such as: pollution issues, traffic issues and traffic accidents.
Public transport cannot operate sophisticated without effectual networks and people for
controlling it. In the coming sections five recommendations will be discussed according to
the network theory.

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The first recommendation: Improve The Urban Planning for The


Infrastructure of Bahrains Roads (Batool).
Urban area is an area with a high-density ratio and
the center for the most of human activities like
trading,

purchasing,

studying

and

working.

Moreover, urban area is the tourists center,


because

it

perspectives

identifies
like

countries

traditions

from
and

many
cultures

(InvestorWords, online). The urban area is so


important for the economy of a country; however,
it has a lot of problems such as most of the time
crowded and high pollution rate. Besides, by
improving the infrastructure of the urban area the
rate of traffic and the pollution will decrease a lot.

Figure 3 An Urban area

The urban areas in Bahrain are:


Manama, Muhrraq, Isa town and Riffa

1. Infrastructure Network
The most common problem in the infrastructure of Bahrains urban areas is the parking
system there, which is regularly by the side of the central streets, and in front stores or
offices, where many cars are passing and the parking lots for each store are limited. As a
result, people will be forced to park their cars in forbidden areas. To solve this problem
the parking should be outside the urban area.

Figure 4 Bahrain urban area infrastructure

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Having parking outside the urban area will solve the problem of congestion certainly. There
are several types of parking systems that can be implemented in Bahrain. First type of
parking is the multi-level parking: this type has many advantages such as the ideal park
system for utilizing space with lower construction cost comparing with other parking types
(automated parking system)(NBMCW, 2011). Second type of parking is the automated
parking system; the advantages of this system is safer and secure than the other systems
and more environmental because they used lesser materials in constriction. Furthermore,
automated parking system is more convenient, save time and decrease effort because the
drivers wont have to go around the parking lots for several times just to get a park!
(BomErangSystems, ND).
2. Traffic Networks
Buses move people within the area
Public transport can be used in the urban area to move people there like moving people
from parking to their destination. But first government should involve people to use
public transport, because using public transport will decrease the cars on streets so that
the traffic jams and pollution will decrease too. However, the public transports in
Bahrain are not in a well condition and people in Bahrain do not want to use the public
transport because it is uncomfortable. Consequently, Bahrain government should
provide buses that suit all people and in a good condition so people prefer to use it
instead of using their own cars and spend more time in traffics jam (wiki How, ND).
3. Regulatory Networks
Put strict laws
The responsible authority should put a law that do not allow for vehicles that carry only
one passenger to pass the urban area roads in the morning during working days or
he/she will be fined, this will decrease the percentage of vehicle on roads significantly.
Besides, Put a high tax on parking thus people prefers using public transports instead of
using their cars (Bugak, ND).
4. Communication Networks
There are a lot of ways to have useful communication networks. First, Put signs in the
parking lots that each park has a code and color so people can get to their cars quickly.
Second, offer electronic boards in front of each parking gate that shows the available
park at this moment as it applied in Bahrain City Center, this will save the drivers time
because they do not need to go around all the parking lots searching for the empty one!
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Third, have an application that can be installing in smart phones, which have the bus
time schedule, the percentage of people who are in the urban area at this time and if
the percentage was so high people will avoid going at these. Besides, provide maps of
the urban area to help people to get to their destination easily (RAND, 2002).
5. Auxiliary Networks
To have an efficient urban area infrastructure there must be a developed auxiliary
network that operates to support the other networks. The auxiliary can apply by
providing security men distributed around the urban area that prevent people from
violating laws and organize traffic and help in making the urban area safe and secure. In
addition, make sure the urban area healthy environment by using environment friendly
materials in building the infrastructure also by planning tress all around the urban area
because trees benefit in reducing pollution by filtering the air from carbon emissions.
Also provide emergency equipment in all the area (DEC, ND).
6. Skill Networks
The skills networks needed in the urban area is the security men skills which are good
customer services, decision making skills, problem solving skills so he can organized the
traffic in the urban area professionally (YahooVoices, 2010).
To sum up, all networks are important to have well-organized urban area. But the most
important networks are the infrastructure networks, traffic networks and regulatory
networks. Nevertheless, the other networks are playing a secondary role that complements
the efficiency of the urban area.

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The second recommendation: Create


awareness programs and campaigns to
change people negative mindset about
public transport so it increase public
transport users and decrease the usage
of private cars (Zainab).
Figure 5 Negative mindset

In Bahrain the public transports with its different modes are used by anyone else but
Bahraini people. This came as a result of the negative thoughts about the public transport
and as a result of the culture in Bahrain. Bahraini people refused to use public transports for
many reasons, some of them are:
-

They consider it transports only for the foreign workers.

The culture in Bahrain makes it hard to the females to use the public transports
especially when they are wearing abaya and hejab.

University's students or teenagers think it is embarrassing to get in a public


transport.

The main reason which keeps the Bahraini people away from the public transports is that
the public transports itself are not in a condition that attract people to use. For that, the
public transports will be discussed relating to the theory of transport system so it can be
improved and then change the people's negative mindset.
1. Infrastructure Network:
The infrastructure in Bahrain is weak, the facilities and the buses are not in good condition
and lack of road space. As a result the negative mindsets of Bahraini people will not be
changed unless the infrastructure networks of the public transports get developed. To do
that:
1. The Ministry of Traffic should allocate roads only for the buses so it attracts
people attention to use as it will have less traffic.
2. The buses should be replaced with new improved buses equipped with system
connected to the system in the direction building to encourage people to use
public buses.

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3. There must be programs and campaigns about public transport to increase


people awareness by the responsible authorities.

2. Traffic Networks:
When comparing the public transports with the private cars in the speed, all
Bahraini people will answer that the private cars are faster because the public
transports like the buses used to stop many times in stations or in traffic. As a result,
the public transports need to have two things to improve this point:
1. The public transports need to be connected to a system in the direction building
which the bus driver can connect with people whom working in the direction. In
case if there is something wrong in a specific road or a traffic, the man in
direction can know by the system about it so he connect the bus driver ordering
him to change his route.
2. In case of changing the route because of traffic or an accident, the public
transports needs to have GPS (Global Positioning System) which is a device
connected to the satellite to navigate the roads in Bahrain (Rosabeth, 2010) and
draw another safe and short route to the driver so he can avoid the traffic.

3. Regulatory Networks
Because the drivers in Bahrain especially the buses drivers always break the driving
rules, the people feel insecure to get in a public transport.
According to the Chief of Driving License Branch; Abdul Rahman Bin Mohammed AlMawda, to drive a bus which is a heavy vehicle, the driver need to have heavy
license and his age must be not less than 25 years old with 5 years driving
experience. To add more, the buses or the heavy vehicles are not allowed to drive in
the left line of the roads and the maximum speed for the vehicles is 80 km\hour in
the highways and main roads while the minimum speed for the vehicle is 30
km\hour in residential areas.

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Figure 6 Interview with Mr. abdul Rahmal Al-mawda

The ministry of traffic should make a lecture to all bus drivers to give them all these
important information and to warn them so they keep the rules and drive safe.
Furthermore, the ministry of traffic should have a special traffic man watching the
movement of the buses and to register irregularities on bus drivers. By that, the
people will feel safe and secure to get in a public transport.

4. Communication Networks
To operate an efficient service that attracts people to use public transports, the
public transports needs to be advanced and developed. That can be done when
connecting all involved people in different parties together so they can
communicate and exchange information and details in the right time. For example,
in case of an accident, the bus driver can easily inform the one who keeping on track
with the bus movement so then this man can call the police and the ambulance
quickly.

5. Auxiliary Services Networks


Public transports can't work effectively without auxiliary services. The responsible
authorities must provide these auxiliary some services in order to attract people to
use public transports. For example, provide a first aid box in the bus station in case
of injury during the bus trip. As a result, this quick and efficient service will attract
people to use the public transport because it is developed and provide health
service.

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6. Skills Networks
Public transports need to have workers with the required skills like drivers with the
correct license who are aware of the driving and traffic laws. Another example, the
one who makes the schedules and draw the routes for the buses have to know the
roads and the routes and he need to be an organized person so he can organize the
buses routes.
When recruiting the right person in the right post, the work can be done in a fast
and perfect way so as a result, it encourages people to use public transports because
it gives them professional service.

To sum up, no one can blame the people negative mindset about the public
transport because the real problem is with the public transports itself. Using the
network theory can solve the public transport problems so then they would change
the negative mindset of people.

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The third recommendation: Construct new type of public


transport that people could benefit more from it such as a
METRO (Fatema).

Figure 7 Dubai Metro.

Applying the Network theory on this recommendation will be as the following:


1. Infrastructure Network: in order to have a new type of public transport, we need first to
look at the physical infrastructure where the Metro will be placed. Bahrain will need to
build a road for the metro to make it operate because it needs special ways to move on.
Besides that, the metro will need stations to stop in to load and unload people who are
going to use it. The infrastructure network for the Metro will need a lot of work from
engineers, special materials to build the metro itself, materials to build the road and the
stations that the metro will move and stop in and electricity for the metro to operate.

Figure 8 Metro infrastructure.

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11

2. Traffic Network: when Bahrain decides to have a Metro, it will need to manage the
traffic of people in the stations and inside the Metro. For instance, people will come to
the stations to wait for the metro to take it; the metro will need to be scheduled
efficiently and effectively to carry people on standardized times to not have traffic issues
in the stations. If the metro is scheduled perfectly, it will take the passengers from one
station to transport them to the following station or the station they want. The process
of moving people from one station to another one and scheduling the times to the
metro to depart and arrive will manage the people traffic in the stations and it will free
up the space for another passengers to take the metro.

3. Regulatory Network: in order to have the metro in Bahrain, the government or the
authority that will construct it will need to take authorization to build the metro, apply
and agree on several laws that are related to constructions, transporting people, fees
and environment issues. In addition, the authority will need to ensure the health and
safety of passengers and apply the regulations of the Ministry of Health that would give
them the permission to build the metro and transport people on it. Moreover, the
schedules that the metro will operate according to them will need to be done
professionally with assistance from the Ministry of General Director of Traffic because
they have information about the times that there will be traffics and the rush hours.

4. Communication Network: in order to have the new type of public transport which is the
Metro, Bahrain will need to manage the flow of information from different authorities
such as the regulatory authorities, health and safety authorities, insurance authorities,
etc.... In addition, the Metro will need to be determined if it is going to be functioned
automatically or operated by driver. Moreover, the places where the Metro will stop in
or we can could them the stations locations will need to be determined. For example to
the communication network in relation to the Metro, the command of moving the
Metro from one station to another one to move people is given to make the Metro
operate. However, enormous communications are being occurred in the backstage
between people who functions the Metro and the machines which are responsible for
that. As a result, the Metro will need a communication system to work by because
nothing could work without communication.
5. Auxiliary Network: in order to the Metro to operate effectively, the auxiliary services
will need to be ensure and maintained efficiently and used correctly. To best use of the
Metro will occur when the support networks are in place which allowed the Metro to be
fuelled or operated by the electricity, the way or the road for the Metro will need to be
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11

maintained and regulated to allow the flow of traffic, the stations are sizeable and wide
enough to handle big number of people and are occupied with all the needed services
such as the first aid.

6. Skill Network: to construct the Metro in Bahrain, there must be some operations before
this action in accordance with the skills network. People who are going to be employed
to construct the Metro or to work on it after it is being constructed are needed to be
trained to deal with the work of the Metro. The drivers of the Metro will need to have
licenses to operate the metro and transport people. The regulators and the controllers
who are going to be employed will need to have the necessary education to manage the
Metro.

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12

The fourth recommendation: Increase number of buses and bus


stations (Ameena):
1. Infrastructure networks: increase the number of bus stations to cover more areas
and make them better so people feel comfortable while they are waiting for their
bus to arrive. Bus station should be closed cabinets with air conditioner. Also, the
size of the bus stations should be increased and more seats must be available in
order to accommodate more people. Furthermore, in order to make buses or public
transport operates better; it will be efficient to provide specific lines for buses on
roads so they dont get stacked in the traffic and reach their destinations in the
scheduled time.

Figure 9 Bus stations in Bahrain

2. Traffic networks: the bus moves on the public road from the operator center to the
bus station and arrive on a scheduled time to pick up the customers and transport
them to other bus stations. When the bus pick up the people from the bus station;
the number of people waiting in the bus station become less which provide space
for people who want to go on the next bus to wait in the bus station. When
increasing the number of bus stations and buses, the traffic in the buses and bus
stations will decrease allowing people to move freely and fast.

3. Regulatory networks: In order to increase the number of the buses, the responsible
authorities should provide specific line for buses only that cars are not allowed to
use it.
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13

4. Communications networks:
Information about the schedules of times and stations should be available to the
driver in a computer in the bus in addition to a GPS device to provide the drivers
with directions of the fastest route to reach their destinations. Also, drivers must
have a list of all emergency numbers and the numbers to call in case of any accident
or break down. Operator managers must respond fast and contact the mechanics
and the operator center to send out another bus to replace the breakdown bus.
Customers: schedules of stops locations and timing should be provided to customers
and make them easy to find. Schedules must be available in all bus stations and
online on the transport companies' websites.

5. Auxiliary networks:
In Bahrain petrol stations covers almost every area which make it very easy for
buses to find a near petrol stations in whatever area they are in. Also there are
sufficient numbers of police stations and patrols in Bahrain, which makes people feel
more secure when using the public transport buses.

6. Skills networks:
According to (Bahrain institute for political development, 2013) the laws and
regulations in Bahrain states that a bus driver must have a valid driving license for
vehicles over 16 passengers. To grant this license the applicant must have a private
car driving license from at least five years and must be at least 25 years old. He/she
must complete the training hours and pass the driving test.

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14

Figure 10 advertise annocements

The fifth recommendation: Increasing and improving of public


transport advertisements in Kingdom of Bahrain ( Marwa).
Generally, the following are recommended advertisements to be used for public transport
advertisements in the future:

Advertisements that are announced on TV, Cinema, Radio, Newspaper, posters,


banners, advertisement stand, etc

National Advertisements:

International Advertisements

Online Advertisements

Surrogate Advertisements

Public Service Advertisements


(Shineedon, n.d.)

Figure 11 Advertisement stand

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15

For more details:


National advertisements:
This type of advertisements is limited within the country. Generally, advertisers of this kind
of advertisement do the following to inform customers about particular service or product.

1. Use local media.


2. Use national or local language which is used in that country.
3. Spread this kind of advertisement in that country, so people can find it everywhere
in that country.
(Mark, n.d.)

Figure 12 Batelco national advertisement

International Advertisements:
On the other hand, International advertising is defined as advertisements that entails
dissemination of a commercial message to target audiences in more than one country. This
type of advertisements is very beneficial for tourism and usually used to attract different
people from different nations to use, try something or even travel somewhere. If Kingdom of
Bahrain makes several agreements with different nations to advertise for public
Transportation in Bahrain as UAE did to announce for Metro Dubai, the kingdom will gain
lots of incomes, tourists and the public transport advertisements will be increased. (Douglas)

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16

Public Service Advertisements:


this type of advertisement is defined as an advertisement
technique which is applied in order to promote commercial
goods or services can be used to inform, educate and motivate
the public about non-commercial issues like political ideology,
energy conversation and general awareness(Public Service
Advertisements

).

Consequently,

Public

Services

Advertisements is recommended to be used in Bahrain to


increase peoples awareness regarding increased pollution Figure 13 Advertisement stand.
caused by the increased usage of private cars. ("Types of
advertisements,).

In this part, the following recommendation will be analyzed by using the net of the theory:
1. Transport Infrastructure:
In terms of applying this net effectively, there must be agreements between
advertisement organizations and the ministry of transport in order to apply public
transport to put some public transport advertisements which could be papers, stands,
banners and posters in the following places:
1. Bus stations
2. Metro Stations in the future
3. Outside and Inside public buses
4. Outside and Inside metro
5. Outside and Inside taxies

As people will use the public transportation in Bahrain, consumers will have a
chance to see these advertisements and read them. Thus, they will be attracted by
the advertisement style, color and its content of information. So the different
transportation methods that will be applied in Bahrain will contribute in increasing
public transport advertisements as in each public transport vehicle different
advertisements which will be displayed. As a result, public transport in Bahrain will
be increased.

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17

2. Regulatory Networks:
In terms of regulatory network, several rules and regulations must be added within
the Bahraini Law regarding advertisements facilities in order to facilitate different
processes of producing advertisements in general. Specifically those advertisements
regarding public transport in Bahrain. Consequently, by applying this point of the
regulatory network effectively; many positive and constructive outcomes will be the
result.
For example, video advertisement producers will feel comfortable as they will have
more flexibility to be innovative and creative to create new innovative ideas in their
videos regarding public transport in Bahrain. This will assist in increasing
advertisements and providing professional advertisements ideas in Bahrain that
could attract people to use Bahrain public transport.
As well as these, several rules and regulations must be added in Bahrain Labour Law
regarding the employment of advertisement experts. As there is Bahrain Labor Law
(Al-Aradi, 2012), certain rules must be updated regarding experts employment,
specially hiring professional experts in some critical positions like media creators,
videographers, artists, etc. As a result, public transport in Bahrain will be increased
and improved.

3. Skill networks:
As multimedia has a huge impact on people, applying multimedia to support public
transport is very critical and should be applied well in Bahrain. For example, In order
to have efficient public transport advertisements, Kingdom of Bahrain should
employ special 3D and 4D (Projection) advertisement experts in order to produce
professional TV and Cinema advertisements. So that different kind of
advertisements will be provided in order to support the issue of public transport.
Also, Bahrain should hire professional experts in media majority to support the issue
of public transport. By hiring those professional experts in multimedia,
advertisements of public transport will improve in Bahrain which will affect
positively on the issue of Bahrain public transport. As a result, public transport in
Bahrain will be increased and improved.

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18

Recommendations:

Relating to the culture:

For the first recommendation: Most urban area in Bahrain area old which reflects the
culture and the civilization of Bahrain, most tourists prefer being in these places where they
can see the culture and origins of this country, for these reason Bahrain government should
improve the urban area to encourage more foreigners to visit these places.
For the second recommendation: The culture in Bahrain and the mindsets of people makes
it hard to the females to use the public transports. However, when changing this idea and
turning the wrong mindset of the Bahraini people, the culture will be effected because it will
encourage the people to use the public transports and even the females.
For the third recommendation: Constructing the new type of public transport which is the
Metro, would affect the culture because it will take place in the vital areas in Bahrain that
people are used to go to and that will encourage them to take the Metro rather than using
cars and hanging in the traffic. In addition, it would change the old people mindsets of the
cheap public transport because the Metro is a modern kind of transport and the way it is
designed will encourage people to take it in their way to work.
For the fourth recommendation: In Bahrain people prefer to use their private cars rather
than using public transport and one of the reasons is because oil price in Bahrain is cheap.
Mostly the poor people who cannot afford to buy cars use public transport. Because of that
the government did not put much effort in developing the public transport and as a result
there is few bus stations in Bahrain and most of them are in a bad condition.
For the fifth recommendation: Regarding advertisements, now, most of Bahraini people
still have less awareness regarding the importance of advertisements, how advertisements
could affect positively or negatively and how they could get the required information from
any advertisements. In general, by applying the previous ideas regarding network theory,
the culture in Bahrain will be affected constructively as people will be aware of
advertisements quality and how advertisements is essential in their life. Thus, Bahraini
people will be good readers for daily advertisements.
Regarding impact of applying the network theory on culture regarding future usage of public
transportation system in Bahrain, consequently, as Bahraini people will be aware of
advertisements importance which will impact on their responding ad reaction of any issue
they face in their daily life generally, increasing and improving of public transport
advertisements will contribute in convincing them to start using public transport as they will
be aware of its benefits and the increased pollution caused by increasing usage of private
cars.

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19

Relating to the wellbeing:

For the first recommendation: Developing urban area will not only help in spreading the
culture of Bahrain to people, it will also improve the wellbeing of Bahraini people, the trader
in these areas will receive more profit due to the more visitors who will come if the urban
area has improved.
For the second recommendation: Changing the negative mindset of Bahraini people and
encouraging them to use the public transports will effect on the Bahraini wellbeing.
Developing public transport and using it rather than owning a personal car will organize the
movement of road decreasing the traffic and the accidents. People will be able to use the
public transports feeling comfortable and safe anytime they need arrive without the need of
taking a loan from the bank to buy a private car and spend few year paying back to the bank.
However, using public transport won't cost people a lot because it is too cheap.
For the third recommendation: The construction of the Metro as a new type of public
transport in Bahrain will benefit the Bahraini and non-Bahraini people who are living in
Bahrain in their movement from one place to another avoiding the traffic. In addition, the
Metro is an excellent kind of transport to use as it will encourage people to take it because it
is unique in Bahrain and has been tried in the United Arab of Emirates and it is usefully used.
The Metro will benefit the Bahrain wellbeing, as Bahrain is a small country and there are a
lot of people living in it, which caused a lot of traffic in their movement; the Metro will solve
some of the traffic issues and make the movement of people easier. Besides, it will reduce
the number of traffic accidents that are being done every day and will save people lives.
For the fourth recommendation: Developing public transport is one of the goals that
Bahrain wants to achieve and mentioned in the 2030 vision. Developing and increasing the
number of bus station is one of the most important things to develop the public transport.
For the fifth recommendation: The usage of 3D and 4D advertisements will contribute
positively in wellbeing. As people get boredom due to using same normal and old
advertisements techniques for long time, applying new creative ideas in advertisements
production like 3D and 4D advertisements will make people attracted and more interested in
watching advertisements generally which will result increasing of developed advertisements
production . Specifically, people will be attracted to 3D and 4D advertisements of public
transport in Bahrain. Consequently, this will result increasing of developed advertisements
production as well as increasing of public transport usage in Bahrain.

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21

Conclusion:
In conclusion, in order to develop the public transports system in Bahrain efficiently, Bahrain
will need to apply the network theory system which was explained at the beginning of this
report. This report analysed five recommendations regarding public transports from the
previous assignment like: increasing the number of buses and its stations and improve the
urban planning for the infrastructure of Bahrain roads. In addition, these recommendations
were analysed according to the network theory with providing examples of some networks.
To add more, each analysed recommendation was linked to the culture and the wellbeing of
Bahrain.

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21

Responsibilities and contribution:


Name of Member

What had she done

Ameena Saeed

Batool Sedaif

Fatema Obaid

Marwa Abdulla

Zainab Naser

Analyzed the fourth recommendation which is about


increasing the number of buses and bus stations.
Searched for pictures
Contributed in the part of culture and wellbeing.
Made her references APA style
Analyzed the first recommendation which is about urban
planning
Writing the introduction with Marwa
Contributed in the part of culture and wellbeing
Made her references APA style
Made the group meetings table
Organized the report with Zainab & Fatema
Analyzed the third recommendation which is about the new
type of public transport
Writing introduction to the body with Zainab.
Searched for pictures
Contributed in the part of culture and wellbeing.
Made her references APA style
Organized the report with Zainab & Batool
Contributed in writing the conclusion
Analyzed the fifth recommendation which is about the
advertisements
Writing the introduction with Batool
Searched for pictures
Contributed in the part of culture and wellbeing
Made her references APA style
Contributed in writing the conclusion
Analyzed the second recommendation which is about
changing the wrong mindset of people
Writing introduction to the body with Fatema & Batool
Collected all parts from the members of the group in one
document
Organized the report with Fatema
Searched for pictures
Contributed in the part of culture and wellbeing
Made her references APA style
Contributed in writing the conclusion.

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References:

Websites:

Al-Aradi, A. (2012, July 26). The labour law for the private sector. Retrieved from
http://webdev.polytechnic.bh/moodle/pluginfile.php/44228/mod_resource/content/1/Bahr
ainLabourLaw(2012)-English.pdf
Auxiliary networks. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.wehaulmoving.com/resource_center/terms_to_know.asp
BomErangSystems. (n.d.). Benefits of automated parking. Retrieved from
http://www.boomerangsystems.com/index.php?view=parking&modelId=1
Bugak. (n.d.). Solutions to reduce traffic jam in major cities?. Retrieved from
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070426023443AA6hww5

DEC. (n.d.). Critical environmental areas. Retrieved from


http://www.dec.ny.gov/permits/6184.html
Douglas, S. P. (n.d.). International advertising. (Master's thesis, New York
University)Retrieved from
http://people.stern.nyu.edu/sdouglas/rpubs/intad.html
InvestorWords. (n.d.). urban. Retrieved from
http://www.investorwords.com/5192/urban.html
James, M. (2012). What is network infrastructure?. Retrieved from
http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-network-infrastructure.htm
NBMCW. (July 2011). Multilevel car parking systems. Retrieved from
http://www.nbmcw.com/products/car-parking/24450-multilevel-car-parking-systems.html
Projection. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://4dprojection.com/
RAND. (2002 ). Improving communications in urban warfare improving communications in
urban warfare. Retrieved from
http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB3029/index1.html
Rosabeth, S. (2010). What is gps?. Retrieved from
http://www8.garmin.com/aboutGPS/
Shineedon. (n.d.). Know about various types of advertising . Retrieved from
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S06wAB_MIvg

Types of advertisements. (n.d.). Retrieved from


http://www.slideshare.net/anni0009/types-of-advertisement
wikihow. (n.d.). How to avoid contributing to traffic congestion. Retrieved from
http://www.wikihow.com/Avoid-Contributing-to-Traffic-Congestion
YahooVoices. (2010 , Feb 24). Skills needed for security guard jobs. Retrieved from
http://voices.yahoo.com/skills-needed-security-guard-jobs-5535783.html?cat=31

Interview:
Al-Mawda, A. (2012, December 10). Interview by Zainab Naser []. Traffic & driving
rules., Retrieved from
http://www.bahrain.bh/wps/portal/!ut/p/c5/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3g
3E0cj0wAXIwMDvwBXAyNLbw8jkxBXIxMTc6B8pFm8s7ujh4m5j4GBhYubhYGRk6mZZ
6CBi4GBpykB3cGJRfrhIDvxmwGSN8ABHA30_Tzyc1P1C3IjKjx1HRUBibmaSg!!/dl3/d3/
L0lHSkovd0RNQUprQUVnQSEhL1lCZncvYXI!/

Book
Tiffin, J., & Kissling, C. (2007). Transport Communication. (1st ed., p.38). London:
Kogan Page.

Video
Mark, M. (n.d.). Types of paid advertising. Retrieved from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=heEUytu0h-8

Figures:
Figure1: Network theory. Retrieved 12 June 2013 from
http://www.low2no.org/essays/new-direction-for-transport
Figure2: Public transport modes. Retrieved 12 June 2013 from
http://www.google.com.bh/search?hl=ar&site=imghp&tbm=isch&q=public+transpo
rt+modes&spell=1&sa=X&ei=sQ-4Ubr9EcTCOjFgdAE&ved=0CE0QBSgA&biw=1252&bih=585#facrc=_&imgrc=F9t8ytoOa8Db3M%3
A%3BrDB1vF19G3KegM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Ftop-10-list.org%252Fwpcontent%252Fuploads%252F2009%252F07%252Fpublictransport.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Ftop-10list.org%252F2009%252F07%252F10%252F10-unconventional-ways-saveenergy%252Fpublic-transport%252F%3B500%3B375

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Figure3: An urban area. Retrieved 12 June 2013 from


http://www.google.com.bh/search?q=metro&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=FAa
4UeqCBbLQ7Ab2hIH4DQ&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1280&bih=929#tbm=isch&sa=
1&q=urban+area&oq=urban+area&gs_l=img.3..0l10.98017.109446.0.109927.10.8.0.
2.2.0.279.1838.1j1j6.8.0...0.0...1c.1.17.img.XQf9D0hEU7o&bav=on.2,or.&bvm=bv.47
810305,d.ZGU&fp=f54fa5019cf1894c&biw=1280&bih=929&facrc=_&imgrc=Nn9Ku4
7GUwKTM%3A%3B7y3Deb83vKQuxM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.pvupscale.org
%252FIMG%252Fjpg%252FAmersfoort_aerial_view_med.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%
252Fwww.pvupscale.org%252Fspip.php%253Frubrique6%3B316%3B277
Figure4: Bahrain urban area infrastructure. Retrieved 12 June 2013 from
http://www.google.com.bh/search?q=metro&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=FAa
4UeqCBbLQ7Ab2hIH4DQ&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1280&bih=929#tbm=isch&sa=
1&q=urban+area+in+Bahrain&oq=urban+area+in+Bahrain&gs_l=img.3...45433.4744
1.2.47723.11.11.0.0.0.0.273.1213.5j3j2.10.0...0.0...1c.1.17.img.hQtHrGmAzuo&bav=
on.2,or.&bvm=bv.47810305,d.ZGU&fp=f54fa5019cf1894c&biw=1280&bih=929&facr
c=_&imgrc=2gPMFMImx5ONM%3A%3ByfJu9tLprkfaqM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.tradearabia.co
m%252Fsource%252F2012%252F11%252F25%252Fzones.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F
%252Fwww.tradearabia.com%252Fnews%252FCONS_226179.html%3B400%3B260
Figure5: Negative mindset. Retrieved 12 June 2013 from
http://www.stepupleader.com/2012/10/leadership-mindset/
Figure6: Interview with Mr. abdul Rahmal Al-mawda.
Figure7: Dubai metro. Retrieved 12 June 2013 from
http://www.google.com.bh/search?q=metro&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=FAa
4UeqCBbLQ7Ab2hIH4DQ&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1280&bih=929#tbm=isch&sa=
1&q=dubai+metro&oq=dubai+metro&gs_l=img.3..0l10.40529.41833.0.42898.6.6.0.0
.0.0.278.1016.2j1j3.6.0...0.0...1c.1.17.img.nyPHB3xt2go&bav=on.2,or.&bvm=bv.478
10305,d.ZGU&fp=f54fa5019cf1894c&biw=1280&bih=929&facrc=_&imgrc=EzUb6PM
Gwr44ZM%3A%3BWyupe6AwCTa7M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fdubaimetro.eu%252Fwpcontent%252Fuploads%252F2012%252F12%252F138.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252
Fdubaimetro.eu%252Ffeatured%252F12193%252Frta-announce-dubai-metro-willrun-24-hours-for-new-years-eve%3B1600%3B1232
Figure8: Metro infrastructure. Retrieved 12 June 2013 from
http://www.google.com.bh/search?q=metro&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=FAa
4UeqCBbLQ7Ab2hIH4DQ&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1280&bih=929#tbm=isch&sa=
1&q=dubai+metro&oq=dubai+metro&gs_l=img.3..0l10.40529.41833.0.42898.6.6.0.0
.0.0.278.1016.2j1j3.6.0...0.0...1c.1.17.img.nyPHB3xt2go&bav=on.2,or.&bvm=bv.478
10305,d.ZGU&fp=f54fa5019cf1894c&biw=1280&bih=929&facrc=_&imgrc=Y53PF8kB
zxyrlM%3A%3BxFL4qM70OFzLUM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fdubaimetro.eu%252F
wpcontent%252Fuploads%252F2011%252F06%252F31.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252F
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dubaimetro.eu%252Ffeatured%252F7925%252F237-realty-projects%2525E2%252580%25259Con-course%2525E2%252580%25259D-for-completionin-dubai%3B3644%3B1422
Figure9: Bus stations in Bahrain. Retrieved 12 June 2013 from

http://www.showbus.com/photos/bhmidibus.JPG
Figure10: Advertise announcements. Retrieved 12 June 2013 from

http://r30.fss.ru/files/77934/clipart_of_31974_smjpg_2.jpg
Figure11: Advertisement stand. Retrieved 12 June 2013 from

http://www.indiamart.com/g2creatives/new-items.html
Figure12: Batelco National Advertisement. Retrieved 12 June 2013 from

http://bahrainonline.org/showthread.php?t=249568

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