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KELOMPOK 2

Darma Adhi W.
Galuh Intan P.
Bhatara Putra M.
Mulyani
Muliyani
Ali Akbar
Tia Utari
Eko Rusdiyanto

(11210009)
(11210012)
(11210014)
(11210020)
(11210023)
(11210024)
(11210028)
(11210030)

Konsep Dasar
Apa itu Bearing?

Bhatara Putra Mediriyanto

Tipe beban pada bearing


1. Bantalan radial (Journal Bearing)
Arah beban yang di tumpu bantalan ini
adalah tegak lurus dengan sumbu poros
2. Bantalan aksial (Thrust Bearing)
Arah beban bantalan ini adalah sejajar
dengan sumbu poros

3. Bantalan kombinasi (combination bearing)


Bantalan ini menumpu beban yang
arahnya sejajar dan tegak lurus dengan
sumbu poros

Introduction

Journal bearing termasuk salahsatu sliding bearing dan keterbalikkan


dari ball bearing
Journal bearing secara umum digunakan pada mesin piston kendaraan
bermotor berbahan bakar bensin atau diesel
Kelebihan :
Bearing type ini mampu menopang shaft yang berat.
Awet dan tahan lama
Efek redaman dari film minyak membantu membuat mesin
beroperasi dengan tenang dan halus.
Kekurangan :
Membutuhkan suplai minyak pelumas yang besar
Hanya cocok untuk temperatur dan kecepatan rendah
Pembentukan lapisan minyak pelumas lambat

Bearing Diagram

Journal bearing Berfungsi sebagai bantalan poros engkol yang berputar


Oil inlet Tempat masuknya minyak pelumas
Ketika oli pelumas masuk ke dalam bearing, oli akan memenuhi
clearance/ gap antara shaft dan bearing sehinggga mengakibatkan
tekanan fuida meningkat dan daya angkat hidrodinamis terhadap shaft

Type

Typical Loading

Application

(a)

Partial arc

Unidirectional load

Shaft guides, dampers

(a)

Circumferential
groove, Axial groove
types

Variable load direction

Internal combustion engines

(a)

Cylindrical

Medium to heavy
Unidirectional load

General machinery

(a)

Pressure dam

Light loads, unidirectional

High speed turbines, compressor

(a)

Overshot

Light loads, unidirectional

Steam turbines

(a)

Multilobe

Light loads, unidirectional

Gearing, compressor

(a)

Preloaded

Light loads, unidirectional

Minimize vibration

(a)

Tilting pad

Moderatic Variable loads

Minimize vibration

Movement of the bearing

Video

Infinitely Long Approximation (ILA)

Menentukan jari-jari shaft dan clearance

ILA
Menentukan Dimensionless pressure

Boundary Condition

Galuh intan prawest

8.3 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS


Assumsi :
=0
=0

Dimana :
Ps = tekanan suplai
C = radial clearence
R = radius bearing
= viskositas pelumas
= kecepatan
putaran poros

8.4 FULL SOMMERFELD BOUNDARY


CONDITIONS

Asumsi :
=0
= 2 (360)

8.4 FULL SOMMERFELD BOUNDARY


CONDITIONS

Substitusi Sommerfeld :

+
cos =
1 +
Tekanan puncak terjadi ketika

3
cos =
(2 + 2 )

Dimana :
cos = sudut angular pada
tekanan maksimum

= rasio eksentrisitas

= eksentrisitas
C = radial clearence

8.4 FULL SOMMERFELD BOUNDARY


CONDITIONS
Besarnya tekanan puncak tak berdimensi pada distribusi tekanan
adalah :
6 sin (2 + )
=
(8.9)
(2 + 2 )(1 + )2
Dari persamaan 8.9 asumsi P = 0 pada = , besarnya tekanan
puncak tak berdimensi adalah :
3 (4 2 )(4 5 2 + 4 )0.5
=
2(1 2 )2 (2 + 2 )
Yang terjadi pada :
= 1

3
2 + 2

Load Carrying Based


on Full Sommerfeld Condition

Load Carrying Based


on Full Sommerfeld Condition
Arah Radial
2

(8.10)

Arah Tangensial
=

(8.11)

Dari substitusi tekanan tak berdimensi pada persamaan 8.9 dengan


persamaan 8.10 dan 8.11 maka didapatkan :
= 0

12

(1

1
2
)2

2 + 2

(8.12)

Load Carrying Based


on Full Sommerfeld Condition
Dimana Beban tak berdimensi:

=

(8.13)

Dengan

= beban yang diproyeksikan


Ns = kecepatan poros dalam rev/s

Resultan dari dan

+ =

( ) (+ )

(8.14)

Load Carrying Based


on Full Sommerfeld Condition
Attitude Angle

=
=

(8.15)

.
Dalam berbagai kasus, jika

=0

=0

=1

8.5 DEFINITION OF THE


SOMMERFELD NUMBER

8.5 DEFINITION OF THE


SOMMERFELD NUMBER
Bilangan Sommerfeld (S) merupakan bilangan tak berdimensi yang
merupakan

parameter karakterisasi

performansi

sebuah bearing.

Bilangan ini menunjukkan karakteristik gesekan total dari bantalan.



=

(8.16)

substitusikan ke dalam persamaan

Dan penyelesaian S menjadi

Sommerfeld Number (8.14) maka :


=
1
=

(1

1
2
)2 (2

12

+ 2 ) (8.17)

8.6 HALF SOMMERFELD BOUNDARY


CONDITION

=
1

1
2
)2 (2

(8.18)

122
=
1 2 )(2 + 2

(8.19)

Total kapasitas beban dukung dan attitude angle adalah:


=

6
2 2 (2 4)
2
2
1 )(2 +

).

(8.21)

0.5

(8.20)

Eko Rusdiyanto

Contoh Soal 8.1

Fenomena Kavitasi
Gaseous Cavitation

Kavitasi

Vapor Cavitation

Gaseous Cavitation
Gaseous cavitation merupakan kavitasi yang
disebabkan oleh adanya bagian dari minyak
pelumas yang terlarut dengan udara pada
kondisi jenuh (sekitar 10%), dan ketika tekanan
sekitar menjadi turun bagian yang terlarut ini
akan membentuk suatu kavitasi tetapi dibagian
yang berbeda dari fluid film, hal ini yang
menyebabkan kavitasi jenis gaseous tidak terlalu
berbahaya.

Vapor Cavitation
Vapor cavitation disebabkan oleh tingginya
fluktuasi tekanan yang ada diantara film dari
pelumas dan bearingnya itu sendiri, kavitasi
jenis ini cukup berbahaya karena bisa
menyebabkan kerusakan pada bearing (fatigue
damage)

SWIFT-STEIBER (REYNOLD) BOUNDARY


CONDITION
Perhitungan beban bearing dengan
memperhatikan kavitasi didalam
perhitungannya

= 0 =

INFINITELY SHORT JOURNAL BEARING


APPROXIMATION (ISA)

Ali Akbar

A. Infinitely Short Journal Bearing


Approximation (ISA)

Integral 2 kali

Length-to-Diameter ratios up to
L/D = dengan trends rata-rata
L/D = 1

Table Infinitely Long Journal Bearing Solutions with the Reynolds


Boundary Condition

B. Full and Half Sommerfeld Solutions for Short Bearings (ISA)

Figure Short Bearing Eccentricity Ratio vs Sommerfeld Number

Figure Short Bearing Attitude Angle vs Sommerfeld Number

Darma Adhi Wardhana

FINITE BEARING DESIGN &


ANALYSIS
This section focused on design and
performance analysis based on the full
solution of Reynold equation.

FINITE BEARING DESIGN & ANALYSIS

FINITE BEARING DESIGN & ANALYSIS

Minimum film
thickness
hmin = C ( 1 )

Friction force
F=fW

Power loss
Ep = F 2 R Ns

Temperature rise
T =

FINITE BEARING DESIGN & ANALYSIS

FINITE BEARING DESIGN & ANALYSIS


Example:

A large pump has a horizontal rotor weighing 3200 lb supported on two


plain 360o journal bearings, one on either side of the pump impeller. The
specifications of the bearings are as follows:
R = 2 in
L = 4 in
C = 0.002 in
N = 1800 rpm
the lubricant viscosity = 1.3 x 10-6 reyns (SAE 10 at an inlet temperature
of 166o F)
Determine:
a) Equilibrium position of the shaft center and location of film rupture
b) Minimum film thickness
c) Location and magnitude of maximum pressure
d) Power loss
e) Temperature rise

FINITE BEARING DESIGN & ANALYSIS

FINITE BEARING DESIGN & ANALYSIS

FINITE BEARING DESIGN & ANALYSIS

FINITE BEARING DESIGN & ANALYSIS

Muliyani

ATTITUDE ANGLE FOR OTHER BEARING


CONFIGURATION

Where:

LUBRICANT SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT


Supply Hole

Axial Groove

Circumferential Groove

SUPPLY HOLE

A common supply methode with small bearing and bushing is to place an inlet port
at the bearing midplane opposite to the load line

AXIAL GROOVE

VARIOUS GROOVE POSITIONS AND


INLET ARRANGEMENT

CIRCUMFERENTIALS GROOVE

Alur yang melingkar ditempatkan pada centerline

FLOW CONSIDERATION

Axial flow due rotation

Where fL is a corretion factor for the film position as given below:


1. Oil hole or axial groove positioned in the unloaded section of the bearing opposite to
the load line:

2. Oil hole or axial groove positioned at the maximum film thickness

3. For double axial grooves running parallel at 90 angles to the load line:

4. For a full film starting from the maximum film thickness position

FLOW CONSIDERATION
Pressure Induced Flow

Inlet hole of diameter DH:

Qp : Pressure induced
flow
Ps : Supply pressure
i : Lubricant Viscosity

FLOW CONSIDERATION
1.

The film thickness parameter for an oil hole ar an axial groove


positioned in the unloaded section of the bearing opposite the load
line is

2. Positioned at the maximum film thickness

3. For double axial grooves running parallel 90 angles to the load line

Total leakage flow rate

1. For an oil hole or an axial groove positioned in the unloaded section of the bearing
opposite to the load line

2. For an axial groove of length Lg (Lg/L= 0.3 to 0.8) positioned at the maximum film
thickness or two axial grooves running parallel at 90 angles to the load line

Mulyani

Example 8.4

Consider a journal bearing with the following specification that correspond to


an actual bearing tested by Dowson et al , (1966): L/D = 0.75; R/C = 800; D =
0.102 m; W = 11000 N, and operating speed is Ns = 25 rev/s.
An axial groove was cut into the bearing surface in the unload portion of the
bearing, opposite the load line. the groove width is g = 4.76 x 10-3 m, and it is
Lg = 0.067 m long. Lubricant is supplied to the bearing at temperature Ti = 36.8
oC at a supply pressure of P = 0.276x106 Pa (40 Psi) . The lubricant viscosity is a
s
function of temperature and varies according to = ie-(T-Ti) with i = 0.03 Pa.s,
and the temperature viscosity coefficient is estimated to be = 0.0414.
lubricant thermal conductivity k = 0.13 W/mK, and thermal diffusivity t = 0.756
x 10-7 m2/s. Determine the flow rates, power loss, attitude angle, and maximum
pressure.
Parameter

Nilai

Parameter

Nilai

L/D

0.75

Ti

36.8 oC

R/C

800

Ps

0.102 m

0.276x106 Pa (40
Psi)
0.03 Pa.s

11000 N

0.0414

Ns

25 rev/s

0.13 W/mK

0.756 x 10-7
m2/s

10-3 m

4.76 x

Lg

0.067 m

Menggunakan rumus Sommerfeld number :



=


0.03 25.0 0.0762 0.102
=
=
800

11000

= 0.338

Dari table 8.6


dengan L/D = 0.75
didapat = 0.45

Maka didapat L= 0.7821 ; (R/C) f = 7.4017; = 59.19o


Sehingga Leakage flow rate : L = L

NsDLC

L = 0.7821
25 x 0.102 x 0.0762 x 6.35.10-5
2
-3
= 1,51.10 m3/s = 15.1 cm3/s
Cara 2 dengan curve fit equation, table 8.8
1.9 0.02

= 1- 0.22

= [ 1- 0.22 (0.75) 1.9(0.45) 0.02 = 0.875

L = . 1 = 0.45 (0.875) = 0.394


L = NsDLC L

= (0.762) (0.102)(25)(6,35.10-5)(0.394)
= 1,52.10-5 m3/s

Attitude angle
Asumsi hmax, = 0.18, dengan menggunakan
persamaan 8.45 dan 8.46 maka didapat :
=4 1+

(1 1.25 )

= 4 1 + 0.75 (1 1.25 0.45


= 3.75
=

tan-1

tan-1

1 0.45

= 59o

(8.46)
0.18)

(8.45 )

Next, the pressure include flow must be determined. From table 8.8 determine the
groove function and the related film thickness :
=

1.25 0.25 /
3

3 (/ ) 1

g/D
3 / (1 /)

1.25 0.25 0.067/0.0762

4.76 x 10/0.102
= 3
+
3 0.0762/0.102 (1 0.067/0.0762)
3 (0.0762/ 0. 067) 1

= 0.838

= (1 + )

= (1 + 0.45 cos 59) = 1.87

p = g
=

Ps

0.838 1.87 (2.76105 )(6.3510)


0.03

= 3.69 x 10-6 m3/s = 3.69 cm3/s

Total leakage is determinated as follows. First, the datum flow rate m is


estabilished :
m = L + p 0.3 L . p
= 15.1 + 3.69 0.3 (15.1)(3.69)
= 16.6 cm/s (16.6x10-6 m3/s)
From table 8.8 for an axial groove
positioned in the unloaded section of
the bearing opposite to the load line,
we have :
S = 0.75

= 0.75

0.7

+ 0.4

0.067 0.7
0.0762

= 1.085

+ 0.4

Therefore , the total leakage


flow rate becomes :
L total = mS p 1-S
= (16.6) 1.085 (3.69) -0.085

= 18.81 cm3/s
(18.81 x 10-6 m3/s)

Power loss :
Ep = FU = W (2 R Ns)
= 7.4017 (1/800) (11000) ( x 0.102 x 25)
= 812 W (1.09 hp)

Dari thermal diffusivity, Cp = k/t = 1.72 x 106 W.s/ (m3K)

812
=
=
.81 10 = 25.1

18
(, )
1.72 10

Effectiive temperature for evaluating next iteration is


(section 8.17)
Tc = Ti + T = 36.8 + 25.1 = 61.9oC
The corresponding viscocity is :
= ie-(T-Ti) = 0.3 e-0.00414(61.9-36.8) = 0.011 pa.s

Dengan diketahui viskositasnya, rasio eksentrisitas


dapat dihitung dengan menggunakan data dari tabel
8.9 dengan prediksi effective temperaturnya 50oC

Dengan interpolasi didapat

51.645.7
5044.7

0.60.55
0.55

5.9
4.3

0.05
0.55

= 0.58

3
max =
2+
3 0.58
= cos-1
2+(0.58)

= 138.13 oC
Prediksi max = 138.13 oC, which if measured from the load line
would be = 138.13 +
= 138.13 + 59 = 197.13o

Dengan menggunakan tabel 8.6 maka maximum pressurenya :

0.60.55
0.580.55

max = 13.24 13

= + max + Ps
= (0.016) (25) (800)2 (13) + 2.67.105
= 3.60 Mpa (520 Psi)

14.613911.1975
11.1975

0.55
0.03

3.4164
11.1975

Circumferential Groove
c=

3
(1
6

+ 1.5 2 )

L total = L + 2 c

(8.61)
(8.62)

Example 8.5
Consider a plain journal bearing with the following specifications: D
= 8 in; L = 4.00; C = 6x10-3 in; operating speed N = 3600rpm. The
load imposed on the bearing is W= 4800lbf. A narrow
circumferential oil feed groove is cut into the bearing at is
midlength, abd lubricant ( = 10 cp at T= 120oF) is supplied at 10
psi. determine the temperature rise.
With the full length L= 4 divided in half, l/D = 0.25.
4800
= 2400
2
2400
= 150
(2 8)

Load of each two bearing segments is Wl =


Projected pressure on each bearing Pl =

Operating viscocity is = 10cp ( 1.45x10-7) reyns/cp


= 1.45 x 10-6 reyns

Sommerfeld numbers : =

(/)

Operating eccentricity = 0.8


Dimensionaless leakage flow rate L= 1.5753

Friction coefficient

= 0.8657

= 0.258

In dimensional form, the leakage flow rate due to


shaft rotation is :

L =
2

= 0.8

NsDlC

60. 8. 2. 6103

= 14.25 in3/s (14.25x60/231 = 3.70 gpm)


Pressure-induce flow is :
c=
=

3
(1
6

+ 1.5 2 )

4 (6103 )
(1
6 1.45.10 2

+ 1.5 (0.8)2 )

= 3.06 in3/s (0.79 gpm)

Total leakage flow becomes


L total = L + 2 c
= 14.25 in3/s + (2 x 3.06 in3/s) = 20.37 in3/s (5.29 gpm)

Power loss is for each half-length bearing segment is :


Ep = Wl D Ns
= 0.01329 x 2400 x x 8 x 60
= 4.81 x 104 in.lbf/s (0.83hp)
Prediction temperature rise is :
2
2 4.81.10
=
=
= 33.4
(, )
778 12 0.48 0.0315 (20.37)

Mean outlet temperature is


T0 = 120 + 33.4 = 153oF

BEARING STIFFNESS, ROTOR VIBRATION,


AND OIL WHIRL INSTABILITY

Spring mass system

The bearing horizontal natural frequency

Tia Utari

Example
8.6

Determine whirl stability for a horizontal


rotor and its bearings with the following
characteristics :
D = 2R = 5 in
L = 2.5 in
C = 0.005 in
N = 90 rad/s (5400 rpm)
Ks = 5 x 10^6 lb/in rotor stiffness
W = 5000 lb rotor weight (m = W/g = 5000/386 = 13 lb 2 /in rotor mass
= 2 x 106 lbs/2 (reyns) viscosity

Example
8.6 Cont

Analysis Using the graph

Unit bearing load


P=

Sommerfeld number

(DL)
5000 /2

= 5 2.5

S=

(/)2
N
6

= 2*10 /

= 200 psi

(2.5 0.005 )2
90/
200

= 0.225

Characteristic bearing number


= S(L/D)2
= 0.225 (2.5 in/ 5 in)2

Stability on rotor stiffness


(C/W) = (0.005 in/ 5000 lb)*(5*106 lb/in)
= 10

= 0.05625
next

Example
8.6 Cont

Stability on case
(C/W)m2 = (0.005 in/ 5000 lb)*(13 lb 2 /in*(2*90/)2 )
= 8.28

Rotor will be free of


oil whip instability

Effective
Temperature
Misalignment
and Shaft
Deflection

Operating
Clearance

Maximum
Bearing
Temperature

General
Design
Guides

Eccentricity
and
Minimum
Film
Thickness

Bearing Load
Dimensions

Turbulent
and Parasitic
Loss Effect

Flooded
versus
Starved
Condition

Effective Temperature

Temperature rata-rata pada viskositas tertentu

Global effective temperature

For small bearing

Dimana :
J panas mekanik
densitas oil
leakage flowrate
temperatur awal
kapasitas panas
conduction & radiation
power loss

Maximum Bearing Temperature

Temperature
Minimum
film thickness

Turbulent and Parasitic Loss Effect

Turbulent :
Bearing diameter
Large film thicknesses (clearance)
High surface speed
Low fluid viscosities
High Reynolds numbers
Parasitic loss :
Putaran dan turbulensi pada oil grooves dan clearence
Losses pada percepatan feed oil terhadap surface speed yang tinggi

Vortex pada feed dan oil grooves


Surface drag yang terjadi antara oil dengan high surface speed

Flooded versus Starved Condotion

Leakage flow rate


Flooded
Condition

Kerja bearing jelek


Good Cooling

Starved
Condition

<1

Bearing Load and Dimensions

Projected Loading
PL= W/(L*D)

Rentan vibrasi
Power loss tinggi

High oil flow

overheating

Eccentriciry and Minimum Film Thickness

= C e
= C(1 )

Excessive bearing
temperature
Susceptibility to
wear

too small

too large
Poorer vibration
Higher power
loss

Operating Clearance

Clearance is 0.002 per inch of diameter