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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR

TURKISH
GRAMMAR
ENGLISH
TURKISH
GRAMMAR
FOREWORD
The Turkish Grammar book that you have just started reading is quite different from
the grammar books that you read in schools. This kind of Grammar is known as traditional
grammar. The main difference of a traditional grammar and that of a trans-formational one
is that the first one describes a natural language as a static object, but the second one
describes both the parts of the language engine and how it runs. Learning a traditional
grammar is like learning about a motionless car. There is some-thing lacking in this
description. It is the dynamics of the parts of a car that runs a hundred and twenty
kilometers an hour.
Traditional grammars describe only the physical appearance of a language; they do
not mind what goes on behind the curtain. The mind of a human being works like the
engine of a sports car. It arranges and chooses words matching one another, transforms
simple sentence units to use in different parts of sentences, and recollects morphemes
and phonemes to be produced by the human speech organs. All these activities are
simultaneously carried out by the human mind.
Another point that the traditional grammarians generally miss is that they write the
grammar of a certain language to teach it to those who have been learning it from the time
when they were born up to the time when they discover something called grammar. This
is like teaching a language to professional speakers.
Then, what is the use of a grammar? I believe most people were acquainted with it
when they started learning a foreign language. Therefore, a grammar written for those
who are trying to learn a second language is very useful both in teaching and learning a
second language.
I started teaching English as a second language in 1952, a long time ago. Years
passed and one day I found myself as a postgraduate Fulbright student at the University
of Texas at Austin in 1960. Although I studied there for only a short period, I learnt enough
from Prof. Archibald A. Hill and Dr. De Camp to stimulate me to learn more about
Linguistics.
After I came back to Turkey, it was difficult to find books on linguistics in booksellers in
Istanbul. Thanks to the American Library in Istanbul, I was able to borrow the books that
attracted my attention.
In those books, I discovered Noam Chomsky, whose name I had not heard during my stay
in the U.S.A.
I must confess that I am indebted to the scholars and the library above in writing this
Turkish Grammar.
I am also grateful to my son Dr. zgr Gknel who encouraged me to write this book
and to Vivatinell U.K., which sponsored to publish it.
YKSEL GKNEL

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR

TO MY WIFE AYE GKNEL WITH LOVE

Yksel Gknel

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR

COMPLETALY REVISED
COLORED ADITION
2015

YKSEL GKNEL
Vivatinell Bilim-Kltr Yaynlar
2015
Grafik Tasarm Uygulamalar
Vivatinell Press

letiim:

Vivatinell Cosmopharmaceutics
Fetih Mah. Tunca Sk. No:2 34704
Ataehir / stanbul / TRKYE
Tel: +90 216 470 09 44
Faks: +90 216 470 09 48

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


CONTENTS
Foreword
Contents
Infntves and Gerunds
Logical, Morphemic, and Oral Sequencing
Turkish Grammar
Turkish Vowel and Consonant Harmony
Vowel Harmony Sequence
Consonant HarmonySequence
Morphemes and Their Allomorphs
Derivational Morphemes and Their Allomorphs
Morphemes Attached to Nouns that Produce Nouns
Morphemes Attached to Nouns that Produce Adjectives
Morphemes Attached to Adjectives that Produce Nouns
Morphemes Attached to Verbs that Produce Nouns
Morphemes Attached to Verbs that Produce Adjectives
Morphemes Attached to Nouns that Produce Verbs
Morphemes Attached to Adjectives that Produce Verbs
Inflectional Morphemes and Their Allomorphs
Nominal Phrases
Adverbs and Adverbials
Transformational Activity of the Logic
Form and Function in Languages
Using Adjectives as Adverbs
Inflectional Morphemes
Defining [] Morpheme and Its Allomorphs [i, , , u]
The [LE], [LE.YIN] and [E], [DE], [DEN] Inflectional Morphemes
[LE] allomorphs: [le, la]
[LE.YIN]:
[E], [DE], [DEN] and [LE] Morphemes
[E] allomorphs: [e, a]
[DE] allomorphs: [de, da, te, ta]
[DEN] allomorphs: [den, dan, ten, tan]
Possessive + Owned Noun Compounds (sim Tamlamalar)
Definite Noun Compounds (Belirtili sim Tamlamalar)
Indefinite Noun Compounds (Belirtisiz sim Tamlamalar)
Noun Compounds Without Suffixes (Taksz Tamlamalar)
Noun + Infinitive Compounds (sim Mastar Tamlamalar)
Prepositions and Postpositions (Edatlar ve lgeler)

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7
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25
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26
29
30
34
35
36
36
39
42
43
46
48
50
50
55
55
56
56
58
64
66
68
68
75
76
77
79

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Primary, Secondary, and Weak Stresses, and Intonation
[E], [DE], [DEN] Morphemes + Postpositions
Inflectional Morphemes Attached to Verbs
Linking Verbs
Linking Verbs Past
Present Modals with Verb be
must be
cant be
may be
may not be
The Interrogative Sentences Whose answers are "Yes" or "No"
must be, have to be, should be, ought to be, neednt be
have to be (zorundaym)
neednt be (gerek yok)
The Simple Past Verb be
Interrogative Words
[M] (Rumor, Inference) (sylenti, anlam karma)
The Future Form of be (will be)
there is, there are; have, (have got)
there used to be, there used to have
there must (may) be, there cant be, there is going to be
Imperatives and Wishes
Wish
The Simple Present Tense (Geni Zaman)
The Verbs Ending with Vowels or Consonants
Turkish Verbs that are Formed by Objects Followed by Verbs
The Negative Form of The Simple Present Tense
The Simple Present Positive Question
The Simple Present Negative Question
The Question Words Used in the Simple Present Tense
The Present Continuous and the Present Perfect Continuous
The Verbs That Are Not Used In The Simple Present In Turkish
Turkish Verb Frames (Trkede Fiil atlar)
Transitive and Intransitive Verb Frames
Reflexive Verb Frames
The Passive Transformation of the Intransitive Verb Frames
Reciprocal Verb Frames (te Fiil atlar)
Both Transitively and Intransitively Used English Verbs
The Simple Past and the Present Perfect

80
89
96
97
102
109
109
110
111
112
113
115
116
117
117
121
125
127
128
129
130
130
132
134
138
139
141
143
144
146
148
153
155
155
156
157
159
161
167

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Mili Past Tense (Rumor and Inference) (Mili Gemi)
175
The Simple Future and be going to
179
The Past Continuous Tense
182
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
186
Was (were) going to
187
used to
188
The Rumor Forms of The Simple and The Continuous Tenses 189
The Past Perfect Tense
191
The Future Continuous Tense
192
The Future Perfect Tense
193
Infinitives (Mastarar)
194
The [mek, mak] Infinitives
194
The [me, ma] Infinitives
194
The [i, , , u] Infinitives
194
The [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] Infinitives
194
Where and How the Infinitives Are Used
196
1.(a) The [mek, mak] Infinitives Used as Subject
196
1.(b) The [mak, mak] Infinitives Used before Postpositions
196
1.(c) The [mek, mak] Infinitives Used as Objects of iste
198
1.(d) The [mek, mak] Infinitives Used Attached to [DEN] Morph. 198
2.(a) The [me, ma] Infinitives Used Attached to Noun Compounds200
2.(b) noun+infinitive-[], and V-[me-/y/i], V-[ma]-/y/]
201
2.(c) noun+infinitive-[e, a]
205
2.(d) noun+infinitive Compounds Followed by [den, dan]
206
3.(a) noun+infinitive-[], [E], [DE], [DEN]
207
4.(a) possessive noun+ V-[dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk]
207
The Passive Infinitive
209
Modals
210
Present Modals
210
can, may [ebil, abil]
210
must [meli, mal]
214
have to (zorunda)
217
neednt (dont have to)
217
should (ought to)
218
Past Modals
221
Could
221
was (were) able to
222
would, could (polite request)
223
Perfect Modals
224

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


must have
224
cant (couldnt) have
226
should have (ought to have)
227
may have
228
might have
229
neednt have
229
didnt need to
230
Transformations (English)
231
Nominalization of the Simple English Sentences
232
Transformation of the Simple Sentences into Modifiers
237
The Productivity of the Natural Languages
239
TheTransformed Simple Sentences Used as Adverbial Clauses 240
Turkish Sentence Nominalizations
243
Turkish Simple Sentence Nominalization
246
Transformed Nominal Phrases
246
The infinitives with [me, ma]:
248
The infinitives with [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk]:
248
Simple Sentence Nominalization 1: V - [DK] - [pers] - ([])
249
The Simple Future Tense: V-[ecek, acak]-[pers]-[]
250
The Past Perfect: V-[mi, m, m, mu] + ol-[duk]-[pers]-[] 251
The Future Perfect V-[mi, m, m, mu] + ol-[duk]]-[pers]-[] 251
Simple Sentences with the Verb root ol (be)
251
Chain Noun Compounds
252
2. V- [DK]- [pers]-([])
255
V-[M] + ol-[duk]-[pers]-([])
258
Nominalized Phrases Containing question words
258
Turkish Modifier + Noun Compounds
261
Simple Sentences and Transformed Nominal Phrases
266
The Passive Transformation and the Passive Verb Frames
268
The Verb Frames
271
The Structural Composition of the Causative Verb Frames
272
A Short List of Verb Frames
273
Causative Verb Frames Examples
278
The Passive Causative
279
Some Example Sentences of the Verb Frames
280
Adverbial Clauses (Postpositional Adverbial Phrases)
327
Time
327
before
327
after
332

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


when and while
333
while
337
as soon as
339
until
341
by and by the time
343
since
344
Cause or Reason
346
Contrast (Ramen)
348
Purpose
351
Place
354
Manner
355
as
355
as if (as though)
357
Result
359
so that
such that
359
o kadar + adjective + noun-time + ki
360
too + adjective + to + V + iin and adjective + enough + to + Verb
361
Degree
362
Comparative Degree
362
Superlative Degree
364
Positive or Negative Equality
365
Parallel Proportion (Kout Uyum)
367
Wish
368
wish + would
368
wish + past subjunctive
369
wish + past perfect or perfect modal
370
Conditional Sentences
371
Present Real Supposition
371
Present Unreal (contrary to fact) Supposition
374
Past Real Supposition
375
Past Unreal (contrary to fact) Supposition
376
Orders and Requests
378
Plain Orders and Requests
378
Polite Requests
379
Polite Refusals
380
Offers
381
{ verb- [P] }
382
Question Tags ( deil mi?)
382
So do I (Neither do I)
384

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Conjunctions and Transitional Phrases
Intensifiers
Roots, Stems and Verb Frames
Morphemic and Oral Sequences
Symbols and Abbreviations
References

385
392
396
397
400
401

Note: The aim of this colored revised version of this book is not to make the
pages look colorful, but to show the functional parts of the words in different
colors.

They are as follows:


1. Subject pronouns and personal allomorphs are blue.
2. Verb roots, verb stems and verb frames, and the derivational allomorphs that change noun roots or stems, and adjective roots into verbs are red.
3. Objects, nouns, coordinating conjunctions and the last
suffixes that turn words into nouns are black.
4. Adverbs, adverbials, adverbial phrases, prepositions or
postpositions, subordinating conjunctions, adverb clauses, and the inflectional allomorphs that change nouns into adverbs are green.
5. Subject and object complements are brown.
6. Adjectives and noun modifiers, and the purple allomorphs attached to nouns and verbs that change them into
adjectives, and the a, an, the ariticles are purple.
In short, when you see a black allomorph attached to the end
of a Turkish or an English word, that word together with the
black allomorph is a noun. When you see a green allomorph
attached to a word, this word together with the green allomorph is an adverb, and when you see a purple allomorph
attached to a word, this word together with the purple allomorph is an adjective or a noun modifier.
In Turkish, the last allomorphs attached to the last parts of the
words are the allomorphs that identify whether a word is a verb,
an adjectve, an adverb, a preposition, or a noun.
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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS
Before we begin with the English and Turkish grammars, it may be useful to
start with the Turkish infinitives, and English infinitives or gerunds.
In Turkish, there are only infinitives that are formed of a verb and various
noun-making allomorphs attached to the verb, such as:
verb-[mek, mak]
verb-[me, ma]
verb-[i, , , u]
verb-[dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk]
The allomorphs written black are the noun making allomorphs that turn
verbs into infinitives when they are attached to them. Infinitives generally
function as nouns in Turkish sentences.
In English, there are both infinitives and gerunds that may function as
nouns in sentences:
To verb is an infinitive, and verb-ing is a gerund.
The ing noun-making suffix may turn the verb into a nominal gerund,
but the same ing may also change the verb into an adjective verb-ing.
Nominal gerunds may be used as subjects, objects, objects of prepositions or as subject complements in sentences. English gerunds and their
Turkish infinitive equivalents are underlined as follows:
Read-ing helps us improve our knowledge. (Nominal gerund subject)
Oku-mak bilgi-im-iz-i gelitir-me-/y/e yardm et-er. (Subject)
Jack enjoys listen-ing to pop music. (Listen-ing is nominal gerund.)
Jack pop mzik dinle-mek-ten holan-r. (Infinitive-ten is adverbial.)
My sister is interested in annoy-ing me. (Nominal gerund object of in.)
Kz karde-im can-m- sk-mak-la ilgilen-ir. (Sk-mak-la is adverbial.)
See-ing is believ-ing. Gr-mek inan-mak-tr.
gerund

verb

gerund

infinitive

infinitive verb

Gerunds used after be verbs are called subject noun complements.


Some English gerunds can be used as adjectives in sentences whose
Turkish equivalents are formed by attaching [en, an] adjective making
allomorphs to verbs. For instance:

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


fly-ing u-an, talk-ing konu-an, shin-ing lda-/y/an,
smil-ing glmse-/y/en, rise-ing yksel-en, cry-ing ala-/y/an,
sing-ing t-en, fall-ing d-en, roar-ing kkre-/y/en.
fly-ing birds U-an kular, talk-ing parrots konu-an papaanlar,
shin-ing lights lda-/y/an klar, smil-ing baby glmse-/y/en
bebek, ris-ing prices ysel-en fiyatlar, fall-ing leaves d-en
yapraklar, roar-ing lions kkre-/y/en arslanlar.
Turkish infinitives verb-[mek, mak], verb-[me, ma] and the others are
always nominal infinitives. They always function as nouns in sentences.
However, the English to verb infinitives either function as nouns, as adjectives or adverbs without changing their forms. For instance:
Mary Trke ren-mek iste-i.yor. (The infinitive is nominal.)
Mary wants to learn Turkish. (The infinitive is nominal.)
Mary benim-le konu-ma-/y/ reddet-ti. (The infinitive is nominal.)
Mary refused to talk to me. (The infinitive is nominal.)
Mary bir araba al-mak iin para biriktir-i.yor. (Infinitive + iin is adverbial.)
Mary is saving money to buy a car. (The infinitive is adverbial.)
Balk tut-mak iin gl-e git-ti-im. (Infinitive + postposition) (Adverbial)
I went to the lake to fish. (The infinitive is adverbial.)
Jack okul-dan k-an ilk ocuk-tu. (k-an is an adjective.)
Jack was the first boy to leave the school. (To leave is an adjective.)
(The infinitve modifies the noun boy, so it is an adjective.)
Yr-/y/e.cek uzun bir yol-um-uz var. (Yr-/y/e.cek is an adjective.)
We have a long way to walk. (To walk is an adjective.)
ren-e.cek ok ey-in.iz var. (ren-e.cek is an adjective.)
You have a lot of things to learn. (To learn is an adjective.)
Bitir-e.cek bir i-im var. (Bitir-e.cek is an adjective.)
I have a work to finish. (To finish is an adjective.)
Note:
The blue underlines show the subjects or the subject allomorphs.
The black underlines show the objects, noun clauses, and nouns.
The red underlines show the verbs.
The green underlines show the adverbs, adverbial pheases or clauses.
The purple underlines show the adjectives and the noun modifiers.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


LOGICAL, MORPHEMIC, AND ORAL SEQUENCING
Noam Chomsky and Steven Pinker in their books assert that the human
mind has an inborn logical ability which seperates a body of thought (a
sentence) into two parts to produce sentences. A person logically thinks that
a sentence should be about something or someone, and uses them as
subjects, and uses all the information given about the subjects as predicates.
Chomsky calls them Nominal Phrase and Verbal Phrase, in short "NP +
VP". Additionally, the predicate part (VP) is also logically seperated into two
parts as a verb, and an object 'V + NP'. These logical storages are empty
before one starts learning his/her native language. When someone starts
hearing the sounds of his language, he loads these sounds with meaning,
and inserts them into these empty logical storages. Arranging these storages
in succession is also learned while someone is being exposed to his native
language. Therefore, the order of these logical storages change from
language to language. These logical storages, and their learned succession
are called the logical sequence of a sentence. The so called storages are
also flexible enough to hold the shortest and the longest language units.
The word verb "V" covers a verb root, a verb stem, or a verb frame, and
all the inflectional suffixes attached to them such as "ed", "ing", "s", and
auxiliary verbs such as "must", "may", "might", "can", "could", etc. preceded
by them. The verbs together with these inflectional suffixes and auxiliary
verbs constitude a verb composition concept and called a verb "V".
All subjects and objects, whether long or short, are Nominal Phrases. If a
verb is intransitive, it does not need an object (NP), so the predicate part
has only a verb, and some adverbs or adverbials. The predicates that have
"be" verbs are also considered Verbal Phrases.
The sentences described above are of three kinds:
1. A subject, a transitive verb, and an object: Jack killed a mouse.
subject

verb
object
predicate

2. A subject and an intransitive verb: Jack

sleeps.

subject

verb
predicate

3. A subject, a verb and a subject complement: Jack


subj

15

is

brave.

verb

subj complement
predicate

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Although these logical storages are inborn, their sequencing is learned
through the experiences of an individual. Therefore, the sequencing of the
subject and predicate, and that of the subject, verb, and object change
from language to language. For instance, in English:
I

am coming.

subject

predicate

(There are no personal suffixes attached to verbs in English.)


In Turkish: Gel-i.yor
verb

um (ge*li*yo*rum)

subject allomorph

In Turkish, a personal concept is expressed by a personal suffix either attached to a verb at the end of a sentence, or expressed by both a pronoun
or a noun in the beginning and a personal allomorph at the end of a sentence. Using personal suffixes attached to the ends of the Turkish sentences (except for the third person singular) is a grammatical necessity.
Furthermore, the subject + verb + object sequence of the English language differs in Turkish as (subject) + object + verb-personal allomorph
or object + verb-personal allomorph:
English:

We

are picking

subj (pron)

Turkish 1: (Biz)
subj (pron)

Turkish 2: iek

verb

iek
object

flowers.
object

topluyor-uz. = We are picking flowers.


verb-personal allomorph

topluyor-uz. = We are picking flowers.

object verb-personal allomorph

The reason why there may be two identical alternative sentences in Turkish
is that one should compulsorily use a personal allomorph attached to the
verb in a sentence. However, if he wants to emphasize the subject, he could
also use a pronoun in the beginning of a sentence as well as a personal
allomorph representing the pronoun used in the beginning of the sentence.
If we use a sentence without a personal allomorph attached to the main
verb, the sentence becomes ungrammatical although it is understandable:
*Ben yarn Ankara'/y/a gidiyor. (ungrammatical)
(Ben) yarn Ankara'/y/a gidiyor-um. (grammatical) (Ben could be ignored.)
*Ben sen-i seviyor. (ungrammatical)
(Ben) sen-i seviyor-um. (grammatical) (Ben could be ignored.)
As a general syllabication rule in Turkish, the single underlined consonants
of the words or allomorphs detach from their syllables, and attach to the first
vowels of the following morphemes as in the examples above. This opera-

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


tion of the oral sequence of the Turkish language transposes the morphemic sequence to produce harmonic syllable sequences. The lines that
are put under the consonants in this book are not used in writing.
One could estimate that there exist empty inborn logical subject + verb,
subject + verb + object or subject + linking verb + subject complement storages in one's mind ready to be filled with the learned sequences
of phonemes and morphemes in a newborn baby. A newborn baby hears the
sounds of his/her native language, learns which sounds convey which words
and morphemes. He/she also hears the sequences of subject + verb, and
subjec + verb + object, and the syllables of his/her native language. All
these sounds and information gather in its memory, and are inserted into the
inborn storages to produce sensible sentences.
All human beings are born eager to learn. Learning his/her language is an
inherent instinct in everybody, which Steven Pinker calls it "Language Instinct". Children do not know what a subject, or an object is, but as soon as
they learn the interrogative concepts who?, what?, when?, where?,
why?, how?, etc., they start asking questions. In all languages, question
words ask for the functional parts of a sentence such as subject, object,
verb, and adverbs of time, place, reason, etc. So, he logically knows that
who and what asks for the subject, and whom and what asks for the
object, and he also understands that all the answers to the questions who,
and what are subjects, and whom, and what are the objects:
Jack found a watch.
who?

what?

Jacks sister found a watch.


who?

what?

The boy who was walking along the street found a watch.
who?

what?

The boy who was walking along the street found the watch that I lost.
who?

what?

Jack saw a rabbit in the garden yesterday.


who?

what?

where?

when?

The house that Jack built collapsed suddenly last night.


what?

how?

when?

Jack found a watch while he was walking down the streed.


who?

what?

when?

Jack passed his examination with difficulty because he was lazy.


who?

what?

how?

17

why?

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Jack saw Mary among the crowd.
who?

whom?

where?

Jack bought some flowers for his mother.


who?

what?

for whom?

Jack was coming from school.


who?

from where?

The parts that are not underlined in the sentences above are verbs. If
someone wants to ask about these verbs he says, What did Jack do?, and
for the underlined green parts he says, From where was Jack coming?,
Where was Jack coming from?, Whom did Jack see?, etc.
Consequently, it is possible to say that a person fills the subject and predicate logical storages using interrogative instruments in all languages.
As in all natural languages, the Turkish language production system governs
three groups of sequences. The first sequence is the logical sequence
which governs the basic network of a sentence in which all sentences take
form.
The second sequence is the morphemic sequence which arranges the sequence of the morphemes and allomorphs in Turkish sentences.
The third sequence is the oral or phonological sequence, which arranges
the syllables and the overall harmony of the words in a sentence.

TURKISH GRAMMAR
After the above short survey of the universal Transformational Generative
Grammar (with some interpretations of my own), we can begin with the
sound system of The Turkish language.
Turkish has 29 letters in its alphabet. Some of these letters / o, u, a, / and /
, , e, i / are vowels (nller), and the others / b, c, , d, f, g, , h, j, k, l,
m, n, p, r, s, , t, v, y, z / are consonants (nszler).
All the letters above represent phonemes, that is why they are shown between / / signs. Phonemics is not interested in detailed phonetic differences. Some of the vowels / , , / do not exist in English. They are pronounced: // as in English again; // as in German schn; and // as in
German htte respectively.
Among the consonants, there are the / , , / phonemes, which are pronounced as ch as in church, sh as in fish; and to produce the //

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


phoneme, which does not exist in English, first produce /g/ phoneme, and
make it longer by letting your breath pass between your tongue and the hard
palate of your mouth while vibrating your vocal cords.

TURKISH VOWEL AND CONSONANT HARMONY


Turkish is said to be an agglutinative language, which means that suffixes
are attached to word roots, stems and frames one following the other in a
sequence to arrange words. To understand how these syllable and suffix
chains are arranged, one should understand the vowel and consonant
harmony rules of the Turkish language before one begins to attach suffixes
to roots or stems, and to the suffixes following them.

VOWEL HARMONY SEQUENCE


A Turkish speaker follows two certain harmony chains to produce a vowel
harmony sequence:
1. The hard vowel harmony chain. 2. The thin vowel harmony chain.
1. The hard (back) vowel harmony chain is o u a
2. The thin (front) vowel harmony chain is

e i

In both chains, the first vowels /o/ and // never repeat themselves. The
other vowels can be repeated as many times as necessary. The arrow ( )
points to the vowel that should follow the previous one. The arrows (),
pointing to both directions, show that /i/ may follow /e/, or /e/ may follow /i/.
In the hard vowel harmony chain, /a/ and // do the same. Furthermore,
besides the arrows, the letters r are put under repeatable vowels to
complete our diagrams:
ur ar r

1. The hard (back) vowel harmony chain:

2. The thin (front) vowel harmony chain:

r er ir

As one could see, the two diagrams look exactly like one another. All the
words in the Turkish language follow either the first or the second harmony
sequences. The words borrowed from other languages do not follow these
sequences as expected, but the suffixes that attach to them follow the
vowels of the last syllables of such words. Consequently, one could build

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


up meaningless vowel chains made up of only vowels following the two
vowel chains:
o*u*u*a**a*, o*a**a, **e*e*i, *e*i*e, "***", "o*a"
For instance:
kom*u*ya (o*u*a); kom*u*lar*dan (o*u*a*a); ge*le*cek*ler (e*e*e*e);
o*lu*tur*duk*la*r*mz*dan (o*u*u*u*a***a); u*nu*ta*lm (u*u*a*);
o*ku*la (o*u*a); ten*ce*re*ye (e*e*e*e); ka*a*ma*ya*cak (a*a*a*a*a)
One could make up Turkish meaningless vowel chains as many as one
wishes using the vowel chains above. I advise those who are interested in
learning Turkish to make up meaningles vowel chains like the chains above,
and repeat them loudly again and again. In doing so, they can memorize the
Turkish vowel harmony sequences easily and soundly as they learn a piece
of music. When they repeat them, they may even feel and sound as if they
were speaking Turkish.
As it has already been stated, borrowed words do not follow the vowel
harmony sequences, but the last syllables of such words attach to suffixes
in accordance with the vowel and consonant harmony rules:
patates-ler-i (pa*ta*tes*le*ri) the potatoes; televizyon-u
(te*le*viz*yo*nu) the television; mandalina-/y/ (man*da*li*
na*y) the tangerine; sigara-/y/ (si*ga*ra*y) the cigarette.
The /y/ phonemes used above are glides (semivowels) (consonants) inserted between two vowels to help them pass the voice from one vowel to the
following one smoothly and harmoniously. They do not carry meaning.
One more thing to add to the explanation above is that the words that are
formed of two separate words do not follow the above vowel harmony sequences:
kahverengi (kahve + rengi) brown; buzdolab (buz + dolab) refrigerator; bilgisayar (bilgi + sayar) computer; tavanaras (tavan + aras)
attic.
Besides the vowel harmony rules above, there are three more essential
vowel rules to consider:
1. The verbs ending with vowels drop these vowels when they attach to
the allomorphs of [.YOR]. These vowels are double underlined. Besides the
double underlimed vowels, there are some consonants that are single un-

20

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


derlined which show that they detach from their syllables and attach to the
first vowels of the following allomorphs to produce new syllables:
Bekle-i.yor (bek*li*yor); bala-.yor (ba*l*yor); anla-.yor (an*l*yor);
gizle-i.yor (giz*li*yor); oku-u.yor (o*ku*yor); atla-.yor (at*l*yor)
ye-i.yor (yi*yor); gzle-.yor (gz*l*yor); gizle-i.yor (giz*li*yor)
Gel-i.yor-um (ge*li*yo*rum); yz-.yor-uz (y*z*yo*ruz); i-er-im
(i*e*rim); yaz-a.cak-m (ya*za*ca*m); yakalan-a.cak-z (ya*ka*la*na*ca*z); gl-er-im (g*le*rim); kork-ar-z (kor*ka*rz)
2. When the last syllables of the nouns (including the infinitives), the verbs,
and the inflectional morphemes end with vowels, and the first vowels of the
following allomorphs start with the same vowels, these two vowels combine
and verbalize as single vowels. For example, when the last vowel of the
word anne and the first vowel of the allomorph em happen to be
articulated together, they combine and verbalize as a single vowel: anneem (an*nem). For instance:
anne-en (an*nen); tarla-am (tar*lam); araba-an.z (a*ra*ba*nz);
kafa-an (ka*fan); git-ti-in (git*tin); bekle-di-ik (bek*le*dik); gl-dk (gl*dk); yakala-d-m (ya*ka*la*dm); git-me-em (git*mem);
al-ma-am (a*l*mam); temizle-en-mek (te*miz*len*mek); Dinle-er
mi-sin? (din*ler / mi*sin); ol-sa-am (ol*sam), bil-se-em (bil*sem)
If the last vowel of a word and the first vowel of an allomorph happen to be
different, these two vowels are generally linked by the /y/ glides:
oku-ma-/y/z (o*ku*ma*yz); gel-me-/y/iz (gel*me*yiz); tava-/y/
(ta*va*y), salata-/y/ (sa*la*ta*y), uyku-/y/a (uy*ku*ya).

CONSONANT HARMONY SEQUENCE


Consonants are grouped under two subdivisions:
voiced consonants:
/ b, c, d, g, , j, y, l, m, n, r, v, z /
unvoiced consonants: / , f, k, p, s, , t /
The voiced consonants are the phonemes that are produced by vibrating
the vocal cords while the breath is passing through the throat. To understand the voiced and unvoiced difference, first produce the /v/ phoneme,
which vibrates the vocal cords in your throat, and then, without changing the
position of your teeth and lips, produce the same sound without vibrating the
vocal cords to produce the unvoiced /f/ phoneme. In doing this, you feel no
vibration in your throat. The consonants that vibrate the vocal cords are
named voiced consonants; the unvoiced consonants do not vibrate

21

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


them. By the way, one should keep in mind that all vowels and voiced consonants vibrate the vocal cords. The vowels and the voiced consonants,
which vibrate the vocal cords are called vocals. Only the unvoiced consonants do not vibrate them. In Turkish, the voiced consonants are called
"yumuak (sedal) nszler", and the unvoiced consonants are called
"sert nszler".
The /p/, //, /k/, /t/ unvoiced phonemes change into their voiced counterparts /b/, /c/, //, /d/ allophones when they detach from their syllables and
attach to the first vowels of the [i, , , u], or [e, a] allomorphs:
/p/ changes into /b/: kitap-, kitap-a (ki*ta*b, ki*ta*ba), sebep-i, sebep-e
(se*be*bi, se*be*be), kebap-, kebap-a (ke*ba*b, ke*ba*ba), orap-,
orap-a (o*ra*b, o*ra*ba), dolap- (do*la*b, do*la*ba), arap-, arap-a
(a*ra*b, a*ra*ba), hesap-, hesap-a (he*sa:*b, he*sa:*ba).
// changes into /c/: aa-, aa-a (a*a*c, a*a*ca), saya-, saya-a
(sa*ya*c, sa*ya*ca), ama-, ama-a (a*ma*c, a*ma*ca), ayra-, ayra-a
(ay*ra*c, ay*ra*ca), deme-i, deme-e (de*me*ci, de*me*ce).
/k/ changes into //: sokak-, sokak-a (so*ka*, so*ka*a), tabak-, tabak-a
(ta*ba*, ta*ba*a), krek-i, krek-e (k*re*i, k*re*e), bebek-i, bebek-e
(be*be*i, be*be*e), kpek-i, kpek-e (k*pe*i, k*pe*e), ayak-, ayak-a
(a*ya*, a*ya*a), bardak-, bardak-a (bar*da*, bar*da*a).
/t/ changes into /d/: adet-i, adet-e (a*de*di, a*de*de), kanat-, kanat-a (ka*na*d, ka*na*da), umut-u, umut-a (u*mu:*du, u*mu:*da), yourt-u, yourt-a
(yo*ur*du, yo*ur*da). As an exception: sepet-i, sepet-e (se*pe*ti, se*pe*te), nbet-i, nbet-e (n*be*ti, n*be*te).
When the nouns or pronouns ending with /p, t, k, / consonants detach from
their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the [in, n, n, un] allomorphs,
their last consonants /p, t, k, / change into their voiced counterparts
/b, d, , c/ respectively.
kitap-n (ki*ta*bn), sebep-in (se*be*bin), kebap-n (ke*ba*bn), orap-n
(o*ra*bn), aa-n (a*a*cn), ama-n (a*ma*cn), sokak-n (so*ka*n),
krek-in (k*re*in), bebek-in (be*be*in), ayak-n (a*ya*n), kanat-n
(ka*na*dn), yourt-un (yo*ur*dun).
Some /t/ phonemes, however, do not change:
hayat (ha*ya:*t), (ha*ya:*ta), (ha*ya:*tn); sanat (san*a*t), (san*a*ta),
(san*a*tn); sfat (s*fa*t), (s*fa*ta), (s*fa*tn); saat (sa*a*ti), (sa*a*te),
sa*a*tin); sepet (se*pe*ti), (se*pe*te), (se*pe*tin); glet (g*le*ti),
(g*le*te), (g*le*tin); demet (de*me*ti), (de*me*te), (de*me*tin).

22

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The monosyllabic noun roots ending with unvoiced consonants do not
change when they get the [], [E], [DE], [DEN] and the personal allomorphs:
ek (eki, eke, ekte, ekten, ekin); sap (sap, sapa, sapta, saptan, sapn); ip
(ipi, ipe, ipte, ipten, ipin); hap (hap, hapa, hapta, haptan, hapn); tp (tp,
tpe, tpte, tpten, tpn); top (topu, topa, topta, toptan, topun); sa (sa,
saa, sata, atan, san); i (ii, ie, ite, iten, iin); g (g, ge,
gte, gten, gn); ma (ma, maa, mata, matan, man); kk
(kk, kke, kkte, kkten, kkn); ok (oku, oka, okta, oktan, okun ), yk
(yk, yke, ykte, ykten, ykn); krk (krk, krke, krkte, krkn); Trk
(Trk, Trke, Trkte, Trkten, Trkn); at (at, ata, atta, attan, atn); et
(eti, ete, ette, etten, etin); st (st, ste, stte, stten, stn); ot (otu, ota,
otta, ottan, otun); kart (kart, karta, kartta, karttan, kartn).
However, the final consonants of some monosyllabic nouns do change
when they are attached only to [i, , , u], [e, a] and [in, n, n, un] allomorphs. They do not change when they are attached to the allomorphs of
the morphemes of [DE] and [DEN]:
but (bu*du), (bu*da), (bu*dun), (but-ta, but-tan); dip (di*bi), (di*be), (di*bin),
(dip*te), (dip*ten); ok (ou, oa, oun, okta, oktan); gk (g,
ge, gn, gkte, gkten); kap (kab, kaba, kabn, kapta, kaptan); u
(ucu, uca, ucun, uta, utan); yurt (yurdu, yurda, yurdun, yurtta, yurttan);
kurt (kurdu, kurda, kurdun, kurtta, kurttan); tat (tad, tada, tadn, tatta,
tattan).
When [] or [E] morphemes come after the nouns ending with vowels, the /y/
linking semivowels (glides) are inserted between these two vowels to provide harmonious links:
Testi (tes*ti*/y/i, tes*ti*/y/e); araba (a*ra*ba*/y/, a*ra*ba*/y/a); tarla (tar*la*/y/, tar*la*/y/a); salata (sa*la*ta*/y/, sa*la*ta*/y/a); mart (mar*t*/y/,
mar*t*/y/a); tava (ta*va*/y/, ta*va*/y/a); teneke (te*ne*ke*/y/i, te*ne*ke*/y/e); makara (ma*ka*ra*/y/, ma*ka*ra*/y/a); kundura (kun*du*ra*/y/,
kun*du*ra*/y/a); kafa (ka*fa*/y/, ka*fa*/y/a); su (su*/y/u, su*/y/a).
When the nouns ending with vowels are attached to the possesive personal allomorphs of [N], [in, n, n, un], which are used in the possessive parts of the noun compounds, the /n/ glides are inserted between
the two vowels, such as:
araba-/n/n
testi-/n/in
ordu-/n/un

(a*ra*ba*nn)
(tes*ti*nin)
(or*du*nun)

23

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


yk-/n/n
sergi-/n/in
kafa-/n/n

makara-/n/n
mart-/n/n

(y*k*nn)
(ser*gi*nin)
(ka*fa*nn)
(ma*ka*ra*nn)
(mar*t*nn)

However, when pronouns are used in the possessive position, they are suffixed by the possessive [im, in, un, im, in, n] allomorphs:
ben-im (be*nim), sen-in (se*nin), o/n/-un (o*/n/un), biz-im (bi*zim), sizin (si*zin), o/n/-lar-n (o/n/*la*rn)
Note: The single underlined consonants in the examples above show the
consonants that detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of
the following allomorphs to change the morphemes into syllables.
Exception: su (su*/y/un). Example: (a*ra*ba*/n/n / h*z), (su*/y/un / h*z)

MORPHEMES AND THEIR ALLOMORPHS


Morphemes are defined as the smallest meaningful language units in languages. For instance, the word um*brel*la has three syllables. None of
these three syllables are significant units on their own; they have sense only
when they are articulated or heard together. So, these three syllables form
a single shortest meaningful unit together, and consequently, umbrella is
both a morpheme and a word. Such words are called free morphemes.
However, although the suffixes are also the smallest meaningful units, they
do not convey any sense unless they are attached to word roots or stems.
Such morphemes are called bound morphemes.
All the words have roots or stems like open, soft-en, clean, beauty,
success, book, etc. Some morphemes (suffixes or prefixes) are attached
to these roots or stems. For instance, open-ed, clean-ed, success-ful,
beauti-ful, "whiten-ed" teach-er, ir-respons-ible, un-count-able, unnecessari-ly, go-ing, etc. Look at page 396 for roots, stems and verb
frames.
As one could see, there are two kinds of suffxes and prefixes in the given
examples above. Some of these morphemes change the meaning and the
part of speech they belong with when they are attached to different roots or
stems. Some others, however, add certain inflectional meanings to verb
and noun roots or stems such as tense, voice, person, mood, number,
direction or state without changing their root or stem meanings.

24

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


A morpheme that changes the meaning of a root or stem is called a
derivational morpheme (yapm eki); the other one, which does not
change the meaning of a root or stem, is called an inflectional morpheme
(ekim eki). Both the derivational and inflectional morphemes are bound
morphemes.
Some bound morphemes (suffixes in Turkish) have different pronunciation
variants that bear the same meanings as the morphemes. For instance, in
English, when the plural [S] morpheme is attached to the noun book, it is
pronounced as /s/; in boy-s as /z/; and in box-es as /iz/. As they are the
different pronunciation variants of the same morpheme [S], they are named
as the allomorphs of the morpheme [S].
There are a lot more allomorphs in Turkish than there are in English. This
is because bound morphemes go through some vowel and consonant
changes according to the vowel and consonant rules of the Turkish language when they are attached to roots or stems and to one another, and this
process causes different allomorphs to arise. All the allomorphs of a certain
morpheme carry the same meaning vocalizing differently, and therefore
they do not change the meaning of the morphemes because the Turkish
sound system functions independently of the Turkish morphemic system.

THE DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMES AND THEIR ALLOMORPHS


Anlaml Yapm Ekleri Ve Onlarn Altbiimbirimleri
Derivational morphemes (suffixes) are bound morphemes that change the
lexical meaning or the part of speech of a word used in a sentence:
MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO NOUNS THAT PRODUCE OTHER NOUNS
[C] allomorphs: [ci, c, c, cu, i, , , u]
When the nouns ending with vocals (vowels or voiced consonants) are attached to the morpheme [C], the /i/ vowel in this morpheme changes into /i,
, , u/ in accordance with the vowel harmony rules. However, if a noun ends
with an unvoiced consonant, the /c/ voiced consonants also change into the
// unvoiced consonants in agreement with the consonant harmony rules:
peynir-ci (cheese seller), posta-c (postman), zm-c (grapes seller), turu-cu (pickles seller), sepet-i (basket maker), balk- (fisherman), st-
(milkman), ok-u (archer), a- (cook), kale-ci (goal-keeper), kahve-ci (coffee seller), saat-i (watch repairer or seller), mobilya-c (furniture seller), kaak- (smuggler), musluk-u (plumber), yaban-c (foreigner), iek-i
(florist), yol-cu (traveler), sanat- (artist), gz-c (watch, watchman), szc (spokesman), politika-c (politician), milliyet-i (nationalist), di-i (den-

25

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


tist), kira-c (tenant), ark-c (singer), brek-i (someone who sells pies),
boya-c (painter), demir-ci (blacksmith), halter-ci (weight lifter).
[LK] allomorphs: [lik, lk, lk, luk]
meyve-lik (a bowl where fruit is kept), kitap-lk (bookcase), gz-lk (eyeglasses), odun-luk (a place where firewood is kept), az-lk (cigarette
holder), kulak-lk (headphones), aydan-lk (tea pot), mezar-lk (graveyard), eker-lik (a bowl in which candies are kept), okevli-lik (polygamy),
tuz-luk (saltshaker), ocuk-luk (childhood), maskara-lk (farce, foolery),
soytar-lk (clowning), dost-luk (friendship), dman-lk (enmity), gece-lik
(pajamas, nightgown), n-lk (apron), gven-lik (safety), anne-lik (motherhood), evlat-lk (adopted child), kahraman-lk (heroism).
[C-LK] allomorphs: [ci.lik, c.lk, c.lk, cu.luk, i.lik, .lk, .lk, u.luk]
av-c.lk (hunting), meyve-ci.lik (selling fruit), n-c.lk (leadership), yol-culuk (traveling), a-.lk (cooking), fal-c.lk (fortune telling), tefe-ci.lik
(usury), iek-i.lik (selling flowers), if-i.lik (farming), hava-c.lk (aviation),
balk-.lk (fishing), kaak-.lk (smuggling), p-.lk (scavenge)
[CK] allomorphs: [cik, ck, ck,

cuk, ik, k, k, uk] (diminutive)

ev-cik (small house), kap-ck (small door), kpr-ck (small bridge), kutucuk (small box), eek-ik (small donkey), aa-k (small tree), kadn-ck
(little woman), tosun-cuk (big and healthy newborn baby).
[CE.IZ] allomorphs: [ce.iz, ca.z, e.iz, a.z] (innocence)
kedi-ce.iz (innocent cat), kz-ca.z (innocent girl), hayvan-ca.z (innocent animal), kpek-e.iz (innocent dog), ku-a.z (innocent bird).
[CE] allomorphs: [ce, ca, e, a]
ngiliz-ce (English), Alman-ca (German), Trk-e (Turkish), Rus-a (Russian), spanyol-ca (Spanish), Japon-ca (Japanese), in-ce (Chinese),
Arap-a (Arabic), Fransz-ca (French), talyan-ca (Italian), Rum-ca (Greek).
MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO NOUNS THAT PRODUCE ADJECTIVES
[CL] allomorphs: [cil, cl, cl, cul, il, l, l, ul]
ev-cil (domestic), insan-cl (humane), ben-cil (selfish), ot-ul (herbivorous)

26

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


[L] allomorphs: [li, l, l, lu]
ev-li (married), ocuk-lu (with children), emsiye-li (with an umbrella), bahe-li ev (house with a garden), iyah ceket-li adam (the man in a black
coat), krmz-l kadn (the woman in red), grg-l (having good manners,
polite), iek-li aa (a tree in blossom), yamur-lu (rainy), kar-l (snowy),
sis-li (foggy, misty), gne-li (sunny), bulut-lu (cloudy), tuz-lu (salty), at-l
(man on horseback), istek-li (willing), becerik-li (skillful), amur-lu (muddy),
hesap-l (economical), sayg-l (respectful), su-lu (criminal), hata:-l
(faulty), tat-l (sweet), mayo-lu (in a bathing suit), st-l (with milk, milky),
paha-l (expensive), ta kafa-l (stone headed), Adana-l (from Adana),
srek-li (continuous), hiddet-li (outrageous), kl-l (hairy), bilin-li (intentional, conscious), zarar-l (harmful), tehlike-li (dangerous), phe-li (suspicious, suspect), yer-li (native), iki bacak-l (two legged), kanat-l (winged),
kayg-l (anxious), umut-lu (hopeful), gerek-li (necessary), yetenek-li (talented), bam-l (addicted, dependent), silah-l (armed), renk-li (colored),
kr-l (profitable), zehir-li (poisonous), denge-li (balanced), nee-li (joyful),
kusur-lu (faulty), grlt-l (noisy), deer-li (precious), gerek-li (necessary), dnce-li (thoughtful), yrek-li (brave), ayrnt-l (detailed, in detail),
sorum-lu (responsible), mantk-l (rational), g-l (strong), rt-l (covered), his-li (sensitive), hrs-l (ambitious), hz-l (fast), tertip-li (tidy), tuz-lu
(salty), buz-lu (icy), amur-lu (muddy), kir-li (dirty), pasak-l (untidy), korku-lu (frightening, scary), hak-l (right, fair), kast-l (intentional), hesap-l
(economical), meme-li (mammal), tecrbe-li, deneyim-li (experienced),
falso-lu (erroneous), kasvet-li (gloomy, doleful), kuku-lu (dubious, suspicious), onur-lu, gurur-lu (proud), dayank-l (durable), dikkat-li (careful), becerik-li (skillful), yama-l (patchy), dokunak-l (pungent), grev-li
(on duty), yarar-l (useful), karar-l (firm, determined), grkem-li (magnificent), atafat-l (pompous), akl-l (intelligent), rahmet-li (deceased), ya-l
(aged) dert-li (in trouble, miserable), eker-li (sweet), su-lu (saucy), faydal (useful), gizem-li (mysterious), korku-lu (frightening, horrifying), duygu-lu
(emotional, sensitive), heyecan-l (exciting, nervous), tertip-li (tidy), ileri
gr-l (foreseeing), huzur-lu (peaceful), keyif-li (cheerful), yetki-li (authorized), balant-l (related, agglutinative), boya-l (painted), cila-l (ci*l:*l) (finished, varnished), cilt-li (hardback), yay-l (with springs), ayrnt-l
(detailed, in detail), l-l (restrained), g-l (strong), tr-l tr-l (all
sorts of), besbel-li (obvious), isabet-li (i*sa:*bet*li) (right, to the purpose),
geer-li (valid), baar-l (successful), inan-l (believer), diren-li (resistive), kant-l (proven, supported by evidence), yn-l (woollen), pamuk-lu
(cotton), ate-li (fiery, zealous), izgi-li (lined, striped), yldz-l (starry, starlit), boya-l (painted), kyma-l brek (mince pie), gne-li (sunny), toz-lu

27

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(dusty), aa-l (wooded), iek-li (flowered), desen-li (patterned, figured),
yaldz-l (gilded), ss-l (ornamented), kymet-li (precious, valuable), kuyruk-lu (tailed), zahmet-li (difficult, hard), temkin-li (cautious).

[SZ] allomorphs: [siz, sz, sz, suz]


korku-suz (fearless), istek-siz (unwilling), yamur-suz (rainless), aasz (treeless), defo-suz (flawless), uyku-suz (sleepless), bilin-siz
(unconscious), karar-sz (hesitant), sorum-suz (irresponsible), dikkat-siz
(careless), ama-sz (aimless), kalp-siz (heartless), yrek-siz (timid), neesiz (ne*e*siz) (sad), mit-siz, umut-suz (desperate, hopeless), taban-sz
(timid), sayg-sz (disrespectful), mantk-sz (irrational), temel-siz (unsound,
baseless), renk-siz (colorless), gerek-siz (unnecessary), bam-sz (independent), perva:-sz (reckless), kafa-sz (stupid), sevgi-siz (loveless),
terbiye-siz (impolite, rude), grg-sz (impolite), becerik-siz (incompetent), imkn-sz (impossible), deer-siz (worthless), ses-siz (silent), ekersiz (without sugar), gerek-siz (unnecessary), dnce-siz (thoughtless),
sorum-suz (irresponsible), mesnet-siz (baseless), tasa-sz (carefree),
ahlk-sz (immoral), yz-sz (impudent), huy-suz (perverse), akl-sz
(foolish), dayanak-sz (baseless), dayank-sz (not durable), duygu-suz
(senseless), kusur-suz (faultless), ta:lih-siz (unfortunate), kymet-siz
(worthless), tehlike-siz (safe), tat-sz (tasteless), haya-sz (shameless,
impudent), tertip-siz (untidy), yarar-sz (useless), tutar-sz. (inconsistent),
ama-sz (aimless), deer-siz (worthless), zarar-sz (harmless), koku-suz
(odorless), neden-siz (causeless), acma-sz (merciless), taraf-sz (impartial), yetenek-siz (incompetent), su-suz (innocent), denge-siz (unbalanced), keyif-siz (low-spirited), kayg-sz (indifferent), tasa-sz (carefree),
deneyim-siz (inexperienced), kuku-suz (without doubt), uygun-suz
(inappropriate), surat-sz (sour faced), denge-siz (unbalanced), kontrolsuz (uncontrolled), kymet-siz (worthless), anlam-sz (insignificant, nonsense), eitim-siz (uneducated), bilgi-siz (ignorant), inan-sz (faithless),
huzur-suz (fidgety), annes-siz (motherless), leke-siz (stainless), kayg-sz
(without anxiety), denge-siz (unbalanced), uyum-suz (unharmonious).
[SEL] allomorphs: [sel, sal]
bilim-sel (scientific), evren-sel (universal), deney-sel (experimental, empirical), yzey-sel (superficial), duygu-sal (emotional, sensational), sanat-sal
(artistic), yap-sal (structural), gelenek-sel (traditional), dn-sel (mental),
tarih-sel (historical), tarih (historic), kavram-sal (conceptual), kimya-sal
(chemical), fizik-sel (physical), ant-sal (monumental), yaam-sal (vital),
din-sel (religious), ulus-sal (u*lu*sal) (national), evre-sel (environmental),

28

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


kalt-sal (hereditary), onur-sal (honorary), bitki-sel (herbal), hayvan-sal
(zoological), tarm-sal (agricultural), us-sal (us*sal) (mental, rational), tanrsal (divine, celestial), yrnge-sel (orbital), kurum-sal (institutional, corporate), kamu-sal (public), kre-sel (global, spherical), kr-sal (rural), rgtsel (organizational), toplum-sal (social, common), belge-sel (documental),
kurgu-sal (fictional), ruh-sal (psychological), beden-sel (corporal), bireysel (individual), alg-sal (perceptual), say-sal (numerical, digital), simgesel (symbolic).
MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO ADJECTIVES THAT PRODUCE NOUNS

[LK] allomorphs: [lik, lk, lk, luk] (iyi-lik = iyilik), (scak-lk= scaklk)
iyi-lik (favor), scak-lk (temperature), zgr-lk (freedom), uzun-luk
(length), geni-lik (width), gzel-lik (beauty), irkin-lik (ugliness), drstlk (honesty), aptal-lk (stupidity), sessiz-lik (silence), evli-lik (marriage),
baya-lk (meanness), iyimser-lik (optimism), ktmser-lik (pessimism),
uak-lk (servitude), yalnz-lk (loneliness), misafirsever-lik (hospitality),
kahraman-lk (heroism), vatansever-lik (patriotism), kaba-lk (rudeness),
duygusal-lk (sensitivity), dost-luk (frienship), kepaze-lik (scandal), retken-lik (productivity), kresel-lik (globalism), aalk kompleksi (inferiority
complex), arsz-lk (impudence), geveze-lik (chattering), dncesiz-lik
(inconsiderateness), mutsuz-luk (unhappiness), a-lk (hunger, starvation),
g-lk (difficulty), saydam-lk (transparency), utanga-lk (shyness),
uzak-lk (distance), yakn-lk (closeness, sympathy), kstah-lk (insolence),
kurak-lk (drought), rkek-lik (shyness), sersem-lik (dizziness), hovardalk (debauchery), alkan-lk (addiction), yksek-lik (height), derin-lik
(depth), krmz-lk (redness), kt-lk (wickedness, evil), kurnaz-lk
(craftiness), drst-lk (honesty), karamsar-lk (moodiness), kolay-lk
(ease, facility), tembel-lik (lazyness), kira-lk (ki*ra:*lk) (to let, for
hire) zel-lik (speciality), zgn-lk (originality, genuineness), kararsz-lk
(hesitation, uncertainty, instability, inconsistency), bol-luk (abundance),
srekli-lik (continuity), kararl-lk (determination), avare-lik (a:*va:*re*lik)
(idleness), yzeysel-lik (shallowness, superficiality), kt-lk (famine), sarknt-lk (molestation), kibar-lk (kindness, politeness), dayankl-lk (durability),
bo-luk (emptiness), yok-luk (poverty, absence, nonexistence), yal-lk
(agedness), sorumlu-luk (responsibility), sorumsuz-luk (irresponsibility),
gayretke-lik (zeal), vurdumduymaz-lk (callousness), tutarsz-lk (inconsistency), deli-lik (madness), bilgisiz-lik (cahil-lik) (ignorance), benzer-lik
(resemblance), karamsar-lk (moodiness), gzel-lik (beauty), kzgn-lk

29

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(anger), bak-lk (immunity), dman-lk (enmity, hostility), budala-lk,
ahmak-lk (stupidity, idiocy).
MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO VERBS THAT PRODUCE NOUNS
In agreement with the oral sequence of the Turkish sound system, the last
consonants of the last syllables of the verbs detach from their syllables,
and attach to the first vowels of the following derivational allomorphs while
forming new syllables. These consonants are single underlined.

[] allomorphs: [i, , , u] (diz-i = dizi), (yaz- = yaz)


diz-i (di*zi) (string, chain, serial, sequence ), yaz- (ya*z) (script, text), l-
(l*) (measurement, size), ko-u (ko*u) (run), duy-u (du*yu) (sense),
gez-i (ge*zi) (trip), a- (a*) (angle), yap- (ya*p) (building), tak- (ta*k)
(jewelry, jewels), drt- (dr*t) (stimulus), tart- (tar*t) (scales), art- (ar*t)
(plus), baar- (ba*a*r) (success), kork-u (kor*ku) (fear), sor-u (so*ru)
(question), rt- (r*t) (any cloth covering), at- (a*t) (framework), yet-i
(ye*ti) (mental power, faculty), yat- (ya*t) (overnight stay), l- (*l),
(corpse), gm- (g*m) (treasure), kok-u (ko-ku) (scent, smell, aroma,
perfume), bl- (b*l) (slash mark), dinlet-i (concert), gldr- (comedy)
do-u (do*u) (east), bat- (ba*t) (west), arp- (cross, times), bl- (b*l)

[M] allomorphs: [im, m, m, um, em, am]


se-im (se*im) (election), al-m (a*lm) (purchase), l-m (*lm) (death),
yk-m (y*km) (disaster, demolition), yut-um (yu*dum) (gulp), ek-im
(e*kim) (October), ak-m (a*km) (current), ret-im (*re*tim) (production),
geli-im (ge*li*im) (improvement), kar-m (ka*r*m) (mixture), dnm (d*n*m) (transformation), ek-im (e*kim) (attraction), geril-im
(ge*ri*lim) (tension), tasar-m (ta*sa*rm) (plan, design), kavra-am (kav*ram) (concept), denkle-em (denk*lem) (equation), ekle-em (ek*lem) (joint),
tket-im (t*ke*tim) (consumption), yakla-m (yak*la*m) (approach),
benze-im (ben*ze*im) (similarity, resemblance), ileti-im (i*le*ti*im)
(communication), bili-im (bi*li*im) (informatics), de/y/-im (de*yim)
(expression, idiom), say-m (sa*ym) (census), giy-im (gi*yim) (clothing),
z-m (*zm) (solution), ky-m (k*ym) (massacre), al-m (a**lm)
(expansion), yatr-m (ya*t*rm) (investment), al-m, sat-m (a*lm, sa*tm)
(buying and selling, trade, commerce), giy-im (gi*yim) (attire), salk-m (sal*km) (bunch), bir salkm zm (a bunch of grapes), uy-um (u*yum) (accordance). dn-em (d*nem) (period), yaa-am (ya*am) (life), anla-am
(an*lam) (meaning), devin-im (de*vi*nim) (movement), dene-/y/im (de*ne*yim) (experience), gzle-em (gz*lem) (observation), syle-em (sy*lem)
(expression), ge-im (ge*im) (living), iz-im (i*zim) (drawing, design),

30

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


al-m (a*lm) (feint), al-m (a*lm) (purchase), sr-m (sale), yatr-m
(ya*t*rm) (investment), yalt-m (ya*l*tm) (insulation).
When the identical vowels written in bold face follow one another, they
combine and are pronounced as single vowels; and the single underlined
consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the
following allomorphs in agreement with the oral sequence of the Turkish
sound system.

[K] allomorphs: [ik, k, k, uk, ek, ak]


del-ik (de*lik) (hole), art-k (ar*tk) (left over), ksr-k (k*s*rk) (cough
tkr-k (t*k*rk) (spit, saliva), aksr-k (ak*s*rk) (sneeze), bula-k
(bu*la*k) (dirty dishes), kayna-ak (kay*nak) (source, spring, origin), belleek (bel*lek) (memory), tara-ak (ta*rak) (comb), yama-ak (ya*mak) (apprentice), de-ek (d*ek) (mattress), kapa-ak (ka*pak) (lid), e-ik (e*ik)
(threshold), dene-ek (de*nek) (experimental subject, object, or animal),
tekerle-ek (te*ker*lek) (wheel), kay-k (ka*yk) (boat), bat-k (ba*tk)
(submerged), iz-ik (i*zik) (scratch), atla-ak (at*lak) (crack).
[EK] allomorphs: [ek, ak]
Tapn-ak (ta*p*nak) (temple), kay-ak (ka*yak) (ski), sa-ak (sa*ak)
(fringe), u-ak (u*ak) (airplane), yat-ak (ya*tak) (bed), ka-ak (ka*ak)
(escaped), dayan-ak (da*ya*nak) (support), kes-ek (ke*sek) (a lump of
earth), l-ek (l*ek) (scale), ben-ek (be*nek) (spot), dn-ek (d*nek)
(someone whom you cannot trust, incredulous), yan-ak (ya*nak) (cheek),
dzen-ek (d*ze*nek) (mechanism), geve-ek (loose), kayna-ak (source).

[G] allomorphs: [gi, g, g, gu, ki, k, k, ku]


sev-gi (love, affection); al-g (music instrument); sr-g (bolt); sor-gu
(interrogation); bas-k (pressure); as-k (hanger); r-g (knitting); gr-g
(good manners); dol-gu (filling); ver-gi (tax); et-ki (impression); sar-g (bandage); ser-gi (exhibition); ez-gi (melody); say-g (respect); yanl-g (mistake); vur-gu (accent, stress); kur-gu (abstract thought, speculation); yer-gi
(satire); der-gi (periodical, magazine); yar-g (judgment); yaz-g (fate, destiny); ol-gu (fact); duy-gu (sensation); i-ki (alcoholic beverage, drink); at-k
(scarf); et-ki (impression, stimulus); kat-k (aid, help, additive); gr-g (experience, good manners); kork-ku (fright) (The double underlined "k"
drops.); yet-ki (authority); co-ku (excitement); tep-ki (response, reaction); al-g (perception); sal-g (secretion); kes-ki (chisel); tut-ku (ambition, passion); sez-gi (intuition); iz-gi (line); diz-gi (composition, string);
bit-ki (plant); bul-gu (discovery, finding).

31

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


[E] allomorphs: [e, a]
sr-e (s*re) (process, procedure), tk-a (t*ka) (plug, wag, stoppage),
deme-e (de*me) (statement), sark-a (sar*ka) (pendulum), ayr-a
(ay*ra) (bracket).
[EY] allomorphs: [ey, ay]
dene-ey (de*ney) (experiment), yap-ay (ya*pay) (artificial), ol-ay (o*lay)
(event), d-ey (d*ey) (vertical), yat-ay (ya*tay) (horizontal), yz-ey
(y*zey) (surface), uza-ay (u*zay) (space).

[.C] allomorphs: [i.ci, .c, .c, u.cu]


Dinle-/y/i.ci (din*le*yi*ci) (listener), sat-.c (sa*t*c) (seller), yz-.c
(y*z*c) (swimmer), ko-u.cu (ko*u*cu) (runner), bl-.c (b*l*c)
(separatist), tara-/y/.c (ta*ra*y*c) (scanner), al-.c (a*l*c) (receiver),
bak-.c (ba*k*c) (companion), bebek bakcs (baby sitter), tut-u.cu
(tu*tu*cu) (conservative), kal-.c (ka*l*c) (lasting, durable) (adj), yaz-.c
(ya*z*c) (printer), doyur-u.cu (do*yu*ru*cu) (satisfactory) (adj), inandr-.c
(i*nan*d*r*c) (persuasive) (adj), ldr-.c (l*d*r*c) (adj) (deadly,
fatal). If a verb ends with vowel, and the allomorph starts with a different
vowel, the /y/ glide is inserted between these vowels by the oral sequence.

[E.CEK] allomorphs: [e.cek, a.cak]


sil-e.cek (si*le*cek) (wiper), gel-e.cek (ge*le*cek) (future), a-a.cak
(a*a*cak) (opener), ek-e.cek (e*ke*cek) (shoehorn), yak-a.cak
(ya*ka*cak) (fuel).

[MEK] allomorphs: [mek, mak]


ye-mek (meal), ak-mak (lighter), ek-mek (bread), kay-mak (cream)

[ME] allomorphs: [me, ma]


dondur-ma (ice cream), dol-ma (green peppers, eggplants or marrows
stuffed with mince, rice, etc.), kavur-ma (fried pieces of meat), hala-ma
(boiled meat), dene-me (essay), dv-me (tattoo), as-ma (vine), kaz-ma
(pickax), aydnlan-ma (enlightenment). ky-ma (ky*ma) (minced meat), inme (in*me) (stroke), bas-ma (bas*ma) (printed cloth), yz-me (yz*me)
[K] allomorphs: [ik, k, k, uk, ek, ak]
kes-ik (ke*sik) (cut), k-k (*kk) (dislocated joint), yar-k (ya*rk) (slash),
iz-ik (i*zik) (scratch), r-k (*rk) (decay), sar-k (sa*rk) (turban),

32

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


kaz-k (ka*zk) (stake, unreasonably expensive), yrt-k (yr*tk) (tear), delik (de*lik) (hole) ele-ek (e*lek) (sieve), ada-ak (a*dak) (oblation), kay-ak
(ka*yak) (ski).

[CE] allomorphs: [ce, ca]


dn-ce (d*n*ce) (thought), elen-ce (e*len*ce) (entertainment), bilme-ce (bil*me*ce) (riddle, word puzzle), dzme-ce (dz*me*ce) (lie, fake),
ekme-ce (ek*me*ce) (drawer), glme-ce (gl*me*ce) (comedy).
[N.T] allomorphs: [in.ti, n.t, n.t, un.tu, en.ti, an.t]
ak-n.t (a*kn*t) (current), al-n.t (a*ln*t) (quotation), bala-an.t (ba*lan*t) (connection, link), bekle-en.ti (bek*len*ti) (expectation), bula-an.t
(bu*lan*t) (qualm), bul-un.tu (bu*lun*tu), (antique), arp-n.t (ar*pn*t)
(palpitation), k-n.t (*kn*t) (bulge) k-n.t (*kn*t) (collapse),
dk-n.t (d*kn*t) (rubbish, rash), ekle-en.ti (ek*len*ti) (addition), esin.ti (e*sin*ti) (breeze), gez-in.ti (ge*zin*ti) (tour, walk), gir-in.ti (gi*rin*ti)
(dent), gr-n.t (g*rn*t) (image), il-in.ti (i*lin*ti) (relation), kal-n.t (ka*ln*t) (remnant), ka-n.t (ka*n*t) (itching), kaz-n.t (ka*zn*t) (scrapings), kes-in.ti (ke*sin*ti) (subtraction, stoppage, interruption), kr-n.t
(k*rn*t) (crumb), kur-un.tu (ku*run*tu) (unfounded suspicion), rastla-an.t
(ras*lan*t) (coincidence), salla-an.t (sal*lan*t) (quake), sk-n.t (s*kn*t)
(boredom), sz-n.t (s*zn*t) (leakage), tak-n.t (ta*kn*t) (fixation,
obsession), syle-en.ti (sy*len*ti) (rumor), topla-an.t (top*lan*t) (meeting),
sapla-an.t(sap*lan*t) (obsession), bala-an.t (ba*lan*t) (connection, link).
[] allomorphs: [i , , u]
ak- (a*k) (fluency), al- ver-i (a*l / ve*ri) (shopping), anla-/y/
(an*la*y) (understanding, sympathy), bak- (ba*k) (look, looking) , at-
(a*t), (gunfire, throw, round), bekle-/y/i (bek*le*yi) (waiting), benze/y/i (ben*ze*yi) (resemblance), bul-u (bu*lu) (discovery), k- (*k)
(exit, outlet), k- (*k) (collapse, fall), davran- (dav*ra*n) (behavior), diren-i (di*re*ni) (resistance, disobedience), diril-i (di*ri*li)
(resurrection, revival), dizil-i (di*zi*li) (sequence), dokun-u (do*ku*nu)
(touch), dn- (d*n) (return), dur-u (du*ru) (position), d-
(d*) (decline, downfall), gel-i (ge*li) (arrival, coming), gir-i (gi*ri)
(entry, entrance), git-i (gi*di) (going, departure), grn- (g*r*n)
(appearance), gr- (g*r) (view, opinion), gr- bir-lik-i (g*r /
bir*li*i) (agreement, consensus), haykr- (hay*k*r) (scream), ka-
(ka*) (escape), kapan- (ka*pa*n) (closing, closure), kurtul-u
(kur*tu*lu) (liberation), kurul-u (ku*ru*lu) (foundation), sat- (sa*t)
(sale), sr- (s*r) (drive, driving), tken-i (t*ke*ni) (exhaustion),

33

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


yakar- (ya*ka*r) (appeal), yalvar- (yal*va*r) (beseeching), ykseli (yk*se*li) (rise, growth), yr-/y/ (y*r*y) (walk).
MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO VERBS THAT PRODUCE ADJECTIVES

[.C] allomorphs: [i.ci, .c, .c, u.cu]


del-i.ci (de*li*ci) (piercing), kal-.c (ka*l*c) (lasting), sars-.c (sar*s*c)
(shocking), yarat-.c (ya*ra*t*c) (creative), bula-.c (bu*la**c) (contagious), art-.c (a*r*t*c) (confusing), yak-.c (ya*k*c) (burning),
t-.c (**t*c) (grinding), tazele-/y/i.ci (ta*ze*le*yi*ci) (refreshing),
it-i.ci (i*ti*ci) (repulsive), aldat-.c (al*da*t*c) (deceptive), z-.c (*z*c) (saddening), doyur-u.cu (do*yu*ru*cu) (satisfying), ge-ici (ge*i*ci)
(temporary), ez-i.ci ounluk (overwhelming majority), sk-.c (s*k*c)
(boring), yk-.c (y*k*c) (destructive, devastating), koru-/y/u.cu (ko*ru*yu*cu) (protective), kr-.c (k*r*c) (injurious, unkind), yan-.c (ya*n*c)
(inflammable), z-.c (*z*c) (painful).

[K] allomorphs: [ik, k, k, uk, ek, ak]


a-k (a*k) (open), kr-k (k*rk) (broken), bat-k (ba*tk) (sunken), g-k
(g*k) (collapsed), del-ik (de*lik) (pierced, hole), ez-ik (e*zik) (mashed),
e-ik (e*ik) (bent), r-k (*rk) (decayed), art-k (ar*tk) (left over),
ka-k (ka*k) (silly), atla-ak (at*lak) (crack), ka-ak (ka*ak) (escaped)
ek-ik (e*kik) (slanting), k-k (*kk) (dislocated), rk-ek (r*kek) (timid,
shy), kork-ak (kor*kak) (coward(ly), geve-ek (gev*ek) (loose).
Note: The last syllables are stressed.

[KN] allomorphs: [gin, gn, gn, gun, kin, kn, kn, kun]
se-kin (se*kin) (exclusive, choice), kes-kin (sharp), a-kn (astonished),
ili-kin (concerning, connected), sus-kun (silent), pi-kin (well done, impudent), et-kin (functional), ger-gin (tight), az-gn (fierce), dz-gn (smooth),
ol-gun (ripe, mature), sol-gun (faded), yay-gn (common), bit-kin (discouraged, depressed, exhausted), yor-gun (tired), bas-kn (unexpected attack
(noun), dominant), ks-kn (offended), ge-kin (overripe), dur-gun (stagnant), dol-gun (plump), z-gn (original), say-gn (honorable), yay-gn
(common, widespread), kz-gn (angry), bez-gin (wretched), uy-gun (suitable, convenient), z-gn (sorry), et-kin (effective), yat-kn (inclined to do).

[R] allomorphs: [er, ar]


al-ar saat (a*lar) (alarm clock), ak-ar su (running water), gl-er yz
(smiling face), ko-ar adm (running pace), uyu-ur gez-er (sleep walker).

34

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


[EN] allomorphs: [en, an]
ko-an (ko*an) (running), sol-an (so*lan) (fading), al-an (a*l*an)
(working), yr-/y/en (y*r*yen) (walking), konu-an (ko*nu*an) (talking),
dilimle-/y/en (di*lim*le*yen) (slicing), kes-en (ke*sen) (cutting), p-en
(*p*en) (kissing), bekle-/y/en (bek*le*yen) (waiting), art-an (ar*tan)
(increasing), geli-en (ge*li*en) (developing), dn-en (d*nen) (turning,
circling), glmse-/y/en (g*lm*se*yen) (smiling), bala-/y/an (ba*la*yan) (tying, connecting), bitme-/y/en (bit*me*yen) (unending).
Note: The morpheme above and its allomorphs are also used in transforming simple sentences into modifier + noun compounds. Therefore, they
are also inflectional suffixes.

[M] allomorphs: [mi, m, m, mu]


sol-mu (faded), dei-mi (changed), kar-m (mixed), beyazla-m
(whitened), balan-m (tied, connected), ertelen-mi (postponed), kzartlm (fried), tasarlan-m (planned), ykan-m (washed), gelitiril-mi
(improved), dm-len-mi (knotted), aydnlan-m (enlightened), zorlanm (forced), boan-m (divorced), unutul-mu (forgotten), rl-m
(knitted), kzar-m (fried, reddened), retil-mi (produced), bayl-m,
(fainted), unutulma-m (unforgotten), kayna-m (boiled), don-mu (frozen), geli-mi (developed), dei-mi (modified), koku-mu (foul).
Note: The allomorphs of the morpheme [MI] are stressed. This morpheme
is also used as an inflectional morpheme.

[SEL] allomorphs: [sel, sal]


gr-sel (visual), uy-sal (complaisant), dn-sel (mental), iit-sel (audial)
MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO NOUNS THAT PRODUCE VERBS

[LE] allomorphs: [le, la]


el-le (el*le) (touch), ba-la (ba*la) (tie), ba-la (ba*la) (bein, start), teker-le (te*ker*le) (roll), gz-le (gz*le) (observe), kutu-la (ku*tu*la) (put in
boxes), damga-la (dam*ga*la) (stamp), tuz-la (tuz*la) (salt), leke-le (le*ke*le) (stain), tekme-le (tek*me*le) (kick), srg-le (sr*g*le) (bolt), dzen-le
(d*zen*le) (arrange), ya-la (ya*la) (lubricate, oil), ta-la (ta*la) (throw
stones), yel-le (yel*le) (fan), denge-le (den*ge*le) (balance), sergi-le (ser*gi*le) (exhibit), ba-la (forgive), su-la (water), kak-la (spoon into greedily), kazk-la (cheat), yarg-la (judge), kalbur-la (sift), ila-la (apply pesticide), ak-la (acquit), kstek-le (hamper), bes-le (feed), alg-la (perceive),
fra-la (brush up), orta-la (centre), ezber-le (memorize), uygu-la (apply),

35

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


ar-la (show hospitality), av-la (hunt), ba-la (tie, connect), su-la (condemn), yol-la (send), ate-le (fire), belge-le (certify), kilit-le (lock), ter-le
(perspire), imdik-le (pinch), gz-le (observe), fi-le (blacklist someone), ile (work), aba-la (strive). ek-le (add), yk-le (load), iz-le (follow), giz-le
(hide), ezber-le (memorize), mhr-le (seal), yarg-la (judge), sra-la (put in
order), gr-le (thunder, roll), n-la (ring), ot-la (graze), kol-la (watch, protect), sol-la (overtake), oy-la (vote), omuz-la (shoulder), hiza-la (hi*za:*la)
(align), para-la (tear up), gaga-la (peck), dz-le (flatten), giz-le (hide).
MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO ADJECTIVES THAT PRODUCE VERBS

[R] allomorphs: [ir, r, er, ar]


deli-ir (de*lir) (get mad), sar-ar (sa*rar) (turn yellow), kara-ar (ka*rar)
(blacken, darken, or get dark), mor-ar (mo*rar) (get, turn purple).

[LE] allomorphs: [le, la]


gzel-le (get beautiful), sk-la (get oftener, get tighter), ar-la (get heavier), sar-la (get deaf), derin-le (deepen, get deeper), kaba-la (get
ruder), yeil-le, yeil-len (turn green). Some adjectives like krmz may
be either krmz-la or kzar (get or turn red). Ksa becomes ksal
(get shorter). Uzun becomes uza (get longer).
Examples: Gnler ksalyor. Days are getting shorter. Gnler uzuyor. (*not
uzayor) Days are getting longer.
In Turkish, make something + adjective "Make it shorter." is expressed in
an adjective + morpheme mixture which is too long to analyze in detail.
Some examples may explain them easily:
Uzun uzat (u*zat) Onu uzat. (Make it longer.); ksa ksalt (k*salt)
Onu ksalt. (Make it shorter.); byk byt (b*yt) Onu byt.
(Make it larger.); Kk klt (k*lt) Onu klt. (Make it
smaller.); kara karart (ka*rart) Onu karart. (Make it darker.); derin
derinletir (de*rin*le*tir) Onu derinletir. (Make it deeper.)
I made him work, I had him work, I had the work done and I got
him to do the work types of sentences will be explained in the following
chapters.

THE INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES AND THEIR ALLOMORPHS


Inflectional morphemes and their allomorphs are the suffixes in Turkish attached to nouns, pronouns, nominal phrases, verbs, and verb frames

36

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


signalling change in such grammatical functions as tense, voice, mood,
person, number, etc.
The inflectional morphemes that are attached to nouns, pronouns, and
nominal phrases are the following:
[] allomorphs: [i, , , u]
1. These allomorphs are attached to pronouns, common nouns, proper
nouns, and nominal phrases when they are used as definite objects:
O ben-i gr-d. O sen-i gr-d. O o-/n/u gr-d. O biz-i gr-d.
def obj

def obj

def obj

def obj

O siz-i gr-d. O o/n/-lar- gr-d.


def obj

def obj

In English: He saw me. He saw you. He saw him. He saw us. He saw them.
obj

obj

obj

obj

obj

Note: The single underlined consonants at the ends of the pronouns "ben-i",
"sen-i", "biz-i", "siz-i", "o/n/-lar-" detach from their syllables and attach to the
first vowels of the following morphemes in speech, such as (be*ni), (se*ni),
(bi*zi), (si*zi), (on*la*r). The /n/ consonant in (o*/n/u) is a glide produced by
the oral system of the Turkish language to maintain the harmonic balance
between the o-u vowels. They do not carry meaning.
The proper nouns in Turkish, contrary to English, have to be attached by
one of the "i, , , u" allomorphs in accordance with the Turkish vowel
harmony rules when they are used as objects:
Ahmet Aye-/y/i gr-d. Fatma Hasan- bul-du. retmen Ahmet-i yakala-d.
def object

def object

def object

In English: Ahmet saw Aye. Fatma found Hasan. The teacher caught Ahmet.
def object

def object

def onject

Note: The /y/ meaningless glide, which is a product of the Turkish sound
system, is inserted between two vowels to provide a harmonious linkage.
As a general rule, when a definite noun, pronoun, or a nominal phrase is
used in the object position in a sentence, one of the [i, , , u] allomorphs is
compulsorily attached to them. If the common nouns are not definite, they
may be preceded by some indefinite modifiers as the ones in English:
Ahmet Hasan- grd. Ahmet ben-i grd. Ahmet tavan- grd.
definite obj

Ahmet saw Hasan.


definite obj

definite obj

Ahmet saw me.


definite obj

definite obj

Ahmet saw the rabbit.


definite obj

Ahmet (bir) araba ald. Ahmet kitap okuyor. Ahmet is reading a book.
indefinite obj

indefinite obj

37

indefinite obj

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ahmet bought a car.

Ahmet is reading a book.

indefinite obj

indefinite obj

Ahmet kitap okumaz. Ahmet does not read books.


any book
indefinite obj

any books
indefinite obj

[E] allomorphs: [e, a]


When these allomorphs attach to nouns, pronouns, or nominal phrases (nominals), they signify the direction of an action, and change these nominals
into adverbial phrases. These adverbial phrases are generally called adverbials. For instance:
Aye mart-lar-a bakyor. Aye is looking at the seagulls.
adverbial

prepositional phrase
adverbial

(Biz) deniz-e bakyor-uz. We are looking at the sea.


adverbial

adverbial

Fatma biz-e bakyor. Fatma is looking at us.


adverbial

adverbial

[DE] allomorphs: [de, da, te, ta]


These allomorphs signify the place, the state of a pronoun, or a noun by
changing their function into a subject complement. or an adverbial:
Ahmet ev-de. Ahmet is at home. Postac kap-da.The postman is at the door.
subj complement

subj complement

subj complement

subj complement

Aye masa-da otur-u.yor Aye is sitting at the table. Her ey aklm-da.


adverbial

adverbial

subj complement

Evrything is in my mind. Jane mutfak-ta. Jane is in the kitchen.


subj complement

subj complement

subj complement

Kitap-n ben-de. Your book is with me. Onun ba- dert-te. He is in trouble.
subj comlement

subj complement

subj complement subj complement

When the [de, da, te, ta] suffixes attach to nouns, they function as subject
complements or aderbials. The same subject complements and adverbials in
English are structurally prepositionai phrases.
[DEN] allomorphs: [den, dan, ten, tan]
When one of the allomorphs of the [DEN] morpheme attach to a noun, a
pronoun or a nominal phrases, it signifies the starting point of an action, and
changes the function of the nominal into an adverbial:
Aye okul-dan geliyor. Aye is coming from school.
adverbial

(prep phrs) adverbial

38

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


retmen pencere-den bakyor. The teacher is looking out of the window.
adverbial

(prep phrs) adverbial

Ahmet Amerika-dan dnd. Ahmet came back from The U.S.A.


adverbial

adverbial

On-dan yirmi-/y/e kadar say. Count from ten to twenty.


adverbial

adverbial

postp

adverbial

adverbial

NOMINAL PHRASES
It is considered that the mind has a logical system which manages three rational storages to fill to produce a sentence. These storeges are out of order
before someone is born. When he begins learning his native language,
these orderless storages are arranged in a sequence according to one's
native language. For an English speaking person, his logical sequence is
"subject + verb + object", but for a Turkish spaking person, this sequence is
"(subject) + object + verb-personal suffix". For instance:
English sequence:

love

you.

subj verb

object

Turkish sequence: (Ben)


subj

sen-i

seviyor-um.

def obj verb-personal suffix

In Turkish, using "ben", "sen", "o", "biz", "siz", "onlar" pronouns used at the
beginning of a sentence is optional. These pronouns are only used when
they are stressed. However, using the personal allomorphs representing
these pronouns at the ends of the sentences is a grammatical necessity.
Therefore, all Turkish (optional pronouns) are showed in parentheses.
However, although the third person singular has the pronoun "o", which
means "he", "she", or "it", the sentences containing these pronouns do not
need personal suffixes representing "o" pronoun. A sentence without a
personal suffix at the end of a sentence means that the sentence is the third
person singular. For instance the followig two Turkish sentences are identical:
(O) sen-i sev-i.yor. He, she, or it loves you.
Sen-i sev-i.yor. He, she, or it loves you.
Although the sentenes given above are all simple sentences, the human
mind uses the same flexible subject, verb, object storages to produce all
the sentences in a language whether they are long or short.
1a: All subject pronouns are nominal phrases that can be used as
subjects such as: "ben", "sen", "o", "biz", "siz", "o/n/-lar". (I, you, he,
she, it, we, you, they)

39

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


1b: All objective pronouns are nominal phrases that can be used as objects such as "ben-i", "sen-i", "o-/n/u", "biz-i", "siz-i", "o/n/-lar-" (me,
you, him, her, it, us, you, them). All the objects are black.
2a: All proper nouns are nominal phrases that can be used as subjects
such as: Ahmet, Hasan, Jack, Aye, Mary. (English: (Ahmet, Hasan, Jack,
Aye, Mary)
2b: All proper nouns are nominal phrases that can be used as definite
objects, such as: Ahmet-i, Hasan-, Jak-i, Aye-/y/i, Mary-/y/i. However in
English, the proper nouns Ahmet, Hasan, Jack do not have any suffixes.
Ahmet Hasan- grd. Ahmet saw Hasan. Hasan Ahmet-i buldu. Hasan
found Ahmet.
3a: All common nouns can be used as subjects such as:
Turkish: Zil alyor. Martlar uuyor. Gne dou-dan doar. Polis
hrsz- yakalad. English: The bell is ringing. The seagulls are flying.
The sun rises in the east. The police caught the thief.
As it is seen, when the common nouns are used as subjests in Turkish,
they are considered defined and used without definite articles. In English,
however, they are all used with the definite article "the".
If indefinite nouns are used as subjects or objects, they are used like the
indefinite nouns in English:.
Bir adam sen-i kap-da bekliyor. A man is waiting for you at the door.
Baz kular sonbahar-da gney-e g ederler. Some birds migrate to
south in autumn.
Bahe-de bir saat bul-du-um. I found a watch in the garden.
Aye bir kompozisyon yazyor. Aye is writing a composition.
All Turkish infinitives, which are all nominals, are of four kinds:
4a: The verbs that are suffixed by [mek, mak] allomorphs.
4b: The verbs that are suffixed by [me, ma] allomorphs.
4c: The verbs that are suffixed by [i, , , u, e, a] allomorphs.
4d: The verbs that are suffxed by [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk].
4aa: The [mek, mak] infinitives can be used as subjects in the sentences
using linking verbs such as "be" (is, are, was were, etc):
Bekle-mek skc-dr. Wait-ing is boring, Yr-mek salkl-dr. Walk-ing
is healthful. Btn gn televizyon izle-mek zaman kayb-dr. Watch-ing
television all day long is a vaste of time.

40

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


4ab: The [mek, mak] infinitives can be used as the objects of the verb
"iste":
Jack Trke ren-mek istiyor. Jack wants to learn Turkish.
Fatma balk kzart-mak istemiyor. Fatma doesn't want to fry fish.
Uyu-mak istiyor-um. I want to sleep. (The underlined words are infinitives.)
4ac: The [mek, mak] infinitives can be used before the adverb "iin":
Herkes ben-i gr-mek iin ayaa kalkt. Everybody stood up to see me.
retmen ben-i daha iyi gr-mek iin gzlkler-i-/n/i takt. The teacher put
on her glasses to see me better. Bir spor araba al-mak iin para biriktiriyor.
She is saving money to buy a sports car. Sen-i ikna et-mek iin ne yapma.l-/y/m? What should I do to convince you?
4ba: The [me, ma] infinitives can be used in noun compounds as subjects:
Mary-/n/in ala-ma-/s/ hepimiz-i z-d. Mary's cry-ing made us sorry.
noun compound
def object
verb.
subject

predicate

Ahmet'in okul-a ge gel-me-/s/i retmen-i kz-dr-d.


noun compound
subject

def object
verb
predicate

Ahmet's com-ing to school late made the teacher angry.


4bb: The [me, me] infinitives can be used in noun compounds as objects:
(Ben-im) baba-am (ben-im) futbol oyna-ma-am- iste-me-i.yor.
noun compound
subject

nound compound-
definite object
predicate

|
verb

Definite noun compounds in Turkish are suffixed by possessive personal


allomorphs both in the first and the second parts of the noun compounds.
As the possessive pronouns and the possessive allomorphs attached to the
nouns at the ends of the noun compounds bear the same meanings, the
possesive pronouns in the first parts of the noun compounds could be
ignored because the possessive allomorphs attached to the second parts
are enough to express the possessive pronouns. Namely, "baba-am"
means, "ben-im baba-am", and "futbol oyna-ma-am" means, "ben-im futbol
oyna-ma-am". The sentence above is generally said and written as follows:
(Ben-im) baba-am
noun compound
subject

(Ben-im) futbol oyna-ma-am- iste-me-i.yor.


noun compound
definite object
predicate

41

|
verb

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(Biz) ma-n bit-me-/s/i-/n/i bekle-di-ik. We waited for the match to end.
subj

(noun compound) def obj


predicate

verb

4ca: The [i, , , u, es, a] infinitives can be used in noun compouns


in a limited number in certain expressions:
(Ben-im) dn--m muhteem
noun compound
subject

ol-a.cak. My return will be spectacular.

subject complement
predicate

verb

Oyuncu-lar ma-n bit-i ddk--/n/ bekle-di.


subject
noun compound-/n/
|
definite object
predicate

verb

The players waited for the final whistle of the match.


4da: The [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] infinitives can be used in
noun compounds:
"(ben-im) git-tik-im" (be*nim / git*ti*im), "(sen-in) git-tik-in" (se*nin / git*ti*in), "(o-/n/un) git-tik-i" (o*nun / git*ti*i), "(biz-im) git-tik-im.iz" (bi*zim / git*ti*i*miz), "(siz-in) git-tik-in.iz" (si*zin / git*ti*i*niz), "o/n/-lar-n git-tik-i" (on*la*rn / git*ti*i)
The noun compounds above can be used as objects:
(O-/n/un) iit-tik-i-/n/i san-ma-.yor-um. I don't think that he heard.
noun compound-/n/i
definite object
predicate

|
verb-subject

noun clause def obj

The same noun compounds can also be used as modifiers:


(Ben-im) gr-dk-m araba beyaz-d. The car that I saw was white.
(noun compound)
modifier
subject

|
noun

|
noun
modifier
|
subject
subj complement
predicate

subj complement
predicate

Detailed examples are given in the transformational section.

ADVERBS AND ADVERBIALS


A number of adverbs and adverbials may additionally take place in a logical
simple sentence. These adverbs, adverbials, adverbial phrases or clauses
give further information about the time, pleace, reason, manner, frequency,
purpose, etc. of an action or being in a sentence. For instance:

42

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ahmet her zaman okul-a ge gelir. Ahmet always comes to school late.
subject

adverbial

adverbial adverb verb


predicate

subject adverb

verb adverbial adverb


predicate

Kzlar snf-a nee-/y/le gir-di. The girls entered the class cheerfully.
subject adverbial

Fatma

adverbial
predicate

kap-/y/

a-n.ca

verb

subject

bir iskelet

verb

object
adverbial
predicate

gr-d.

subject def obj of "a" adverbial


|
adverbial of time
indef obj of "gr"
predicate

|
verb

Fatma saw a skeleton when she opened the door.


subject verb

indef object

adverbial clause of time


predicate

TRANSFORMATIONAL ACTIVITY OF THE LOGIC


The human mind can logically transform a simple sentence into a learned
nominal phrase, an adverbial phrase or a clause in order to insert them in
the "subject + verb", "subject + verb + object" or subject + verb + subj
complement storages in which all sentences take form.
Thought and language are mental faculties that are independent of one another, but they act interdependently. One stores morphemes, which are the
only language units loaded with meaning, into his memory out of sequence.
However, when the time comes to produce a sentence, the mind searches
through its memory to find the most suitable morphemes matching his sets
of thought, and organizes them in a sequence.
He divides his thought into two logical parts called subject and predicate
(Nominal Phrase "NP", and Verbal Phrase "VP"). To understand how these
two logical parts are expressed in sign language, let us take an imaginary
journey to the long past to fancy how our ancestors used "subject + predicate" basic sentence producing logical device.
As human beings did not know how to communicate in words on those days,
perhaps one of them pointed to some birds, and imitated a bird fluttering its
wings trying to mean "Birds fly" or "The birds are flying"
In the above imaginary sentences, there are two main parts,"birds" and "fly"
(subject and predicate), which Chomsky calls them "NP + VP". From then
on, throughout centuries, human beings have been busy inserting what they
want to say into these two basic sentence components.

43

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The human intellect is so sklllful that it can logically transform simple sentences into learned nominal phrases to fit them into the "subject" segment
of the "subject + predicate" sentence-prodcing pattern. It manages this activity in such a way that although their forms are transformed into different
structures, these structures stay loaded with the same meaning in different
inflectional (grammatical) patterns. Consider the following:
.

1. The birds were flying. the birds that were flying


subject

predicate

nominal phrase (subject or object)

2. The birds were flying. that the birds were flying


subject
3.

predicate

nominal phrase (subject or object)

Birds eat insects. the birds that eat insects


subject

predicate

nominal phrase (subject or object)

4. Birds eat insects. that birds eat insects


subject

predicate

nominal phrase (subject or object)

5. Birds eat insects. the insects that the birds eat


subject

predicate

nominal phrase

6. Roses are beautiful. the roses that are beautiful the beautiful roses
subject

predicate

nominal phrase (subject or object)

nominal phrase

7. Roses are beautiful. that roses are beautiful


subject

predicate

nominal phrase (subject or object)

The human mind can insert the nominalized phrases above into the "subject"
or the object segment of the phrase structure rules. The "predicate" segment contains either an intransitive verb, which does not need an object, or
a transitive verb which needs an "object". Therefore, a "subject + predicate"
base sentence producing logical pattern may be rewritten either as "subject
+ intransitive verb" or "subject + transitive verb + object" for an English
speaking person. However, a person speaking Turkish uses a different sequence, such as "subject + object + transitive verb" or "subject + intransitive
verb in the basic sentence-producing pattern. Moreover, adverbs and
adverbials should also be included in the predicate segment because their
function is to add some significant concepts to verbs.
The following example sentences show how transformed nominalized sentences above are used as nominal phrases in the "subject + predicate"
logical pattern:
1. I

saw the birds that were flying above my head

subj verb

(nominal phrase) object


predicate

adverbial

2. My boss said that the birds were flying in my head.


subject

verb

(nominal phrase) object


predicate

44

adverbial

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


3. The birds that eat insects are useful. (The adjectives are subj complements.)
(nominal phrase) subject

predicate

4. Everybody knows that birds eat insects.


subject

verb

nominal phrase (object)


predicate

5. The insects that the birds eat are harmful.


(nominal phrase) subject

predicate

6. The roases that are beautiful smell sweet.


(nominal phrase) subject

predicate

The beautiful roses smell sweet.


(nominal phrase) subject

predicate

7. Everybody thinks that roses are beautiful.


subject

verb

(nominal phrase) object

In general, as soon as thought is materialized in morphemes in a language,


they are seperated into words, and placed into the linear logical phrase
structure sequence. While this process is going on, the phonological rules of
the language simultaneously divide the words into syllables and harmonze
them in agreement with the general sound system of the language.
The logical, morphemic, and oral (phonological) sequences act independently of one another in coordination to produce sentences.
A morpheme that changes the meaning of a root or stem is called a derivational morpheme (yapm eki); the other one, which does not change the
meaning of a stem, is called an inflectional morpheme (ekim eki). Both
the derivational and inflectional morphemes are bound morphemes.
Some morphemes (suffixes in Turkish) have different pronunciation variants
that bear the same meaning as their morphemes. For instance, in English,
when the plural [S] morpheme is attached to the noun book, it is pronounced as /s/; in boy-s as /z/; and in box-es as /iz/. As they are the different pronunciation variants of the same morpheme [S], they are named as
the allomorphs of the morpheme [S].
Turkish sound system produce a lot more alomorphs than English. This is
because bound morphemes go through some vowel and consonant
changes due to the vowel and consonant harmony rules of the Turkish language when they are attached to roots or stems, or to one another, and this
process causes different allomorphs to arise. All the allomorphs of a certain
morpheme carry the same meaning vocalizing differently, and therefore,
they do not change the meaning of the morphemes. The Turkish sound
system functions independently of the Turkish morphemic system.

45

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


FORM AND FUNCTION IN LANGUAGES
Form and function are different notions in languages. Form is the physical
structure of a language unit, but function is the syntactic role of the same
unit in a sentence.
We can see this difference between the two notions in the following English
and Turkish sentences:
Jane is dancing on the table:
On the table is a prepositional phrase. Its form (structure) is prepositional, but its function is adverbial because it shows where the verb dancing is taking place.
The books on the table are mine: (Mine is subject complement.)
In this sentence, on the table is also a prepositional phrase, but its function is to modify books because it answers the question Which books?,
so it is a modifier implied by the determiner the.
Jack is running to school:
To school is structurally a prepositional phrase, but its function is adverbial because it shows the direction of the action running".
I read the books that I borrowed from the library:
In this sentence, that I borrowed from the library is a language unit that
modifies the books, and therefore it is a modifier. However, when we
consider the books that I borrowed from a library, we can see that it
functions in a sentence as a noun. Therefore, it is a Nominal Phrase
transformed from the simple sentence I borrowed some books from the
library. When we use the transformed phrase above as an object, we get
the sentence: I read the books that I borrowed from the library. By the way,
it is necessary to remember that all subjects and objects are nouns whether
they contain only one word such as (you), two words (the book, Jacks
book), or more than two words (the books on the table, or the books that
I borrowed and read). Such nominal phrases are infinite. For instance, the
fish that Jack caught that Mr. Brown cleaned that Mrs. Brown fried that
Jane ate is a nominal phrase treated in a sentence as a single noun.
Besides the Nominal Phrase above, there is another language unit called
noun compound, which may be made up of two or more nouns such as
the lights of the street, the traffic lights, or the color of the walls

46

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


of my room. Such compounds whether they are made up of two or more
nouns (infinite), are treated as single nouns (Nominal Phrases) in sentences.

In Turkish, the [E], [DE], [DEN] and [LE] morphemes (in fact their allomorphs
[e, a], [de, da, te, ta], [den, dan, ten, tan], [le, la]) are attached to nouns,
pronouns or infinitives. When these nouns, pronouns, or infinitives are used
without these allomorphs, they may be used as subjects, or objects in sentences. These nouns are structurally and syntactically nouns. However,
when these nouns, pronouns or infinitives are attached to the allomorphs
above, they are structurally noun-e, noun-de, noun-den and noun-le
units (In Turkish, ismin e, de and den hali), which syntactically function
as adverbs and called adverbials in sentences:
(Ben) bir kitap al-d-m.
subj

det + noun
|
indef object verb-subj
predicate

I bought a book
subj

|
verb

det + noun
indef object
predicate

In the sentence above, Ben and kitap are structurally and syntactically
nouns. In the following sentences, however, the noun roots attached to [E],
[DE], [DEN], or [LE] morphemes undertake the role of adverbs in sentences.
Adverbial means a word or words that function as an adverb.
Jack

okul-a gitti.

noun
subj

noun-a
adverbial

Jack went to school.

verb

noun

verb

prep + noun
prep phrase
adverbial

at school.

Jack

okul-da.

Jack

is

noun
subj

noun-da
subj complement
predicate

noun
subj

|
verb

Jack okul-dan
noun
subj

noun-dan
adverbial

ev-e

prep + noun
subj complement
predicate

otobs-le gel-di.

noun-e
noun-le
adverbial adverbial
predicate

|
verb

Jack came home from school by bus


noun
subj

verb

noun
adverb

prep + noun
prep phrase
adverbial

prep noun
prep phrase
adverbial

The other transformed nouns and adverbs could be found in the transformation section.

47

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


USING ADJECTIVES AS ADVERBS
Nearly all adjectives in Turkish can be used as adverbs without changing
their forms. For instance:
O iyi bir kz-dr. (adjective) She is a good girl. (adjective)
O iyi yz-er. (adverb) She swims well. (adverb)
Bu yava bir araba-dr. (adjective) This is a slow car. (adjective)
Bu araba yava gider. (adverb) This car goes slowly. (adverb)
O gzel bir kz-dr. (adjective) She is a beautiful girl. (adjective)
O gzel ark syler. (adverb) She sings beautifully (well). (adverb)
As it is seen in the examples above, no ly kind of suffixes are attached to
Turkish adjectives when they are used adverbially. However, when it is necessary to stress the adverbs, they may be repeated:
O yava yava yryor. He is walking slowly.
Biz hzl hzl yrdk. We walked quickly.
Onlar tenbel tembel oturuyorlar. They are sitting lazily.
Arsz arsz srtyordu. He was grinning impudently.
Gzel gzel oynayn. Play like good children. Dont be mischievous.
Onlar sk sk ziyaret ettim. I visited them frequently.
Kara kara dnyordu. He was thinking hopelessly.
Derin derin dnd. He thought deeply.
Likewise, some words produced out of imitated sounds are repeated and
used in Turkish sentences as adverbials of manner, which do not exist in
English. Some of these expressions and their meanings are given in the following sentences:
akr akr yamur ya-.yor.
(a*kr / a*kr / ya*mur / ya**yor )
It is raining cats and dogs. (heavily)
Ml ml uyu-u.yor.
(m*l / m*l / u*yu*yor )
She is sleeping soundly.

48

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bebek tp tp yr-.yor.
(be*bek / t*p / t*p / y*r*yor )
The baby is toddling.
Kkr kkr gl-.yor.
(k*kr / k*kr / g*l*yor )
She is giggling.
Kara kara dn-.yor-du.
(ka*ra / ka*ra / d**n*yor*du )
He was thinking gloomily.
Adamlar harl harl al-.yor-lar-d.
(a*dam*lar / ha*rl / ha*rl /a*l**yor*lar*d )
The men were working like hell.
Boaz Kprs-/n/n klar- gece-le.yin l l lda-ar.
(bo*az / kp*r*s*nn / *k*la*r / ge*ce*le*yin / *l / *l / *l*dar )
The lights of the Bosphorus Bridge glitter at night.
Beni apr upur p-me-/s/i/n/-den holan-ma-.yor-um.
(be*ni / a*pur / u*pur / p*me*sin*den / ho*lan*m*yo*rum )
I dont like her kiss-ing me noisily.
Televizyon seyret-er-ken boyuna tr tr patates cipsi ye-i.yor.
(te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*der*ken / bo*yu*na / pa*ta*tes / cip*si / yi*yor )
She is always crunching potato chips while watching television.
Dn ev-e dn-er-ken srl sklam ol-du-um.
(dn / e*ve / d*ner*ken / s*rl / sk*lam / ol*dum )
I got wet through (soaked) while I was coming back home yesterday.
Bu sabah kalk-tk-m-da lapa lapa kar ya-.yor-du.
(dn / sa*bah / kalk*t*m*da / l*pa / l*pa / kar / ya**yor*du )
When I woke up this morning, it was snowing in large flakes.
Hl horul horul uyu-u.yor.
(ha:*l: / ho*rul / ho*rul / u*yu*yor )
He is still sleeping like a top (snoring loudly).
Kular cvl cvl t--.yor-du.
(ku*lar / c*vl / c*vl / *t**yor*du )
The birds were twittering.

49

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Hapr hupur ye-i.yor-du.
(ha*pr / hu*pur / yi*yor*du )
He was eating greedily.
Takr takr Trke konu-u.yor.
(tak*kr / ta*kr / trk*e / ko*nu*u*yor )
He speaks Turkish fluently. He is speaking Turkish fluently.
Hrsz sinsi sinsi oda-am-a gir-di.
(hr*sz / sin*si / sin*si / o*da*ma / gir*di )
The thief sneaked into my room.
ler tkr tkr yr-.yor-du.
(i*ler / t*kr / t*kr / y*r*yor*du)
Everyting was going on perfectly (like clockwork).

THE INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES


ekim Ekleri
THE DEFINING [] MORPHEME AND ITS ALLOMORPHS:
[i, , , u]
This morpheme functions in Turkish like the definite article the in English,
but it is only used when a noun is in the object position in a sentence:
Avc tavan- grd. The hunter saw the rabbit.
As it is seen in the English sentence above, both hunter and rabbit have
definite articles preceding them. Yet, in the Turkish sentence, only the word
tavan has a defining morpheme attached to it. This example shows us
that the defining [] morpheme can only be used when the definite common
nouns, proper nouns, or pronouns are in the object position. When a noun
is in the subject position, although it is defined, it does not need a defining
morpheme [] attached to it.
When the nouns, pronouns, or noun compouns ending with consonants
attach to the allomorphs of [i, , , u], their last consonants detach from their
syllables and attach to the allomorphs of the phoneme []:
ben-i (be*ni) (me); sen-i (se*ni) (you); o-/n/u (o*nu) (him, her, it); biz-i
(bi*zi) (us); siz-i (si*zi) (you); o/n/lar- (on*la*r) (them); ek-i (e*ki) (the suffix); yk- (y*k) (the load); at- (a*t) (the horse); ip-i (i*pi) (the rope);
ek-i (e-ki) (the check); i-i (i*i) (the inside); Hasan- (ha*sa*n); ot-u
(o*tu) (the grass); kk- (k*k) (the root); g- (g*) (the migration);
st- (s*t) (the milk); ak- (a*k) (the love); Jack-i (ce*ki); st- (s*t)

50

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


However, if the nouns end with vowels, they need the /y/ glides to attach to
the allomorphs [i, , , u] to provide a harmonious link between the vowels:
araba-/y/, kahve-/y/i, Londra-/y/, Amerika-/y/, Aye-/y/i, ordu-/y/u.
Additionally, the /p, t, , k/ consonans change to /b, d, c, , or g/ voiced
consonants when they detach from their syllables and attach to the [i, , , u]
allomorphs:
kap- (ka*b) (the cover); gk- (g*) (the sky); dert-i (der*di) (the trouble); denk-i (den*gi) (the equal); renk-i (ren*gi) (the color); tat- (ta*d):
(the taste), but akl- (ak*l) (the wisdom), ekil-i (ek*li) (the shape)
If the polysyllabic nouns end with /p/, /t/, /k/, or // consonants, these unvoiced consonants change into their voiced allophones /b/, /d/, //, or /c/
respectively when they take the [i, , , u] allomorphs.
orap- (o*ra*b) (the sock, his sock); arap- (a*ra*b) (the wine, his
wine); dolap- (do*la*b) (the cupboard, her cupboard); tarak- (ta*ra*)
(the comb, her comb); eek-i (e*e*i) (the donkey, his donkey); ekmek-i
(ek*me*i) (the bread, his bread); yzk- (y*z*) (the ring, her ring);
terlik-i (ter*li*i) (the slipper, her slipper); tfek-i (t*fe*i) (the gun, his
gun); kpek-i (k*pe*i) (the dog, her dog); bebek-i (be*be*i) (the baby,
her baby); yemek-i (ye*me*i) (the meal, his meal); kabak- (ka*ba*)
(the marrow); gzlk- (gz*l*) (the eyeglasses); parmak- (par*ma*)
(the finger); iek-i (i*e*i) (the flower); bcek-i (b*ce*i) (the insect);
yasak- (ya*sa*) (the prohibition); kllk- (kl*l*) (the ashtray);
bacak- (ba*ca*) (the leg); bak- (b*a*) (the knife); bardak-
(bar*da*) (the glass); delik-i (de*li*i) (the hole); ak-mak- (ak*ma*)
(the lighter); aa- (a*a*c) (the tree); byte-i (b*y*te*ci) (the magnifier); dneme-i (d*ne*me*ci) (the corner); yourt-u (yo*gur*du) (the yogurt).
The polysyllabic nouns that end with the /t/ consonants do not change
when they are suffixed by the allomorphs of the morpheme []:
saat-i (sa*a*ti) (the watch or his watch); sepet-i (se*pe*ti) (the basket or his
basket); demet-i (de*me*ti) (the bunch or his bunch); kasket-i (kas*ke*ti)
(the cap or his cap); surat- (su*ra*t) (the face or his face).
The polysyllabic nouns that end with consonants take the allomorphs of []
[i, , , u] following the vowel harmony rules:
Okul-u (o*ku*lu) (the school or his school); tavan- (ta*va*n) (the ceiling or
its ceiling); orman- (or*ma*n) (the forest or his forest); kalem-i (ka*le*mi);

51

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


defter-i (def*te*ri) (the notebook or his notebook); pantolon-u (pan*to*lo*nu) (the trousers or his trousers).
The polysyllabic nouns that end with vowels take the /y/ glides together with
the allomorphs of the morpheme [] to maintain the harmonious link between
the last vowels:
araba-/y/ (a*ra*ba*y) (the car); pencere-/y/i (pen*ce*re*yi) (the window);
kahve-/y/i (kah*ve*yi) (the coffee); testi-/y/i (tes*ti*yi) (the jug); fare-/y/i
(fa:*re*yi) (the mouse); kedi-/y/i (ke*di*yi) (the cat); torba-/y/ (tor*ba*y)
(the sack); elma-/y/ (el*ma*y) (the apple); kasaba-/y/ (ka*sa*ba*y) (the
town); yk-/y/ (y*k*y) (the story); salata-/y/ (sa*la*ta*y) (the salad);
mart-/y/ (mar*t*y) (the seagull); sprge-/y/i (s*pr*ge*yi) (the broom);
su-/y/u (su*yu) (the water); sene-/y/i (se*ne*yi) (the year); hal-/y/ (ha*l*y)
(the carpet); kamera-/y/ (ka*me*ra*y) (the camera); havlu-/y/u (hav*lu*yu)
(the towel); duygu-/y/u (duy*gu*yu) (the feeling); duyu-/y/u (du*yu*yu) (the
sense); poaa-/y/ (po*a*a*y) (a kind of pastry).
Note: When the third person owned allomorphs [i, , , u] are attached to the
nouns ending with consonants, they take one of these allomorphs, but when
they end with vowels, they take the same allomorphs together with the glide
/s/: onun okul-u, onun masal-, onun ku-u, onun yk-; onun giysi-/s/i,
onun hala-/s/, onun kale-/s/i, onun ke-/s/i, onun ene-/s/i.
When the pronouns are considered, however, Turkish and English objective
pronouns act differently from one another. In English, the pronouns: me,
you, him, her, it, us, them, and proper nouns: Jack, Mary" and
"Mehmet are never used with defining or non-defining articles, but in Turkish, contrary to English, both objective pronouns such as ben-i, sen-i, o/n/u, biz-i, siz-i, o/n/-lar-, and objective proper nouns such as Jacki,
Ahmeti, Mary-/y/i are all used with the allomorphs of [] attached to them
when they are used in the object position. Common nouns, however, can be
used with non-defining articles, such as; Ben dn bahe-de bir tavan
grdm I saw a rabbit in the garden yesterday.
Turkish pronouns ben, sen, o, biz, siz, onlar; proper nouns, such as
Jack, George, Ahmet, Mehmet; and common nouns avc, balk,
avclar, balklar, ocuk, ocuklar are never used with defining [i, , , u]
allomorphs when they are in the subject position. However, in English, the
common nouns such as the hunter, the hunters, the boy, the boys,
etc. can all be used with definite articles when they are in the subject position. The indefinite articles like "bir" (a, an) and "baz" (some) are used as

52

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


they are used in English. For instance: Bir avc orman-da bir tavan grd.
A hunter saw a rabbit in the forest. Compare the following sentences:
O ben-i gr-d. She saw me.
Ben onlar- gr-d-m. I saw them.
Biz Jack-i gr-d-k. We saw Jack.
Avc tavan- gr-d. The hunter saw the rabbit.
ocuk-lar gel-di. The children have arrived.
The indefinite articles, such as the ones in the following examples, bir avc, tm avclar, baz avclar are the equivalents of a hunter, all
hunters, some hunters respectively. Avclar-dan baz-lar-, bazm.z, baz-lar-n.z, baz-lar- are the equivalents of some of the
hunters, some of us, some of you and some of them.
As in all suffixes, one of the [i, , , u] allomorphs are attached to definite
nouns or pronouns following the vowel harmony rules when they are in the
object position:
ev-i (e*vi) (the house); et-i (e*ti) (the meat); arslan- (ars*la*n) (the lion);
okul-u (o*ku*lu) (the school); telefon-u (te*le*fo*nu) (the telephone); televizyon-u (te*le*viz*yo*nu) (the television); ben-i (be*ni) (me); sen-i (se*ni)
(you); o-/n/u (o*nu) (him, her, it); biz-i (bi*zi) (us); siz-i (si*zi) (you); o/n/lar- (on*la*r) (them); tm avclar- (tm / av*c*la*r) (all the hunters); baz-lar-m.z (ba:*z*la*r*mz) (some of us); baz-lar-m.z- (ba:*z*la*r*m*z) (some of us); hep-im.iz (he*pi*miz) (all of us); hep-im.iz-i (he*pi*mi*zi) (all of us); hep-in.iz (he*pi*niz) (all of you); hep-in.iz-i (he*pi*ni*zi)
(all of you); baz-lar- (ba:*z*la*r) (some of them); baz-lar--/n/ (ba:*z*la*r*n) (some of them); kim-i (ki*mi) (whom).
If noticed, some English expressions are identical when they are in the subject or in the object position, but in Turkish they are different:
Some of us did not understand the lesson. Baz-lar-m-z ders-i anla-ma-d.
The teacher wanted to see some of us. retmen bazlarmz- gr-mek istedi.
All of us were eager to go to the concert. Hepimiz konser-e git-me-/y/e istekli/y/-di-ik.
The teacher punished all of us. retmen hep-im.iz-i cezalandr-d.
Consider and compare the Turkish sentences with the English ones:
Baz renci-ler dn okul-a gel-me-di.
(ba:*z / *ren*ci*ler / dn / o*ku*la / gel*me*di )
Some students didnt come to school yesterday.

53

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


renci-ler-den baz-lar- dn okul-a gel-me-di.
(*ren*ci*ler*den / ba:*z*la*r / dn / o*ku*la / gel*me*di )
Some of the students didnt come to school yesterday.
retmen renci-ler-den baz-lar--/n/ gr-mek iste-di.
(*ret*men ~/ *ren*ci*ler*den / ba:*z*la*r*n / gr*mek / is*te*di )
The teacher wanted to see some of the students.
retmen, baz-lar-m.z- gr-mek istedi.
(*ret*men / ba:*z*la*r*m*z / gr*mek / is*te*di )
The teacher wanted to see some of us.
Note: The (~) sign shows a sustained juncture (duraklama aral) in a
sentence. The syllables printed in bold face show the primarily stressed
syllables, and the syllables printed in italics show the secondarily stressed
ones. The weak or unstressed syllables are showed in normal letters. The
primarily stressed syllables are far more important for the learners of Turkish. Therefore, they may ignore the secondarily stressed syllables until they
reach an advanced level. Another point that the readers should consider is
that, in this book, while the morphemes are showed written in capital letters
in square brackets like [DEN], the allomorphs of the same morpheme
are written in small letters in square brackets such as [den, dan, ten, tan].
If a noun root or stem or an infinitive ends with a vowel, the /y/ glide is inserted between the vowel and the allomorphs of the morpheme [] to maintain the harmonious link between the successive vowels:
araba-/y/ (a*ra*ba*y), testi-/y/i (tes*ti*yi), trk-/y/ (tr*k*y), u-ma/y/ (u*ma*y), bekle-me-/y/i (bek*le*me*yi), sev-il-me-/y/i (se*vil*me*yi),
ala-ma-/y/ (a*la*ma*y), anla-ma-/y/ (an*la*ma*y), tart-l-ma-/y/
(tar*tl*ma*y)
If a noun root or stem ends with /k/, it changes into its voiced counterpart //
when it is attached to one of the allomorphs of the morpheme []:
tfek-i (t*fe*i) (the gun); kpek-i (k*pe*i) (the dog); bebek-i (be*be*i)
(the baby); eek-i (e*e*i) (the donkey); yemek-i (ye*me*i) (the meal);
kabak- (ka*ba*) (the marrow); gzlk- (gz*l*) (the eyeglasses);
parmak- (par*ma*) (the finger); iek-i (i*e*i) (the flower); bcek-i
(b*ce*i) (the insect); yasak- (ya*sa*) (the prohibition); tarak- (ta*ra*)
(the comb); ekmek-i (ek*me*i) (the bread); kllk- (kl*l*) (the ashtray); bacak- (ba*ca*) (the leg); bak- (b*a*) (the knife); bardak-
(bar*da*) (the glass); delik-i (de*li*i) (the hole); akmak- (ak*ma*)

54

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(the lighter); yzk- (y*z*) (the ring); kak- (ka**) (the spoon);
ocuk-u (o*cu*u) (the child)
The noun roots or stems ending with /p, t, k, / unvoiced consonants also
change into their voiced counterparts /b, d, , c/ respectively:
kebap- (ke*ba*b) (the kebap); kasap- (ka*sa*b) (the butcher); aa- (a*
a*c) (the tree); t- (**d) (the advice); orap- (o*ra*b) (the
sock); sebep-i (se*be*bi) (the reason); dert-i (der*di) (the trouble); sokak-
(so*ka*) (the street); uzak- (u*za*) (the distance).
When the words above and below are not thought important, the last syllables of these words are secondarily stressed.
However, most nouns ending with /t/ unvoiced consonants do not change:
saat-i (sa*a*ti) (the watch); sanat- (san*a*t) (the art); hayat- (ha*ya:*t)
(the life); demet-i (de*me*ti) (the bunch); kabahat-i (ka*ba*ha*ti) (the fault);
sepet-i (se*pe*ti) (the basket).
Although some borrowed words do not follow the Turkish harmony rules,
the allomorphs of the morphemes attach to their last syllables in accordance with the usual harmony rules:
kanun-u (ka:*nu:*nu); ruhum-u (ru:*hu*mu); usul- (u*su:*l); vicdan-
(vic*da:*n); ahbap- (ah*ba:*b); kitap- (ki*ta*b); kaza-/y/ (ka*za:*y).
THE [LE], [LE.YN] and [E], [DE], [DEN] INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES
ATTACHED TO NOUNS TO PRODUCE ADVERBIALS
le postposition (English preposition) is generally shortened and attached
to nouns as [le, la] inflectional allomorphs to produce adverbials in Turkish.
The equivalents of these adverbials are represented by some prepositions
used before nouns or [ly] suffixes attached to adjectives in English.The examples are as follows:

[LE] allomorphs: [le, la]


ben-im-le (be*nim*le) (with me), sen-in-le (se*nin*le) (with you), o-/n/un-la
(o*nun*la) (with him, with her, with it), biz-im-le (bi*zim*le) (with us), siz-inle (si*zin*le) (with you), o/n/-lar-la (on*lar*la) (with them), uak-la (u*ak*la)
(by airplane), otobs-le (o*to*bs*le) (by bus), sayg/y/-la (say*gy*la) (with
respect), hiddet-le (hid*det*le) (in rage), sopa/y/-la (so*pay*la) (with a
stick), at-la (at*la) (on horseback), acele/y/-le (a*ce*ley*le) (in a hurry), dikkat-le (dik*kat*le) (carefully, with care), (sa*br*la) (patiently, with patience),

55

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


inat-la (obstinately), korku/y/-la (kor*kuy*la) (fearfully), itah-la (greedily),
hz-la (quickly), kayg/y/-la (kay*gy*la) (with anxiety), gurur-la (proudly),
ac/y/-la (painfully, in pain), cesa:ret-le (bravely), nee/y/-le (ne*ey*le)
(cheerfully), Jack-le (with Jack), kl-la (with a sword), glk-le (with
difficulty), kolaylk-la (easily), yanllk-la (by mistake), mrekkep-le (in
ink), kurun kalem-le (in pencil), bir kurun kalem-le (with a pencil), genellik-le (generally), drstlk-le (honestly), kolaylk-la (easily, with ease),
istek-le (willingly), hm-la (furiously, angrily), zen-le (carefully), zlem-le
(longingly), tren-le (with ceremony), el-le (el*le) (manually), istek-le (ambitiously, eagerly), para/y/-la (pa*ray*la) (in cash).
O sinema-/y/a ben-im-le git-ti.
(o / si*ne*ma*ya / be*nim*le / git*ti )
She went to the cinema with me.
Ahmet compozisyon-u dikkat-le yaz-d.
(ah*met / kom*po*zis*yo*nu / dik*kat*le / yaz*d )
Ahmet wrote the composition carefully.
The stresses are on the syllables preceding the [le, la] allomorphs.
[LE.YN]: This morpheme has no allomorphs.
sabah-le.yin (in the morning), le-le.yin (*le*yin) (at noon), akamle.yin (ak*am*le*yin) (in the evening), gece-le.yin (ge*ce*le*yin) (at night).

[E], [DE], [DEN] AND [LE] MORPHEMES


The [E], [DE], [DEN], and [LE] inflectional morphemes are attached to
nouns, pronouns, infinitives and noun compounds. The English equivalents of these morphemes are different prepositions, but sometimes no
prepositions are used as those in the following examples. When the [e, a],
[de, da, te, ta], [den, dan, ten, tan], and the [le, la] allomorphs of the morphemes above attach to nouns, pronouns, infinitives and noun compounds, they turn them into adverbials. The pronouns that take the allomorphs of the morphemes above are as follows:
ben
sen
o

biz
siz
onlar

ban-a (ba*na), ben-de (ben*de), ben-den (ben*den), ben-im-le (be*nim*le)


san-a (sa*na), sen-de (sen*de), sen-den (sen*den), sen-in-le (se*nin*le)
o-/n/a (o*na), o/n/-da (on*da), o/n/-dan (on*dan), o-/n/un-la (o*nun*la)
biz-e (bi*ze), biz-de (biz*de), biz-den (biz*den), biz-im-le (bi*zim*le)
siz-e (si*ze), siz-de (siz*de), siz-den (siz*den), siz-in-le (si*zin*le)
o/n/-lar-a (on*la*ra), o/n/-lar-da (on*lar*da), onlar-dan (on*lar*dan), onlar-la

56

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The infinitives that take the allomorphs of the morphemes above are as
follows:
bekle-mek bekle-mek-e (This form is not used; bekle-me-/y/e (bek*le*me*ye) is used insted), bekle-mek-te (bek*le*mek*te), bekle-mek-ten (bek*le*mek*ten), al-mak-tan (a*l*mak*tan), bekle-mek-le (bek*le*mek*le)
bekle-me bekle-me-/s/i-/n/e (bek*le*me*si*ne), bekle-me-/s/i/n/-de (bek*le*me*sin*de), bekle-me-/s/i/n/-den (bek*le*me*sin*den).These are the owned parts of the noun compounds, such as:
(Ben) o-/n/un bekle-me-/s/i/-/n/e alkn-m. I am accustomed to his wait-ing.
subject

noun compound-/n/e
adverbial

subject complement

(Ben) o/n/un bekle-me-/s/i/n/-den bk-t-m. I am tired of his wait-ing.


subj

noun compound - den


adverbial

verb

The following interrogative adverbs which ask for the adverbials, and the
adverbials themselves are some of the fundamental language concepts in
all natural languages:
Nere-/y/e? (nere*ye) (Where?); Nere-/y/e gitti? (nere*ye / git*ti)
(Where did he go?); Okul-a (To school.); Nere-de? (Where?); O nere-de?
(Where is he?); Okul-da. (In school.); Nere-den? (From where?); O nereden geli-yor? (Where is he comimg from?); Okul-dan. (From school.); Neden bk-t-n? (What are you tired of?) (I am tired of waiting.); Kim-le?
(kimle) (with whom?) Sinema-/y/a kim-le git-ti-in? (With whom did you
go to the cinema?; Ne/y/-le? (neyle) (How?) Ankara-/y/a ne/y/-le git-tiin? (How did you go to Ankara?) (By train.)
As it is seen in the examples above, the [E], [DE], [DEN] and [LE] morphemes follow nouns contrary to English prepositions. Therefore, they are
called postpositional allomorphs as all the suffixes of the Turkish language.
Some language learners might not know the difference between form and
function in a grammar. For instance, to school, until Sunday, at night,
at the table expressions are structurally prepositional phrases in English.
In other words, their forms are prepositional. However, when we consider
what role they play in a sentence, we can see that their function in a sentence is either adverbial or modifier:
They are playing in the garden. The boys in the garden.
adverbial

modifier (adjective)

57

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Okul-a gitti. noun-a (noun-morpheme) (smin [E] hali)
adverbial

adverbial

He went to school. to + noun (preposition + noun) (prepositional phrase)


prepositional phrs

adverbial

[E] allomorphs: [e, a]


The English equivalents of this morpheme are generally "to" or "at", but they
may differ according to the different verbs of the English language. When
Turkish nouns ending with vowels attach to the [e, a] allomorphs, they take
the /y/ glides, but when the compounds ending with vowels are suffixed by
them, they take the /n/ glides to maintain the harmony of the vowel link.
However, there is an important fact to keep in mind that while some English
verbs are transitive, which take direct objects; the equivalents of the same
verbs in Turkish are intransitive, which may be supported by adverbs or
adverbials. Such verbs are explained in parentheses:
Jack okul-a git-ti. (Git is intransitive.) (The green underlined words are adverbial.)
(jack / o*ku*la / git*ti )
Jack went to school.
Ahmet ev-e gel-di.
(ah*met / e*ve / gel*di )
Ahmet came home. (No preposition is used because "home" is an adverb
here.)
(Sen) o-/n/u biz-e ver. (Ver is transitive, o-/n/u is its definite object, bize is an adverbial.) (o*nu / bi*ze / ver) Give it to us.
O-/n/u bana ver. (o-/n/u is the definite object of ver, bana is an adverbial.)
(o*nu / ba*na / ver ) (As an exception, instead of *(ben-e), "bana" is
used.) Give it to me.
Onu bura-/y/a getir. (o*nu / bu*ra*ya / ge*tir ) ("Bura" is a noun in Turkish.)
(Getir is transitive, onu is its object, bura-/y/a is an adverbial.)
Bring it here. ("Here" is an adverb in English.)
Onu bahe-/y/e gtr. (o*nu / bah*e*ye / g*tr )
(Gtr is transitive, onu is its object, bahe-/y/e is an adverbial.)
Take it to the garden.

58

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Onu ora-/y/a gtr. ("Ora" is a noun in Turkish.)
(o*nu / o*ra*ya / g*tr) (Ora-/y/a is an adverbial.)
Take it there. ("There" is an adverb in English, so no preposition is needed.)
O-/n/u bana getir. (o*nu / ba*na / ge*tir ) (Getir is transitive, o-/n/u is
its object, bana is an adverbial.)
Bring it to me. (Bring is transitive, it is its object, and to me is a prepositional phrase used as an adverbial.)
O/n/-lar okul-a ko-tu-lar.
(on*lar / o*ku*la / ko*tu*lar )
They ran to school.
Ahmet vazo-/y/u masa-/y/a koy-du.
subj

def object

adverbial

verb

(ah*met / va*zo*yu / ma*sa*ya / koy*du )


Ahmet put the vase on the table.
(Sen) o-/n/u masa-/n/n st--/n/e koy.
subj

def object

noun comp-/n/e
adverbial phrase

verb

(o*nu / ma*sa*/n/n / s*t*ne / koy) Put it on the table.


Fare (sen-in) yatak-n-n alt--/n/a sakla-an-d. (Reflexive verb)
subj

chain noun compound-/n/a


adverbial phrase

verb

(fa:*re / ya*ta**nn / al*t*na / sak*lan*d )


The mouse hid under your bed.
Jack kz-lar-a bak-.yor. (kzlar-a is an adverbial.)
(jack / kz*la*ra / ba*k*yor )
Jack is looking at the girls.
(Biz) siz-e yardm et-me-/y/e karar ver-di-ik. (Yardm etmeye is an adverbial.]
subj adverbial

adverbial

verb

(si*ze / yar*dm / et*me*ye / ka*rar / ver*dik )


We decided to help you. (To help is a nominal infinitive.)
Jack'le George otobs dura-/n/a ko-tu-lar. (Ko is intransitive, otobs dura is a noun compound, otobs dura-/n/a is an adverbial.)
(jack*le / george~/ o*to*bs / du*ra**na / ko*tu*lar )
Jack and George ran to the bus stop.

59

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


retmen bana bak-t. (Bak is intransitive, bana is an adverbial.)
(*ret*men / ba*na / bak*t )
The teacher looked at me. ("At me is adverbial.)
Jack top-u bana at-t.
(jack~ / to*pu / ba*na / at*t )
Jack threw the ball to me.
(At is a transitive verb, top-u is its object, and bana is an adverbial.)
Jack kedi-/y/e bir ta at-t. ("Kedi-ye" is an adverbial.)
(jack / ke*di*ye / bir / ta / at*t )
Jack threw a stone at the cat. ("At the cat" is a prepositional phrase fonctioning as an adverbial.)
Jack, Mary-/n/in kedi-/s/i-/n/e bir ta at-t.
noun compound-/n/e
adverbial phrase

(jack / mary*nin / ke*di*si*ne / bir / ta / at*t )


Jack threw a stone at Marys cat.
retmen biz-e kz-d. (biz-e is an adverbial.) (kz is an intransitive verb.)
(*ret*men / bi*ze / kz*d )
The teacher got angry with us. (get is a linking verb, and angry is subj complement)
O bana k. (Bana is used instead of *ben-e; adverbial; ak is adjective.)
(o / ba*na / a:*k )
She is in love with me. (In love is a prepositional phrase; subject compement.)
Biz Allah'a inan-r-z.
(biz / al*la:*ha / i*na*n*rz )
We believe in God.
Sana gven-i.yor-um.
(sa*na / g*ve*ni*yo*rum ) I trust you.
("sana" is used instead of *"sen-e".)
O bana akl ver-di. (o / ba*na / a*kl / ver*di) (akl verdi = advised)
He advised me. (Advise is a transitive verb, me is its object)
(Ver is a transitive verb, akl is its indefinite object, bana is an adverbial.)
O bana cevap ver-me-di. (The pronoun me both meams beni and bana in Turkish.)
( o / ba*na / ce*vap / ver*me*di )
He didn't answer me. (Answer is transitive) He didnt reply to me. (Reply
is intransitive.)

60

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(Biz) ehir-e yakla-t-k. (Yakla is intransitive in Turkish.) (ehre is an adverbial.)
(eh*re / yak*la*tk )
We approached the city.
(Approach is transitive, so the city is its object)
Dman biz-e saldr-d. (Saldr is an intransitive verb, bize is an adverbial.)
(d*man / bi*ze / sal*dr*d )
The enemy attacked us. (Attack is transitive; therefore us is its object)
O/n/-lar da-a trman-d-lar. (Trman is an intransitive verb in Turkish.)
(on*lar / da*a / tr*man*d*lar )
They climbed the mountain. (Climb is a transitive verb in English.)
Bir avukat-a dan. (Dan is intransitive in Turkish.) (Avukat-a is an adverbial.)
(bir / a*vu*ka*ta / da*n )
Consult a lawyer. (Consult is transitive in English.)
-i tamamla-ma-/y/a karar ver-di-ler. (Tamamla-ma-/y/a is an adverbial.)
(i*i / ta*mam*la*ma*ya / ka*rar / ver*di*ler )
They decided to complete the work. (To complete is a nominal infinitive.)
Deniz-e dal-d.
(de*ni*ze / dal*d )
He dived into the sea.
Onu bana akla. (Bana is an adverb in Turkish.)
(o*nu / ba*na / a*k*la )
Explain it to me.
Onu bana tasvir et. (Liaison) (Tasvir et = describe)
(o*nu / ba*na / tas*vi:*ret )
Describe it to me.
Ben olum-a yz-me ret-ti-im. (ben / o*lu*ma / yz*me / *ret*tim)
(ret is transitive, yz-me is its object, olum-a is an adverbial.)
I taught my son to swim. (Teach is transitive in English; my son is its object.)
O ben-i tekmele-di.
(be*ni / tek*me*le*di )
He kicked me.

61

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Kpek kk kz-a saldr-d. (Kz-a is an adverbial.)
(k*pek / k*k / k*za / sal*dr*d )
The dog rushed at the little girl.
Kpek, kk kz-n bacak--/n/ sr-d.
(k*pek / k*k / k*zn / ba*ca**n / *sr*d )
The dog bit the little girls leg.
Avc kaplan-a ate et-ti. (et is transitive; ate is its indefinite object.)
(av*c / kap*la*na / a*te / et*ti )
The hunter shot at the tiger. (Ate et = shoot)
Avc kaplan- vur-du. (Object)
(av*c / kap*la*n / vur*du )
The hunter shot the tiger. (Both English and Turkish verbs are transitive.)
Annem bana bar-d (Beni azarlad.)
(an*nem / ba*na / ba*r*d ) (Bar is an intransitive verb in Turkish.)
Mother shouted at me.
Babam bana, "Dikkatli ol!" diye bar-d.
(ba*bam / ba*na / dik*kat*li / ol / di*ye / ba*r*d )
"Be careful!" father shouted to me.
Trafik Polis-i dur-ma-lar- iin src-ler-e iaret et-ti. (Et is transitive.)
(tra*fik / po*li*si / dur*ma*la*r i*in / s*r*c*le*re / i*a:*ret / et*ti )
The traffic police officer signaled the drivers to stop.
ocuk-lar ko-ma-/y/a bala-d. (bala is an intransitive verb.)
(o*cuk*lar / ko*ma*ya / ba*la*d )
The children started running (to run). (Running is a nominal gerund.)
O biz-e dn telefon et-ti. (Et is transitive; telefon is its indefinite object.)
(o / bi*ze / dn / te*le*fon / et*ti )
He telephoned us yesterday. (Telefon et = telephone)
Jack bana kz-d. (The verb kz is an intransitive action verb in Turkish.)
(jack / ba*na / kz*d )
Jack got angry with me. (Angry is an adjective used as subject complement.)
O bana gl-d. (Glerek benimle alay etti.)
(o / ba*na / gl*d )
She laughed at me.

62

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Sana katl-.yor-um.
(sa*na / ka*t*l*yo*rum )
I agree with you.
O/n/-lar dokuz-da ev-e var-d-lar.
(on*lar / sa*at / do*kuz*da / e*ve / var*d*lar )
They arrived home at nine.
O/n/-lar zaman-n-da uak alan--/n/a var-d-lar.
(on*lar / za*ma:*nn*da / u*ak / a*la*n*na / var*d*lar )
They arrived at the airport in time.
Erken kalk-ma-/y/a alkn-m. (adjectives are subject complements.)
(er*ken / kalk*ma*ya / a*l*k*nm )
I am accustomed to get-ing up early. (get-ing is the object of to.)
ocuklar--/n/a dkn-dr.
(o*cuk*la*r*na / d*kn*dr )
She is fond of her children. (fond is subject complement.)
Everest Tepe-/s/i-/n/e trman-ma-/y/a karar verdi-ler. (Trman and karar
ver are intransitive verbs.)

(e*ve*rest / te*pe*si*ne / tr*man*ma*ya / ka*rar / ver*di*ler )


They decided to climb Mount Everest. (Decide and climb are transitive.)
Sigara i-me-em-e itiraz et-er mi-sin? (tiraz et is intransitive.)
(si*ga*ra / i*me*me / i:*ti*ra:z / e*der / mi*sin )
Do you object to my smok-ing? (Object is intransitive.)
Para-an- gereksiz ey-ler-e harca-ma.
(pa*ra*n / ge*rek*siz / ey*le*re / har*ca*ma )
Don't spend your money on unnecessary things.
Cumhuriyetiler-e oy ver-di.
(cum*hu:*ri*yet*i*le*re / oy / ver*di )
He voted for the Republicans.
Kaza-/y/ yaya-/n/n st--/n/e at-t.
(ka*za:*y / ya*ya*nn / s*t*ne / at*t )
He blamed the accident on the pedestrian. (Blame is transitive.)
Bir renci dev-i-/n/e odaklan-ma.l-dr.
(bir / *ren*ci / *de*vi*ne / o*dak*lan*ma*l*dr )
A student should concentrate on his homework.

63

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Tm para-/s/-/n/ araba-/s//-/n/a harcar.
(tm / pa*ra*s*n / a*ra*ba*s*na / har*car )
He spends all his money on his car. (In this sentence, paras and
arabas are the second parts of two compounds: kendi paras and arabas)
Tm src-ler trafik-te youn karbon monoksit gaz--/n/a ma:ruz kal-r-lar.
All drivers are exposed to dense carbon monoxide smoke in traffic.

Note: The /n/, and /y/ phonemes used in the examples above are glides.
The noun compounds in the sentences above are all written in black. When
the nouns, pronouns and infinitives above are attached to [e, a] allomorphs,
they form adverbials that generally show or imply the direction of a verb.
Note: The glides "/s/, /n/, /y/, and //" are the produce of the sound system
of the Turkish language. They do not carry meaning. Therefore, in this book,
they are showed between slash signs "/ /", which are not used in normal
writing.

[DE] allomorphs: [de, da, te, ta]


The English equivalents of these allomorphs are "in", "at" or "on" prepositions. When these prepositions are used before nouns with linking verbs
be, such as is, are, was, were, they produce adverbials. But, if they
are added to the Turkish [K] morpheme, which has no allomorphs, they
produce noun modifiers.
The underlined words are adverbials called subject complements. Follow the
examples:
Jack okul-da.
(jack / o*kul*da )
Jack is at (in) school.

Okul-da-ki ocuk-lar- gr-.yor mu-sun?


noun modifier definite object

Can you see the boys in the school?

Karde-im ev-de. (ev-de is subject complement.)


(kar*de*im / ev*de )
My brother is at home. (at home is subject complement.)
Mary masa-da otur-u.yor.
(mary / ma*sa*da / o*tu*ru*yor )
Mary is sitting at the table.
Mr. Brown hastane-de. (hastane-de and in hospital are subj complements.)
(mis*tr / brown / has*ta:*ne*de )
Mr. Brown is in hospital. (He is there to be cured.)

64

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Mrs. Brown koca-/s/-/n/ gr-mek iin hastane-/y/e git-ti.
(mi*sis / brawn / ko*ca*s*n / gr*mek / i*in / has*ta:*ne*ye / git*ti )
Mrs. Brown went to the hospital to see her husband.
Sen-in kitap-n ben-de.
(se*nin / ki*ta*bn / ben*de )
Your book is with me.
Postac kap-da.
Kap-da-ki postac-/y/ tan-.yor mu-sun?
(pos*ta*c / ka*p*da )
(ka*p*da*ki / pos*ta*c*y / ta*n*yor / mu*sun )
The mail carrier is at the door. Do you know the mail carrier at the door?
O-/n/un ba- dert-te.
(o*nun / ba* / dert*te )
He is in trouble.
Jack bura-da.
(jack / bu*ra*da )
Jack is here.
O/n/-lar ora-da (or*da) deil-ler.
(on*lar / or*da / de*il*ler )
They are not there.
Ben on yl-dr stanbul-da otur-u.yor-um.
(ben / on / yl*dr / is*tan*bul*da / o*tu*ru*yo*rum )
I have been living in stanbul for ten years.
Kitap-lar masa-da.
(ki*tap*lar / ma*sa*da )
The books are on the table.

Masa-da-ki kitap-lar sen-in mi?

Kalem-ler kutu-da.
(ka*lem*ler / ku*tu*da )
The pencils are in the box.

Kutu-da-ki kalem-ler kim-in?


(ku*tu*da*ki / ka*lem*ler / ki*min )
Whose are the pencils in the box?

Papaan kafes-te.
(pa*pa*an / ka*fes*te )
The parrot is in the cage.

Kafes-te-ki papaan rengarenk.

(ma*sa*da*ki / ki*tap*lar / se*nin / mi )

Are the books on the table yours?

(ka*fes*te*ki / pa*pa*an / ren*ga*renk)

The parrot in the cage is colorful.

O hapis-te.
(o / ha*pis*te )
He is in jail.

65

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Fiyat-ta uzla-t-k. (anlatk).
(fi*yat*ta / uz*la*tk )
We agreed on the price.
Kzlar, yabanc dil ren-mek-te erkek ocuk-lar-dan yetenekli-dir.
(kz*lar / ya*ban*c / dil / *ren*mek*te ~/ er*kek / o*cuk*lar*dan /
ye*te*nek*li*dir*ler )
Girls are more talented than boys at learn-ing foreign languages.
Hzl sr-mek-te srar et-ti.
(hz*l / sr*mek*te / s*ra:*ret*ti )
He insisted on driv-ing fast. (Driv-ing is the object of the prep on.)
Ev-den (saat) sekiz-de ayrl-d-m. (Ayrl is an intransitive verb in Turkish.)
(ev*den / se*kiz*de / ay*rl*dm )
I left home at eight. (Leave is a transitive verb and home is its object.)
Okul-un kap-/s//n/-da bulu-al-m.
(o*ku*lun / ka*p*sn*da / bu*lu*a*lm )
Let us meet at the door of the school.

[DEN] allomorphs: [den, dan, ten, tan]


These allomorphs generally show the starting point from a noun or an infinitive. They are expressed in various prepositions in English. The compounds ending with vowels take /n/ glides when they attach to the allomorphs of the morpheme [DEN]:
Jack okul-dan ev-e gel-di.
(jack / o*kul*dan / e*ve / gel*di )
Jack came home from school.
Dn ktphane-den birka kitap al-d-m.
(dn / k*t*pa:*ne*den / bir*ka / ki*tap / al*dm )
I borrowed several books from the library yesterday.
Okul ktphane-/s/i/n/-den birka kitap al-d-m. (noun compound-[DEN])
(o*kul / k*t*pa:*ne*sin*den / bir*ka / ki*tap / al*dm )
I borrowed several books from the school library.
Ge kal-dk-m iin o/n/-dan zr dile-di-im.
(ge / kal*d*m / i*in / on*dan / *zr / di*le*dim )
I apologized to her for be-ing late. (Be-ing is the object of for.)

66

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


ou kadn-lar fare-den kork-ar. (Kork is an intransitive verb.)
(o*u / ka*dn*lar / fa:*re*den / kor*kar )
Most women are afraid of mice. (Afraid is an adjective.)
Olum-un tembel-lik-i/n/-den rahatsz-m.
(o*lu*mun / tem*bel*li*in*den / ra*hat*s*zm )
I am annoyed with my son's laziness.
Biz-im irket-in sorun-lar-/n/-dan haber-in yok mu?
(bi*zim / ir*ke*tin / so*run*la*rn*dan / ha*be*rin / yok / mu )
Aren't you aware of the problems of our company?
Bir retmen renci-ler-i-/n/in soru-lar-/n/-dan bk-ma-ma.l.
(bir / *ret*men / *ren*ci*le*ri*nin / so*ru*la*rn*dan / bk*ma*ma*l*dr)
A teacher shouldn't be tired of his students' questions.
Onlar sabah-tan akam-a kadar al-t-lar.
(on*lar / sa*bah*tan / ak*a*ma / ka*dar / a*l*t*lar )
They worked from morning until night.
Su hidrojen-le oksijen-den olu-mu-tur.
(su / hid*ro*jen*le / ok*si*jen*den / o*lu*mu*tur )
Water is composed of oxygen and hydrogen.
Bu heykel mermer-den yap-l-m-tr. (Passive)
(bu / hey*kel / mer*mer*den / ya*pl*m*tr )
This statue is made of marble. (Passive)
Yourt st-ten yap-l-r. (Passive)
(yo*urt / st*ten / ya*p*lr )
Yogurt is made from milk. (Passive)
Hapishane-den iki mahkm ka-t.
(ha*pi*sa*ne*den / i*ki / mah*km / ka*t )
Two prisoners escaped from prison.
Yanllk yap-mak-tan kan-ma.l-sn. (kan is an intransitive verb.)
(yan*l*lk / yap*mak*tan / ka*n*man / ge*rek )
You should avoid mak-ing mistakes. (Avoid is a transitive verb.)
Kendin-den utan-ma.l-sn. (Utan is an intransitive verb.)
(ken*din*den / u*tan*ma*l*sn )
You must be ashamed of yourself. (Ashamed is subject complement.)

67

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


O ben-den zr dile-di. (zr dile is an intransitive verb.)
(o / ben*den / *zr / di*le*di )
He apologized to me. (Apologize is an intransitive verb.)
Onlar-dan yardm iste-mek zorunda-/y/z. (ste-mek is an infinitive.)
(on*lar*dan / yar*dm / is*te*mek / zo*run*da*yz )
We have to ask them for help. (To ask is a nominal infinitive.)
Ekonomi-den anla-ma-am. (Anla is an intransitive verb here.)
(e*ko*no*mi*den / an*la*mam )
I dont understand economics. (Understand is a transitive verb.)
Yalan syle-mek-ten utan-ma-.yor mu-sun? (Utan is an intransitive verb.)
(ya*lan / sy*le*mek*ten / u*tan*m*yor / mu*sun )
Are you not ashamed of tell-ing lies? (Ashamed is subject complement.)
Gramer kitap-lar- oku-mak-tan bk-t-m. (Bk is an intransitive verb.)
(gra*mer / ki*tap*la*r / o*ku*mak*tan / bk*tm )
I am tired of read-ing grammar books. (Tired is a subject complement.)

POSSESSIVE + OWNED NOUN COMPOUNDS


sim Tamlamalar
All noun compounds function as nominal phrases in sentences. These
compounds play a considerable part in transforming Turkish simple sentences to be used in Phrase Structures. Therefore, they have to be considered before going on with further explanations. Although these compounds
are called noun compounds, they naturally cover pronouns and infinitives,
as well. A noun compound is composed of two parts: the possessive
(tamlayan), and the owned (tamlanan) parts. When a pronoun is used in
the possessive part of a compound, its possessive personal allomorphs
change according to the vowel and consonant harmony rules of the Turkish
language as follows:

DEFINITE NOUN COMPOUNDS


Belirtili sim Tamlamalar
Possessive Personal Allomorphs Attached to the Possessive Parts
of the Compounds:
ben-im (be*nim) (my), sen-in (se*nin) (your), o-/n/un (o*nun) (his, her, its),
biz-im (bi*zim) (our), siz-in (si*zin) (your), onlar-n (on*la*rn) (their), okulun (o*ku*lun), sandalye-/n/in (san*dal*ye*nin), grme-/n/in(g*r*me*nin)

68

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Note: Although all the words that are used in the possessive parts of the
noun compounds function as modifiers, they are called "possessive adjectives" in traditional grammars.
As it is seen in the examples above, the possessive personal morphemes
following the personal subject pronouns are ben-im, sen-in, o-/n/un, bizim, siz-in, onlar-n. If a noun is used in place of the third person singular
pronoun, the allomorphs of the possessive nouns change according to the
vowel rules. When these pronouns, common nouns, or proper nouns end
with consonants, they take these suffixes, but if they end with vowels,
they need the /n/ glides to attach to the same possessive personal morphemes to produce possessive modifiers.
ben-im (be*nim), sen-in (se*nin), o-/n/un (o*nun), biz-im (bi*zim), siz-in
(si*zin), on.lar-n (on*la*rn), okul-un (o*ku*lun), rt-/n/n (r*t*nn),
al-ma-/n/n (a*l*ma*nn), yksel-me-/n/in (yk*sel*me*nin).
All subject pronouns, common nouns, proper nouns, and infinitives can be
used in the possessive parts of the noun compounds:
ben-im okul-um; okul-un kap-/s/; Ali-/n/in anta-/s/; al-ma-/n/n sonu-u
pronoun

common noun

proper noun

infinitive

All common nouns, infinitives, and transformed nominalized phrases can be


used in the owned parts of the noun compounds, such as:
ben-im okul-um

Ahmet-in gel-me-/s/i Aye-/n/in gl-- ben-im git-tik-im

common noun

infinitive

infinitive

infinitive

The transformed nominalized phrases are used as subjects or objects, but


the last noun + infinitive compound (ben-im git-tik-im) can be used both
as subjects, objects, and as modifiers in sentences:
(Ben)
subj

o-/n/un al-tk--/n/ bil-i.yor-um.


noun compound-/n/ (def obj)

verb

O-/n/un al-tk-

irket

noun compound (modifier)

noun

I know that he works. the company where he works


noun clause (obj)

det

noun

noun clause (modifier)

Posessive Personal Allomorphs Attached to the owned Parts of the


Compounds
[im, m, m, um, em, am] = benim (ben-im sepet-im), (ben-im baba-am)

69

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The possessive pronouns and the possessive allomorphs [im, m, m, um,
em, am] attached to the owned parts of the noun compounds both carry the
same meanings. Therefore, derfter-im means ben-im defter-im. Therefore, when only defter-im is used ben-im pronoun is generally ignored unless it is thought very necessary. All the other pronouns are similarly treated:
[im, m, m, um, em, am] = benim (my)
(ben-im) sepet-im (se*pe*tim) my basket; (ben-im) okul-um (o*ku*lum) my
school; (ben-im) araba-am (a*ra*bam) my car; (ben-im) baba-am (ba*bam)
my father; (ben-im) gl-me-em (gl*mem) my laughter; (ben-im) bala-maam (ba*la*mam); (ben-im) turu-um (tur*um); ben-im ene-em (e*nem).
[in, n, n, un, en, an] = senin (your)
(sen-in) defter-in (def*te*rin) your note book; sen-in mesele-en (me*se*len)
your problem; (sen-in) kutu-un (ku*tun); (sen-in) tarla-an (tar*lan); (sen-in)
ev-in (e*vin); (sen-in) gz-ler-in (gz*le*rin); (sen-in) yz-me-en (yz*men).
[i, , , u] = onun (his , her, its)
In the possessive part of a noun compound, either o, or a "noun", or an
"infinitive" can be used. The possessive personal allomorphs attached to
both the possessive and the owned parts of the compouns are as follows:
possessive
C-[in, n, n, un];
. ..C-[in, n, n, un]
V-[/n/in, /n/n, /n/n, /n/un]
V-[/n/in, /n/n, /n/n, /n/un]

owned
C-[i, , , u]
V-[/s/i, /s/, /s/, /s/u]
C-[i, , , u]
V-[/s/i, /s/, /s/, /s/u]

example
Jack-in okul-u
Jack-in araba-/s/
perde-/n/in kuma-
Aye-/n/in anne-/s/i

In the table above, C represents a noun ending with a consonant; V


represents a noun or a pronoun ending with a vowel.
In the examples below, the identical vowels that combine are written in
bold face, and the consonants that detach from their syllables and attach
to the first vowels of the following morphemes are single underlined.
o-/n/un kalem-i (o*nun / ka*le*mi); ky-n deli-/s/i (k*yn / de*li*si); ev-in
kedi-/s/i (e*vin / ke*di*si); cmle-/n/in son-u (cm*le*nin / so*nu); okul-un
ark-/s/ (o*ku*lun / ar*k*s); deli-/n/in gl-me-/s/i (de*li*nin / gl*me*si);
al-ma-/n/n sonu-u (a*l*ma*nn / so*nu*cu); ala-ma-/n/n neden-i
(a*la*ma*nn / ne*de*ni); kz-n gzel.lik-i (k*zn / g*zel*li*i)
[im.iz, m.z, m.z, um.uz, em.iz, am.z] = bizim (our)

70

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


biz-im okul-um.uz (bi*zim / o*ku*lu*muz); biz-im tencere-em.iz (bi*zim / ten*ce*re*miz); biz-im baba-am.z (bi*zim / ba*ba*mz); biz-im ky-m.z
(bi*zim / k*y*mz); biz-im sorun-um.uz (so*ru*nu*muz); biz-im baheem.iz (bah*e*miz); biz-im anla-ma-am.z (an*la*ma*mz).
[in.iz, n.z, n.z, un.uz, en.iz, an.z] = sizing (your)
siz-in davul-un.uz (si*zin / da*vu*lu*nuz); siz-in araba-an.z (a*ra*ba*nz);
siz-in kz-n.z (k*z*nz); siz-in kafa-an.z (ka*fa*nz); siz-in bahe-en.iz
(si*zin / bah*e*niz); siz-in torba-an.z (tor*ba*nz); siz-in konu-ma-an.z
(ko*nu*ma*nz).
[i, , , u] or ([ler-i, lar-]) = onlarn (their)
onlar-n okul-u (on*la*rn / o*ku*lu); onlar-n iek-ler-i (on*la*rn /
i*ek*le*ri); onlar-n konu-ma-lar- (on*la*rn / ko*nu*ma*la*r); onlarn anne-/s/i (on*la*rn / an*ne*si); onlar-n kedi-/s/i (on*la*rn / ke*di*si).
defter-im (def*te*rim) (my notebook)
ba-m (ba*m) (my head)
gz-m (g*zm) (my eye)
sakal-m (sa*ka*lm) (my beard)
sorun-um (so*ru*num) (my problem)
ku-um (ku*um) (my bird)
Jackin okul-u (ce*kin / o*ku*lu) (Jacks school)
Since a personal possessive morpheme in the owned part of a compound is
enough to help someone understand the possessive pronoun in the possessive part of a compound, the possessive pronouns are generally ignored
unless they are intentionally stressed. One can say kitap-m in place of
ben-im kitap-m. If only the owned part of the compound is used, the
stress is on bm. If both parts are used, the stress is on nim.
If an owned noun in a compound ends with a vowel, and the first vowel of a
personal possessive morpheme starts with the same vowel, these two identical vowels combine, and verbalize as a single vowel:
ben-im araba-am (be*nim /a*ra*bam); (a*ra*bam) (my car)
ben-im mesele-em (be*nim / me*se*lem); (me*se*lem) (my problem)
ben-im tarla-am (be*nim / tar*lam); (tar*lam) (my field)
ben-im kafa-am (be*nim / ka*fam); (ka*fam) (my head)
ben-im sandalye-em (be*nim / san*dal*yem); (san*dal*yem) (my chair)

71

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


ben-im pipo-um (be*nim / pi*pom); (pi*pom) (my pipe) (The u drops.)
ben-im kar-m (be*nim / ka*rm); (ka*rm) (my wife)
ben-im deri-im (be*nim / de*rim); (de*rim) (my skin)
ben-im su-/y/um (be*nim / su*yum); (su*yum) (my water)
If an owned noun of a compound ends with the unvoiced /p/, /k/, //, or /t/
consonants, they change into their counterpart voiced consonants /b/, //,
/c/, or /d/ respectively:
Bebek-im
Kpek-im
orap-m
Ara-m
Dert-im

(be*be*im) (my baby) (The /k/ changes into //)


(k*pe*im) (my dog) (The /k/ changes into //)
(o*ra*bm) (my sock) (The /p/ changes into /b/)
(a*ra*cm) (my vehicle) (The // changes into /c/)
(der*dim) (my trouble) (The /t/ changes into /d/)

All the monosyllabic roots and most words ending with /t/ do not change
their last consonants when they are suffixed:
at-m (a*tm) (my horse); st-m (s*tm) (my milk); krk-m (kr*km)
(my fur); ip-im (i*pim) (my rope); sa-m (sa*m) (my hair); hap-m
(ha*pm) (my pill); sepet-im (se*pe*tim) (my basket); saat-im (sa*a*tim)
(my watch); demet-im (de*me*tim) (my bunch); krk-n (kr*kn) (your
fur); at-lar-m.z (at*la*r*mz) (our horses).
When sen-in is used in the possessive position, the owned nouns are
suffixed with [in, n, n, un, en, an] possessive personal allomorphs:
defter-in (def*te*rin) (your notebook)
ba-n (ba*n) (your head)
gz-ler-in (gz*le*rin) (your eyes)
tuz-un (tu*zun) (your salt)
baba-an (ba*ban) (your father)
sandalye-en (san*dal*yen) (your chair)
If owned nouns end with wovels or /p, t, k, / unvoiced consonants, they
undergo the same changes as they do in the examples above:
kpek-in (k*pe*in), orap-n (o*ra*bn), gmlek-in (gm*le*in),
bak-n (b*a*n); but st-n (s*tn), sepet-in (se*pe*tin), araba-an
(a*ra*ban)
The third person owned nouns are suffixed with [i, , , u] allomorphs:
ev-i (e*vi), okul-u (o*ku*lu), kalem-i (ka*le*mi), ceket-i (ce*ke*ti), dn-
(d**n), gz- (g*z), ba- (ba*), ka- (ka*), oul-u (o*lu)

72

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


When a third person owned noun ends with a vowel, it takes an /s/ glide
when it is attached to a possessive personal suffix:
araba-/s/ (a*ra*ba*s) (his car); bahe-/s/i (bah*e*si) (his garden); tarla/s/ (tar*la*s) (his farm); hal-/s/ (ha*l*s) (his carpet); leke-/s/i (le*ke*si)
(its stain); fke-/s/i (f*ke*si) (his rage); kap-/s/ (ka*p*s) (his door);
gaga-/s/ (ga*ga*s) (its beak); anne-/s/i (an*ne*si); baba-/s/ (ba*ba*s);
eme-/s/i (e*me*si) (its tap); yama-/s/ (ya*ma*s) (its patch); gel-me/s/i (gel*me*si) (his coming).
If the possessive pronouns are used together with the owned parts of the
compounds, the possessive pronouns (modifiers) become dominant and the
stress goes onto the possessive pronouns:
Onun arabas (o*nun / a*ra*ba*s); onun bahesi (o*nun / bah*e*si)
The /p, t, k, / unvoiced consonants change into their voiced counterparts
/b, d, , c / respectively as in the examples below. This consonant change
does not change the lexical meaning of the words.
o-/n/un corap- (o*nun / o*ra*b) (his sock); o-/n/un dolap- (o*nun /
do*la*b) (his cupboard); o-/n/un ama- (o*nun / a*ma*c) (his goal);
o-/n/un sokak- (o*nun / so*ka*) (his street); o-/n/un kapak-, (o*nun /
ka* pa*) (its lid); o-/n/un bacak- (o*nun / ba*ca*) (his leg); o-/n/un ip-i
(o*nun / i*pi); o-/n/un st- (o*nun / s*t).
A noun (or an infinitive) in a possessive position is used just like a third person possessive pronoun. When a noun in the possessive position ends with
a vowel, it needs an /n/ glide to attach to [in, n, n, un] allomorphs. As
the third person singular pronoun is o, which has only one vowel, it also
needs the same /n/ glide to attach to [un] allomorph. Interrogative possessives can also be used in the possessive parts of the compounds:
o-/n/un kap-/s/ (o*nun / ka*p*s) (its door); oda-/n/n kap-/s/ (o*da*nn /
ka*p*s) (the door of the room); o-/n/un yakt- (o*nun / ya*k*t) (its fuel);
araba-/n/n yakt- (a*ra*ba*nn / ya*k*t) (the fuel of the car); okul-un
otobs- (o*ku*lun / o*to*b*s) (the bus of the school); bahe-/n/in
kap-/s/ (bah*e*nin / ka*p*s) (the gate of the garden); Kim-in tarla-/s/?
(ki*min / tar*la*s) ifti-/n/in tarla-/s/ (ift*i*nin / tar*la*s) (the farm of
the farmer); Nere-/n/in hal-/s/? (nere*nin / ha*l*s); oda-/n/n hal-/s/
(o*da*nn / ha*l*s) (the carpet of the room); Kim-in kar-/s/? (ki*min /
ka*r*s); Jackin kar-/s/. (ja*kin / ka*r*s) (Jacks wife); yr-me-/n/in
yarar- (y*r*me*nin / ya*ra:*r) (the benefit of walk-ing); Ne-/y/in renk-i?

73

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(ne*yin / ren*gi) arap-n renk-i (a*ra*bn / ren*gi) (the color of the
wine); iek-in gzellik-i (i*e*in / g*zel*li*i) (the beauty of the flower)
When the noun compounds ending with vowels are suffixed by the allomorphs of the [], [E], [DE], or [DEN] morphemes, they take the /n/ glides:
Jack Mary-/n/in kpek-i-/n/i sr-d.
(jack / me*ri*nin / k*pe*i*ni / *sr*d )
Jack bit Marys dog.
Jack Mary/n/in kpek-i-/n/e bir ta at-t.
(jack / mary*nin / k*pe*i*ne / bir / ta / at*t )
Jack threw a stone at Marys dog.
Kpek Mary/n/in bahe-/s/i/n/-de.
(k*pek~ / mary*nin / bah*e*sin*de )
The dog is in Marys garden.
Mary/n/in okul-u/n/-dan gel-i.yor-um.
(mary*nin / o*ku*lun*dan / ge*li*yo*rum )
I am coming from Marys school.
The inflectional plural allomorphs [ler, lar] are attached to noun roots or
stems first, and then the other allomorphs follow:
ocuk-lar-m (o*cuk*la*rm), okul-lar-m.z (o*kul*la*r*mz), iek-ler-i
(i*ek*le*ri), araba-lar-n.z (a*ra*ba*la*r*nz), komu-lar-m.z (kom*u*la*r*mz), saat-ler-im (sa*at*le*rim), sepet-ler-in.iz (se*pet*le*ri*niz)
The personal allomorphs below are attached to the plural allomorphs above:
(ben-im) kitap-lar-m (ki*tap*la*rm) (my books); (sen-in) iek-ler-in (i*ek*le*rin) (your flowers); (biz-im) oyuncak-lar-m.z (o*yun*cak*la*r*mz)
(our toys).
As the possessive pronouns in the compounds are generally ignored, only
the owned parts of the compounds are used. When the possessive parts
are used together with the owned parts of a compound, the possessive parts
are stressed. However, when only the owned parts are used, the stress
goes onto the owned parts:
"ben-im kitaplar-m" (be*nim / ki*tap*la*rm); "kitaplar-m (ki*tap*la*rm)
Kitap-lar-m (ki*tap*la*rm) (my books); kedi-ler-im.iz (ke*di*le*ri*miz) (our
cats); kpek-ler-i (k*pek*le*ri) (his dogs); sepet-ler-im.iz (se*pet*le*ri*miz)

74

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(our baskets); dost-lar-m (dost*la*rm) (my friends); soru-lar-m (so*ru*la*rm) (my questions); sorun-lar-m.z (so*run*la*r*mz) (our problems);
kafa-am (ka*fam) (my head); pencere-em (pen*ce*rem) (my window); kafaan (ka*fan) (your head); kafa-/s/ (ka*fa*s) (his head); okul-u (o*ku*lu) (his
school); giysi-/s/i (giy*si*si) (her dress); araba-an.z (a*ra*ba*nz) (your car);
kap-n.z (ka*p*nz) (your door); yz-n.z (y*z*nz) (your face).
Contrary to the English intonation in a Turkish modifier + noun compound, the stressed syllable is on the modifier, not on the noun. In Turkish: sar gl (sa*r / gl); in English: "yellow rose" (ye*low / rose).
When the first, the second or the third person plural possessive pronouns are used in the possessive part of a noun compound such as
bizim, sizin, and onlarn, both the singular and the plural owned
nouns can be used in the owned part of a noun compound:
bizim arabamz, or bizim arabalarmz; sizin kediniz, or sizin kedileriniz;
onlarn odas, or onlarn odalar; bizim evimiz, or bizim evlerimiz.

INDEFINITE NOUN COMPOUNDS


Belirtisiz sim Tamlamalar
The possessive + owned compounds described above are all definite.
When oda-/n/nn kap-/s/ is said, it means the door of the room. However, when we say kap zil-i instead of kap-/n/n zil-i, we mean door
bell, where door is indefinite. The indefinite Turkish noun compounds
are structurally different from the English indefinite noun compounds. For
instance, in the Turkish compounds, the allomorphs of [] are attached to the
second parts of the compounds, such as okul anta-/s/, but in English,
only two nouns are used as school bag. When the owned parts end with
consonants in Turkish, they take the allomorphs of [], but when they end
with vowels, they take the /s/ glides together with the allomorphs of []. The
indefinite interrogative words can also be used in the first parts of these
compounds:
Here are some examples of the indefinite noun compounds:
Ne anta-/s/? (ne / an*ta*s); Okul anta-/s/ (o*kul / an*ta*s) (school
bag); Ne soru-lar-? (ne / so*ru*la*r); Snav soru-lar- (s*nav / so*ru*la*r) (examination questions); renci kavga-/s/ (*ren*ci / kav*ga*s) (student fight); otomobil yar- (o*to*mo*bil / ya*r*) (car race); insan hak-lar-
(in*san / hak*la*r) (human rights); Ne reel-i? elma reel-i (el*ma / re*e*li)
(apple jam); Ne kaza-s/? (ne / ka*za:*s); araba kaza-/s/ (a*ra*ba / ka*-

75

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


za:*s) (car accident); kalem kutu-su (ka*lem / ku*tu*su) (pencil box); k
bahe-/s/i (k / bah*e*si) (winter garden); isizlik sorun-u (i*siz*lik / so*ru*nu) (unemployment problem); yaz elence-/s/i (yaz / e*len*ce*si) (summer entertainment); gne gzlk-ler-i (g*ne / gz*lk*le*ri) (sunglasses);
patates salata-/s/ (pa*ta*tes / sa*la*ta*s) (potato salad); hava kirlilik-i
(ha*va / kir*li*li*i) (air pollution); ba ar-/s/ (ba*a*r*s) (headache); it
dala- (it / da*la*) (dog fight); mrekkep leke-/s/i (m*rek*kep / le*ke*s/)
(ink stain)

NOUN COMPOUNDS WITHOUT SUFFIXES


Taksz Tamlama
There are some other noun compounds that are made up of two nouns:
tahta kutu (tah*ta / ku*tu) (wooden box); altn bilezik (al*tn / bi*le*zik) (golden bracelet); porselen fincan (por*se*len / fin*can) (china cup); demir kap (de*mir / ka*p) (iron door); ta bina (ta / bi*na:) (stone building); plastik oyuncak (plas*tik / o*yun*cak) (plastic toy); bakr tel (ba*kr / tel) (copper wire); mermer heykel (mer*mer / hey*kel) (marble statue); kz arkada
(k*zar*ka*da) (girl friend); erkek arkada (er*ke*kar*ka*da) (boy friend);
gm para (g*m / pa*ra) (silver coin); tahta kpr (tah*ta / kp*r)
(wooden bridge); Beyaz Saray (be*yaz / sa*ray) (The White House).
The pronouns used in the possessive position of the noun compounds are
also used in place of mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs
and Jacks as in the following:
Bu kitap benim.

This book is mine.

u ayakkablar onun. Those shoes are hers.


Bu araba Jackin.

This car is Jacks.

u gmlek senin.

That shirt is yours.

u eyler onlarn.

Those things are theirs.

Bu yanllar bizim.

These mistakes are ours.

This similarity could be seen in the following two sentences:


Bu benim kitab-m. This is my book. Bu kitap benim. This book is mine.
Bu senin araba-an. This is your car. Bu araba senin. This car is yours.

76

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Sometimes the [K] morpheme, which does not follow the vowel harmony
rules, and consequently has no allomorphs, is attached to benim,
senin, o-nun, Jackin possessive pronouns or nouns. This morpheme generally means this one among others:
Bu anta ben-im-ki.
(bu / an*ta / be*nim*ki )
This bag is mine (among others).
u koltuk siz-in-ki.
(u / kol*tuk / si*zin*ki )
This seat is yours (among others).
Bu masa Jackin-ki. This table is Jacks (among others).
Bu araba Ouzun-ki. This car is Ouzs (among others).
The first parts of the noun compounds are syntactically modifiers. For instance, in the expressions the car, this car, all cars, and my car,
the, this, all, and my have modifying functions. Therefore, one
cannot put a, an, the, or some before these words, such as *the this
car, *the all cars, *a my car.
The possessive parts of the definite noun compounds are words like the
and some; therefore in English, people say the gate of the garden, but in
Turkish, people say bahe-/n/in kap-/s/, where bahe-/n/in is a modifier;
so we can formulate bahce-/n/in kap-/s/ as modifier + noun.

NOUN + INFINITIVE COMPOUNDS


sim + Mastar Tamlamalar
The infinitives, as they are nouns, are also used in the possessive +
owned compounds. All noun compounds are of several kinds:
possessive pronoun + noun- [i, , , u] o/n/un ev-i (his house), arba-/s/ (his car)
possessive noun + noun-[i, , , u] oda-/n/n kap-/s/ (the door of the room)
possessive pronoun + infinitive-[i, , , u] o/n/un anla-ma-/s/ (his understand-ing),
o/n/un okul-a ge gel-me-/s/i (his come-ing to school late)
infinitive + noun-[i, , , u] gecik-me-/n/in ceza-/s/ (the punishment of be-ing late)
infinitive + infinitive-[i, , , u]de-me-/n/in gecik-me-/s/i (the delay of the payment)
The /n/ and /s/ consonants used above are glides (semi wovels).

Some examples are as follows:

77

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


ben-im git-me-em (my go-ing); o-/n/un bak-- (her look-ing); siz-in git-tikin.iz (git*ti*i*niz) (that you went); biz-im bulu-ma-am.z (our meet-ing); bizim al-ma-am.z-n sonu-u (bi*zim / a*l*ma*m*zn / so*nu*cu) (the result of our work-ing); isizlik-in art-ma-/s/ (i*siz*li*in / art*ma*s) (increaseing of the unemployment); okul-a ge kal-ma-/n/n sonu-u (o*ku*la /
ge / kal*ma*nn / so*nu*cu) (the result of come-ing to school late).
In the compounds above, the identical vowels combine, and the single
underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first
vowels of the following morphemes while the oral system of the Turkish language is reorganizing the morphemes in harmony with the Turkish sound
system.
The parallelism between the above compounds. and those of the following
ones are obvious:
ben-im tencere-em, o-/n/un ba-, siz-in bilet-in.iz, ben-im ev-im
As it is seen, the infinitives are nouns that are produced from verb roots,
stems and frames by adding [me, ma], [i, , , u], and [dik, dk, dk,
duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] allomorphs. These infinitives, except the [mek, mak]
infinitives that are used in the owned parts, are used in noun compounds in
sentences as Nominal Phrases such as:
ben-im gl-me-em, sen-in gl--n, o-/n/un ala-dk- (a*la*d*), biz-im
bekle-me-em.iz, Ahmet-in al-ma-ma-/s/, onlar-n gel-me-me-/s/i, ocukun bul-un-ma-/s/, biz-im bulu-ma-am.z, araba-/n/n al-n-ma-/s/
It is possible in Turkish to produce chain noun compounds by lengthening
the compounds above as far as the word that ends the chain because all
natural languages are infinitely productive within the framework of the NP +
VP innate logical sentence pattern:
genler-in spor yap-ma-/s/ possessive + owned
yap-ma-/s/-/n/n nem-i possessive + owned
nem-i-/n/in anla-l-ma-/s/ possessive + owned
gerek-ir. verb (Note: The /s/ and /n/ consonants are glides.)
Genler-in spor yap-ma-/s/-/n/n nem-i-/n/in anla-l-ma-/s/ gerek-ir.
subject

predicate

(gen*le*rin / spor / yap*ma*s*nn / *ne*mi*nin / an*la*l*ma*s / ge*re*kir)


It is necessary to understand the importance of the youngsters playing sports.

78

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


PREPOSITIONS (ENG) and POSTPOSITIONS (TURK) (edatlar)
The English prepositions on, in, under, near, behind, in front
of are all nouns in Turkish: st (on), alt (under), yakn (near), i (in), arka
(behind, back), n (front)
As all the words above can be attached to the allomorphs of the morphemes [], [E], [DE] and [DEN], they are nouns. Besides these morphemes,
the allomorphs of [], which are also the allomorphs of the owned morpheme
[], can be attached to the above nouns to form the owned parts of the noun
compounds:
Masa-/n/n st- (ma*sa*n*ns*t) (the upper side of the table) (Liaison)
Kutu-/n/un i-i (ku*tu*nu*ni*i) (the inside of the box) (Liaison)
Karyola-/n/n alt- (kar*yo*la*n*nal*t) (the underside of the bed) (Liaison)
Sandalye-/n/in arka-/s/ (san*dal*ye*ni*nar*ka*/s/) (the back of the chair)
The two parts of the compounds above can also be separately said:
(ma*sa*nn / s*t), (ku*tu*nun / i*i), (kar*yo*la*nn / al*t), (san*dal*ye*nin
/ ar*ka*s).
When the above compounds are used as objects, they take the allomorphs
[i, , , u] of the defining [] morpheme linked by the /n/ glides:
Masa-/n/n st--/n/ temizle-di-im. (ma*sa*nn / s*t*n / te*miz*le*dim)
I cleaned the surface of the table.
In the sentence above, the first // is the personal owned allomorph; the
second // is the defining morpheme, and the /n/ phonemes are the glides
linking the successive /a/ //, and // // vowels. In such compounds, either
of the stressable syllables of the possesive or the owned parts of a compound can be stressed. The dominant word syllables are symbolized in
bold face, and the secondarily stressed syllables are showed in italics. The
weakly stressed syllables are printed in regular type. See how the meanings
of the sentences change when the primarily stressed words change in the
following sentences:
(ma*sa*nn / s*t*n / te*miz*le*dim)
I have cleaned the upper side of the table, not the upper side of any other furniture.

79

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(ma*sa*nn / s*t*n / te*miz*le*dim)
I have cleaned the upper side of the table, not the underside or the legs of it.
(ma*sa*nn / s*t*n / te*miz*le*dim )
I have cleaned the upper side of the table, so I have done my work.

PRIMARY, SECONDARY and WEAK STRESSES,


and INTONATION
The syllables printed in bold face in the sentences above are primarily
stressed syllables. The secondarily stressed syllables of the words are
slightly heard in speech, which are printed in italics. Nearly all of the first
syllables of the Turkish words, except for the verbs, are weakly stressed.
They are brown and written in regular letters. The final syllables of all positive and negative sentences have junctures that have slightly rising and
sharply falling syllables showed by rising and falling arrows ().
When the words of the Turkish language are considered independently, not
in sentences, we can see that each word can have only one primarily
stressed syllable. For instance:
(o*to*mo*bil), (a*l**yor*lar*d), (ke*di), (do*ku*zun*cu), (ka*ran*lk)
(*ret*men), (san*dal*ye), (ki*raz), (gel*mi*ye*cek*ler), (an*la*dm),
(an*la*m*yo*rum), (ka*za*na*ca*z), (de*mok*ra*tik*le*ti*re*ce*iz),
(kork*ma*ma*l*sn), (kah*ve*ren*gi), (kas*ka*t), (d*pe*dz), (ye*ni).
If a whole sentence is considered, however, we can hear that there may be
one or more primarily stressed words in a sentence.The secondarily stressed
syllables of the words are fixed and they are nearly always combined to the
suffixes following them. The last syllables of the words in sentences, which
are secondarily stressed, have slightly rising and falling intonations that imply
the hearer the end of a word and the expectation of a following one.
(ba*bam~ / ge*en / haf*ta / bur*sa*da / de*il*di )
In the sentence above, the word (ba*bam) is the subject of the sentence. If
we think none of the words is important or dominant in this sentence, we use
only a secondary stress on the bam syllable with a rising intonation implying that another word will be following it, such as biiir~, i*kiii~,
If we put a primary stress on the syllable (ba*bam), the sentence means, especially my father was not in Bursa; someone else might have been
there. As a rule, if the subject of a sentence is rather far from the verb, a

80

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


comma is generally put after the subject in a text, but in speech a secondary
stress with a rising sustained intonation (~) is applied to the same word.
If the second syllable en of the word (ge*en) is primarily stressed, the
sentence means only last week, not weeks ago.
If the stressable syllable bur is primarily stressed in the word (bur*sa*da),
the sentence means My father was not in Bursa last week, but perhaps he
was somewhere else.
When the stressable syllable *il* of the word (de*il*di) is thought dominant, the sentence means, You are mistaken; he was not there.
(1). In general, the "first syllables" of all words are weakly stressed, and
printed n regular type. The syllables following the first weakly stressed syllables are all secondarily stressed and printed in italics. The syllables in all
verb compositions are all secondarily stressed. However, in some geographical names the primarily stressed syllables may be on the first or the
second syllable. In general, the last secondarily stressed syllables of all
words may be primarily stressed, except for the ones in the verb compositions where the primarily stressed syllables change in different tenses,
and they are all fixed. All the primarily stressed syllables are showed in
bold face in red in verb phrases in this book:
1. (e*me); (tes*ti); (e*ker); (o*cuk); (te*pe); (ar*mut); (ka*sap);
(y*rek), (pat*l*can), (ar*ka*da), (te*ker*lek), (yu*var*lak), (s*lak)
2. (e*me); (tes*ti); (e*ker); (o*cuk); (te*pe); (ar*mut); (ka*sap);
(y*rek), (pat*l*can), (ar*ka*da), (te*ker*lek), (yu*var*lak), (s*lak)
The last syllables in the words above are secondarily or primarily stressed,
and they are printed in italics. When the derivational or inflectional morphemes are suffixed to these words, these morphemes are also secondarily
stressed together with the secondarily stressed syllables of the words:
3. (e*me*yi), (e*me*ye), (e*me*de), (e*me*den), (e*me*nin),
(e*me*si), (e*me*si*nin), (e*me*sin*de), (e*me*sin*den), (e*me*le*rin*den), (pat*l*ca*n), (ar*ka*da*n*dan), (te*ker*lek*le*ri)
If the words above are thought dominant, the last syllables of them may be
primarily stressed:
2. (e*me*yi); (e*me*ye); (e*me*de); (e*me*den); (e*me*si*nin);
(e*me*sin*de); (e*me*sin*den); (e*me*le*rin*den), (ar*ka*da*n*dan)

81

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


If a word is monosyllabic, this syllable is naturally the last syllable, so it is
secondarily stressed if it is not thought dominant. Nevertheless, if it is attached to an allomorph, it may be devided into two syllables if the following
morpheme starts with a vowel. If the following morpheme starts with a consonant, this morpheme may be secondarily or primarily stressed:
3. (ku), (ku*u), (ku*a), (ku*ta), (ku*tan); (ta), (ta*), (ta*a), (ta*ta),
(ta*tan); (sen), (se*ni), (sa*na), (se*nin), (sen*de), (sen*den), (ben*den)
If these words are thought dominant, the last syllables are primarily stressed:
(ku), (ku*u), (ku*a), (ku*ta), (ku*un), (ku*tan), (ku*um)
(ben), (be*ni), (ba*na), (ben*de), (ben*den), (be*nim), (o*nun)
When some monosyllabic words are suffixed with [] or [E] morphemes,
these words are divided into two syllables, the second of which is secondarily stressed:
biz-i (bi*zi), biz-e (bi*ze); ders-i (der*si), ders-e (der*se); k- (k*) (k*a);
muz-u (mu*zu), (mu*za); kz- (k*z), (k*za); ben-i (be*ni), (ba*na); sen-i
(se*ni), (sa*na); ta- (ta*), ta-a (ta*a); ba- (ba*); e-i (e*i), e-e
(e*e). If the last secondarily stressed syllables are thought dominant, they
may be primarily stressed: (bi*zi), (bi*ze), (be*ni), (ba*na), (se*ni), (sa*na).
Considering the complicated explanations above, we have demonstrated nearly all the syllables in sentences between parentheses so that the learners
might see the primarily and secondarily stressed syllables in sentences.
By the way, a learner should keep in mind that these are only example sentences, and consequently, the primarily stressed syllables may change
according to a speakers preference in a sentence:
(ba*bam / ge*en / haf*ta / bur*sa*da / de*il* di )
In the sentence above, there may be one or more secondarily stressed syllables in each word printed in italics. The last syllables of the above words
can be primarily stressed in proportion to the main concern of a speaker.
He can use a primary stress on one, two, or more words in a sentence. If he
wishes, he may leave all the words in a sentence without primarily stressed.
In short, we can say that the primarily stressed syllables completely depend
on the speakers choice. However, the secondarily stressed syllables of the
words in a sentence do not depend on the speakers choice; they are nearly
always fixed. The words whose all syllables are secondarily stressed are
the verb phrases. Only one of these syllables in a verb phrase can be primarily stressed. To overcome this difficulty, nearly all the syllabication,

82

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


stress and intonation of the example sentences are given in parentheses in
this book.
In these example oral sentences, the words are separated by slashes (/).
The internal open junctures implying very short pauses with a rising sustained intonation after subjects, objects, or adverbs, etc., are showed by
tildes (~). The junctures symbolizing slightly rising and sharply falling terminal stops of the indicative sentences are showed by rising and falling arrows
() in this book. The interrogative sentences containing question words like
nereye?, niin?, nasl?, etc. are illustrated by rising () arrows, but the
interrogative sentences, whose answers are yes or no, also have falling
terminal junctures in their last syllables. Therefore, they are also showed by
rising and falling arrows (). However, if a speaker wants to express astonishment, these terminal junctures () may change into rising () arrows:
(ba*z / kz*lar / ne*hir*de / y*z*yor )
Some girls are swimming in the river.
(None of the words in this sentence is primarily stressed.)
(ba*z / kz*lar / ne*hir*de / y*z*yor )
They are swimming in the river, not in the sea or in a lake.
(sa:*de*ce / kz*lar / de*niz*de / y*z*yor )
Only the girls are swimming in the sea.
(de*niz*de / kz*lar/ m / y*z*yor)
Are the girls swimming in the sea? (Surprise!)
(o*cuk*lar / ne*re*de / oy*nu*yor*lar)
Where are the children playing?
(The question word nere-de? (where) is used.)
The stress and the intonation of some compounds are as follows:
Sandalye-/n/in arka-/s/-/n/ kr-d.
(san*dal*ye*nin / ar*ka*s*n / kr*d )
He broke the back of the chair.
When the allomorphs of the [E], [DE], [DEN] and [LE] morphemes are attached to the compounds above, these compounds become adverbial
phrases (zarf bekleri):
(Sen) (sen-in) amur-lu ayakkab-lar-n-la hal-/n/n st--/n/e bas-ma.
subject

(noun compound-la) adverbial

(noun comp-e) adverbial

(a*mur*lu / a*yak*ka*b*la*rn*la / ha*l*n*ns*t*ne / bas*ma )

83

verb

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(You) dont step on the carpet with your muddy shoes.
subject

verb

(prep phrs) adverbial


predicate

(prep phrs) adverbial

Dn kk bir ocuk ukur-un i-i-/n/e d-t.


(dn / k*k / bir / o*cuk / u*ku*run / i*i*ne / d*t)
Yesterday a little boy fell into the ditch.
Top karyola-/n/n alt--/n/a git-ti. (The underlined words are adverbial.)
(top / kar*yo*la*nn / al*t*na / git*ti)
The ball went under the bed.
Masa-/n/n st-/n/-de dans et-ti.
(ma*sa*nn / s*tn*de / dan*set*ti )
She danced on the table.
Kedi karyola-/n/n alt-/n/-da uyu-u.yor. (The /u/ drops.)
(ke*di / kar*yo*la*nn / al*tn*da / u*yu*yor )
The cat is sleeping under the bed.
ocuklar aalar-n alt-/n/-da oyna-u.yor-lar. (The /a/ drops.)
(o*cuk*lar / a*a*la*rn / al*tn*da / oy*nu*yor*lar )
The children are playing under the trees.
Anahtar delik-i/n/-den bak-ma.
(a*nah*tar / de*li*in*den / bak*ma )
Dont look through the key hole.
Bu masa-/n/n st-/n/-den atla-/y/a.bil-ir mi-sin?
(bu / ma*sa*nn / s*tn*den / at*la*ya*bi*lir / mi*sin )
Can you jump over this table?
Koca-/s/-/n/n homurdan-ma-/s//n/-dan nefret et-er. (Nefret et is intrans..)
(ko*ca*s*nn / ho*mur*dan*ma*sn*dan / nef*ret / e*der )
She hates her husbands grumble-ing. (Hate is transitive.)
The allomorphs of [] are [i, , , u]; of [E] are [e, a]; of [DE] are [de,
da, te, ta], of [DEN] are [den, dan, ten, tan], and of [LE] are [le, la]. The
allomorphs of [] follow pronouns, nouns, and all nominal phrases when
they are used in the object position. The other four morphemes [E], [DE],
[DEN], and [LE] follow the same units to produce adverbials. Consider the
following sentences:
Masa-/n/n st-/n/-den atla-d-m. Kedi masa-/n/n alt-/n/-da uyu-u.yor.
noun compound - /n/den
adverbial

verb

subj

84

noun compound - /n/da


adverbial

verb

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Masa-/n/n st--/n/ temizle-di-im. I cleaned the upper side of the table.
noun compound- (def obj)

verb

subj

verb

noun compound (obj)

Kutu-/n/un i-i-/n/i boalt-t-k. We emptied inside the box.


noun comp (def obj)

verb

subj

verb

object

The [] and [i] are the allomorphs of the defining morpheme [].
When a possessive part of a compound ends with a consonant, it takes
one of the [in, n, n, un] allomorphs in agreement with the vowel harmony
rules; but when it ends with a vowel, it takes one of the same allomorphs
together with the glide /n/. Additionally, the single underlined consonants
detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the following
allomorphs if they start with vowels.
Words ending with consonants:
eker-in (e*ke*rin), dil-in (di*lin), hamal-n (ha*ma*ln), sakal-n
(sa*ka*ln), gl-n (g*ln), kz-n (*k*zn), okul-un (o*ku*lun),
somun-un (so*mu*nun), armut-un (ar*mu*dun), kitap-n (ki*ta*bn),
sokak-n (so*ka*n), et-in (e*tin), st-n (s*tn), dert-in (der*din)
Words ending with vowels:
tencere-/n/in (ten*ce*re*nin); gece-/n/in (ge*ce*nin); masa-/n/n
(ma*sa*nn); kap-/n/n (ka*p*nn); sng-/n/n (sn*g*nn);
grg-/n/n (gr*g*nn); kutu-/n/un (ku*tu*nun); soru-/n/un
(so*ru*nun); fare-/n/in (fa*re*nin); testi-/n/in (tes*ti*nin); vazo/n/un (va*zo*nun); al-ma-/n/n (a*l*ma*nn).
When the owned part of a compound ends with a consonant, it takes one
of the allomorphs of [i, , , u] according to the vowel harmony rules; but if it
ends with a vowel, it takes one of the same allomorphs together with the
glide /s/:
Words ending with consonants:
i-i (i*i), ip-i (i*pi), sap- (sa*p), alt- (al*t), st- (s*t), kz- (*k*z), okul-u, torun-u, at-, kusur-u, eker-i, sepet-i, ay-, nefret-i, duman-,
hayran-, kurban-, tavan-, tavan-, rapor-u, teker-i, saman-, zaman-,
kmes-i, motor-u, ot-u (o*tu).
Words ending with vowels:
Sevgi-/s/i, tencere-/s/i, atk-/s/, bask-/s/, sng-/s/, grg-/s/, korku/s/u, koku-/s/u, kuku-/s/u, iki-/s/i, fke-/s/i, tatl-/s/, yavru-/s/u, kuzu-

85

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


/s/u, denge-/s/i, uyku-/s/u, duygu-/s/u, oda-/s/, tapu-/s/u, boya-/s/, foya/s/, dosya-/s/, al-ma-/s/, but exceptionally (su-/y/u)
When the possessive and the owned parts are used together, the compounds become as follows:
dil-in u-u (di*lin / u*cu) (the tip of the tongue); hamal-n aka-/s/ (the
joke of the porter); sakal-n boy-u (the length of the beard); kap-/n/n
srg-/s/ (the bolt of the door); masa-/n/n alt- (the underside of the
table); kz-n boynuz-lar- (the horns of the ox); gece-/n/in karanlk-
(ka*ran*l*) (the darkness of the night); gl-n koku-/s/u (the smell of
the rose); dolap-n i-i (do*la*bn / i*i) (inside the cupboard); sorun-un
nem-i (the importance of the problem); tart-ma-/n/n sonu-u
(tar*t*ma*nn / so*nu*cu) (the result of the discussion); kedi-/n/in
korku-/s/u (the fright of the cat).
Generally, the last syllables of the compounds are primarily stressed. However, when needed, the last syllables of the possessive parts of the compounds can also be primarily stressed.
As all of the examples above are the third person singular, the other optional
possessive pronouns should also be included in the examples below:
(ben-im) kedi-im (be*nim / ke*dim) (my cat); (ben-im) uyku-um (be*nim /
uy*kum); (my sleep); (ben-im) okul-um (be*nim / o*ku*lum) (my school)
(ben-im) kayg-m (kay*gm) (my anxiety); (ben-im) deneyim-im
(de*ne*yi*mim) (my experience); (ben-im) arzu-um (ar*zum) (my wish);
(ben-im) baba-am (ba*bam) (my father); (ben-im) kusur-um (be*nim /
ku*su*rum) (my fault). All the optional possessive pronouns can be ignored.
(sen-in) amca-an (se*nin / am*can) (your uncle); sen-in ev-in (se*nin /
e*vin) (your house); sen-in kz-n (k*zn) (your daughter); sen-in rya-an
(r*yan) (your dream); sen-in pantolon-un (pan*to*lo*nun) (your trousers);
sen-in ka-rar-n (ka*ra:*rn) (your decision); sen-in yardm-n (your help);
sen-in konu-ma-an (se*nin / ko*nu*man) (your talk); sen-in kulak-lar-n
(ku*lak*la*rn) (your ears); sen-in sabr-n (sab*rn) (your patience); sen-in
cesaret-in (ce*sa:*re*tin) (your courage); sen-in gzellik-in (g*zel*li*in)
(your beauty); sen-in anne-en (an*nen) (your mother); sen-in para-an
(pa*ran) (your money).
(o-/n/un) renk-i (o*nun / ren*gi) (its color); o-/n/un cesaret-i (ce*sa:*re*ti) (his
courage); o-/n/un araba-/s/ (his car); o-/n/un koku-/s/u (its smell); o-/n/un
yetenek-i (ye*te*ne*i) (his ability); o-/n/un gel-me-/s/i (his come-ing); o/n/un gl-- (o*nun / g*l*) (her way of smile-ing).

86

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


biz-im ev-im.iz (bi*zim / e*vi*miz) (our house); biz-im kitap-lar-m.z (ki*tap*la*r*mz) (our books); biz-im lke-em.iz (l*ke*miz) (our country); biz-im
hrriyet-im.iz (hr*ri*ye*ti*miz) (our freedom); biz-im kar-lar-m.z (*kar*la*r*mz) (our interests); biz-im mlk-m.z (ml*k*mz) (our property);
biz-im ocuk-lar-m.z (o*cuk*la*r*mz) (our children).
(siz-in) arzu-un.uz (si*zin / ar*zu*nuz) (your wish); siz-in okul-un.uz
(o*ku*lu*-nuz) (your school); siz-in bahe-en.iz (bah*e*niz) (your garden);
siz-in ka-der-in.iz (ka*de*ri*niz) (your destiny); siz-in gel-me-en.iz (your coming); siz-in kahkaha-an.z (your laughter); siz-in proje-en.iz (pro*je*niz) (your
project), siz-in bala-ma-an.z (your starting).
(onlar-n) araba-/s/ (on*la*rn / a*ra*ba*s) (their car); onlar-n ev-i (on*la*rn
/ e*vi) (their house); onlar-n ocuk-lar- (o*cuk*la*r) (their children); onlarn oyuncak-lar- (o*yun*cak*la*r) (their toys); onlar-n yiyecek-i (yi*ye*ce*i)
(their food); onlar-n at-lar- (at*la*r) (their horses); onlar-n yzme havuz-u
(yz*me / ha*vu*zu) (their swimming pool); onlar-n g- (g*c) (their
power); onlar-n aka-/s/ (a*ka*s) (their joke); onlar-n arzu-/s/u (ar*zu:*su)
(their wish); onlar-n zarar- (za*ra:*r) (their harm, or loss); onlar-n savunma-/s/ (sa*vun*ma*s) (their defense); onlar-n istek-i (is*te*i) (their wish);
onlar-n korku-/s/u (kor*ku*su) (their fright).
Although the green underlined prepoditional phrases in the examples
below are adverbial phrases, some of them are subject complements.
The black underlined phrases are objects:
Vazo masa-/n/n st-/n/-de.) (masa-/n/n st-/n/-de is subject complement.)
(va*zo / ma*sa*nn / s*tn*de )
The vase is on the table. (on the table is subject complement.)
Vazo-/y/u masa-/n/n st--/n/e koy.
(va*zo*yu~ / ma*sa*nn / s*t*ne / koy )
Put the vase on the table.
Vazo-/y/u masa-dan al.
(va*zo*yu / ma*sa*dan / al )
Take the vase from the table.
Kedi masa-/n/n alt-/n/-da. (The underlined parts are subject complements.)
(ke*di / ma*sa*nn / al*tn*da )
(ke*di / ma*sa*n*nal*tn*da ) (Liaison)
The cat is under the table. (Subject complement.)

87

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Top masa-/n/n alt--/n/a git-ti.
(top / ma*sa*nn / al*t*na / git*ti )
The ball went under the table.
Vazo-/y/u kutu-/n/un i-i-/n/e koy-du.
(va*zo*yu / ku*tu*nun / i*i*ne / koy*du )
He put the vase into the box.
Tren tnel-in i-i/n/-den ge-i.yor. (Tren tnel-den geiyor.)
(tren / t*ne*lin / i*in*den / ge*i*yor ) (tren / t*nel*den / ge*i*yor )
The train is going through the tunnel.
Ahmet deniz-e atla-d.
(ah*met / de*ni*ze / at*la*d)
Ahmet jumped into the sea.
Ben mikroskop-la bak-t-m.
(ben ~ / mik*ros*kop*la / bak*tm)
I looked through the microscope.
Uak bulut-lar-n st-/n/-de. (Subject complement.)
(u*ak~ / bu*lut*la*rn / s*tn*de )
The plane is above the clouds. (Subject complement.)
Masa-/n/n st--/n/ temizle-di.
(ma*sa*nn / s*t*n / te*miz*le*di )
She cleaned the surface of the table.
Jack, Mary ile Janein ara-/s//n/-da otur-u.yor.
(Jack / me:*ri / i*le / cey*nin / a*ra*sn*da / o*tu*ru*yor )
Jack is sitting between Mary and Jane.
Gzlk-ler-im ayna-/n/n n-/n/-de. (Subject complement.)
(gz*lk*le*rim / ay*na*nn / *nn*de )
My glasses are in front of the mirror. (Subject complement.)
Hoparlrler perde-/n/in arka-/s//n/-da. (Subject complement.)
(ho*par*lr*ler / per*de*nin / ar*ka*sn*da )
The loudspeakers are behind the curtain. (Subject complement.)
Note: The /n/, /s/ and /y/ glides above are showed between slashes. The
English prepositions and the Turkish adverb making allomorphs are written
green.
The Turkish equivalents of the English adverbial particles are used as follows in Turkish:

88

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


"The cat went out." "Kedi dar-/y/a kt. (ke*di / d*a*r*ya / k*t)
"The children came in." "ocuklar ieri-/y/e (i*e*ri*ye) geldi (girdi)."
"Look down." "Aa-/y/a bak." (a*a**ya / bak )
"Look up." "Yukar-/y/a bak." (yu*ka*r*ya / bak )
As it is seen, the words "dar, ieri, aa, yukar", which are
nouns, can be used as adverbials when they are suffixed by /y/e, /y/a
allomorphs. In Turkish, when nouns are suffxed by [e, a] allomorphs, they
become adverbials such as "ev-e, okul-a, ar-/y/a", ieri-/y/e, o/n/a, biz-e, siz-e.
All the noun compounds are nominal phrases; but if they are considered
together with the [E], [DE], [DEN] or [LE] morphemes, they function as adverbials (zarf bekleri) in sentences.

[E], [DE], [DEN] MORPHEMES + POSTPOSITIONS


The postpositions and the [E], [DE] and [DEN] morphemes follow nouns
and noun compounds in Turkish contrary to English prepositions that precede nouns. In Turkish, when these morphemes and postpositions follow
nouns or noun compounds they produce postpositional adverbial phrases
that function in sentences as either modifiers or adverbial phrases. In the
following example sentences, the functions of these language units are
showed below the lines to clarify their functions. As some of the postpositions follow nouns and noun compounds that end with certain morphemes,
we have to approach them one by one.

adverbials: [e, a], [de, da, te, ta] and [den, dan, ten, tan]
Jack okul-da.

Jack is at school.

subj complement

Jack okul-a gitti.

subject complement

Jack went to school.

adverbial

(prep phrs) adverbial

jack deniz-e dt. Jack fell into the sea.


adverbial

(prep phrs) adverbial

Biz bulutlar-a baktk. We looked at the clouds.


adverbial

(prep phrs) adverbial

Jack okul-dan geldi. Jack came from school.


adverbial

(prep phrs) adverbial

Top masa-/n/n alt--/n/a gitti. The ball went under the table.
noun compound -/n/a
adverbial

prep phrs
adverbial

Kpek it-in st-/n/-den atlad. The dog jumped over the fence.
noun comp/n/- den
adverbial

prep phrs
adverbial

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Tren tnel-den geiyor. The train is going through the tunnel.
adverbial

(prep phrs) adverbial

Jack anahtar delik-i/n/-den bakyor. Jack is looking through the key hole.
noun compound /n/-den
adverbial

prep phrs
adverbial

Byk kamyon kpr-/n/n alt-/n/-dan ge-e.me-di.


noun compound /n/-dan
adverbial

The huge lorry could not pass under the bridge.


prep phrs
adverbial

Dolap-n i-i-/n/e bak. Look into the cupboard. (do*la*bn / i*i*ne)


noun compound-/n/e
adverbial

verb

verb

prepositional phrs
adverbial

In the examples above, the underlined English parts of the sentences are
structurally prepositional phrases, but they are functionally adverbials as
they are in the Turkish sentences.

baka, gayr (except): noun or noun compound-[den, dan, ten, tan] +


baka (modifier)
Sen-den baka kimse ben-i anla-/y/a-maz.
modifier
noun def object
verb
(nominal phrs) subject
predicate

(sen*den / ba*ka / kim*se / be*ni / an*la*ya*maz )


No one but (except) you can understand me.

beri (since): noun or noun compound-[den, dan, ten, tan]+beri (adverbial)


(Ben) sabah-tan beri al-.yor-um. (a*l**yo*rum)
subj

postp adverbial phrs


predicate

verb

I have been working since morning.


(Ben) sen-i (ben-im) ilk gr-dk-m-den beri sev-i.yor-um.
subj

object

(noun comp) nominal phrs-den


postp
postpositional adverbial phrs of time

(se*ni / ilk / gr*d*m*den / be*ri / se*vi*yo*rum )


I have been in love with you since I saw you first.

boyunca (along): noun + boyunca (adverbial phrase)


(Biz) nehir boy-un.ca yr-d-k.
subj

postp adverbial phrs


predicate

verb

90

verb

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(ne*hir / bo*yun*ca / y*r*dk ) We walked along the river.

bu yana (since): noun or noun compound-[den, dan, ten, tan] + bu yana


(adverbial phrase)
Fiyat-lar geen ay-dan bu yana yksel-i.yor.
subject

postp adverbial phrs


predicate

verb

(fi*yat*lar / ge*en / ay*dan / bu / ya*na / yk*se*li*yor )


The prices have been going up since last month.
Ayak--/n/ incit-tik-i/n/-den bu yana Jack okul-a git-e.me-i.yor.
noun comp-den
postp
postpositional adverbial phrase

subject adverbial

verb

(a*ya**n / in*cit*ti*in*den / bu / ya*na / cek / o*ku*la / gi*de*mi*yor )


Jack hasnt been able to go to school since he injured his foot.

dair (about): noun or noun compoumd-[e, a] + dair (modifier)


(Ben) geen hafta dinazor-lar-a dair bir makale oku-du-um.
subject

adverbial

prep phrs modifier


noun
(nominal phrase) indef object

verb

(ge*en / haf*ta / di*na*zor*la*ra / da:*ir / bir / ma*ka*le / o*ku*dum )


I read an article about dinosaurs last week.

dek, kadar (until): noun or nound comp-[e,a] + dek (Adverbial phrase)


(Ben) sabah-a dek uyu-/y/a.ma-d-m.
subj

postp adv phrs


predicate

verb

(sa*ba*ha / dek / u*yu*ya*ma*dm )


I couldnt sleep until morning.
(O) koca-/s/-/n/n ev-e dn-me-/s/i-/n/e dek kaynana-/s//y/-la tart-t
subj

nominal phrs (noun comp)-/n/e


postp
postpositional adverbial phrase of time

adverbial

verb

(ko*ca*s*nn / e*ve / dn*me*si*ne / dek / kay*na*na*sy*la / tar*t*t )


She had a row with her mother in law until her husband came back home.

diye (thinking, hoping that): sentence + diye (postp adverbial phrase)


(ben) (O) ev-de-dir diye kap-/y/ al-d-m.
subj

simple sentence postp


postp adverbial phrase

def object

verb

(ev*de*dir / di*ye / ka*p*y / al*dm )


I knocked on the door thinking that he was at home.

91

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(ben) Aye telefon et-er diye ev-den ayrl-ma-d-m.
subj

simple sentence
postp
postp adverbial phrase

adverbial

verb

(ay*e / te*le*fon / e*der / di*ye / ev*den / ay*rl*ma*dm )


I didnt leave home hoping that Aye might telephone.

Dar-/y/a (out, out of): verb-[me-den, ma-dan] + dar-/y/a (adverb)


(O), para-/y/ de-me-den lokanta-dan (dar-/y/a) k-t.
subj

infinitive- den
adverbial

|
adverbial
predicate

|
adverbial

|
verb

(pa*ra*y / *de*me*den / lo*kan*ta*dan / k*t )


He went out of the restauraunt without pay-ing.
Dar-/y/a k! (The /y/, /s/, /n/ and // semi vowels are glides; they do not have meaning.)
adverbial

verb

Go out!

doru (towards): noun or noun compound-[e, a] + doru (adverbial)


Ada-/y/a doru krek ek-ti-ik. (ek*tik)
adverbial phrase

verb

We rowed towards the island. krek ek = row


Baba-am-n ev-e gel-me-/s/i-/n/e doru anne-em sofra-/y/ hazrla-d.
noun compound-/n/e
postp
postpositional adverbial phrase

subject

definite obj

verb

(ba*ba*mn / gel*me*si*ne / do*ru / an*nem / sof*ra*y / ha*zr*la*d )


Mother laid the table about the time father came back home.

dolay (because of): noun or noun comp-[den. dan, ten, tan] + dolay
Youn trafik-ten dolay okul-a ge kald-m.
modifier + noun-den
postp
postp adverbial phrs

adverbial

verb

(yo*un / tra*fik*ten / do*la*y / o*ku*la / ge / kal*dm )


I was late for school because of the heavy traffic.
Mdr (Ben-im) okul-a ge gel-me-em-den dolay ben-i cezalandr-d.
subject

noun compound-den
postp object
postpositional adverbial phrase of cause

verb

(o*ku*la / ge / gel*mem*den / do*la*y / m*dr / be*ni / ce*za:*lan*dr*d)


The principal punished me because of my come-ing to school late.

gee (past): noun-[i, , , u] + noun + gee (adverbial phrse)


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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Saat dokuz-u be gee hava alan--/n/a var-d-m.
adverbial phrase

adverbial

verb

(sa*at / do*ku*zu / be / ge*e~ / ha*va / a*la*n*na / var*dm )


I got to the airport at five minutes past nine.

geri (back from): noun-[den, dan, ten, tan] + geri


Anne-em spermarket-ten (geri) dn-d.
subject

adverbial

adv

verb

(an*nem / s*per*mar*ket*ten / dn*d )


Mother came back from the supermarket.

gibi (like): noun + gibi (modifier)


Biz-im ev-in n--/n/e kule gibi
chain noun comp -/n/e
adverbial phrs

noun posp
modifier

bir bina dik-i.yor-lar.


indefinite obj
noun

verb

(bi*zim / e*vin / *n*ne / ku*le / gi*bi / bir / bi*na: / di*ki*yor*lar )


They are erecting a buiding like a tower in front of our house.
Bir centilmen gibi davran-ma.l-sn.
postp adverbial phrs

verb

(bir / cen*til*men / gi*bi / dav*ran*ma*l*sn )


You should behave like a gentleman.

gre (according to): noun or noun comp-[e, a] + gre (adverbial)


Kz karde-im-e gre kadn-lar erkek-ler-den (daha) yetenekli-dir.
noun-e
postp
postp adverbial phrs

subject

advebial phrs
adv
subj complement
adverbial phrs of comparison

(kz / kar*de*i*me / g*re / ka*dn*lar / er*kek*ler*den / da*ha / ye*te*nek*li*dir )


According to my sister, women are more talented than men.
Bana gre

ok

iyimser.

postp adv phrs subj intens subj complement

(ba*na / g*re / o / ok / i*yim*ser )


In my opinion, she is very optimistic.(Optimistic is subject complement.)

hakknda (about): noun + hakknda (modifier)


Jack futbol hakknda bir kompozisyon yaz-.yor.
subj

noun + postp
modifier

indefinite object

verb

(cek / fut*bol / hak*kn*da / bir / kom*po*zis*yon / ya*z*yor )


Jack is writing a composition about football.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


halde (although): verb-[dik-i, dk-, dk-, duk-u] + halde (adverbial)
Biz-im voleybol takm-m.z ok iyi oyna-dk- halde ma- kazan-a.ma-d.
noun compound
subject

noun (infinitive)
postp def obj
postp adverbial phrase of contrast

verb

(bi*zim / vo*ley*bol / ta*k*m*mz~ / i*yi / oy*na*d* / hal*de / ma* / ka*za*na*ma*d)


Although our volleyball team played well, they couldnt win the game.

ieri-/y/e (in): ieri-/y/e + verb


eri-/y/e gir. (i*e*ri*ye / gir ) Come in.
ocuk-lar ieri-/y/e gir-di. (o*cuk*lar / i*e*ri*ye / gir*di ) The boys came in.

iin (for, to): ben-im, sen-in, o-/n/un + iin; verb-[mek, mak] + iin (adverbial)
Baba-am ben-im iin bir bilgisayar al-d.
subject

postp phrase
adverbial

indefinite obj

verb

(ba*bam / be*nim / i*in / bir / bil*gi*sa*yar / al*d )


My father bought a computer for me.
Herkes kralie-/y/i gr-mek iin ayak-a kalk-t.
subject

infinitive
postp adverbial
postp adverbial phrs of cause

verb

(her*kes / k*ra*li*e*yi / gr*mek / i*in / a*ya*a / kalk*t )


Everybody stood up to see the queen. (To see is an adverbial infinitive.)

kadar (asas): noun + kadar (adjectival); noun-[e, a] kadar (adverbial)


Dev kadar bir adam gkgrlts gibi grle-di.
noun postp det + noun
modifier
noun
subject

noun
postp
postp adverbial phrs
predicate

|
verb

(dev / ka*dar / bir / a*dam / gk*g*rl*t*s / gi*bi / gr*le*di )


A man as big as a giant roared like thunder.

kala (to): noun-[e, a) + noun + kala (adverbial)


Ma dokuz-a eyrek kala bala-d.
subj

noun comp
postp
postp adverbial phrase

verb

(ma / do*ku*za / ey*rek / ka*la / ba*la*d )


The game started at a qarter to nine.

kar (against): noun or noun complement-[e, a] (adverbial)


94

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Biz onlar-n teklif-i-/n/e kar-/y/z.
subj

noun compound -/n/e


postp phrs.
adverbial phrs
subject complement
predicate

(biz / on*la*rn / tek*li:*fi*ne / kar**yz ) We are against their proposal.

Karn, ramen (in spite of): noun comp-[e,a] + karn (adverbial)


al-ma-am.z-a karn baar-a.ma-d-k.
noun compound-a
postp
postp adverbial phrs of contrast

verb

(a*l*ma*m*za / kar*n / ba*a*ra*ma*dk )


We couldnt succeed in spite of our work-ing. (Our work-ing is the object
of the preposition in spite of.)

nazaran (compared to): noun or noun comp-[e,a] + nazaran (adverbial)


teki kz-lar-a nazaran daha gzel-sin.
nominal phrs-a
postp
adverb
adjective
postp adverb phrs of comparison subj complement

(*te*ki / kz*la*ra / na*za*ran / da*ha / g*zel*sin )


You are more beautiful compared to other girls.

nedeniyle, yznden (because of): noun compound + neden-i-/y/le


renci-ler-in ok-u youn kar ya-- neden-i/y/-le okul-a ge gel-di.
noun compound
subject

adj indef noun comp


adverbial
adverbial adv
postpositional adverbial phrase of cause
predicate

|
verb

(*ren*ci*le*rin / o*u / yo*un / kar / ya** / ne*de*niy*le / / o*ku*la / ge / gel*di )


Most of the students came to school late because of the heavy snow fall.

nce, evvel (before): noun or infinitive)-[den, dan, ten, tan] + nce


Yat-ma-dan nce (ben-im) ev dev-im-i bitir-mi-ti-im.
infinitive-dan
postp
postp adverbial phrase

noun compound-i
definite object

verb

(yat*ma*dan / n*ce / e*v*de*vi*mi / bi*tir*mi*tim ) (Liaison)


I had finished my homework before I went to bed.

ramen (although): noun or noun comp-[e, a] + ramen


Yorgun ol-ma-am.z-a ramen al-ma-/y/a devam et-me.li-/y/iz.
noun compound-a
postp
postpositional adverbial phrase

adverbial

indef obj

verb

(yor*gun / ol*ma*m*za / ra*men / a*l*ma*ya / de*vam / et*me*li*yiz )


We have to go on work-ing although we are tired.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


srece (as long as): noun comp + srece (adverbial)
al-tk-n srece baar-a.bil-ir-sin.
noun compound postp
postp adverbial phrs

verb

(a*l*t*n / s*re*ce / ba*a*ra*bi*lir*sin )


You can succeed as long as you work.

zere (about to): [mak, mak] infinitive + zere (adverbial)


Misafir-ler gel-mek zere. (The underlined words are infinitives.)
subject

subject complement
predicate

(mi*sa:*fir*ler / gel*mek / *ze*re )


The visitors are about to arrive.

INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO VERBS


Fiillere Eklenen ekim Ekleri
Time and personal inflectional morphemes are attached to nouns, noun
compounds, adjectives, prepositional phrases, and verbs.
The grammar term noun includes proper nouns, such as: Jack,
Mehmet, stanbul, Germany, English; common nouns, such as:
book, table, school, television, and abstract nouns such as: poverty, laughter, happiness, kindness, bravery, curiosity, etc.
Pronouns are also considered nouns because they occupy the places of
nouns, and act as nouns in sentences.
Adjectives are words like good, clever, hardworking, wealthy, attractive, etc.
A prepositional phrase in English is a group of words that begins with a
preposition and ends either with a noun (a pronoun, or a gerund), or a
nominal phrase: On the table", at the table, in the box, at ten
oclock, at school, at the door, behind the curtain, in front of the
mirror, next to the station, above the clouds, under the table, until
morning, since Sunday, and before buy-ing are all prepositional
phrases which function as adverbials.
In Turkish, however, the equivalents of these prepositions are the [E], [DE],
[DEN], and [LE] morphemes, which follow nouns attached to them. When
compared, English prepositions are prepositional (they are used before
nouns) in the sentence order, but in Turkish, the [], [E], [DE], [DEN], and

96

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


[LE] morphemes are postpositional because they follow nouns attached to
them.
The first category of time morphemes are used attached to nouns, adjectives, or prepositional phrases, to which [dir, dr, dr, dur, tir, tr, tr, tur]
(present); [di, d, d, du ti, t, t, tu] (past), [mi, m, m, mu] (rumor,
inference) morphemes are attached. The ol-a.cak linking verb is separately used to convey the meaning of will be.
The [dir, dr, dr, dur, tir, tr, tr, tur] allomorphs are not normally used in
Simple Present be tenses, but when they are used, they add different concepts to such sentences. These sentences will be explained in the following
paragraphs.
The be, look, seem, become and sound verbs are generally liking
verbs. They carry information about who, what, how, and where the subject is, was, can be, etc. The following are all linking verbs: is, are, was,
were, has been, have been, will be, had been, must be, may be, etc.
The information that the linking verbs carry to to the subjects are called
subject complements.

LINKING VERBS
Present Positive:
The compulsory personal allomorphs used with present be are as follows:
(ben): [im, m, m, um]; (sen): [sin, sn, sn, sun]; (o): []; (biz): [iz, z,
z, uz]; (siz):[sin.iz, sn.z, sn.z, sun.uz]; (onlar): [() (ler, lar)]
1. Noun: (Ben) retmen-im (*ret*me*nim) I am a teacher. (Sen)
doktor-sun (dok*tor*sun) You are a doctor. O bir doktor (dok*tor).
She is a doctor. Biz doktor-uz (dok*to*ruz) We are doctors. Siz bir
retmen-sin.iz (siz / *ret*men*si*niz) You are a teacher.
The words that the linking verbs link to the subjects may be nouns,
adjectives or adverbial prepositional phrases, which are called
subject complements.
2. Adjective: (Ben) tembel-im (tem*be*lim) I am lazy. (Sen) alkansn (a*l*kan*sn) You are hardworking. O mutlu(dur) (o / mut*lu).
She is happy. (Biz) iyi-/y/iz (biz / i*yi*yiz) We are all right. Yorgunsun.uz (yor*gun*su*nuz) You are tired. Onlar isteksiz. They are unwilling.
3. Prepositional phrase: The allomorphs [de, da, te, ta] are expressed in
English in the prepositions of in, at, on. For example:

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


ev-de (at home); okul-da (at school, in school); masa-da (on the
table, at the table); kap-da (at the door); kutu-da (in the box);
bahe-de (in the garden); hastane-de (in hospital, in the hospital);
uak-ta (on the plane), okul-un n--/n/-de (in front of the school).
The other [e, a] and [den, dan, ten, tan] allomorphs are not used with the
linking verbs be; they are used together with action verbs like go,
come, wait, sleep, etc.
No time allomorphs are used when subject complements are used in sentences. For instance, when kap-da is said, it means is at the door.
Postac kap-da. The postman is at the door. Onlar imdi uak-ta. They
are on the plane now. Kap-da-/y/m. I am at the door. Akll-sn. You are
clever. Mutfak-ta. She is in the kitchen. Hakl-/y/z. We are right. Gzelsin.iz. You are beautiful. Onlar irkin. They are ugly.
The same [E], [DE] and [DEN] morphemes are also used attached to
n, arka, yan, st, kar, sol, sa, alt, bitiik nouns,
such as n-e, arka-/y/a, yan-a, st-e, kar-/y/a, yukar-/y/a,
n-de, arka-da, yan-da, alt-ta, st-te, kar-da, sa-da,
sol-da, bitiik-te, n-den, arka-dan, yan-dan, st-ten,
kar-dan, sa-dan, yakn-dan.
These words are all nouns when they are without suffixes; if they were not,
the [E], [DE] and [DEN] morphemes would not be attached to them. When
they are together with these suffixes, they function either as adverbials, or
when the [de, da, te, ta] allomorphs are used with the linking verbs be,
they function as subject complements in sentences.
Consequently, as these words are all nouns, they are also used in noun
compounds like the simple noun compounds such as oda-/n/n kap-/s/;
perde-/n/in arka-/s/; ayna-/n/n n-; vazo-/n/un yan-; yatak-n
alt- (ya*ta*n / al*t); bakkal-n bitiik-i (bak*ka*ln / bi*ti*i*i); koltukun sa- (kol*tu*un / sa*); bakkal-n kar-/s/; ev-in arka-/s/.
When the above [E], [DE] and [DEN] morphemes are attached to the noun
compounds above, they take the /n/ glides. The underlined parts of the
example sentences below are all subject complements:
Kedi perde-/n/in arka-/s//n/-da. (per*de*nin / ar*ka*s)
subj

noun compound - /n/da


(subj complement) predicate

(ke*di / per*de*nin / ar*ka*sn*da ).


The cat is behind the curtain.

98

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Gzlk-ler-im ayna-/n/n n-/n/-de. (ay*na*nn / *n)
(gz*lk*le*rim / ay*na*nn / *nn*de )
My glasses are in front of the mirror.
Terlikler-in karyola-/n/n alt-/n/-da. (kar*yo*la*nn / al*t)
(ter*lik*le*rin / kar*yo*la*nn / al*tn*da )
Your slippers are under the bed.
Ben-im ev-im bakkal-n bitiik-i/n/-de. (bak*ka*ln / bi*ti*i*i)
(be*nim / e*vim / bak*ka*ln / bi*ti*i*in*de )
My house is next to the grocer.
Sen-in dkkn-n bakkal-n kar-/s//n/-da. (bak*ka*ln / kar**s)
(se*nin / dk*k*nn / bak*ka*ln / kar**sn*da )
Your shop is opposite (to) the grocer.
stasyon sol-da.
(is*tas*yon / sol*da )
The station is on the left.
stasyon bakkal-n sol-u/n/-da. (bak*ka*ln / so*lu)
(is*tas*yon / bak*ka*ln / so*lun*da )
The station is on the left of the grocer.
Kar-m ev-de.
(ka*rm / ev*de )
My wife is at home.
Postane-/n/in n-/n/-de-/y/im. (pos*ta*ne*nin / *n)
(ben / pos*ta:*ne*nin / *nn*de*yim )
I am in front of the post office.
In the sentences above, there are no time morphemes attached to the
words arkasnda, nnde, karsnda, evde, etc.The absence of these
time morphemes in the sentences above imply that the time is present.
Note: As it is seen, some English words are accumulated together in one
Turkish word. Whereas, when a Turkish word is underlined, the corresponding English expression may cover several words.
Present Negative
To change the positive be linking verb into a negative form, the adverb
deil is used after the subject complements in Turkish, such as:

99

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Mutlu deil-im. (All the underlined words below are subject complements.)
(mut*lu / de*i*lim)
I am not happy.
stekli deil-sin.iz.
(is*tek*li / de*il*si*niz)
You are not willing.
Yakkl deil-sin.
/ya*k*k*l / de*il*sin)
You are not handsome.
Ev-de deil-ler.
(ev*de / de*il*ler)
They are not at home.
Baba-am ev-de deil.
(ba*bam / ev*de / de*il)
My father is not at home.
Present Positive Question
Deli mi-/y/im?
(de*li / mi*yim)
Am I crazy?
Ev-de mi-sin?
(ev*de / mi*sin)
Are you at home?
Fatma-/n/n gz-ler-i mavi mi?
(fat*ma*nn / gz*le*ri / ma*vi / mi)
Are Fatmas eyes blue?
Dikkatsiz mi-/y/iz?
(dik*kat*siz / mi*yiz)
Are we careless?
Hazr m-sn.z?
(ha*zr / m*s*nz)
Are you ready?

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


yi-ler mi?
(i*yi*ler / mi)
Are they all right?
Present Negative Question
alkan deil mi-/y/im?
(a*l*kan / de*il / mi*yim)
Am I not hardworking?
Sorumlu deil mi-sin.iz?
(so*rum*lu / de*il / mi*si*niz)
Are you not responsible?
Anne-en ev-de deil mi?
(an*nen / ev*de / de*il / mi)
Is your mother not at home?
Hazr deil mi-/y/iz?
(ha*zr / de*il / mi*yiz)
Arent we ready?
steksiz degil-ler mi?
(is*tek*siz / de*il*ler / mi)
Arent they unwilling?
The Question Words Used With the Linking Verbs:
Nerede-sin.iz? Ev-de-/y/im. (Single word)
(ne*re*de*si*niz)
Where are you? I am at home. (Four words)
Nasl-sn.z? yi-/y/im. (Single word)
(na*sl*s*nz)
How are you? I am quite well. (Four words)
Niin hazr deil-/s/in?
(ni*in / ha*zr / de*il*sin)
Why arent you ready?

101

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Kim-sin? (Ben) Ahmet-im. (One word)
(kim*sin)
Who are you? I am Ahmet. (Three words)
Nerede-/y/iz? stanbul-da-/y/z. (One word)

(ne*re*de*yiz)
Where are we? We are in stanbul. (Four words)
Ka ya-n-da-sn?

(ka / ya*n*da*sn)
How old are you?
LINKING VERBS
Past
The simpe past tense allomprphs of the linking verb be are the [di, d, d,
du, ti, t, t, tu] allomorphs, which are followed by the personal allomorphs
(ben) [im, m, m, um], (sen) [in, n, n, un], (o) [], (biz) [ik, k, k, uk], (siz)
[in.iz, n.z, n.z, un.uz], (onlar) [ler-di, lar-d]. Follow the examoles:
Dn saat be-te ev-de/y/-di-im.
(dn / sa*at / be*te / ev*dey*dim)
I was at home at five yesterday.

The yes-no interrogatve sentences in The Simple Present be:


(Ben)
(Sen)
(O)
(Biz)
(Siz)
(Onlar)

[mi-/y/im?, m-/y/m?, m-/y/m?, mu-/y/um?]


[mi-sin?, m-sn?, m-sn?, mu-sun?]
[mi?, m?, m?, mu?]
[mi-/y/iz?, m-/y/z?, m-/y/z, mu-/y/uz?]
[mi-sin-iz?, m-sn-z?, m-sn-z?, mu-sun-uz?]
[(ler) mi?, (lar) m?]

All the [mi. m, m, mu] allomorphs are adverbial because they change the
sentences into question forms.
Ev-de mi-sin?
(ev*de / mi*sin )
Are you at home?

102

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


yi mi-sin-iz?
(i*yi / mi*si*niz)
Are you all right?
Deli mi-/y/im?
(ben / de*li / mi*yim )
Am I crazy?
Hazr deil mi-/y/iz?
(ha*zr / de*il / mi*yiz )
Arent we ready?
When one of the allomorphs of the [DR] morpheme attaches to the last
words of one of the sentences above, the sentences mean either perhaps" or "I am sure". This difference of meaning can be heard in speech.
When a syllable printed in bold face is stressed, the sentence means, I am
sure, when it is not, it means "perhaps". The allomorphs of this morpheme
are [dir, dr, dr, dur, tir, tr, tr, tur], which are used only for the third peson.
(ka*r*mev*de*dir ) (perhaps); (ka*rm / ev*de*dir ) (I am sure)
"bura, "ura", "ora", bu, u, o could all be used as nouns. When
these nouns are attached to the allomorphs of the [E], [DE], and [DEN] morphemes, they become adverbials; but if they are attached to the allomorphs
of the phoneme [], they can be used in the object position in sentences:
O bura-da.
subject complement

(o / bu*ra*da)
He is here.
Bura-da-/y/m. (One word)
(bur*da*ym )
I am here. (Three words)
Kedi ura-da.
(ke*di / u*ra*da ) or (ke*di / ur*da )
The cat is there.
Onlar ora-da.
(on*lar / o*ra*da)
They are there.

103

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bura-dan git-ti-ler, ayrl-d-lar.
(bur*dan / git*ti*ler )
They left here.
Bura-dan ayrl-ma. (Ayrl is intransitive.)
(bur*dan / ay*rl*ma )
Don't leave here. (Leave is transitive.)
Ora-dan ayrl-.yor-lar.
(or*dan / ay*r*l*yor*lar )
They are leaving there.
Bura-/y/ hi gr-me-di-im.
(ben / bu*ra*y / hi / gr*me*dim )
I have never seen here.
("Bura-/y/" is the definite object of the verb see.)
Bu-/n/u anla-ma-d-m.
def (obj)

(ben/ bu*nu / an*la*ma*dm )


I didnt understand this.
Bu/n/-lar- anla-ma-d-m. (Bunlar- is the definite object.)
(ben / bun*la*r / an*la*ma*dm )
I didnt understand these.
The same [DEN] morpheme can be used after bu and o preceded by the
adverbs byle, nce and sonra to form postpositional phrases, which
function as adverbials:
bu/n/-dan byle (bun*dan / by*le) (from now on); bu/n/-dan sonra
(bun*dan / son*ra) (after this); bun*dan / n*ce (before this)
When the nouns or adjectives ending with vowels attach to the [de, da, te,
ta] allomorphs, and when they attach to the first person singular and plural
personal allomorphs they take the /y/ glides.
(Ben) iyi-/y/im. I am all right. (Ben) bura-da-/y/m. I am here.
(Biz) iyi-/y/iz. We are all right. (Biz) ev-de-/y/iz. (We) are at home.
However, the nouns and adjectives ending with consonants do not need the
/y/ glides when they are suffixed by the personal allomorphs. Besides, the final
consonants of the preceding words detach from their syllables, and attach to

104

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


the first vowels of the following morphemes, which are showed by single underlines:
(Ben) retmen-im. (*ret*me*nim ) I am a teacher.
(Ben) tembel-im. (tem*be*lim ) I am lazy.
(Biz) alkan-z. (a*l*ka*nz ) We are hardworking.
The personal allomorphs used in this tense are as follows:
(ben)
(sen)
(o)
(biz)
(siz)
(onlar)

[im, m, m, um]
[sin, sn, sn, sun]
[]
[iz, z, z, uz]
[sin.iz, sn.z, sn.z, sun.uz]
[] ([ler, lar])

retmen-im.
(ben / bi*r*ret*me*nim ) (Liaison)
I am a teacher.
Doktor-sun.
(sen / bir / dok*tor*sun )
You are a doctor.
O mimar.
(o / bir / mi:*mar )
She is an architect.
The /i:/ in the last example shows that the /i:/ vowel is lengthened, and the
hyphen (-) is used to separate morphemes; not syllables. The syllables are
separated by asterisks (*). However, dots (.) are used when inflectional or
derivational allomorphs having two or more syllables such as [me.li, ma.l].
[e.bil, a.bil], [e.cek, a.cak] are separated.
(Biz) retmen-iz.
(biz / *retme*niz ) or (bi*z*ret*me*niz ) (Liaison)
We are teachers.
Siz-ler retmen-sin.iz.
(siz*ler / *ret*men*si*niz ) or (siz*le*r*ret*men*si*niz ) (Liaison)
You are teachers.
Onlar retmen.
(on*lar / *ret*men ) or (on*la*r*ret*men ) (Liaison)
They are teachers.

105

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


yi-/y/im.
(ben / i*yi*yim) or (be*ni*yi*yim ) (Liaison)
I am all right.
(The /y/ glide is inserted between the two successive i-i vowels.)
Ev-de-/y/im.
(ev*de*yim ) I am at home.
(The /y/ is a glide inserted between /e/ and /i/ vowels.)
Tiyatro-da-lar. (One word)
(ti*yat*ro*da*lar )
They are at the theater. (Five words)
stanbul-da-/y/z. (One word)
(is*tan*bul*da*yz )
We are in stanbul. (Four words)
Note: "Liaison" means connecting two or more words by detaching the last
consonant of a word from its syllable and attaching it to the first vowel of the
following word while articulating. Although this consonant transposition helps
to improve the fluency of the oral communication, it is not showed in writing.
The /y/ glides in the sentences above are used to link the successive vowels /i/ and /i/ in "iyi-/y/im", /e/ and /i/ in "ev-de-/y/im", and /a/ and // in
"stanbul-da-/y/z" harmoniously.
The Present Tense verb composition of the Turkish language above is also
used to express The Present Perfect Tense concept of the English language.
In languages, tense and time are different notions. Tense is the physical
structure of a verb composition, but time is an abstract concept produced
by the human intellect. In other words, one can use the same verb composition to express two different time concepts. For instance, English people say,
"I have been here for an hour, but Turkish people say, "*I am here for an
hour". This shows us that Turkish people use The Simple Present verb form
of the verb "be" both for the Simple Present and for the Present Perfect
tenses of the English language. Compare and consider the following sentences:
imdi ev-de-/y/im.
(ben / im*di / ev*de*yim )
I am at home now.

106

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


ki saat-tir ev-de-/y/im.
(ben / i*ki / sa*at*tir / ev*de*yim )
I have been at home for two hours.
Saat sekiz-den beri ev-de-/y/im.
(sa*at / se*kiz*den / be*ri / ev*de*yim )
I have been at home since eight oclock.
Aye on sene-dir retmen.
(ay*e / on / se*ne*dir / *ret*men )
Aye has been a teacher for ten years.
ki saat-tir bura-da-/y/m.
(i*ki / sa*at*tir / bu*ra*da*ym )
I have been here for two hours.
As it is seen in the sentences above, two different concepts of time of the
English language are expressed in only one verb composition in Turkish.
imdi, iki saattir and saat sekizden beri expressions are enough to
convey the difference of time in Turkish.
The personal pronouns in the sentences above are optional elements because they can be understood from the personal allomorphs attached to
the complements of the sentences. However, when the third person singular
or plural pronouns are used in place of proper nouns, one cannot understand who those pronouns stand in for. For example, when I say, I went to
Ankara you do not need to ask, Who went to Ankara?"
However, when I say, She went to Ankara you immediately ask who she
is. Therefore, in the sentence, Ankaraya gitti, the zero morpheme [],
which stands for o, does not clearly express who the real person is being
talked about. However, if the name of the real person has already been
mentioned, the personal pronoun o can naturally be used.
To change the above sentences into the negative form, the negative making
adverb deil is used together with personal allomorphs:
deil-im, deil-sin, deil, deil-iz, deil-sin.iz, degil-(ler)
Doktor deil-im.
(dok*tor / de*i*lim )
I am not a doctor.

107

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


ocuk-lar ev-de deil. (Liaison)
(Liaisons can only be used in speech; they cannot be used in writing.)
(o*cuk*la*rev*de / de*il )
The children are not at home.
Baz ocuk-lar bahe-de deil.
(ba*z / o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / de*il )
Some boys are not in the garden.
Ankara'da deil-iz.
(an*ka*ra*da / de*i*liz )
We are not in Ankara.
stek-li deil-sin.iz.
(is*tek*li / de*il*si*niz )
You are not willing.
When one of the allomorphs [dir, dr, dr, dur, tir, tr, tr, tur] of the morpheme [DR] is used, the sentence gains either the concepts of perhaps
or I am sure:
(o*cuk*lar / ev*de*dir ) (Perhaps)
(o*cuk*lar / ev*de*dir ) (Im sure)
Btn kz-lar gzel-dir.
(b*tn / kz*lar / g*zel*dir )
Im sure all girls are beautiful. (Certainty)
Btn kz-lar gzel mi-dir?
(b*tn / kz*lar/ g*zel / mi*dir )
Are all girls beautiful? (What is your opinion?)
Btn kz-lar gzel deil mi?
(b*tn / kz*lar / g*zel / de*il / mi )
Are all girls not beautiful?
retmen deil mi-sin?
(sen / *ret*men / de*il / mi*sin )
Arent you a teacher?
O retmen deil.
(o / *ret*men / de*il )
She is not a teacher. (Certainty)

108

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


O bir retmen deil-dir.
(o / bir / *ret*men / de*il*dir )
Perhaps, she is not a teacher. (Uncertainty)
Koca-am yorgun. My husband is tired.
Koca-am yorgun deil. (de*il ) My husband is not tired.
Koca-am yorgun-dur. (Kocam yorgun ol-a.bil-ir.) (Possibility)
Perhaps my husband is tired, or he may be tired.
Ahmet ev-de deil-dir.
(ah*met / ev*de / de*il*dir )
I guess Ahmet is not at home. (Uncertainty)
San-r-m o, o kadar aptal deil.
(sa*n*rm / o / o / ka*dar / ap*tal / de*il )
I guess that he is not so stupid.

THE PRESENT MODALS WITH THE LINKING VERB BE


must be: (Ol-ma.l) (Certainty)
When ol-ma.l is used after nouns, adjectives, or postpositional phrases,
it means must be. The following underlined words are subject complements:
Koca-am yorgun ol-ma.l.
(ko*cam / yor*gun / ol*ma*l )
My husband must be tired. (I am sure he is tired.)
Bu araba pahal ol-ma.l.
(bu / a*ra*ba / pa*ha*l / ol*ma*l )
This car must be expensive. (I am sure it is expensive.)
Yorgun ol-ma.l-sn.
(yor*gun / ol*ma*l*sn )
You must be tired. (I am sure you are tired.)
Saat sekiz-de okul-da ol-ma.l-/y/z.
(sa*at / se*kiz*de / o*kul*da / ol*ma*l*yz )
We must be at school at eight. (Obligation)
Zaman-/n/-da hazr ol-ma.l-sn.
(za*ma:*nn*da / ha*zr / ol*mal*sn )
You must be ready in time. (Obligation)

109

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Onlar cahil ol-ma.l.
(on*lar / ca:*hil / ol*ma*l )
They must be ignorant. (I am sure they are ignorant.)
aka yap-.yor ol-ma.l-sn.
(a*ka / ya*p*yor / ol*ma*l*sn )
You must be joke-ing. (Certainty)
Ben deli ol-ma.l-/y/m!
(ben / de*li / ol*ma*l*ym )
I must be crazy. (I am certain that I am crazy.)
Onlar-a yardm et-me.li mi-/y/iz? (onlara is an adverb)
(on*la*ra / yar*dm / et*me*li / mi*yiz)
Must we help them? (Advice) (Them is the object of help.)
Teklif-i kabul et-me.li mi-/y/iz?
(tek*li:*fi / ka*bu:l / et*me*li / mi-yiz?
Must we accept the proposal? (Advice)
As one can see, both the concepts of obligation and certainty can be expressed by using the same modal sentence structure. This proves that the
semantic reasoning chooses the most suitable and available sentence
patterns in its store to express one of these two different concepts in a sentence.

cant be: (Ol-a.maz) (Impossibility)


To change the ol-ma.l sentences into the negative form, (ben) ol-a.maz-am
(o*la*mam), (sen) ol-a.maz-sn (o*la*maz*sn), (o) "ol-a.maz (o*la*maz), (biz) ola.ma-/y/z (o*la*ma*yz), (siz) ol-a.maz-sn.z (o*la*maz*s*nz), (onlar) ol-a.maz(lar) (o*la*maz*lar) words are separately used. The double underlined "z" in ol-amaz-am drops, and the remaining a-a vowels combine, and the single underlined
consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following
allomorphs:
Koca-am yorgun ol-a.maz.
(ko*cam / yor*gun / o*la*maz )
My husband can not be tired. (Impossibility)
ocuk-lar bahe-de ol-ma.l.
(o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / ol*ma*l )
The children must be in the garden. (I am sure they are in the garden.)

ocuk-lar bahe-de ol-a.maz.


(o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / o*la*maz )
The children can not be in the garden. (Impossibility)

110

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Film ilin ol-ma.l.
(film / il*gin / ol*ma*l )
The film must be interesting. (Certainty)
O film ilgin ol-a.maz.
(o / film / il*gin / o*la*maz )
That film can not be interesting. (Impossibility)
Tembel ol-a.maz-am.
(ben / tem*bel / o*la*mam )
I can not be lazy. (Impossibility)
Biz o saat-te okul-da ol-a.maz m-/y/z?
(biz / o /sa*at*te / o*kul*da / o*la*maz / m*yz )
Can we not be at school at that hour. (Is it impossible?)
Onlar hakl ol-a.maz m?
(on*lar / hak*l / o*la*maz*(lar) / m )
Can they not be right? (Is it impossible?)
Saat dokuz-da bro-da ol-a.maz m-sn?
(sa*at / do*kuz*da / b*ro*da / o*la*maz / m*sn )
Can't you be at the office at nine? (Isn't it possible?)
O bir geri zek-l ol-a.maz.
(o / bir / ge*ri / ze*k:*l / o*la*maz )
She cannot be a fool.

may be: Ol-a.bil-ir (o*la*bi*lir) (Possibility)


When ol-a.bil-ir (o*la*bi*lir) is used after a noun, an adjective, or a prepositional phrase, it means may be. The [ir] allomorph conveys the present concept, which has no allomorphs as a result of the [e.bil, a.bil] allomorphs preceding it. The [e.bil] allomorph can also be used with the verb
et:
ocuk-lar bahe-de ol-a.bil-ir.
(o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / o*la*bi*lir )
The children may be in the garden. (Possibility)

111

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bu iek demet-i siz-in iin ol-a.bil-ir mi?
(bu / i*ek / de*me*ti /si*zin / i*in / o*la*bi*lir / mi )
Can this bunch of flowers be for you. (Is it possible?)
Konser ilgin ol-a.bil-ir.
(kon*ser / il*gin / o*la*bi*lir )
The concert may be interesting. (Possibility)
Kedi kap-/n/n arka-/s//n/-da ol-a.bil-ir.
(ke*di / ka*p*nn / ar*ka*sn*da / o*la*bi*lir )
The cat may be behind the door. (Possibility)
Uak bulut-lar-n zeri/n/-de ol-a.bil-ir.
(u*ak / bu*lut*la*rn / *ze*rin*de / o*la*bi*lir )
The plane may be above the clouds. (Possibility)
Mutsuz ol-a.bil-ir-im.
(mut*suz / o*la*bi*li*rim )
I may be unhappy. (Possibility)
nat ol-a.bil-ir-sin.
(sen / i*nat* / o*la*bi*lir*sin )
You may be obstinate. (Possibility)
Yanl-m ol-a.maz m-/y/z?
(ya*nl*m / o*la*maz / m-yz )
Can't we be mistaken? (Isn't it possible?)
Saat dokuz-da bro-da ol-a.bil-ir mi-sin?
(sa*at / do*kuz*da / b*ro*da / o*la*bi*lir / mi*sin )
Can you be at the office at 9? (Is it possible for you?)
Saat on-da bana telefon et-e.bil-ir mi-sin? (Bana is an adverb in Turkish)
(sa*at / on*da / ba*na / te*le*fon / e*de*bi*lir / mi*sin )
Can (could) you ring me up at 10? (Request) (Me means both beni and bana)
Bu mektup-u imdi daktilo et-e.bil-ir mi-sin-iz?
(bu / mek*tu:*bu / im*di / dak*ti*lo / e*de*bi*lir / mi*si*niz )
Can (could) you type this letter now? (Request)

may not be: ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir (ol*ma*ya*bi*lir);


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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


To put the above sentences into the negative possibility form, (ben) ol-ma/y/a.bil-ir-im (ol*ma*ya*bi*li*rim), (sen) ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-sin (ol*ma*ya*bi*lir*sin), (o) ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir (ol*ma*ya*bi*lir), (biz) ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-iz (ol*ma*ya*bi*li*riz), (siz) ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-sin.iz (ol*ma*ya*bi*lir*si*niz), (onlar)
ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-ler (ol*ma*ya*bi*lir*ler), and "et-me-/y/e.bil-ir-ler" (et*me*ye*bi*lir*ler) words are separately used:
Hakl ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-sin.
(hak*l / ol*ma*ya*bi*lir*sin)
You may not be right. (Negative possibility)
Hakl ol-a.maz-sn.
(hak*l / o*la*maz*sn )
You cant be right. (Impossibility)
Yarn hava iyi ol-a.bil-ir mi?
(ya*rn / ha*va / i*yi / o*la*bi*lir / mi )
Is it likely to be fine tomorrow?
Yarn hava iyi ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir. (The allomorphs [me, ma] are adverbial.)
(ya*rn / ha*va / i*yi / ol*ma*ya*bi*lir )
It may not be fine tomorrow. (Negative possibility)
Yarn stanbul-da ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-iz.
(ya*rn / is*tan*bul*da / ol*ma*ya*bi*li*riz )
We may not be in stanbul tomorrow. (Negative possibility)
Biz-e yardm et-me-/y/e.bil-ir-ler.
(bi*ze / yar*dm / et*me*ye*bi*lir*ler )
They may not help us.

THE INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES WHOSE ANSWERS ARE


"YES" or "NO"
The words that change positive and negative sentences into "yes-no" interrogative sentences differ from one tense to another. Therefore, they are
given as follows:

Simple Present:
(Ben)
(Sen)
(O)
(Biz)

[mi-/y/im?, m-/y/m?, m-/y/m?, mu-/y/um?]


[mi-sin?, m-sn?, m-sn?, mu-sun?]
[mi?, m?, m?, mu?]
[mi-/y/iz?, m-/y/z?, m-/y/z?, mu-/y/uz?]

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(Siz)
[mi-sin-iz?, m-sn-z?, m-sn-z?, mu-sun-uz?]
(Onlar) [(ler) mi?, (lar) m?]
For instance: Ko-ar m-/y/m? Ko-ar m-sn? Ko-ar m? Ko-ar m/y/z? Ko-ar m-sn-z? Koar-lar m? Bekle-er mi-/y/im? Bekle-er misin? Ol-ur mu? Yz-er mi-/y/iz? Gel-ir mi-sin-iz?, Gel-mez mi-sin-iz?

Simple Past:
(Ben) [im, m, m, um], (Sen) [in, n, n, un]. (O) []. (Biz) [ik, k, k,
uk], (Siz) [in.iz, n.z, n.z, un.uz], (Onlar) [] or [ler, lar]
For instance: Se-ti-im mi? Al-d-m m? Gr-d-m m? Bul-du-um
mu? Kz-d-n m? -ti-in mi?, Sr-d-n m? Oku-du-un mu? Al-ma-d
m? Gez-me-di-ik mi? Ka-t-k m? l-t-k m? Gr-d-n-z m? Olma-d-n.z m?

Simple Future:
The same [M] adverb is used as in the Simple Present: For instance:
Gel-e.cek mi-/y/im? Al-a.cak m-sn? Sat-a.cak m? Bekle-/y/e.cek mi/y/iz? Bitir-e.cek mi-sin.iz? A-a.cak m-sn.z? Hatrla-ma-/y/a.cak-lar
m?

Present Continuous:
The same [M] structure is used as in the Simple Present. For instance:
Gl-.yor mu-/y/um? Sat-.yor mu-sun? Anla-.yor mu? Bekle-i.yor musun.uz? Kal-.yor mu-/y/uz? Uyu-u.yor-lar m? al-ma-.yor mu-/y/uz? Gelme-i.yor-lar m?

Past Continuous:
(Ben) [mu/y/-du-um?], (Sen) [mu/y/du-un?], [(O) [mu/y/-du?], (Biz) [mu/y/-du-

uk?], (Siz) [mu/y/-du-un-uz?], (Onlar) [mu/y/-du-lar?] or [mu/y/-du?]. For


instance:
Gl-.yor mu/y/-du-um? al-.yor mu/y/-du-un? Sat-.yor mu/y/-du?
Gez-i.yor mu/y/-du-uk? Bekle-i.yor mu/y/-du-un-uz? al-ma-.yor-lar
m/y/-d?

Future Continuous:
The same [M] structure is used as in the Simple Present. For instance:
Bekle-i.yor ol-a.cak m-/y/m? al--yor ol-a.cak m-sn? Yz-.yor ola.cak m? Dengele-i.yor ol-a.cak m-/y/z? Bak-.yor ol-a.cak m-sn-z?
Temzle-i.yor ol-a.cak-lar m? (Brown words are subject complements.)

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The [mi, m, m, mu] Rumor Form:
The same [M] structure is used as in the Simple Present. For instance:
Anla-m m-/y/m? Bitir-mi mi-sin? Ka-m m? ren-mi mi-/y/iz?
Tart-m m-sn-z? Ka-m-lar m? Yenil-mi-ler mi? Bitir-me-mi-ler
mi?

Past Perfect:
(Ben) [mi/y/-di-im, m/y/-d-m, m/y/-d-m, mu/y/-du-um (muy*dum)]
(Sen) [mi/y/-di-in, m/y/-d-n, m/y/-d-n, mu/y/-du-un (muy*dun)]
(O)
[mi/y/-di, m/y/-d, m/y/-d, mu/y/-du]
(Biz) [mi/y/-di-ik, m/y/-d-k, m/y/-d-k, mu/y/-du-uk (muy*duk)]
(Siz) [mi/y/-di-in.iz, m/y/-d-n.z, m/y/-d-n.z, mu/y/-du-un.uz]
(Onlar) [mi/y/-di-ler, m/y/-d-lar, m/y/-d-ler, mu/y/-du-lar]
For instance:
Oku-mu mu/y/-du-um? Gr-m m/y/-d-n? al-m m/y/-d? At-m
m/y/-d-k? Bala-m m/y/-d-n.z? Sor-mu mu/y/-du-lar?

Must [me.li, ma.l]; Can [e.bil-ir, a.bil-ir], Can't [e.mez, a.maz]


The same [M] structures are used as in the Simple Present. For instance:
Bekle-me.li mi-/y/im? Git-me.li mi-sin? Bit-me.li mi? Bala-ma.l m/y/z? Tart-ma.l m-sn-z? Ertele-me.li-ler mi? Yka-ma.l-lar m? me.li mi?
Git-e.bil-ir mi-/y/im? Sat-a.bil-ir mi-sin? Bala-/y/a.bil-ir mi? Bitir-e.bil-ir mi-/y/iz?
Anla-a.bil-ir mi-sin-iz? Yeti-e.bil-ir-ler mi? Anla-/y/a.bil-ir-ler mi? ol-a.bil-ir mi?
Baar-a.maz m-/y/m? Unut-a.maz m-sn? Gel-e.mez mi? Yeti-e.mez mi-/y/iz?
Sor-a.maz m-sn.z? Durdur-a.maz-lar m? Evlen-e.mez-ler mi? ol-a.maz m?

Perfect Modals:
The same [M] structures are used as in the Past Perfect:
Bitir-me.li mi/y/-di-im? Bala-/y/a.bil-ir mi/y/-di-ik? Baar-a.maz m/y/-dk? Bitir-me-em-iz gerek-ir mi/y/-di? Cezalandr-l-a.bil-ir mi/y/-di-ik? Bitir-e.mez mi/y/-di-ler? Anla-a.maz m/y/-d-k? Gcen-e.bil-ir mi/y/-diler?
Note: The single underlined consonants detach from their syllables and
attach to the foollowing vowels. The consecudive vowels written in bold
face combine.

must be, have to be, should be (ought to be), neednt be

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


"must be" (noun, adjectie or adverb) + ol-[ma.l]-pers)
Yorgun ol-ma.l-sn.
(yor*gun / ol*ma*l*sn )
You must be tired. (I am sure you are tired.)
Yarn saat dokuz-da okul-da ol-ma.l-sn.
(ya*rn / sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*kul*da / ol*ma*l*sn )
You must be at school at nine.
(I want you to be at school at 9.) (Obligation)
Saat dokuz-da bura-da ol-ma-ma.l-sn.
(sa*at / do*kuz*da / bur*da / ol*ma*ma*l*sn )
You mustnt be here at nine.
Saat dokuz-da okul-da ol-ma.l-/y/m.
(sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*kul*da / ol*ma*l*ym )
I must be at school at nine. (Internal obligation)
(I want to be at school at nine.)
Saat dokuz-da okul-da ol-a.ma-am.
(sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*kul*da / o*la*mam )
I can not be at school at nine. (Impossibility)

have to be (ol-mak + zorunda-[/y/m, -sn, -, -/y/z, -sn-z, -lar])


Saat dokuz-da okul-da ol-mak zorunda-/y/m. I have to be at school at nine.
(sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*kul*da / ol*mak / zo*run*da*ym)
(They want me to be at school at nine. (This is the rule.) (External obligation)
renci-ler alkan ol-mak zorunda. (The underlined words are infinitives.)
(*ren*ci*ler ~/ a*l*kan / ol*mak / zo*run*da )
Students have to be hardworking. (This is their duty.) (External obligation)
Saat dokuz-da okul-da ol-mak zorunda deil-im.
(sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*kul*da / ol*mak / zo*run*da / de*i*lim )
I don't have to be (or neednt be) at school at nine. (Absence of external obligation)
Saat dokuz-da okul-da ol-mak zorunda m-/y/z?
(sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*kul*da / ol*mak / zo*run*da / m*yz )
Do we have to be at school at nine?
Bu yeni szck-ler-i ren-mek zorunda-/y/m.
(bu / ye*ni / sz*ck*le*ri / *ren*mek / zo*run*da*ym )
I have to learn these new words. (External obligation)

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


neednt be (noun compound - [e, a] + gerek yok )
Ben okul-da ol-ur-um. ben-im okul-da ol-ma-am
simple sentence

noun compound

Saat dokuz-da okul-da ol-ma-am-a gerek yok.


noun compound-a

(sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*kul*da / ol*ma*ma / ge*rek / yok )


I neednt be at school at nine. I dont have to be at school at nine.
Note: The last [a] is one of the allomorphs of the morpheme [E]. (Lack of
external obligation)
Yarn le-den sonra bro-da ol-ma-am-a gerek yok.
(be*nim / ya*rn / *le*den / son*ra / b*ro*da / ol*ma*ma /ge*rek / yok )
I neednt be at the office tomorrow afternoon. I dont have to be
Hazr ol-ma-an-z gerek-i.yor. (Ol-ma and to be are infinitives.)
(ha*zr / ol*ma*nz / ge*re*ki*yor )
You have to be ready. You should be ready. You ought to be ready.
(External obligation)
(O-/n/un) kayglan-ma-/s/-/n/a gerek yok. (Kayglan is a verb.)
(o*nun / kay*g*lan*ma*s*na / ge*rek / yok )
She neednt be anxious. (Anxious is an adjective.)
(Biz-im) yeni bir araba al-ma-am.z-a gerek yok. (Al-ma is an infinitive.)
noun compound-a
adverbial phrase

(ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / al*ma*m*za / ge*rek / yok )


We neednt buy a new car.
(Sen-in) kz-ma-an-a gerek yok. (Kz is a verb.)
(kz*ma*na / ge*rek / yok )
You neednt be angry. (Angry is an adjective.)
(Sen-in) bar-ma-an-a gerek yok; sar deil-im.
(ba*r*ma*na / ge*rek / yok ) (sa*r / de*i*lim )
You need not shout; I am not deaf.
Note: The noun compounds in the sentences above are all underlined.

THE SIMPLE PAST VERB BE


The Simple Past morpheme of be is [D], which has eight allomorphs [di,
d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu]. These allomorphs are naturally followed by compulsory personal allomorphs:

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(ben)
(sen)
(o)
(biz)
(siz)
(onlar)

: [im, m, m, um]
: [in, n, n, un]
: []
: [ik, k, k, uk]
: [in.iz, n.z, n.z, un.uz]
: [] [ler, lar]

Note: There are two kinds of first person plural personal morphemes "[Z]
and [K]" attached to time morphemes in Turkish. The time morphemes ending with consonants attach to the [iz, z, z, uz] allomorphs such as giter-iz, "kal-r-z, ksr-r-z, gel-i.yor-uz, etc. However, when the past
allomorphs [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu], which end with vowels, attach to
the personal allomorphs, the first person plural allomorphs [ik, k, k, uk]
are used. As the last phonemes of the [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu], and the
first phonemes of the [ik, k, k, uk] are vowels, the vowels of the past allomorphs coinciding with the vowels of the [ik, k, k, uk] allomorphs combine
and verbalize as a single vowel such as: gel-di-ik (gel*dik), gr-d-k
(gr*dk), yen-di-ik (yen*dik), anla-d-k (an*la*dk), l-d-k (l*dk).
As the condition allomorphs [se] and [sa] also end with vowels, they take the
[ek] and [ak] personal allomorphs, such as: al-sa-ak (a*l*sak), yr-seek (y*r*sek), anla-sa-ak (an*la*sak), bekle-se-ek (bek*le*sek), konusa-ak (ko*nu*sak), bala-sa-ak (ba*la*sak), dinle-se-ek, ezberle-se-ek.
Note: The glides "/n/, /s/, // and /y/" are the consonants (semivowels) produced by the phonological system of the Turkish language. These semivowels do not carry meaning. They only help to harmonize the speech production. Therefore, they are showed between slashes in the sentences in
this book. These slash signs are not used in ordinary writing.
Follow the example sentences:
Dn hasta/y/-d-m. (The underlined words are subject complements.)
(dn / has*tay*dm )
I was ill yesterday.
(The /y/ is a glide.)
Dn sinema-da/y/-d-n.z.
(dn / si*ne*ma*day*d*nz )
You were at the cinema yesterday. (The /y/ is a glide.)

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Oyun ilgin-ti.
(o*yun / il*gin*ti )
The play was interesting.
Hazr-d-k.
(biz / ha*zr*dk )
We were ready.
Onlar zengin-di-ler.
(on*lar / zen*gin*di*ler )
They were wealthy.
To put the above sentences into the negative form, deil-di-im, deil-diin, deil-di, deil-di-ik, deil-di-in.iz, deil-ler-di negation words are
separately added to the sentences:
Dn hasta deil-di-im.
(dn / has*ta / de*il*dim )
I was not ill yesterday.
Dn okul-da deil-di-in.iz.
(dn / o*kul*da / de*il*di*niz )
You were not at school yesterday.
Dn hava gzel deil-di.
(dn / ha*va / g*zel / de*il*di )
It was not fine yesterday.
Geen hafta Bursa-da deil-di-ik.
(biz / ge*en / haf*ta / bur*sa*da / de*il*dik )
We were not in Bursa last week.
Onlar birka yl nce varlk-l deil-ler-di.
(on*lar / bir*ka / yl / n*ce / var*lk*l / de*il*ler*di )
They were not wealthy a few years ago.
The following words are used to put the above example sentences into the
Positive question form:
(ben)

: mi/y/-di-im, m/y/-d-m, m/y/-d-m, mu/y/-du-um

(sen)

: mi/y/-di-in, m/y/-d-n, m/y/-d-n, mu/y/-du-un

(o)

: mi/y/-di, m/y/-d, m/y/-d, mu/y/-du

(biz)

: mi/y/-di-ik, m/y/-d-k, m/y/-d-k, mu/y/-du-uk

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(siz)

: mi/y/-di-in.iz, m/y/-d-n.z, m/y/-d-n.z, mu/y/-du-un.uz.

(onlar) : mi/y/-di-ler, m/y/-d-lar, m/y/-d-ler, mu/y/-du-lar


The identical vowels that follow one another combine and verbalize as
single vowels: i-i i; - ; - ; u-u u; e-e e; a-a a
Although these words follow the vowel harmony rule patterns when they are
articulated and written, they are considered words, and so they are separately written. The /y/ consonants used above are all glides.
Dn hasta m/y/-d-n?
(dn / has*ta / my*dn )
Were you ill yesterday?
Ma skc m/y/-d?
(ma / s*k*c / my*d )
Was the match boring?
ocuk-lar mutlu mu/y/-du-(lar)?
(o*cuk*lar / mut*lu / muy*du*lar )
Were the children happy?
Sorular zor mu/y/-du?
(so*ru*lar / zor / muy*du )
Were the questions difficult?
Onlar zengin mi/y/-di-(ler)?
(on*lar / zen*gin / miy*di*ler )
Were they wealthy?
Mutlu mu/y/-du-un?
(mut*lu / muy*dun )
Were you happy?
The [mi, m, m, mu] question allomorphs can also be used after the primarily stressed words:
(dn / m / has*tay*dn); (so*ru*lar/ m / zor*du); (so*ru*lar / zor*
/ muy*du )
In order to form negative questions, deil and the above mi/y/-di-im?,
mi/y/-di-in?, mi/y/-di?, mi/y/-di-ik?, mi/y/-di-in.iz?, mi/y/-di-ler? words
are separately used:

120

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Dn okul-da deil mi/y/-di-in?
(dn / o*kul*da / de*il / miy*din )
Werent you at school yesterday?
Ma heyecanl deil mi/y/-di?
(ma / he*ye*can*l / de*il / miy*di )
Wasnt the match exciting?
Manzara gzel deil mi/y/-di?
(man*za*ra / g*zel / de*il / miy*di )
Wasnt the scenery beautiful?
Arkada-lar-n toplant-da deil-ler mi/y/-di, or deil mi/y/-di-ler?
Werent your friends at the meting?
Konser pahal deil mi/y/-di?
(kon*ser / pa*ha*l / de*il / miy*di )
Wasnt the concert expensive?
Ev-de deil mi/y/-di-in?
(sen / ev*de / de*il / miy*din )
Werent you at home?
Jack doum gn- parti-/s/i/n/-de deil mi/y/-di?
(jack / do*um / g*n / par*ti*sin*de / de*il / miy*di) (Surprise)
Wasnt Jack at the birthday party?
The Turkish Past form of be is also used in place of the Past Perfect be
had been of the English language. Compare the following:
Baba-am l-dk-n-de ben yirmi be yl-dr retmen-di-im.
(ba*bam / l*d*n*de ~/ ben / yir*mi / be / yl*dr / *ret*men*dim )
I had been a teacher for twenty five years when my father died.
kinci Dnya Sava son-a er-dik-i/n/-de ben yedi yl-dr renci/y/-di-im.
(i*kin*ci / dn*ya: / sa*va* / so*na / er*di*in*de / ben / ye*di / yl*dr /
*ren*ciy*dim )
I had been a student for seven years when the Second World War ended.

INTERROGATIVE WORDS
There are two kinds of interrogative words in Turkish: Simple interrogative
words like "kim?" (who?), "ne?" (what?), "nasl?" (how?), "niin?" (why?),
and the simple interrogative words that are followed by some inflectional
morphemes such as "kim-sin?" (who are you?), "kim-im?" (who am I?), "kimiz? (who are we?), "kim-i?" (whom?), "kim-e?" (to whom?), "kim-den?" (from

121

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


whom?), "kim-le?" (with whom?), "kim-de?" (?), "kim-in?" (whose?), "ne/y/le?" (how?), (with what instrument?), "neden? (why?), "nere-/y/e?" (where?),
"nere-de? (where?), "nere-den?" (from where?). For instance:
Kim-sin? Who are you? Bu soru-/y/a kim cevap ver-mek iste-i.yor? Who
wants to answer this question? O ne de-di? What did he say? Ne grd-n? What did you see? Nasl anla-d-n? How did you understand?
Ora-/y/a nasl git-ti-in? How did you go there? Kim-i gr-d-n? Whom
(who) did you see? Ora-/y/a kim-le git-ti-in? With whom did you go
there? Nere-den gel-i.yor-sun? Where are you coming from? Nere-/y/e
git-i.yor-sun? Where are you going? Nerede otur-u.yor-sun? Where do
you live? Neden sus-u.yor-sun? Why are you keeping quiet? Bu araba
kim-in? Whose is this car? O kim-mi? Who do they say he is?
The interrogative sentences having the question words above are pronounced with a rising intonation () both at the end of the interrogative sentences, and after the people or things that the question words are inquiring.
(Sen) kim-sin?
(kim sin)
Who are you?
Ben Jackim.
(ben / Ja* kim )
I am Jack.
(Sen-in) meslek-in ne?
(mes*le*in / ne)
What is your profession? What are you?
renci-/y/im.
(*ren*ci*yim )
I am a student.
Anne-en-iz nasl?
(an*ne*niz / na*sl)
How is your mother?
ok iyi, teekkr et-er-im. (Liaison)
(o*ki*yi / te*ek*k*re*de*rim )
She is quite well, thank you.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


stanbulda hava nasl?
(is*tan*bul*da / ha*va / na*sl)
What is the weather like in stanbul?
Yamur-lu.
(ya*mur*lu )
Rainy.
Kz karde-in-in ad- ne? (Liaison)
(kz / kar*de*i*ni*na*d / ne)
What is your sisters name?
Onun ad- Jane. (Liaison)
(o*nu*na*d /Jane )
Her name is Jane.
Bu iek-ler kim iin?
(bu / i*ek*ler / ki mi*in)
Who are these flowers for?
Onlar anne-em iin.
(on*lar / an*nem / i*in )
They are for my mother.
Vazo ne-/y/in st-/n/-de?
(va*zo / ne*yin / s*tn*de)
What is the vase on?
Kpek ne-/y/in arka-/s//n/-da?
(k*pek / ne*yin / ar*ka*sn*da)
What is the dog behind? (The /y/, /s/. and /n/ are glides.)
Dn kim-le/y/-di-in?
(dn / kimley*din)
Who were you with yesterday?
Ne zaman-dan beri bura-da-sn?
(ne / za*man*dan / be*ri / bu*ra*da*sn)
Since when have you been here?
Ne kadar zaman-dr bura-da-sn?
(ne / ka*dar / za*man*dr / bu*ra*da*sn)
How long have you been here?

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Hangi kitap sen-in?
(hangi / ki*tap /se*nin)
Which book is yours?
Hangi-/s/i sen-in?
(hangi*si / se*nin)
Which is yours?
Hangi-/s/i daha hesapl?
(hangi*si / da*ha / he*sap*l)
Which is more economical?
Kedi ne-/y/in alt-/n/-da?
(ke*di / ne*yin / al*tn*da)
What is the cat under?
iek-ler ne-/y/in i-i/n/-de/y/-di?
(i*ek*ler / ne*yin / i*in*dey*di)
What were the flowers in?
Hangi-/s/i-/n/i tercih et-er-sin?
(hangi*si*ni / ter*cih / e*der*sin)
Which do you prefer?
Nere-de-sin?
(ner*de*sin)
Where are you?
Okul-un nasl?
(o*ku*lun / na*sl)
What is your school like?
Araba-an ne renk?
(a*ra*ban / ne/ renk)
What color is your car?
Hangi kitap daha iyi?
(hangi / ki*tap / da*ha / i*yi)
Which book is better?
Kim-le beraber-sin?
(kim le / be*ra:*ber*sin)
Who are you with?

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Jack niin ev-de deil?
(Jack / ni in / ev*de / de*il)
Why isnt Jack at home?
stanbulda ne kadar kal-ma-/y/ pilanla-.yor-sun?
(is*tan*bul*da / ne / ka*dar / kal*ma*y / pi*ln*l*yor*sun)
How long do you plan to stay in stanbul?
Hangi-im.iz daha yakkl-/y/z?
(hani*miz / da*ha / ya*k*k*l*yz)
Which one of us is more handsome?
Ankara-/y/a niin git-ti-in?
(an*ka*ra*ya / niin / git*tin )
Why did you go to Ankara?

[M] (RUMOR, INFERENCE) (SYLENT, ANLAM IKARMA)


This morpheme gives the predicates the meaning of rumor or inference. It
has four allomorphs [mi, m, m, mu], and the usual compulsory personal allomorphs follow them:
(O) (bir) mimar-m.
(mi:*mar*m )
They say (I have heard) that he is (was) an architect.
Mahkm susuz-mu.
(mah*km / su*suz*mu )
They say (I have been informed) that the prisoner is (was) innocent.
Tembel-mi.
(tem*bel*mi )
People say that he is (was) lazy.
Okul-da/y/-m.
(o*kul*day*m )
They say that he is (was) at school.
O bir casus-mu.
( o / bir / ca:*sus*mu )
They say that he is (was) a spy.

125

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Tembel-mi-im.
(tem*bel*mi*im )
They say that I am (was) lazy.
Tembel mi/y/-mi-im?
(tem*bel / miy*mi*im )
Do they say that I am (was) lazy?
Sen-in kz-lar-n yaramaz m/y/-m?
(se*nin / kz*la*rn / ya*ra*maz / my*m )
Do they say that your daughters are (were) naughty?
Okul-da/y/-m-sn.z.
(o*kul*day*m*s*nz )
They said that you were at school.
In the sentences above, the origin, and the time of the rumor is either unknown, unimportant or concealed. As who says is unknown or unimportant,
such sentences can also be used in reported speech:
Snav-lar--/n/ ge-mi. They say that he has passed his examinations.
Araba-/s/ sat-l-m. They said (I heard) that his car had been sold.
Toplant ertelen-mi. They say (I have heard) that the meeting has been
postponed.
Kim-mi?, nere-de/y/-mi?, nere-de/y/-mi-sin?, ne/y/-mi?,
nasl-m?, kaa/y/-m? question words are naturally used in these
sentences:
O ne/y/-mi?
(o / neymi)
What do they say he (is) was?
Mimar-m.
(mi:*mar*m )
They say that he is an architect.
Ben ne/y/-mi-im?
(ben / ney mi*im)
What do they say I am?

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Tembel-mi-sin.
(tem*bel*mi*sin )
They say you are (were) lazy.
Kim-in kz-lar- yaramaz-m?
(ki*min / kz*la*r / ya*ra*maz*m)
Whose daughters do they say are (were) naughty?
Jack nere-de/y/-mi?
(Jack / ner dey*mi)
Where do they say Jack is (was)?
Kim hakl/y/-m?
(kim / hak*ly*m )
Who do they (you) say is (was) right?
Fatma nere-de/y/-mi?
(fat*ma / nere*dey*mi )
Where do they say Fatma was?

THE FUTURE FORM OF BE: WILL BE


The future form of the verb be is ol-[a.cak]-pers in Turkish:
Yarn hava gne-li ol-a.cak. (The underlined words are subj complements.)
(ya*rn / ha*va / g*ne*li / o*la*cak )
It will be sunny tomorrow.
Bir gn zengin ol-a.cak-sn.
(bir / gn / zen*gin / o*la*cak*sn )
You will be wealthy some day.
Yarn okul-da ol-ma-/y/a.cak-m.
(ya*rn / o*kul*da / ol*ma*ya*ca*m ) (ol*my*cam)
I wont be at school tomorrow.
Saat sekiz-de hazr ol-a.cak m-sn (ol-ur mu-sun)?
(sa*at / se*kiz*de / ha*zr / o*lur / mu*sun )
Will you be ready at eight oclock? (Request)
Saat ka-ta hazr ol-a.cak-sn? (liaison)
(sa*at / ka*ta / ha*z*ro*la*cak*sn)
What time will you be ready?

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


As the verb root is always ol, only the [a.cak] allomorph is used. The other
[e.cek] allomorph is used with action verbs: gel-e.cek, kal-a.cak.

THERE IS, THERE ARE; HAVE, HAVE GOT


Var & Yok
The equivalents of the expressions above in Turkish are -de var, -da
var, and ben-im, sen-in, o-/n/un var. Consider the following sentences:
Garaj-da bir araba var. (Liaison)
(ga*raj*da / bi*ra*ra*ba / var )
There is a car in the garage. (Exist) (There is a dummy subject.)
Garaj-da (ben-im) sadece bir araba-am var.
noun compound

(ga*raj*da / sa:*de*ce / bir / a*ra*bam / var )


I have (got) only one car in the garage. (Possess)
Uak-ta on yolcu var.
(u*ak*ta / on / yol*cu / var )
There are ten passengers on the plane. (Exist)
ki kz-m var.
noun comp

(i*ki / k*zm / var )


I have (got) two daughters. (Possess)
Ka erkek karde-in var?
noun compound

(se*nin~/ ka / er*kek / kar*de*in / var)


How many brothers do you have?
(Sen-in) ka para-an var?
noun compound

(se*nin / ka / pa*ran / var)


How much money do you have? (Possess)
The negative of var is yok:
Garaj-da hi araba yok.
(ga*raj*da / hi / a*ra*ba / yok )
There arent any cars in the garage. (Not exist)
(Ben-im) araba-am yok.
noun compound

(be*nim / a*ra*bam / yok )


I do not have a car. (Not possess)

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The past form of the above expression is var-d; there was, had got:
Garaj-da sadece bir araba var-d.
(ga*raj*da / sa:*de*ce / bir / a*ra*ba / var*d )
There was only one car in the garage. (Exist)
(Ben-im) ok para-am var-d. I had (got) a lot of money. (Possess)
noun compound

Uak-ta on yolcu var-d. There were ten passengers on the plane. (Exist)
The negative form of var-d is yok-tu: there wasnt, didnt have:
Yirmi sene nce (ben-im) ok para-am yok-tu.
noun compound

I didnt have much money twenty years ago. (Not possess)


Mutfak-ta bir masa yok-tu.
(mut*fak*ta / bir / ma*sa / yok*tu )
There wasnt a table in the kitchen. (Not exist)
Duvar-lar-da hi resim yok-tu.
(du*var*lar*da / hi / re*sim / yok*tu )
There werent any pictures on the walls. (Not exist)
Hi ocuk-u yok-tu.
(o*nun / hi / o*cu*u / yok*tu )
He didnt have any children. (Not possess)
Garaj-da hi araba var m/y/-d?
(ga*raj*da / hi / a*ra*ba / var / m/y/*d )
Were there any cars in the garage?

THERE USED TO BE AND USED TO HAVE


The Turkish equivalent of there used to be and "used to have" is also
var-d:
Ke-de bir postane var-d.
(k*e*de / bir / pos*ta:*ne / var*d )
There used to be a post office on the corner. (Existed in the past)
Snf-lar-da ok renci var-d.
(s*nf*lar*da / ok / *ren*ci / var*d )
There used to be a lot of students in classes. (Existed in the past)
(Ben-im) ok para-am var-d.
noun compound

(be*nim / ok / pa*ram / var*d ) I used to have a lot of money.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


THERE MUST (MAY) (SHOULD) BE, THERE CANT BE, THERE IS
GOING TO BE, THERE WILL BE
Ol-ma.l (ol*ma*l) (there must be); ol-a.maz (o*la*maz) (there cant be);
ol-a.cak (o*la*cak) (there is going to be, there will be); "ol-a.bil-ir" (o*la*bi*lir) (there may be); ol-ma-/s/ gerek-ir (ol*ma*s / ge*re*kir) (there
should be) expressions should also be included in the above sentence types:
leri-de bir kaza ol-ma.l.
(i*ler*de / bir / ka*za: / ol*ma*l )
There must be an accident ahead.
Bir yanl anla-ma ol-ma.l.
(bir / yan*l / an*la*ma / ol*ma*l )
There must be a misunderstanding.
Bu mektup-ta bir yanllk ol-a.bil-ir mi?
(bu / mek*tup*ta / bir / yan*l*lk / o*la*bi*lir / mi )
Can there be a mistake in this letter?
Kavga k-a.cak (ol-a.cak).
(kav*ga / *ka*cak )
There is going to be a fight.
Bir hava saldr-/s/ ol-a.bil-ir mi?
(bir / ha*va / sal*d*r*s / o*la*bi*lir / mi )
Is there going to be an air raid?
Bu mektup-ta baz yanl-lar ol-a.bil-ir.
(bu / mek*tup*ta / ba:*z / yan*l*lar / o*la*bi*lir )
There may be some mistakes in this letter.
Bura-da bir trafik polis-i ol-ma-/s/ gerek-mez mi?
(bur*da / bir / tra*fik / po*li*si / ol*ma*s / ge*rek*mez / mi )
Shouldn't there be a traffic police officer here?

IMPERATIVES AND WISHES


Direct orders are given to a second person by using a verb root, a verb stem
or a verb frame without using any suffixes, such as "Bura-/y/a gel." (Come
here.); "Ku-lar-a bak." (Look at the birds.); "St-n- i. (Drink your
milk.); "Pencere-den bak." (Look out of the window.); "Bir fincan kahve
buyur!" (Have a cup of coffee!); "Elen-me-en-e bak!" (e*len*me*ne /
bak) (Have a nice time!) (Enjoy yourself!).

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


One cannot usually give orders to himself or herself, so there is not a first
person order form. Orders are given to the second person as a rule. However, an order may also be given to the third person indirectly. A speaker gives
orders to a second person to transfer them to a third person. The last syllable of an imperative sentence is primarily stressed and dropped sharply,
which is symbolized with a falling arrow ():
Git-sin. (The underlined wors are either infinitives or gerunds.)
(git*sin )
Tell him to go; let him go.
Araba-am- yka-sn.
(a*ra*ba*m / y*ka*sn )
Tell him to wash my car.
Grlt-/y/ kes-sin-ler!
(g*rl*t*y / kes*sin*ler )
Tell them to stop make-ing a noise!
The orders that are given with the verb "ol" and et (be) are widely used in
both English and Turkish. In such sentences the primarily stressed syllables
are the last syllables of the adjectives and adverbials:
Sabr-l ol!
(sa*br*l / ol )
Be patient!
Dikkat et! (Dikkat-li ol!) (Liaison)
(dik*ka*tet ) (dik*kat*li / ol )
Be careful!
Hemen hazr ol! (Liaison)
(he*men / ha*z*rol )
Be ready soon!
Hemen hazr ol-sun-lar!
(he*men / ha*zr / ol*sun*lar )
Tell them to be ready soon!
Negative orders are given by attaching [me, ma] allomorphs to verb roots,
stems and frames:

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Pencere-den sark-ma!
(pen*ce*re*den / sark*ma )
Do not lean out of the window!
Cadde-/y/i ko-a.rak ge-me!
(cad*de*yi / ko*a*rak / ge*me )
Don't run across the street! (Do not run across the street.)
Ge kal-ma!
(ge / kal*ma )
Don't be late!
Ik-lar- kapat-ma-/y/ unut-ma!
(*k*la*r / ka*pat*ma*y / u*nut*ma )
Don't forget to turn off the lights!
Sabr-sz ol-ma!
(sa*br*sz /ol*ma )
Don't be impatient!
anta-an- al-dr-ma!
(an*ta*n / al*dr*ma )
Be careful not to have your handbag stolen!
The [me, ma] negative making allomorphs are added to verb roots, stems or
frames followed by the third person personal allomorphs [sin, sn] to change
the verb composition into the negative form:
Bura-/y/a gel-me-sin.
(bu*ra*ya / gel*me*sin )
Tell him not to come here. "Don't let him come here."
For the third person plural [ler, lar] allomorphs are added to the negative
verbs such as: "Gel-me-sin.ler" (gel*me*sin*ler), "Bala-ma-sn.lar"
(ba*la*ma*sn*lar).

WISH (stek)
To turn a verb root, stem or frame into the wish mood, [e, a] and the personal allomorphs are added:

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Al-a-/y/m. (a*la*ym ) Let me take.
Bak-a-/y/m! (ba*ka*ym ) Let me see! (Let me have a look!)
Git-e-/y/im. (gi*de*yim ) Let me go.
All the verb roots used above end with consonants, but when they end with
vowels, the /y/ glides are inserted between their last vowels and the [e, a]
allomorphs:
Bekle-/y/e-/y/im. (bek*le*ye*yim ) or (bek*li*ye*yim ) Let me wait.
However, in speech, the /y/e syllable attached to bekle drops, and the
word becomes (bek*le*yim ).
Bekle-/y/e-/y/im. (bek*le*yim ) Let me wait.
Ertele-/y/e-/y/im. (er*te*le*yim ) Let me postpone.
Anla-/y/a-/y/m. (an*la*ym ) Let me understand.
For the first person plural, [li-im], or [l-m] personal allomorphs are used
after the [e, a] allomorphs:
Al-a-l-m. (a*la*lm ) Let us take (buy).
Se-e-li-im. (se*e*lim ) Let us choose.
Bala-/y/a-l-m. (ba*la*ya*lm ) Let us begin.
Oku-/y/a-l-m. (o*ku*ya*lm ) Let us read.
Bekle-/y/e-li-im. (bek*le*ye*lim ) Let us wait.
The verb roots, stems or frames above ending with vowels, such as
"bala", "oku", and "bekle", are attached to the [e, a] wish allomorphs with
the /y/ glides.
Sometimes "gidem", "olam", "gidesin", "olasn", "gide", "ola" words are heard
in prayers and curses, such as "Cehennem-e git-e-sin!" (Go to Hell!),
"Tut-tuk-un altn ol-a!" (I wish what you hold be gold!)
To make the verbs negative, the [me, ma] allomorphs are added as usual:
"Bekle-me-/y/e-lim" (bek*le*me*ye*lim) (Let us not wait.); "Git-me-/y/elim" (git*me*ye*lim) Let us not go.
When the question forms of the wish mood are used, the wish forms
change into offers:

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Televizyon-u a-a-/y/m m?
(te*le*viz*yo*nu / a*a*ym / m )
Shall I turn on the TV?
If the sentence above ends with a rising intonation (), (te*le*viz*yo*nu /
a*a*ym / m), the sentence means, I didnt understand you well; please
repeat what you said.
Bu szck-ler-i tahta-/y/a yaz-a-/y/m m?
(bu / sz*ck*le*ri / tah*ta*ya / ya*za*ym / m )
Shall I write these words on the blackboard?
Bir restoran-da akam yemek-i ye-/y/e-li-im mi?
(bir / res*to*ran*da / ak*am / ye*me*i / yi*ye*lim / mi )
Shall we have dinner at a restaurant?
Sana bir fincan kahve yap-a-/y/m m?
(sa*na / bir / fin*can / kah*ve / ya*pa*ym / m )
Shall I make you a cup of coffee?
iek-ler-i sula-/y/m m?
(i*ek*le*ri / su*la*ym / m )
Shall I water the flowers?

THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


Geni Zaman
The Turkish Simple Present Tense is generally used like the English Simple
Present Tense only with some exceptions. They will be dealt with after the
general explanations. The time morpheme of this tense is [R], which has
the allomorphs of [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar]. These allomorphs are followed by
the compulsory personal allomorphs as usual:
(Ben)
(Sen)
(O)
(Biz)
(Siz)
(Onlar)

:
:
:
:
:
:

[im, m, m, um]
[sin, sn, sn, sun]
[] morpheme. (No personal allomorphs are attached.)
[iz, z, z, uz]
[sin-iz, sn.z, sn.z, sun.uz]
[ler, lar]

When the main verbs ending with vowels attach to The Simple Present
Tense allomorphs [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar], the last vowels of the verbs and the

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


first vowels of the allomorphs happen to be identical and so they are
shared between the last vowels of the verbs and the first vowels of The
Simple Present Tense allomorphs. Therefore, they combine and articulate
as single vowels. The verbs ending with consonants are single underlined.
They detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs if they start with vowels:
Bekle-er-im (bek*le*rim); bala-ar-m (ba*la*rm); yr-r-m (y*r*rm);
koru-ur-um (ko*ru*rum); bekle-er-sin (bek*ler*sin); bala-ar (ba*lar); ye-er
(yer); bekle-er-iz (bek*le*riz); bala-ar-sn.z (ba*lar*s*nz); yr-r-ler
(y*rr*ler); u-ar (u*ar); gez-er (ge*zer); gel-ir (ge*lir); sat-ar (sa*tar)
The coinciding vowels above written in bold face combine. The transplaced
consonants are single underlined. This verb composition is formed as follows:
Yz-er-im. (y*ze*rim ) I swim.
Bekle-er-im. (bek*le*rim ) I wait.
Anla-ar-m. (an*la*rm ) I understand.
Al-r-m. (a*l*rm ) I take or buy.
Gtr-r-m. (g*t*r*rm ) I take ... to.
Otur-ur-um. (o*tu*ru*rum ) I sit.
Se-er-im. (se*e*rim ) I choose.
Ka-ar-m. (ka*a*rm ) I run away.
Se-il-ir-im (e*i*li*rim ) I am elected, chosen. (Passive)
Yz-er-sin. (y*zer*sin ) You swim.
Al-r-sn. (a*lr*sn ) You take, you buy.
Gtr-r-sn. (g*t*rr*sn ) You take ... to
Anla-ar-sn. (an*lar*sn ) You understand.
Otur-ur-sun. (o*tu*rur*sun ) You sit.
Yakala-ar-sn. (ya*ka*lar*sn ) You catch.
Sat-ar-sn. (sa*tar*sn ) You sell.
Se-il-ir-sin. (se*i*lir*sin ) You are elected, chosen. (Passive)
The "he", "she" and "it" pronouns are all expressed in "o" pronoun inTurkish:

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Yz-er. (y*zer ) He (she, it) swims.
Al-r. (a*lr ) He (she) takes. He (she) buys.
Gtr-r. (g*t*rr ) He (she, it) takes ... to.
Otur-ur. (o*tu*rur ) He (she, it) sits.
Bak-ar. (ba*kar ) He (she, it) looks.
Bekle-er. (bek*ler ) He (she, it) waits.
Gr-l-r. (g*r*lr ) He (she, it) is seen. (Passive)
Ye-er. (yer) He (she, it) eats.
Yz-er-iz. (y*ze*riz ) We swim.
Al-r-z. (a*l*rz ) We take or buy.
Gtr-r-z. (g*t*r*rz ) We take ... to.
Otur-ur-uz. (o*tu*ru*ruz ) We sit.
Bekle-er-iz. (bek*le*riz ) We wait.
Bala-ar-z. (ba*la*rz ) We start.
Yen-il-ir-iz. (ye*ni*li*riz ) We are beaten, defeated. (Passive)
Yz-er-sin.iz. (y*zer*si*niz ) You swim.
Al-r-sn.z. (a*lr*s*nz ) You take or buy.
Gtr-r-sn.z. (g*t*rr*s*nz ) You take ... to
Otur-ur-sun.uz. (o*tu*rur*su*nuz ) You sit.
Oku-ur-sun.uz. (o*kur*su*nuz ) You read.
U-ar-sn.z. (u*ar*s*nz ) You fly.
Anla-a-r-sn.z. (an*la*r*s*nz ) You reach an agreement. (Reciprocal)
Yz-er-ler. (y*zer*ler ) They swim.
Al-r-lar. (a*lr*lar ) They take or buy.
Sakla-ar-lar. (sak*lar*lar ) They hide.
Gtr-r-ler. (g*t*rr*ler ) They take ... to
Otur-ur-lar. (o*tu*rur*lar ) They sit.
Yr-r-ler. (y*rr*ler ) They walk.
Ka-ar-lar. (ka*ar*lar ) They run away.
Anla-a-r-lar. (an*la*r*lar ) They reach an agreement. (Reciprocal)

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The verbs that are used in this and in the following tenses are of two kinds:
Transitive verbs, and intransitive verbs. Transitive verbs need objects,
which may be pronouns, nouns, or nominal phrases, but Intransitive
verbs do not need them. They are preceded by adverbs, or nouns attached
to [E], [DE], [DEN], or [LE] morphemes, which function as adverbials.
Kz-m saat dokuz-da okul-a git-er.
subj

adverbial

adverbial

intr verb

(k*zm / sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*ku*la / gi*der ).


My daughter goes to school at nine. (Intransitive)
Genellik-le yedi-de kalk-ar-m.
subj

adverbial

adverbial

intr verb

(ben / ge*nel*lik*le / ye*di*de / kal*ka*rm )


I generally get up at 7. (Intransitive)
Karde-im her sabah oda-/s/-/n/ tertiple-er.
subject

adverbial

definite object transitive verb

(kar*de*im / her / sa*bah / o*da*s*n / ter*tip*ler )


My sister tidies her room every morning. (Transitive)
In Turkish, the order of a predicate having an object is different from that of
an English predicate having an abject. In English, its order is predicate
verb + object, but in Turkish, the order is predicate object + verb:
(Ben)
subj

Elma sev-er-im.
indef obj
verb
predicate

(Ben) kitap oku-ur-um.


subj

indef obj
verb
preficate

I
subj

I
subj

like

apples

verb indef obj


predicate

read

books.

verb
indef obj
predicate

As it is noticed, in the Turkish sentences above, the words elma and


kitap are not in plural form as they are used in their English equivalents.
This is because, if a common noun represents all of its own kind and covers
all books or apples, these nouns do not need plural allomorphs "[ler] or [lar]"
attached to them when they are used in the object or subject position. For
instance:
Benim kz-m kitap oku-maz. My daughter doesnt read books.
Halbuki, kitap faydal-dr. Books are useful, however.

137

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Gmlek-ler-im-i ben tle-er-im. I iron my shirts.
In the last example above, the pronoun ben is not in the beginning of the
sentence, which is its usual position. It is used after the object to emphasize the subject, and it is stressed in speech in English, which is done
with myself". This sort of sequence is possible in Turkish by putting
kendim after ben. However, if someone says, "Gmlekler-im-i ben
kendim tle-er-im, you may think that he is boasting about his abilities.
The subject + object + verb order of the same sentence, Ben gmlek-lerim-i (gm*lek*le*ri*mi) tlerim can also change places in poetry and literature. For instance, although, tlerim ben gmleklerimi, tlerim gmleklerimi ben, and Gmleklerimi tlerim ben kinds of sentences are quite
understandable and acceptable in Turkish, such sentences are generally
used in poetry to rhyme a poem.

VERBS ENDING WITH VOWELS OR CONSONANTS


tle-er-im. (*t*le*rim ) I iron.
Ertele-er-iz. (er*te*le*riz ) We postpone.
Yakala-ar-lar. (ya*ka*lar*lar ) They catch.
Ara-ar-z. (a*ra*rz ) We search, look for.
Uyu-ur-uz. (u*yu*ruz ) We sleep.
Yr-r-z. (y*r*rz ) We walk.
Tara-ar-m. (ta*ra*rm ) I comb.
Besle-er-im. (bes*le*rim ) I feed.
Oku-ur-uz. (o*ku*ruz ) We read.
Anla-ar-sn.z. (an*lar*s*nz ) You understand.
Uyu-ur-uz. (u*yu*ruz ) We sleep.
Kurula-ar-z. (ku*ru*la*rz ) We dry.
Yr-r-z. (y*r*rz) We walk.
Bekle-en-ir-iz. (bek*le*ni*riz ) We are waited.
Koru-ur-lar. (ko*rur*lar) They protect.
Yakala-ar-lar. (ya*ka*lar*lar) They catch.
U-ar-z. (u*a*rz) We fly.
Yen-er-iz. (ye*ne*riz) We defeat.
Gez-er-iz. (ge*ze*riz) We walk round.
Bak-ar-sn-z. (ba*kar*s*nz) You look.
t-er-im. (i*te*rim) I push.
Yak-ar-sn.z. (ya*kar*s*nz) You burn.
-er. (i*er) He drinks.

138

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ta-ar. (ta*ar) It boils over. It overflows.
Se-er-iz. (se*e*riz) We choose.
i-er. (i*er) It swells.
Ka-ar. (ka*ar) It escapes.
Anla-r-z. (an*la**rz ) We reach an agreement.
Gl--r-ler. (g*l*r*ler ) They laugh all togetger.
Kayna-a-r-z. (kay*na**rz ) We become friendly at once.
nsanlar dn-r. (in*san*lar / d**nr ) Human beings think.
al-an baar-r. (a*l*an / ba*a*rr ) Those who work succeed.
TURKISH VERBS THAT ARE FORMED BY OBJECTS FOLLOWED BY
VERBS
These verbs are all transitive in Turkish, which take either indefinite or
definite objects, or both of them preceding them.

ET
O ben-im-le
subj

adverbial

alay

etti.

ben-i affetti. O

indef obj trans verb subj def obj

verb

biz-i

deli

etti

subj def obj indef obj verb

alay et (a*la*yet) (make fun of), affet (af*fet) (forgive), armaan et (ar*ma*ga*net) (present as a gift), ba et (ba*et) (manage, cope with), beraat et
(be*ra*a*tet) (be acquitted), beyan et (be*ya:*net) (declare), buyur et (bu*yu*ret) (invite someone to), davet et (da:*ve*tet) (invite), dahil et (da:*hi*let) (include something in), daktilo et (dak*ti*lo / et) (type), dans et (dan*set) (dance), deli et (de*li / et) (make someone mad), dert et (der* det)
(occupy oneself with problems), devam et (de*va:*met) (continue), dikkat et
(dik*ka*tet) (pay attention to, be careful), dua et (du*a: / et) (pray, say ones
prayers), elde et (el*de / et) (obtain), gayret et (gay*re*tet) (try hard, do
ones best), g et (g*et) (migrate), haberdar et (ha*ber*da:*ret) (inform
someone), hakaret et (ha*ka:*re*tet) (insult), hapset (hap*set) (put in prison, imprison), hareket et (ha*re*ke*tet) (act, behave, start), hata et (ha*ta: /
et) (make a mistake), hayl et (ha*y:*let) (dream, imagine, picture in ones
mind), hazmet (haz*met) (digest), hizmet et (hiz*me*tet) (serve, assist),
idare et (i*da:*re* / et) (manage, control), iftira et (if*ti*ra: / et) (slander),
ihanet et (i*ha:*ne*tet) (betray), ikram et (ik*ra:*met) (offer someone to eat
or drink something), ihll et (ih*l:*let) (violate), ikna et (ik*na: / et) (convince, persuade), ihra et (ih*ra:*cet) (export, expel), ikaz et (i:*ka:*zet)
(warn), Imza et (im*za: / et) (sign), iml et (i:*m:*let) (manufacture), intihar
et (in*ti*ha:*ret) (commit suicide), iptal et (ip*ta:*let) (cancel), isabet et
(i*sa:*be*tet) (hit the mark), israf et (is*ra:*fet) (vaste), istifa et (is*ti*fa: / et)
(resign), istifade et (is*ti*fa:*de / et) (benefit from), istirahat et

139

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(is*ti*ra*ha*tet) (have a rest), itaat et (i*ta:*a*tet) (obey), ithl et (it*h:*let)
(import), itiraf et (i:*ti*ra:*fet) (confess), iyi et (i*yi / et) (cure, do the right
thing), iyilik et (i*yi*li*ket) (do a favor), kabalk et (ka*ba*l*ket) (be rude),
kabul et (ka*bu:*let) (accept), kr et (k:*ret) (profit from), kavga et (kav*ga
/et) (fight, quarrel), kontrol et (kon*tro*let) (check), koordine et (ko*or*di*ne
/ et) (coordinate), kfr et (kf*ret) (swear), mecbur et (mec*bu:*ret)
(oblige), megul et (me*gu:*let) (occupy someone), memnun et
(mem*nu:*net) (make someone happy), muhafaza et (mu*ha:*fa*za / et)
(keep, preserve), mutlu et (mut*lu / et) (make happy), nefret et (nef*re*tet)
(hate), niyet et (ni*ye*tet) (intend), nderlik et (n*der*li*ket) (lead), raz et
(ra:*z / et) (persuade), sabret (sab*ret) (be patient), sakat et (sa*ka*tet)
(make physically disabled), seyret (sey*ret) (watch, observe), sohbet et
(soh*be*tet) (chat, talk), sz et (s*zet) (talk about), tamir et (ta:*mi:*ret)
(repair, mend, fix), tahsil et (tah*si:*let) (be educated), takip et (ta:*ki:*bet)
(follow), taklit et (tak*li:*det) (imitate), rahatsz et (ra*hat*s*zet) (disturb),
tasarruf et (ta*sar*ru*fet) (economize on), tasvir et (tas*vi:*ret) (describe),
tavsiye et (tav*si*ye / et) (recommend), tedavi et (te*da:*vi: / et) (cure),
teklif et (tek*li:*fet) (offer), telefon et (te*le*fo*net) (telephone, make a telephone call, ring up), tembellik et (tem*bel*li*ket) (act or behave lazily),
tembih et (tem*bi:*het) (warn), tekrar et (tek*ra:*ret) (repeat), tenkit et
(ten*ki:*det) (criticize), tercih et (ter*ci:*het) (prefer), terk et (ter*ket)
(abandon, leave, desert), tesadf et (te*sa:*d*fet) (meet by chance, come
across), teslim et (tes*li:*met) (deliver, hand over), teebbs et
(te*eb*b*set) (make an attempt), teekkr et (te*ek*k*ret) (thank),
tevik et (te*vi:*ket) (encourage).
When the above "et" verbs are attached to the allomorphs of [ER], [.YOR],
[E.CEK], which all begin with vowels, the /t/ consonants change into the
voiced /d/; but when they are attached to the allomorphs of [D] and [M],
which begin with consonants, they do not change. For instance:
acele ed-er, acele ed-i.yor, acele ed-e.cek, acele et-ti, acele et-mi, teklif
et-ti, teklif et-mi, istifa et-ti, istifa et-mi, tercme et-ti, tercme et-mi.
If the [me] negation allomorph is used, the stress goes onto the verb et:
alay et-me (a*lay / et*me) (a*la*yet*me), af et me (af*fet*me), armaan etme (ar*ma*a*net*me), yardm et-me (yar*d*met*me), terk et-me (ter*ket*me). (Liaisons)

YAP
alveri yap (do shopping), arama yap (carry out a search), by yap
(cast a spell on someone), ay yap, kahve yap (make tea or coffee), cmle

140

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


yap (make a sentence), elinden geleni yap (do your best), ev ii yap (do
housework), giri yap (enter), hazrlk yap (get ready), hesap yap (calculate), i yap (do work, do business with), ibirlii yap (work together), iyilik
yap (do a favour), kaza: yap (have an accident), konuma yap (make a
speech), makyaj yap (do ones make up), dev yap (do homework), rejim
yap (go on a diet), aka yap (make a joke), tatil yap (have a holiday, vacation), tica:ret yap (trade), toplant yap (hold a meeting), yanllk yap
(make a mistake), yata yap (make the bed), yemek yap (cook, do the
cooking), yorum yap (comment on something).
The other verbs that are used together with nouns are ol, ile, and
kaydet. Their examples are as follows:

OL
abone ol (a*bo*ne / ol) (subscribe to), destek ol (des*te*kol) (support, back
up), gerek ol (ger*e*kol) (come true) kayt ol (kay*dol) (enroll), raz ol
(ra:*z / ol) (be willing to, consent to), sahip ol (sa:*hi*bol) (possess), ahit
ol (a:*hi*tol) (witness), ehit ol (e*hi:*dol) (die while fighting for Islam or
his country), teslim ol (tes*li:*mol) (surrender to), ye ol (*ye / ol) (be a
member), drst ol (d*rs*tol) (be honest to), kahrol (be depressed).

ILE, KAYDET, SALA:


baar sala (succeed), cinayet ile (commit a murder) gnaha gir
(g*na:*ha / gir) (commit a sin), ilerleme kaydet (make a progress), su
ile (commit a crime), n kazan (be famous), yara gir (take part in a race)

THE NEGATIVE FORM OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


The vowels and consonants used in the negative form of this tense undergo
some changes. The composition of this tense is as follows:
In the first person singular, a verb root, stem or a verb frame is used first,
and then the negative making allomorphs either [mez] or [maz] are attached
to the verbs, and they are followed by the personal allomorphs: gel-mezem.
Although this verb configuration is acceptable in some Turkish dialects, in
modern Turkish, the /z/ phonemes drop. When this happens, the remaining
e-e and a-a identical vowels combine, and the verb chain becomes
(gel*mem), (dn*mem), (u*yu*mam), etc.

141

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Gel-mez-em.
Oku-maz-am.
al-maz-am.
Yr-mez-em.
Konu-maz-am.
Tart-maz-am.
tle-mez-em.
Yaz-maz-am.
Yen-il-mez-em.

(gel*mem ) I do not come.


(o*ku*mam ) I dont read.
(a*l*mam ) I dont work.
(y*r*mem ) I dont walk.
(ko*nu*mam ) I dont speak.
(tar*t*mam ) I dont discuss.
(*t*le*mem ) I dont iron.
(yaz*mam ) I dont write.
(ye*nil*mem ) I am not defeated (beaten). (Passive)

In the second person singular, one of the [mez] or [maz] negation allomorphs is used after the verb, which is followed by one of the personal allomorphs [sin, sn, sn, sun]:
Gel-mez-sin.
(gel*mez*sin ) You do not come.
al-maz-sn. (a*l*maz*sn ) You do not work.
Oku-maz-sn. (o*ku*maz*sn ) You dont read.
Konu-maz-sn. (ko*nu*maz*sn ) You dont speak.
Atla-maz-sn. (at*la*maz*sn ) You dont jump.
Ka-n-maz-sn. (ka*n*maz*sn ) You dont avoid. (Reflexive)
As the third person singular takes a [] zero personal morpheme, only the
negation allomorphs [mez, maz] are used:
al-maz. (a*l*maz ) He does not work.
Oku-maz. (o*ku*maz ) He does not read.
Yaz-maz.
(yaz*maz ) He doesnt write.
Gr-mez.
(gr*mez ) He doesnt see.
Anla-maz. (an*la*maz ) He doesnt understand.
Gl-mez.
(gl*mez ) He doesnt laugh.
Ye-mez.
(ye*mez ) He doesnt eat.
-mez.
(i*mez ) He doesnt drink.
Uyu-maz.
(u*yu*maz ) He doesnt sleep.
Ka-n-maz. (ka*n*maz ) He doesnt avoid. (Reflexive)
The negative form of the first person plural takes [me, ma] negation allomorphs followed by [/y/iz, /y/z] personal allomorphs:
Ta-ma-/y/z. (ta**ma*yz ) We do not carry.
A-ma-/y/z.
(a*ma*yz ) We do not open.
Ala-ma-/y/z. (a*la*ma*yz ) We dont cry.
Dzenle-me-/y/iz. (d*zen*le*me*yiz ) We dont arrange.
Ka-ma-/y/z. (ka*ma*yz ) We dont escape.

142

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Kan-ma-/y/z.
Ertele-me-/y/iz.
-me-/y/iz.
v-n-me-/y/iz.

(ka*n*ma*yz ) We dont avoid. (Reflexive)


(er*te*le*me*yiz ) We dont postpone.
(i*me*yiz ) We dont drink.
(*vn*me*yiz ) We dont boast. (Reflexive)

The negative form of the second person plural takes [mez, maz] allomorphs according to the vowel harmony rules:
Gel-mez-sin.iz. (gel*mez*si*niz ) You do not come.
Oku-maz-sn.z. (o*ku*maz*s*nz ) You do not read.
al-maz-sn.z. (a*l*maz*s*nz ) You dont work.
Ta-maz-sn.z. (ta**maz*s*nz ) You dont carry.
Seyret-mez-sin.iz. (sey*ret*mez*si*niz ) You dont watch.
Ara-maz-sn.z.
(a*ra*maz*s*nz ) You dont search.
The third person plural form takes [mez, maz] negation allomorphs followed by the [ler, lar] personal allomorphs:
Gel-mez-ler.
Kal-maz-lar.
Dinle-mez-ler.
Konu-maz-lar.
U-u-maz-lar.
Yr-mez-ler.
Ala-maz-lar.
Ertele-mez-ler.
Kz-maz-lar.
ek-in-mez-ler.

(gel*mez*ler ) They do not come.


(kal*maz*lar ) They do not stay.
(din*le*mez*ler ) They dont listen.
(ko*nu*maz*lar ) They dont speak.
(u*u*maz*lar ) They dont fly about. (Reciprocal)
(y*r*mez*ler ) They dont walk.
(a*la*maz*lar ) They dont cry.
(er*te*le*mez*ler ) They dont postpone.
(kz*maz*lar ) They dont get angry.
(e*kin*mez*ler ) They dont avoid. (Reflexive)

THE SIMPLE PRESENT POSITIVE QUESTION


In all of the positive and negative question forms of this tense, the [mi, m,
m, mu] adverbial question allomorphs, which transforms the sentences into
the interrogative form, are separately used followed by personal allomorphs:
(ben)
(sen)
(o)
(biz)
(siz)
(onlar)

:
:
:
:
:
:

mi-/y/im?, m-/y/m?, m-/y/m?, mu-/y/um?


mi-sin?, m-sn?, m-sn?, mu-sun?
mi?, m?, m?, mu?
mi-/y/iz?, m-/y/z?, m-/y/z?, mu-/y/uz?
mi-sin.iz?, m-sn.z?, m-sn.z?, mu-sun.uz?
ler mi?, lar m?

143

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The /y/ phonemes above are all glides. Although these interrogative words
follow the vowel harmony rules, they are considered words, and therefore,
they are separately written:
Bekle-er mi-/y/im? (bek*ler / mi*yim ) Do I wait?
ksr-r m-/y/m? (k*s*rr / m*ym ) Do I cough?
Bekle-er mi-sin?
(bek*ler / mi*sin ) Do you wait?
Gel-ir mi?
(ge*lir / mi ) Does he come?
Git-er mi-/y/iz?
(gi*der / mi*yiz ) Do we go?
Yz-er mi-sin.iz?
(y*zer / mi*si*niz ) Do you swim?
Anla-ar-lar m?
(an*lar*lar / m ) Do they understand?
Ta-r-lar m?
(ta*r*lar* / m ) Do they carry?
Ye-er-ler mi?
(yer*ler / mi ) Do they eat?

THE SIMPLE PRESENT NEGATIVE QUESTION


To form a Simple Present negative question verb composition, [mez, maz]
negative making allomorphs are used after the verb roots, stems or frames;
and then [mi-/y/im?, m-/y/m?, m-/y/m?, mu-/y/um?]; [mi-sin?, m-sn?,
m-sn?, mu-sun?]; [mi?, m?, m?, mu?]; [mi-/y/iz?, m-/y/z?, m-/y/z?,
mu-/y/uz?]; [mi-sin.iz?, m-sn-z?, m-sn-z?, mu-sun-uz?] or [ler mi?, larm?] words are separately written. Although the following two sentences are
structurally The Simple Present Tense, they generally express reproach.
Sana yardm et-mez mi-/y/im? (stersin de yardm etmez miyim?)
(sa*na / yar*dm / et*mez / mi*yim ) (help = yardm et)
Dont I help you? (Wont I help you if you ask me?)
Ben-im-le al-maz m-sn?
(be*nim*le / a*l*maz / m*sn )
Dont you work with me? (Wont you work with me if I ask you?)
Although the sentences above are structurally Simple Present (Geni
Zaman), Turkish people generally prefer using (imdiki Zaman) The Present
Continuous English Tense verb composition in place of the Turkish sentences above:
Sana hep yardm et-me-i.yor mu-/y/um? (Yardm et is intransitive.)
(sa*na / hep / yar*dm / et*mi*yor / mu*yum )
Am I not always helping you? (Help is transitive.) (Complaint)

144

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Gn boyunca al-ma-.yor mu-sun? (The a drops.)
(gn / bo*yun*ca / a*l*m*yor / mu*sun )
Dont you work all day long? Arent you working all day long?
Klasik mzik sev-me-i.yor mu-sun? (The e drops.)
(kl*sik / m*zik / sev*mi*yor / mu*sun )
Dont you like classical music?
Karde-in senin-le oyna-ma-.yor mu?
(kar*de*in / se*nin*le / oy*na*m*yor / mu )
Doesnt your sister play with you?
As it is seen, The Turkish Present Continuous verb formation is used more
frequently than the usual Simple Present Tense. Compare the following sentences:
Her gn rmak-ta yz-.yor-um, or yz-er-im.
(her / gn / r*mak*ta / y*z*yo*rum) I swim in the river everyday.
Note: The river is the object of the preposition in, but when they are together with the preposition in, they function as adverbial prepositional
phrases.
E-im ngilizce ret-i.yor.
(e*im / in*gi*liz*ce / *re*ti*yor )
My wife teaches English.
Patates pure-/s/i sev-me-i.yor-um, or sev-me-em.
(pa*ta*tes / p*re*si / sev*mi*yo*rum )
I do not like mashed potatoes.
retmen-ler yaramaz ocuk-lar-dan holan-maz(lar).(Holan is intransitive)
(*ret*men*ler / ya*ra*maz / o*cuk*lar*dan / ho*lan*maz )
Teachers dont like naughty children. (Like is transitive.)
Bazen bir lokanta-da akam yemek-i ye-i.yor-uz, or yer-iz. (yi*yo*ruz)
Sometimes we have dinner at a restaurant.
Pop mzik sev-i.yor mu-sun?
(pop / m*zik / se*vi*yor / mu*sun )
Do you like pop-music?
Okul-a (her gn) yr-/y/e.rek mi git-i.yor-sun?
(o*ku*la / y*r*ye*rek / mi / gi*di*yor*sun )
Do you walk to school (every day)?

145

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The position of the question word [mi, m, m, mu] can be changed and
put after an important and stressed word in an interrogative sentence:
Okul-a otobs-le mi git-i.yor-sun?
(o*ku*la / o*to*bs*le / mi / gi*di*yor*sun )
Do you go to school by bus?
Otobs-le okul-a m git-i.yor-sun?
(o*to*bs*le / o*ku*la / m / gi*di*yor*sun )
Do you go to school by bus?
Okul-a otobs-le git-i.yor mu-sun?
(o*ku*la / o*to*bs*le / gi*di*yor / mu*sun )
Do you go to school by bus?
However, when the (Geni Zaman) The Simple Present Tense question
form is used, the sentence changes into an offer:
Okul-a otobs-le git-er mi-sin?
(o*ku*la / o*to*bs*le / gi*der / mi*sin )
How about go-ing to school by bus? (Go-ing is the object of about.) (Offer)
Ben-im-le sinema-/y/a git-er mi-sin?
(be*nim*le / si*ne*ma*/y/a / gi*der/ mi*sin )
How about go-ing to the cinema with me? (Offer)

THE QUESTION WORDS USED IN THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


The question words kim? (who?); kim-i? (ki*mi) (whom?); nasl?
(how?); nere-de, nere-/y/e? (ne*re*ye) (where?); kim-in? (ki*min)
(whose?); ne sklk-ta?" (how often?); ne zaman? (when?); saat kata? (what time?); niin?, ne-den? (why?); ne eit? (what kind of?)
can be used in this tense as they are used in the other tenses. The inflectional morphemes attached to these interrogative words are the defining
allomorph [i] in kim-i?, the allomorphs of the morpheme [DE] in nere-de?,
ne sklk-ta?, ka-ta?; the possessive allomorph [in] in kim-in?, "ne/y/in?", the [DEN] morpheme in kim-den?, ne-den? and "nere-den?",
and [LE] morpheme kim-le?, ne/y/-le?.
In order to make up Turkish sentences containing one of the interrogative
words above, one can put one of these words in a positive or negative
sentence without changing its sentence order. In other words, one can use
such interrogative words in any Turkish positive or negative sentences without changing their positive or negative sentence structures.

146

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bro-un-a nasl git-i.yor-sun? Brona . gidiyorsun.
(b*ro*na / na sl / gi*di*yor*sun)
(not *nasl gidiyor musun) How do you go to your office? Otobsle. By bus.
Nere-de ngilizce ret-i.yor-sun?
(ner de / n*gi*liz*ce / *re*ti*yor*sun)
Where do you teach English? or "Where are you teaching English?"
Nere-de ngilizce ret-ir-sin? is an offer. It means, Where do you
want to teach English?
Bu soru-/y/a kim cevap ver-mek iste-i.yor? (Cevap ver is intransitive.)
(bu / so*ru*ya / kim / ce*vap / ver*mek / is*ti*yor)
Who wants to answer this question? (Wantand answer are transitive.)
Tiyatro-/y/a ne sklk-ta git-i.yor-sun?
(ti*yat*ro*ya / ne / sk*lk*ta / gi*di*yor*sun )
How often do you go to the theatre?
Her sabah saat ka-ta kalk-.yor-sun?
( her / sa*bah / sa*at / ka*ta / kal*k*yor*sun)
What time do you get up every morning?
In traditional Turkish grammars, some consonants, such as /m/, /n/, /k/, /z/,
are considered personal allomorphs, which are inconsistent with the rest of
the bound morphemes and syllables of the Turkish language. The Turkish
bound morphemes and their allomorphs, like syllables, are all made up of at
least one vowel, such as []; consonant + vowel such as [D]; vowel +
consonant such as [L], [M], [N], [K] or [Z]; vowel + consonant + consonant such as art, rt; consonant + vowel + consonant such as [M],
or consonant + vowel + consonant + consonant such as tirt, drt,
dirt, trt, or they are made of two syllables such as, [i.yor], [me.li],
[e.cek], [a.maz], There are no bound morphemes in Turkish without vowels. However, some of these vowels drop and they are ignored in speech
and writing, or when they coincide, they combine, and verbalize as single
vowels.

To shorten these syllable structures, the first letters of them can be used as
v, c.v, v.c, v.c.c, c.v.c or c.v.c.c. The only exception to this rule
is the [T] morpheme used in the causative verb frames as in (ge*tirt), (al*drt). All Turkish morphemes and syllables are formed of one of these six
syllable types. In short, there are no morphemes in Turkish without vowells, but the phonological system drops or combines some of them while
rearranging the syllables of the morphemes to maintain the Turkish syllabication sequence.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


One important rule to add to the explanations above is that the morphemes
and syllables in Turkish do not follow a parallel pattern. While the words
are divided into syllables, the morphemes comply with the syllable rules of
the Turkish language. For instance, the last consonants of some words or
morphemes detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the
following morphemes, such as:
ku-u (ku*u), ben-i (be*ni), defter-im (def*te*rim), gr-l-mek (g*rl*mek), kes-i-mek (ke*si*mek), etc.
Furthermore, The Simple Present Tense allomorphs are [ir, r, r, ur, er,
ar] such as in: gel-ir (ge*lir), al-r (a*lr), gr-r (g*rr), otur-ur
(o*tu*rur) a-ar (a*ar), ek-er (e*ker), yak-ar (ya*kar), bil-ir (bi*lir).
The Simple Present Tense allomorphs above attach to the verbs ending with
consonants. However, if the verbs end with vowels, the first vowels of the
Simple Present Tense allomorphs coincide with the last vowels of the verbs.
These coinciding vowels combine, and verbalize as single vowels:
Bekle-er (bek*ler), incele-er (in*ce*ler), hazrla-ar (ha*zr*lar), yakala-ar
(ya*ka*lar), yr-r (y*rr), uyu-ur (u*yur), yakala-ar-m (ya*ka*la*rm)
Likewise, when the personal allomorphs [im, m, m, um], [in, n, n, un],
[ik, k, k, uk], [in.iz, n.z, n.z, un.uz] follow the Simple Past Tense allomorphs [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu], their vowels coincide and combine,
and verbalize as single vowels. For instance:
Gel-di-im (gel*dim), al-d-m (al*dm), gr-d-m (gr*dm), otur-du-um
(o*tur*dum), bekle-di-in (bek*le*din), konu-tu-un (ko*nu*tun), p-t-n
(*p*tn), bekle-di-ik (bek*le*dik), otur-du-uk (o*tur*duk), konu-tu-un.uz
(konu*tu*nuz), ka-t-n.z (ka*t*nz).

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS


AND
THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES
The Present Continuous (imdiki Zaman) time morpheme is [.YOR], which
has four allomorphs: [i.yor, .yor, .yor, u.yor]. When these allomorphs
attach to the verbs ending with consonants, these consonants detach from
their syllables and attach to the following [.YOR] allomorphs. These consonants are single underlined. However, when they attach to the verb roots,
stems or frames ending with vowels, the end vowels of these verbs drop,
so the allomorphs of the [.YOR] morpheme follow the vowels that precede

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


the dropped vowels. The dropped vowels are double underlined and
black in this book.
Note: The vowels that are said dropped are the vowels that are overlooked by the Turkish language sound system while the previous vowels are
being linked to the following ones. This is because it is not harmonious for
the Turkish-speaking people to pronounce two vowels attached to one another, so they either skip one of them, or combine them or link them with
glides.
The verb roots, stems or frames ending with consonants:
gel-i.yor (ge*li*yor), bak-.yor (ba*k*yor), otur-u.yor (o*tu*ru*yor),
ksr-.yor (k*s*r*yor), yana-.yor (ya*na**yor), bekle-i.yor
(bek*le*i*yor), beklen-i.yor-lar (bek*le*ni*yor*lar), art-.yor (ar*t*yor),
it-i.yor (i*ti*yor).
The verb roots, stems or frames ending with vowels:
bekle-i.yor (bek*li*yor), ertele-i.yor (er*te*li*yor), yr-.yor (y*r*yor),
atla-.yor (at*l*yor), alkala-.yor (al*ka*l*yor), akla-.yor (ak*l*yor),
dengele-i.yor (den*ge*li*yor), oku-u.yor) (o*ku*yor), ta-.yor (ta**yor),
oyna-u.yor (oy*nu*yor).
The last vowels of the verbs above are double underlined. When these last
vowels drop, the first vowels of the [.YOR] morpheme follow the vowels
preceding the dropped vowels. The single underlined consonants preceding the dropped vowels detach from their syllables and attach to the first
vowels of the [.YOR] allomorphs.
bekliyor, erteliyor, yryor, atlyor, alkalyor, aklyor, dengeliyor
When one of the allomorphs of the morpheme [.YOR] is attached to the negative making allomorphs [me] or [ma], these negative making allomorphs also drop their last vowels, and the [.YOR] allomorphs follow the
vowels preceding the dropped vowels according to the vowel harmony of
the Turkish language:
gel-me-i.yor (gel*mi*yor), oku-ma-u.yor (o*ku*mu*yor), bekle-me-i.yor
(bek*le*mi*yor), al-ma-.yor (a*l*m*yor), gl-me-.yor (gl*m*yor),
ertele-me-i.yor (er*te*le*mi*yor).
The [.YOR] morpheme is composed of two syllables: i*yor. The second
syllable of this morpheme yor never follows the vowel harmony rules, and
consequently, the personal morphemes that follow them do not have different allomorphs:

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


gel-i.yor-um, bala-.yor-sun, ko-u.yor, gez-i.yor-uz, al-.yor-sun.uz,
gl-.yor-lar, bekle-i.yor, anla-.yor, kovala-.yor, besle-i.yor (bes*li*yor).
As a rule, the last consonants of the verbs detach from their syllables, and
attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes. However, when the /p,
t, , k/ unvoiced consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the
following morphemes, they also change into their voiced forms /b, d, c, /.
The Present Continuous and The Present Perfect Continuous tenses of
the English language are both expressed in The Present Continuous
Tense (imdiki zaman) in Turkish. Compare the following sentences:
(O) gel-i.yor.
(ge*li*yor )
He is coming. (Now or later.)
O bir mektup yaz-.yor.
(o / bir / mek*tup / ya*z*yor )
He is writing a letter. (Now.)
O bir saat-tir bir mektup yaz-.yor.
(o / bir / sa*at*tir / bir / mek*tup / ya*z*yor )
He has been writing a letter for an hour.
Jack bahe-de oyna-u.yor.
(Jack / bah*e*de / oy*nu*yor )
Jack is playing in the garden. (The /a/ drops, and the /n/ ataches to /u/.)
Jack sabah-tan beri bahe-de oyna-u.yor.
(Jack / sa*bah*tan / be*ri / bah*e*de / oy*nu*yor )
Jack has been playing in the garden since morning.
Mehmet bahe-de ko-u.yor.
(meh*met / bah*e*de / ko*u*yor )
Mehmet is running in the garden. (Now)
Mary nehir-de yz-.yor.
(ma*ri / ne*hir*de / y*z*yor )
Mary is swimming in the river. (Now)
Okul-un n-/n/-de bekle-e-i.yor-uz. (Reciprocal)
(o*ku*lun / *nn*de / bek*le*i*yo*ruz )
We are waiting together in front of the school.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Jack boyuna televizyon seyret-i.yor.
(Jack / bo*yu*na / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*di*yor )
Jack is always watching television. (Complaint)
Televizyon seyret-i.yor-um.
(te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*di*yo*rum )
I am watching television.
The single underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to
the first vowels of the following morphemes during syllabication. Moreover,
the /p, t, , k/ single underlined unvoiced consonants both detach from their
syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes, and also
change into their voiced counterparts /b, d, c, /, as well.
Bahe-de oyna-u.yor-uz.
(bah*e*de / oy*nu*yo*ruz )
We are playing in the garden.
Trke ren-i.yor mu-sun-uz?
(Trk*e / *re*niyor / mu*su*nuz )
Are you learning Turkish? (now)
ay-dr Trke ren-i.yor-uz.
(*ay*dr / trk*e / *re*ni*yo*ruz ) (liaison)
We have been learning Turkish for three months.
Mart-lar gkyz/n/-de u-u.yor-lar.
(mar*t*lar / gk*y*zn*de / u*u*yor*lar )
The seagulls are flying in the sky. (Now)
Onlar sen-i bekle-i.yor-lar. (Bekle is a transitive verb in Turkish.)
(se*ni / bek*li*yor*lar )
They are waiting for you. (Wait is an intransitive verb in English.) (Now)
le yemek-i ye-i.yor-uz. (The /e/ drops, and the /y/ attaches to /i/.)
(*le / ye*me*i / yi*yo*ruz )
We are having lunch. (Now)
renci-ler saat sekiz-den beri retmen-ler-i-/n/i bekle-i.yor-lar.
The students have been waiting for their teacher since eight.
Ne kadar zaman-dr televizyon seyret-i.yor-sun?
(ne / ka*dar / za*man*dr / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*di*yor*sun)
How long have you been watching television?

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Gnler uza-u.yor. (Liaison) (Uzuyor is a verb in Turkish.)
(gn*le*ru*zu*yor )
Days are getting longer. (longer is subject complement in English.)
Oul-um ev dev-i-/n/i yap-.yor. (Liaison)
(o*lum / e*v*de*vi*ni / ya*p*yor )
My son is doing his homework.
saat-tir ders al-.yor-um.
( / sa*at*tir / ders / a*l**yo*rum )
I have been studying for three hours.
Bir saat-tir sen-i bekle-i.yor-um.
(bir / sa*at*tir / se*ni / bek*li*yo*rum )
I have been waiting for you for an hour.
Sabah-tan beri ne yap-.yor-sun? (What? and ne? are interrogative pronouns.)
(sa*bah*tan / be*ri / ne / ya*p*yor*sun)
What have you been doing since morning?
imdi ne yap-.yor-sun?
(im di / ne / ya*p*yor*sun)
What are you doing now?
The morpheme [DR] can also be used after The Present Continuous Tense
(imdiki Zaman) in Turkish to express estimation:
Jack ne yap-.yor?
(jack / ne / ya*p*yor)
What is Jack doing?
Ders al-.yor-dur. (Ders almak = study)
(ders / a*l**yor*dur )
I think (guess) he is studying.
The near future concept can also be expressed in the Present Continuous
Tense (imdiki Zaman) in Turkish as it is done in English:
Uak biraz-dan havalan-.yor.
(u*ak / bi*raz*dan / ha*va*la*n*yor )
The plane is taking off soon.
Misafir-ler yarn gel-i.yor-lar.
(mi*sa:*fir*ler / ya*rn / ge*li*yor*lar )
The visitors are coming tomorrow.

152

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Misafirler birazdan gel-i.yor mu?
(mi*sa:*fir*ler / bi*raz*dan / ge*li*yor / mu )
Are the visitors coming soon?
Yarn Londra/y/a git-i.yor-uz.
(ya*rn / Lon*dra*ya / gi*di*yo*ruz )
We are going to London tomorrow.
Birazdan k-.yor mu-/y/uz?
(bi*raz*dan / *k*yor / mu*yuz )
Are we leaving soon?
Yarn yeni bir araba satn al-.yor-um. (Liaison)
(ya*rn / ye*ni / bi*ra*ra*ba / sa*t*na*l*yo*rum )
Im going to buy a new car tomorrow. (To buy is nominal infinitive.)
noun.)
Yarn tan-.yor mu-sun.uz? (Reflexive)
(ya*rn / ta**n*yor / mu*su*nuz )
Are you moving tomorrow.
Yarn sigara-/y/ brak-.yor-um.
(ya*rn / si*ga*ra*y / b*ra*k*yo*rum )
I am going to stop smok-ing tomorrow. (to stop is an infinitive.)

THE VERBS THAT ARE NOT USED IN SIMPLE TENSES


IN TURKISH
Some verbs that are not normally used in continuous tenses in English are
especially used in continuous tenses in Turkish, and strange to say, these
verbs are not generally used in simple tenses.
These verbs are as follows:
adore, appreciate, believe, care, desire, forgive, hate, hear, know,
like, love, mean, mind, miss, recall, refuse, remember, see, smell,
seem, think, trust, understand, want, wish.
Consider and compare the following sentences:
Sen-i affet-i.yor-um. (Present Continuous)
(se*ni / af*fe*di*yo*rum ) (The /t/ changes into /d/.)
I forgive you. (Simple Present)

153

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Sen-i sev-i.yor-um. (Present Continuous) Ben-i sev-i.yor mu-sun?
(se*ni / se*vi*yo*rum )
(be*ni / se*vi*yor / mu*sun )
I love you. (SimplePresent)
Do you love me?
Sana tap-.yor-um. (Present continuous)
(sa*na / ta*p*yo*rum )
I adore you. (Simple present)
Hepiniz-i hatrla-.yor-um.
(he*pi*ni*zi / ha*tr*l*yo*rum )
I remember all of you.

Ben-i hatrla-.yor mu-sun.uz?


(be*ni / ha*tr*l*yor / mu*su*nuz )
Do you remember me?

Hepiniz-e gven-i.yor-um.
Bana gven-me-i.yor mu-sun?
(he*pi*ni*ze / g*ve*ni*yo*rum ) (ba*na / g*ven*mi*yor / mu*sun )
I trust all of you.
Do you not trust me?
Siz-i anla-.yor-um.
(si*zi / an*l*yo*rum )
I understand you.

Ben-i anla-.yor mu-sun-uz?


(siz / be*ni / an*l*yor / mu*su*nuz )
Do you understand me?

Siz-i anla-ma-.yor-um.
(si*zi / an*la*m*yo*rum )
I do not understand you.

Ben-i anla-ma-.yor mu-sun-uz?


(be*ni / an*la*m*yor / mu*su*nuz )
Do you not understand me?

Bir fincan kahve iste-i.yor-um.


(bir / fin*can / kah*ve / is*ti*yo*rum )
I want a cup of coffee.
Gramer kitap-lar- oku-mak-tan nefret et-i.yor-um. (Nefret et is intransitive.)
(gra*mer / ki*tap*la*r / o*ku*mak*tan / nef*re*te*di*yo*rum )
I hate read-ing grammar books. (Hate is transitive.) (Read-ing is nominal gerund.)
Ben-i zle-.yor mu-sun?
(be*ni / z*l*yor / mu*sun )
Do you miss me?
Sana inan-ma-.yor-um. (nan is intransitive; believe is transitive,)
(sa*na / i*nan*m*yo*rum )
I do not believe you. (You means both sen-i and sana.)
Hibir ey iit-me-i.yor-um.
(hi*bir / ey / i*it*mi*yo*rum )
I do not hear anything.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Umursa-ma-.yor-um. Umur-um-da deil. (Bana ne?)
(u*mur*sa*m*yo*rum) (u*mu*rum*da / de*il ) (ba*na / ne )
I do not care.
Bu proje uygulan-a.bil-ir gr-n-.yor. (gr-n is reflexive)
(bu / pro*je / uy*gu*la*na*bi*lir / g*r*n*yor )
This project seems (looks) (sounds) feasible. (Feasible is subject complement.)
Siz-i takdir et.i.yor-um. (Liaison) (Takdir et = appreciate)
(si*zi / tak*di:*re*di*yo*rum )
I appreciate you.
The verbs that are given above can be used in The Simple Present Tense
(Geni Zaman) in conditional sentences:
Tekrar ge kal-ma-ma-/y/a sz ver-ir-se-en sen-i affet-er-im.
(tek*rar / ge / kal*ma*ma*ya / sz / ve*rir*sen~ / se*ni / af*fe*de*rim )
If you promise not to be late again, I will forgive you.
Bana yeni bir araba al-r-sa-an sen-i daha ok sev-er-im.
(ba*na / ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / a*lr*san / se*ni / da*ha / ok / se*ve*rim )
If you buy me a new car, I will love you more.

TURKISH VERB FRAMES


The suffixes (the inflectional allomorphs) that form Turkish verb frames
make them indivisible units, and so they are used as verb stems. The
other suffixes, such as: negative making, time and personal allomorphs
follow them in succession. There are five kinds of verb frames:
Transitive verb frames (geili fiil atlar), intransitive verb frames (geisiz fiil atlar), passive verb frames (edilgen fiil atlar), reflexive verb
frames (dnl fiil atlar), and reciprocal verb frames (ite fiil atlar).

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERB FRAMES


Transitive verb frames are the verbs that take definite or indefinite objects:
Anne-em her hafta ev-i temizler. Mother cleans the house every week.
subject

adverbial

def obj tran verb

subject tran verb definite obj

adverbial phrs

Ahmet bir hikye kitab- okuyor. Ahmet is reading a story book.


subject

indefinite object

tran verb

subject

155

tran verb

indefinite obj

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ben her sabah odam- tertipler-im. I
subj

adverbial

definite obj

tran verb

tidy my room every morning.

subj tran verb

object

adverbial phrs

Intransitive verb frames do not take objects:


Ben
subj

bazen nehir-de yzerim. I sometimes


adverb

adverbial

intr verb

subj

adverbial

swim

in the river.

intr verb

adverbial

Olum gn-de sekiz saat uyur. My son sleeps eight hours a day.
subject

adverbial

adverbial

intr verb

subj

intr verb

adverbial

Olum okul-a her sabah otobs-le gider.


subject

adverbial

adverbial

adverbial

intr verb

My son goes to school by bus every morning.


subject

intr verb

adverbial

adverbial

adverbial

REFLEXIVE VERB FRAMES (DNL FIIL ATILARI)


A reflexive verb frame is a verb whose action in a sentence has its effect
on a person or thing that does the action. The most commonly used inflectional suffix that turns verb roots and stems into reflexive verbs is [N], which
has six allomorphs: [in, n, n, un, en, an]. The other one, which has only
a few examples in Turkish is [L], which has four allomorphs [il, l, l, ul],
such as Gmlek-im-e ay dk-l-d, Deniz ek-il-di. As a rule the identical a-a, e-e, -vowels combine, and the single underlined consonants
/n/ detach from their syllables and attach to the following vowels.
Olum yka-an-.yor. (He is washing himself.) (Reflexive)
(o*lum / y*ka*n*yor )
My son is having a bath.
Aye tara-an-.yor. (She is combing herself.) (Reflexive)
(ay*e / ta*ra*n*yor )
Aye is combing. (Reflexive)
Ba-m ka-n-.yor. (Reflexive)
(ba*m / ka**n*yor )
My head is itching. (Intransitive)
Kedi masa-/n/n alt-/n/-da ka-n-.yor. (Reflexive)
(ke*di / ma*sa*nn / al*tn*da / ka**n*yor )
The cat is scratching under the table. (It is scratching itself.)
Yaz sil-in-di. (Turkish is reflexive.)
(ya*z / si*lin*di )
The writing has been ereased. (English is passive.)

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


v-n-.yor.
(*v*n*yor )
He is boasting or praising himself.
Aye sa--/n/ tara-.yor. (Transitive.)
(ay*e ~/ sa**/n/ / ta*r*yor )
Aye is combing her hair. (Transitive)
Dkkn-lar saat yedi-de kapa-an-r. (Reflexive)
(dk*kn*lar / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*nr )
Shops close at seven oclock. (They close themselves.) (Reflexive)
Aye kap-/n/n arka-/s//-/n/a sakla-an-.yor. (Reflexive)
(ay*e / ka*p*nn / ar*ka*s*na / sak*la*n*yor )
Aye is hiding behind the door. (She is hiding herself.) (Reflexive)
Yer sars-l-.yor. (Reflexive)
(yer / sar*s*l*yor )
The ground is shaking. (It is shaking itself.) (Reflexive)
z-l-e.cek-sin. (zl is an intransitive verb in Turkish.)
(*z*le*cek*sin )
You will be sorry. (The adjective sorry is a subject complement.)
The allomorphs that are used to form reflexive verbs are also used with
verbs when they are transformed into the passive voice. As these allomorphs sometimes cause confusion, one should be careful when one defines them:
Kara gr-n-d. (Reflexive)
(ka*ra / g*rn*d )
The land has showed itself.
Kara gr-l-d. (Passive)
(ka*ra / g*rl*d )
The land has been seen (by someone). (Passive)

THE PASSIVE TRANSFORMATION OF THE INTRANSITIVE VERB


FRAMES
Some Turkish intransitive verbs can also be transformed into the passive
forms without being put into the passive voice. While these verbs are being
shaped, the passive transformation allomorphs are attached to these
verb roots or stems. In doing this, the verbs ending with vowels and the /L/

157

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


phonemes attach to the [in, n, n, un, en, an] allomorphs; the others
ending with consonants, attach to the [il, l, l, ul] allomorphs. Although
this form does not exist in English, it is expressed in English in a different
sentence structure, which does not exist in Turkish. Consider the following:
Deniz-de yz-l-r. (de*niz*de / y*z*lr ) (Passive shaped intransitive)
It is possible (natural) to swim in the sea. (All the preposition + verb"
structures in English are infinitives nouns.)
-e saat sekiz-de bala-an-r. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(i*e / sa*at / se*kiz*de / ba*la*nr )
It is a rule to start work at eight.
Pazar gnler-i dinlen-il-ir. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(pa*zar / gn*le*ri / din*le*ni*lir )
It is customary to have a rest on Sundays.
Byle gne-li bir gn-de piknik-e git-il-ir. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(by*le / g*ne*li / bir / gn*de / pik*ni*e / gi*di*lir )
It is advisable (natural) to go for a picnic on such a sunny day.
Gzel-e bak-l-r. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(g*ze*le / ba*k*lr )
It is natural to look at the beautiful.
Pazartesi gn-ler-i erken kalk-l-r. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(pa*zar*te*si / gn*le*ri / er*ken / kal*k*lr )
It is a rule to get up early on Mondays.
To use the negative forms of the above sentences, [mez, maz] negative
making allomorphs are used after the verbs:
Byle bir grlt-de uyu-un-maz. Byle bir grlt-de uyu-un-ur mu?
(by*le / bir / g*rl*t*de / u*yun*maz ) (u*yu*nur / mu )
It is impossible to sleep in such a noise.
Bu sokak-ta yr-n-mez. (Passive shaped intransitive.)
(bu / so*kak*ta / y*rn*mez )
It is impossible to walk in this street.
Onun laf--/n/a bak-l-maz. (Passive shaped intransitive.)
(o*nun / l*f*na / ba*kl*maz )
It is natural (advisable) not to mind what he says.

158

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bu otel-de kal-n-maz. (Passive shaped intransitive
(bu / o*tel*de / ka*ln*maz )
It is impossible to stay in this hotel.)
Onun akl--/n/a uy-ul-maz. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(o*nun / ak*l*na / u*yul*maz )
It is inadvisable to follow his advice.
Bu gl-de yz-l-r m? (passive shaped intransitive)
(bu / gl*de / y*z*lr/ m )
Is it possible to swim in this lake?
Note: The English adverb not is expressed in Turkish either as [me, ma] or [mez,
maz] adverbial negative making allomorphs, or the adverb deil is used in place of
these allomorphs. Additionally, as there are not interrogative adverbial allomorphs
like mi, m, m, mu in English, a positive or negative English verb formation is transformed into a question form, such as You are a teacher. Are you a teacher?,
etc.

RECIPROCAL VERB FRAMES (TE FL ATILARI)


1. A reciprocal verb expresses an action which is exchanged between two
or more people. The reciprocal morpheme is [], which has [i, , ,
u, e, a] allomorphs. When the main verbs end with vowels, and the allomorphs start with the same vowels, these two vowels coincide, combine
and verbalize as single vowels:
Bak--.yor-lar. (One word)
Onlar bak--ma-.yor-lar m?
(ba*k**yor*lar )
(on*lar / ba*k*m*yor*lar / m )
They are exchanging glances. Are they not exchanging glances?
Kucakla-a-.yor-lar. (One word)
(ku*cak*la**yor*lar )
They are hugging (Each other).
Tokala-a-.yor-lar. (One word)
(to*ka*la**yor*lar )
They are shaking hands.
Dv--.yor-lar. (They are beating each other.) (One word)
(d*v**yor*lar )
They are fighting.

159

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


p--.yor-lar-d
Onlar p--me-.yor-lar m/y/-d?
(*p**yor*lar*d) (on*lar / *p*m*yor*lar / my*d )
They were kissing.
Weren't they kissing?
Onlar Pazar gn-ler-i gr--r-ler.
(on*lar / pa*zar / gn*le*ri / g*r*r*ler )
They meet and talk on Sundays.
2. Some verbs that are attached to reciprocal allomorphs convey the concept of (all) together:
Haber-i duy-un.ca bar--t-lar.
(ha*be*ri / du*yun*ca / ba**r*t*lar )
They shouted all together when they heard the news.
Polis-i gr-n.ce ka--t-lar.
(po*li*si / g*rn*ce / ka**t*lar )
They ran away all together when they saw the police-officer.
ocuklar futbol takm-lar- hakknda tart--.yor-lar.
(o*cuk*lar / fut*bol / ta*km*la*r / hak*kn*da / tar*t**yor*lar )
The boys are discussing about their football teams.
Baz ocuk-lar kap-da bekle-e-i.yor-lar.
(ba*z / o*cuk*lar / ka*p*da / bek*le*i*yor*lar )
Some children are waiting together at the door.
3. Some other verbs that are attached to the allomorphs above convey the
idea of about:
Ku-lar gkyz/n/-de u-u-u.yor-du.
(ku*lar / gk*y*zn*de / u*u*u*yor*du )
The birds were flying about in the sky.
ocuk-lar bahe-de ko-u-u.yor-lar.
(o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / ko*u*u*yor*lar )
The children are running about in the garden.
rdek-ler havuz-da yz--.yor-lar.
(r*dek*ler / ha*vuz*da / y*z**yor*lar )
The ducks are swimming about in the pool.

160

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


BOTH TRANSITIVELY AND INTRANSITIVELY USED
ENGLISH VERBS
Some English verbs are both transitive and intransitive. There are few verbs
used in this fashion in Turkish. Therefore, those who are studying English or
Turkish as a second language face some difficulties in learning them. In the
following list, you can find frequently used English verbs that are used both
transitively and intransitively. The Turkish equivalents of such verbs and how
their allomorphs change are given in the examples below.
Note: There is only the indefinite article bir in Turkish which mans the indefinite English articles a or an. No articles like the is used in Turkish.
The absence of this article before a noun indicates that the noun is definite.
As it has already been noted, the identical vowels that follow each other
combine, and the single underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs during the
syllabication process:
Yumurta-lar kayna-.yor.
(yu*mur*ta*lar / kay*n*yor )
The eggs are boiling. (The Turkish and English verbs are intransitive.)
Fatma yumurta kayna-at-,yor. (Transitive)
(fat*ma / yu*mur*ta / kay*na*t*yor )
Fatma is boiling eggs. (Transitive)
In the first Turkish sentence above, the intransitive verb kayna has
changed into kayna-at (kay*nat) transitive verb frame to take the object
yumurta. However, the English verb boil has not changed. This shows us
that the English verb boil can be used both transitively and intransitively. In
the following sentences, the explanations in parentheses are about the Turkish sentences. However, when necessary, both Turkish and English verbs
are explained in parentheses. In the following examples, the subjects are
blue, the objects are black, the verbs are red, and the modifiers and articles are purple.
Ate yan-.yor. (Intransitive) (yan)
(a*te / ya*n*yor )
The fire is burning. (Intransitive) (burn)
Ate parmak-lar--/n/ yak-ar. (Transitive) (yak)
(a*te / par*mak*la*r*n / ya*kar )
Fire burns your fingers. (Transitive) (burn)

161

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Dkkn-lar saat yedi-de kapa-an-r. (Reflexive) (kapan)
(dk*kn*lar / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*nr )
Shops close at seven. (Reflexive) (close)
Onlar dkkn-lar- yedi-de kapa-at-r-lar. (Transitive) (kapat)
(on*lar / dk*kn*la*r / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*tr*lar )
They close the shops at seven. (Transitive) (close)
Note: When the Turkish common and proper nouns are used as objects,
they are suffixed by the [i, , , u] allonorphs. However, when the English
common nouns are used as definite objects, they are used with the article
the. Proper nouns do not take the article the in English.
Dkkn-lar saat yedi-de kapa-at-l-r. (Passive)
(dk*kn*lar / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*t*lr )
The shops are closed at seven. (Passive)
Renk-ler sonbahar-da dei-ir. (Intransitive) (dei)
(renk*ler / son*ba*har*da / de*i*ir )
Colors change in the autumn. (Intransitive) (change)
(O) giysi-ler-i-/n/i dei-tir-i.yor. (Transitive) (deitir)
(o ~/ giy*si*le*ri*ni / de*i*ti*ri*yor )
He is changing his clothes. (Transitive.) (change)
imdi mutfak-ta yemek pi-ir-i.yor. (Transitive)
(im*di / mut*fak*ta / ye*mek / pi*i*ri*yor )
She is cooking in the kitchen now. (Intransitive)
O, balk pi-ir-i.yor. (Transitive) (piir)
(o / ba*lk / pi*i*ri*yor )
She is cooking fish. (Transitive) (cook)
Yemek pi-ti. (Intransitive) (pi)
(ye*mek / pi*ti )
The meal has cooked. (Intransitive) (cook)
Meyve-ler olgun-la-n.ca aa-lar-dan d-er. (Intransitive) (d)
(mey*ve*ler / ol*gun*la*n*ca / a*a*lar*dan / d*er )
Fruits drop from trees when they ripen. (Intransitive) (drop)
Kalem-i-/n/i d-r-d. (Transitive) (dr)
(ka*le*mi*ni / d*r*d )
She dropped her pencil. (Transitive) (drop)

162

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Baz nehir-ler yaz-n kuru-ur. (Intransitive) (kuru)
(ba*z / ne*hir*ler / ya*zn / ku*rur )
Some rivers dry up in the summer. (Intransitive) (dry)
El-ler-in-i ben-im havlu-um-da kuru-la-ma. (Transitive) (kurula)
(el*le*ri*ni / be*nim / hav*lum*da l ku*ru*la*ma )
Dont dry your hands on my towel. (Transitive) (dry)
Sava son-a er-di. (Son-a er = end) (Intransitive) (sona er)
(sa*va / so*na / er*di )
The war ended. (Intransitive) (end)
Sava- son-a er-dir-di-ler. (Transitive) (Sona erdir)
(sa*va* / so*na / er*dir*di*ler )
They ended the war. (Transitive) (end)
Bir bomba patla-d. (Intransitive) (patla)
(bir / bom*ba / pat*la*d )
A bomb exploded. (Intransitive) (explode)
Bir bomba patla-at-t-lar. (Transitive) (patlat)
(bir / bom*ba / pat*lat*t*lar )
They exploded a bomb. (Transitive) (explode)
nekler tarla-da besle-en-i.yor-lar. (Reflexive) (beslen)
(i*nek*ler / tar*la*da / bes*le*ni*yor*lar )
The cows are feeding (grazing) in the field. (Reflexive) (feed)
Kpek-im-i her sabah besle-er-im. (Transitive) (besle)
(k*pe*i*mi / her / sa*bah / bes*le*rim )
I feed my dog every morning. (Transitive) (feed)
Sokak-lar k-n amur-la dol-ar. (Intransitive) (dol)
(so*kak*lar / k*n / a*mur*la / do*lar )
The streets fill up with mud in winter. (Intransitive) (fill)
Kalem-im-i siyah mrekkep-le dol-dur. (Transitive) (doldur)
(ka*le*mi*mi / si*yah / m*rek*kep*le / dol*dur )
Fill my pen with black ink. (Transitive) (fill)
henz bit-me-di. (Intransitive) (bit)
(i / he*nz / bit*me*di )
The work hasnt finished yet. (Intransitive) (finish)

163

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


-im-i henz bit-ir-me-di-im. (Transitive) (bitir)
(i*i*mi / he*nz / bi*tir*me*dim )
I havent finished my work yet. (Transitive) (finish)
Ku-lar hava-da u-ar. (Intransitive) (u)
(ku*lar / ha*va*da / u*ar )
Birds fly in the sky. (Intransitive) (fly)
ocuk-lar uurtma u-ur-u.yor-lar. (Transitive) (uur)
(o*cuk*lar / u*urt*ma / u*u*ru*yor*lar )
The boys are flying kites. (Transitive) (fly)
Patates-ler kzar-.yor. (Intransitive) (kzar)
(pa*ta*tes*ler / k*za*r*yor )
The potatoes are frying. (Intransitive) (fry)
O, balk kza-art-.yor. (Transitive) (kzart)
(o~ / ba*lk / k*zar*t*yor )
She is frying fish. (Transitive) (fry)
Pamuk Adanada yeti-ir. (Intransitive) (yeti)
(pa*muk / a*da*na*da / ye*ti*ir )
Cotton grows in Adana. (Intransitive) (grow)
Adanada pamuk yeti-tir-ir-ler. (Transitive) (yetitir)
(a*da*na*da / pa*muk / ye*ti*ti*rir*ler )
They grow cotton in Adana. (Transitive) (grow)
Kap-/n/n arka-/s/-/n/a sakla-an-.yor. (Reflexive) (saklan)
(ka*p*nn / ar*ka*s*na / sak*la*n*yor )
He is hiding behind the door. (Reflexive) (hide)
Mektup-lar--/n/ sakla-ar. (Transitive) (sakla)
(mek*tup*la*r*n / sak*lar )
She hides her letters. (Transitive) (hide)
Zorluk-lar-m.z art-.yor. (Intransitive) (art)
(zor*luk*la*r*mz / ar*t*yor )
Our difficulties are increasing. (Intransitive) (increase)
Hz-n- art-r-ma. (Transitive) (artr)
(h*z*n / ar*tr*ma )
Dont increase your speed. (Transitive) (increase)

164

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


iek-ler sabah-le.yin a-ar. (Intransitive) (a)
(i*ek*ler / sa*bah*le*yin / a*ar )
Flowers open in the morning. (Intransitive) (open)
Sabah-le.yin pencere-ler-i a-ar-z. (Transitive) (a)
(sa*bah*le*yin / pen*ce*re*le*ri / a*a*rz )
We open the windows in the morning. (Transitive) (open) (The verb "a"
is used both transitively and intransitively in Turkish as it is used in English.)
At-lar yar-.yor. (Intransitive) (yar)
(at*lar / ya*r**yor )
The horses are racing. (Intransitive) (race)
At-lar- yar-tr-.yor-lar. (Transitive) (yartr)
(at*la*r / ya*r*t*r*yor*lar )
They are racing the horses. (Transitive) (race)
Elma-lar scak hava-da olgun-la-r. (Intransitive) (olgunla)
(el*ma*lar / s*cak / ha*va*da / ol*gun*la*r )
Apples ripen in warm weather. (Intransitive) (ripen)
Note: "Ol" is a verb root, "ol-gun" is an adjective stem, "ol-gun-la" is an
intransitive verb frame, "ol-gun-la-tr" is a transitive verb frame.
Scak hava elma-lar- olgun-la-tr-r. (Transitive) (olgunlatr)
(s*cak / ha*va / el*ma*la*r / ol*gun*la*t*rr )
Warm weather ripens the apples. (Transitive) (ripen)
Zil al-.yor. (Intransitive) (al)
(zil / a*l*yor )
The bell is ringing. (Intransitive) (ring)
Zil-i al. (Transitive) (al)
(zi*li / al )
Ring the bell. (Transitive) (ring)
("al" and "ring" verbs are used both transitively and intransitively in Turkish
and in English.)
Bazen kaya-lar tepe-ler-den aa yuvarlan-r. (Reflexive) (yuvarlan)
(ba:*zen / ka*ya*lar / te*pe*ler*den / a*a* / yu*var*la*nr )
Sometimes rocks roll down the hills. (Reflexive) (roll)

165

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Baz kimse-ler tepe-den aa kaya-lar- yuvarla-.yor-lar. (Transitive)
(ba:*z / kim*se*ler / te*pe*den / a*a* / ka*ya*la*r / yu*var*l*yor*lar )
Some people are rolling rocks down the hill. (Transitive) (roll)
Baz kz-lar nehir-de yz-.yor. (Intransitive) (yz)
(ba:*z / kz*lar / ne*hir*de / y*z*yor )
Some girls are swimming in the river. (Intransitive) (swim)
ocuk-lar model kayk-lar--/n/ yzdr-.yor. (Transitive) (yzdr)
(o*cuk*lar / mo*del / ka*yk*la*r*n / yz*d*r*yor )
The children are sailing their modal boats. (Transitive) (sail)
Yer sarsl-.yor. (Reflexive) (sarsl)
(yer / sar*s*l*yor )
The ground is shaking. (Reflexive) (shake)
la- i-me-den nce ie-/y/i alkala (sars). (Transitive) (alkala)
(i*la*c / i*me*den / n*ce / i*e*yi / al*ka*la )
Shake the bottle before you take the medicine. (Transitive) (shake)
kinci Dnya Sava/n/-da birok gemi bat-t. (Intransitive) (bat)
(i*kin*ci / dn*ya: / sa*va*n*da / bir*ok / ge*mi / bat*t )
A lot of ships sank during The Second World War. (Intransitive) (sink)
kinci Dnya Sava/n/-da birok gemi bat-tr-d-lar. (Transitive) (batr)
(i*kin*ci / dn*ya: / sa*va*n*da / bir*ok / ge*mi / ba*tr*d*lar )
They sank a lot of ships during The Second World War. (Transitive) (sink)
Gmlek-im-e ay dk-l-d. (Reflexive) (dkl)
(gm*le*i*me / ay / d*kl*d )
Tea spilled on my shirt. (Reflexive) (spill)
Seyhan Nehri Akdeniz-e dk-l-r. (Reflexive) (dkl)
(sey*han / neh*ri / ak*de*ni*ze / d*k*lr )
The Seyhan River pours into the Mediterranean Sea. (Reflexive) (pour)
Limonata-/y/ yer-e dk-t-m. (Transitive) (dk)
(li*mo*na*ta*y / ye*re / dk*tm )
I have spilled (spilt) the lemonade on the floor. (Transitive) (spill)
Araba-lar dur-du. (Intransitive) (dur)
(a*ra*ba*lar / dur*du )
The cars stopped. (Intransitive) (stop)

166

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Polis araba-lar- durdur-du. (Transitive) (durdur)
(po*lis / a*ra*ba*la*r / dur*dur*du )
The police officer stopped the cars. (Transitive) (stop)
Tekerlek-ler dn-.yor. (Intransitive) (dn)
(te*ker*lek*ler / d*n*yor )
The wheels are turning. (Intransitive) (turn)
Motor tekerlek-ler-i dn-dr-r. (Transitive) (dndr)
(mo*tor / te*ker*lek*le*ri / dn*d*rr )
The engine turns the wheels. (Transitive) (turn)
Parmak--/n/a bir ine bat-t. (Intransitive) (bat)
(par*ma**na / bir / i*ne / bat*t )
A needle stuck in her finger. (Intransitive) (stick)
Parmak--/n/a bir ine batr-d. (Transitive) (batr)
(par*ma**na / bir / i*ne / ba*tr*d )
She stuck a needle into her finger. (Transitive) (stick)
Bu pul iyi yap-ma-.yor. (Intransitive) (yap)
(bu / pul / i*yi / ya*p*m*yor )
This stamp doesnt stick well. (Intransitive) (stick)

THE SIMPLE PAST AND THE PRESENT PERFECT


(Dli Gemi Zaman)
Both The Simple Past and The Present Perfect tenses of the English Language are expressed in The Simple Past Tense in Turkish. In other words,
the Turkish Simple Past Tense covers these two English tenses. The time
morpheme of this tense is [D], which has eight allomorphs: [di, d, d, du,
ti, t, t, tu]. One of these allomorphs is used attached to verb roots, stems or
frames in accordance with the Turkish vowel and consonant harmony rules.
The verbs ending with vowels and voiced consonants are followed by the
allomorphs written in bold face; and the verbs followed by unvoiced consonants are written in regular type. The compulsory personal allomorphs
are as follows:
ben
sen
o
biz

[im, m, m, um]
[in, n, n, un]
[]
[ik, k, k, uk]

167

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


siz
onlar

[in.iz, n.z, n.z, un.uz]


[] or [ler, lar]

Positive:
Naturally, as all the allomorphs of the [D] morpheme [di, d, d, du, ti, t,
t, tu] end with vowels, and the personal allomorphs [im, m, m, um;
in, n, n, un; ik, k, k, uk; in.iz, n.z, n.z, un.uz] start with vowels,
the first vowels of the personal allomorphs coincide with the allomorphs of
the morpheme [D] and combine, such as in di-im (dim), d-m" (dm), dm" (dm), du-um" (dum), ti-im (tim), "t-m" (tm), "t-m" (tm), "tu-um"
(tum); "di-in" (din), "ti-in" (tin), "ti-ik" (tik), "di-in.iz" (di*niz), "ti-in.iz" (ti*niz).
ki saat nce i-im-i bit-ir-di-im.
(i*ki / sa*at / n*ce / i*i*mi / bi*tir*dim )
I finished my work two hours ago.
-im-i bit-ir-di-im.
(i*i*mi / bi*tir*dim )
I have finished my work. (My work is ready now.)
Onlar geen hafta sinema-/y/a git-ti.
(on*lar / ge*en / haf*ta / si*ne*ma*ya / git*ti )
They went to the cinema last week.
Onlar sinema-/y/a git-ti.
(on*lar / si*ne*ma*ya / git*ti )
They have gone to the cinema.
(They are at the cinema or on the way to the cinema.)
O kitap- geen sene oku-du-um.
(o / ki*ta*b / ge*en / se*ne / o*ku*dum )
I read that book last year.
Kitap- oku-du-um.
(ki*ta*b / o*ku*dum )
I have read the book. (I have finished reading it.)
Biz-e inan-ma-d-n.z.
(bi*ze / i*nan*ma*d*nz )
You didn't believe us.
Bulak-lar yka-an-d bile.
(bu*la*k*lar / y*kan*d / bi*le )
The dishes have already been washed. (The dishes are clean now.)

168

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Negative:
The negative making allomorphs [me, ma] are put after verb roots, stems
or verb frames, and then they are followed by the [di, d] time allomorphs,
which are followed by the personal allomorphs respectively. The other time
allomorphs, such as [d, du, ti, t, t, tu] are used in positive forms. They
are not used here as a result of the [me, ma] negative making allomorphs:
Fatma-/y/ pazar-dan beri gr-me-di-im.
(fat*ma*y / pa*zar*dan / be*ri / gr*me*dim )
I have not seen Fatma since Sunday.
Fatma-/y/ bir hafta-dr gr-me-di-im.
(fat*ma*y / bir / haf*ta*dr / gr*me*dim )
I havent seen Fatma for a week.
Fatma-/y/ geen hafta gr-me-di-im.
(fat*ma*y / ge*en / haf*ta / gr*me*dim )
I didnt see Fatma last week.
Daha ev dev-im-i yap-ma-d-m. (Liaison)
(da*ha / e*v*de*vi*mi / yap*ma*dm )
I havent done my homework yet.
Dn bu oda-/y/ temizle-me-di-ler.
(dn / bu / o*da*y / te*miz*le*me*di*ler )
They didnt clean this room yesterday.
Bu oda-/y/ gn-dr temizle-me-di-ler.
(bu / o*da*y / / gn*dr / te*miz*le*me*di*ler )
They havent cleaned this room for three days.
Geen hafta futbol oyna-ma-d-k.
(ge*en / haf*ta / fut*bol / oy*na*ma*dk )
We didn't play football last week.
Kayp ocuk daha bul-un-ma-d.
(ka*yp / o*cuk / da*ha / bu*lun*ma*d )
The lost child hasnt been found yet. (Passive)

Positive question:

169

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The question allomorphs [mi, m, m, mu], which are separately written,
are used either after the verbs, or they may be used after the stressed
words in sentences. They are interrogative adverbs that add interrogatve
concepts to verbs and nouns.
Ahmet mi okul-a otobs-le git-ti?
(ah*met / mi / o*ku*la / o*to*bs*le / git*ti )
Has Ahmet gone to school by bus?
Ahmet okul-a otobs-le mi git-ti?
(ah*met / o*ku*la / o*to*bsle / mi / git*ti )
Has Ahmet gone to school by bus?
Ahmet otobs-le okul-a m git-ti?
(ah*met / o*to*bs*le /o*ku*la / m / git*ti )
Has Ahmet gone to school by bus?
Ahmet okul-a git-ti mi?
(ah*met / o*ku*la / git*ti / mi )
Has Ahmet gone to school? (All the sentences are yes-no questions.)
If the last syllable in a sentence is used with a rising intonation (), the sentence means, I am surprised to hear it, or I could not hear you well. If it is
used with a falling intonation (), the question is a yes-no question.
Mektuplar- at-t-n m?
(mek*tup*la*r / at*tn / m )
Have you posted the letters?
Pazar gn- futbol ma--/n/a git-ti-in mi?
(pa*zar / g*n / fut*bol / ma**na / git*tin / mi )
Did you go to the football match on Sunday?
Pazar gn- futbol ma--/n/a m git-ti-in?
(pa*zar / g*n / fut*bol / ma**na /m / git*tin) (I am surprised.)
Did you go to the football match on Sunday?
Kpek-i yka-d-n.z m?
(k*pe*i / y*ka*d*nz / m )
Have you washed the do?

170

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Araba-/y/ m yka-d-n.z?
(a*ra*ba*y/ m / y*ka*d*nz) (I am surprised.)
Have you washed the car? (I didnt want you to wash the car; you should
have washed the dog instead.)
iek-ler-i sula-d-n m?
(i*ek*le*ri / su*la*dn / m )
Have you watered the flowers?
Patates-ler-i soy-du-un mu?
(pa*ta*tes*le*ri / soy*dun / mu )
Have you peeled the potatoes?
In the negative question form, the [me, ma] allomorphs are attached to
the verbs first, and then the [di, d] time allomorphs (the others are not
used as a result of the [me, ma] allomorphs) are used, and finally, the
above-mentioned personal allomorphs follow them. The [mi, m] question
allomorphs are separately written. They are words because they are separately written; they are allomorphs because they follow the vowel harmony
rules:
Pazar gn- futbol oyna-ma-d-n.z m?
(pa*zar / g*n / fut*bol / oy*na*ma*d*nz / m )
Did you not play football on Sunday? (Negative question)
Ahmet daha ev-e gel-me-di mi?
(ah*met / da*ha / e*ve / gel*me*di / mi )
Hasnt Ahmet come home yet?
Ayn yanl-lk- tekrar yap-ma-d-n m?
(ay*n / yan*l*l* / tek*rar / yap*ma*dn / m )
Havent you made the same mistake again?
The verb git and the same dili past tense are also used in place of
have (has) been to:
Ben birka kez Londra/y/a git-ti-im.
(ben / bir*ka / kez / lon*dra*ya / git*tim )
I have been to London several times.
Ben hi Tokyo-/y/a git-me-di-im.
(ben / hi / tok*yo*ya / git*me*dim )
I have never been to Tokyo.

171

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Hi Paris-e git-ti-in mi?
(hi / pa*ri*se / git*tin / mi )
Have you ever been to Paris?
Bugn nere-/y/e git-ti-in?
(bu / gn / nere*ye / git*tin)
Where have you been today?
In Turkish, The Simple Present is also used in place of have (has) had:
Bu araba-/y/a ben be yl-dr sahip-im.
( bu / a*ra*ba*ya / ben / be / yl*dr / sa:*hi*bim )
I have had this car for five years.
Bu araba-/y/a ne kadar zaman-dr sahip-sin?
(bu / a*ra*ba*ya / ne / ka*dar / za*man*dr / sa:*hip*sin)
How long have you had this car?
All the question words can be used in the dili past tenses as they are
used in others, but in doing this, the sentence order should be taken into account. In English, after the question words, the question order of a sentence is kept in question form, but in Turkish, when the question words
are used, the rest of the sentence is not in question form:
Ne zaman Ankara/y/a git-ti-in? In this sentence, the underlined part of
the sentence is not a question. However, in the English sentence When
did you go to Ankara?, the underlined part of the sentence is a question.
This rule is applied to all the interrogative sentences containing question
words in Turkish:
Onu dn grdn. Onu ne zaman grdn?
As it is seen in the sentences above, the verbs grdn do not change although the second sentence is a question. This shows us that when someone uses a question word in a Turkish sentence, the sentence is automatically changes into an interrogative sentence concept without the positive or
negative sentence order being changed.
O-/n/u ne zaman gr-d-n? (onu grdn)
(o*nu / ne / za*man / gr*dn)
When did you see her?

172

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Sen-i kim gr-d? (sen-i grd)
(se*ni / kim / gr*d)
Who saw you?
When the question word who asking for the subject is used, the sentence
order in English is the same as it is in Turkish.
Sen kim-i gr-d-n? (sen grdn)
(sen / ki*mi / gr*dn)
Whom (who) did you see?
(The [i] in "kim-i" is the defining allomorph, so kim-i asks for the object.)
Onlar toplant-/y/ niin ertele-di-ler? (onlar toplanty ertelediler)
(on*lar / top*lan*t*y / ni*in / er*te*le*di*ler)
Why did they postpone the meeting?
Bu kahve-/y/i kim yap-t? (bu kahveyi yapt)
( bu / kah*ve*yi / kim / yap*t )
Who has made this coffee?
Patates-ler-i niin soy-ma-d-n? (patatesleri soymadn)
(ni*in / pa*ta*tes*le*ri / soy*ma*dn)
Why havent you peeled the potatoes?
Kim-in araba-/s/-/n/ dn al-d-n? ( arabsn dn aldn)
(ki*min / a*ra*ba*s*n / *dn / al*dn)
Whose car did you borrow?
Onlar nerede bul-u-tu-lar? (onlar bulutular)
(on*lar / ner* de / bu*lu*tu*lar)
Where did they meet?
Amerika-da ne kadar kal-d-n? (Amerikada kaldn)
(a*me*ri*ka*da / ne / ka*dar / kal*dn)
How long did you stay in The U.S.A.?
Anne-en-le baba-an- ne sklk-ta ziyaret et-ti-in? (Annenle baban ziyaret ettin)

(an*nen*le / ba*ba*n / ne / sk*lk*ta / zi*ya:*ret / et*tin)


How often did you visit your parents?

173

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ne de-di-in? ( dedin)
(ne / de*din)
What did you say?
If noticed, when the question words are taken out of all the Turkish interrogative sentences, the remaining parts are good grammatical positive or negative sentences. For instance:
Onu ne zaman grdn? Onu grdn.
Onlar toplanty niin ertelediler? Onlar toplanty ertelediler.
Likewise, one can also produce interrogative sentences by inserting question words in all Turkish positive or negative sentences:
Onlar toplanty ertelediler. Onlar toplanty niin ertelediler?
Sen stanbula gideceksin. Sen stanbula nasl gideceksin?
Onu grdn. Onu nerede grdn?
Bu kitab satn alacaksn. Bu kitab ne zaman satn alacaksn?
Londraya gittin. Londraya ka kez gittin?.
Bizi ziyaret etmedin. Bizi niin ziyaret etmedin?
The places of the interrogative words are changeable in Turkish, but this
characteristic of the Turkish language does not exist in English:
Niin onlar ma ertelediler? (ni*in / on*lar / ma* / er*te*le*di*ler)
Onlar niin ma ertelediler? (on*lar / ni*in / ma* / er*te*le*di*ler)
Onlar ma niin ertelediler? (on*lar / ma* / ni*in / er*te*le*di*ler)
Onlar ma ertelediler. Niin? (on*lar / ma* / er*te*le*di*ler) (ni*in)
There is only one English equivalent of the above first three Turkish interrogative sentences: Why did they postpone the meeting?
The mi, m, m, mu question words can also be put into the positive or
negative sentences without changing the sentence order as the other question words:
Onlar toplanty ertele-di-ler.
Onlar m toplanty ertele-di-ler?

174

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Onlar toplanty m ertelediler?
Onlar toplanty ertelediler mi?
Onlar toplanty ertele-me-di-ler.
Onlar m toplanty ertele-me-di-ler?
Onlar toplanty m ertele-me-di-ler?
Onlar toplanty ertele-me-di-ler mi?
The [M] interrogative morpheme can also be used accordingly in all other Turkish
sentences.

ML PAST TENSE (Mili Gemi)


Rumor & Inference
This tense does not exist in English. The concept of this tense is inferred
from the context in which it is used. The inference allomorphs of this tense
are [mi, m, m, mu], which are followed by the personal morphemes: (ben) [im, m, m, um]; (sen) [sin, sn, sn, sun]; (o) []; (biz)
[iz, z, z, uz]; (siz) [sin-iz, sn.z, sn.z, sun.uz]; (onlar) [] or [ler,
lar]). Compare the Turkish with the English sentences to understand the
difference:
O git-mi. They say (that) he has gone or I am surprised to see (hear)
that he has gone. They say (that) he went. I think (that) he has gone. He
says (that) he has gone. Somebody says (that) he has gone. He is said to
have gone. All these English sentences are expressed in the Turkish sentence O git-mi. In such sentences the origin and the time of the rumor
is unknown, but inferred:
Sen snav- ge-mi-sin. People say that you have passed the examination.
-i/n/-den kov-mu-lar. People say, or he himself says that they (have) fired him.
-i/n/-den kov-ul-mu. (ko*vul*mu) They say that he has been fired, or
was fired. (He himself says (that) he has been fired, or was fired.)
When one of the [dir, dr, dr, dur, tir, tr, tr, tur] allomorphs is attached
to one of the time allomorphs of [M], the verb composition gains the meaning of already happened possibility or certainty .
Bu film-i gr-m-sn-dr.
(bu / fil*mi / gr*m*sn*dr )
You are likely to have seen this film. (Possibility)
You must have seen this film. (Certainty)

175

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Zil al-m-tr.
(zil / al*m*tr )
The bell must (may) have rung. (Perhaps or certainly it has rung.)
Anne-em ev-den k-m-tir bile.
(an*nem / ev*den / k*m*tr / bi*le )
Mother must have already left home.
(I am certain that she has already left home)
Yeni ders-i ren-mi-sin.iz-dir.
(ye*ni / der*si / *ren*mi*si*niz*dir )
You may or must have learned the new lesson. (Certainty)
Ben-i anla-m-sn-dr.
(be*ni / an*la*m*sn*dr)
You must (may) have understood me.
Ben-i anla-m ol-ma.l-sn. (Anlam is subject complement in Turkish)
(be*ni / an*la*m / ol*ma*l*sn )
You must have understood me.
Otobs ge kal-m ol-ma.l. (Ge kalm is subject complement.)
(o*to*bs / ge / kal*m / ol*ma*l )
The bus must have been late. (late is subject complement.)
Program- iptal et-mi-ler-dir.
(prog*ra*m / ip*ta:l / et*mi*ler*dir )
They must (may) have canceled the program.
Onu yanl anla-m-m-dr.
(o*nu / yan*l / an*la*m*m*dr )
I must (may) have misunderstood it.
Onu gr-me-mi-sin-dir.
(o*nu / gr*me*mi*sin*dir )
You may not have seen him.
Onu gr-m ol-a.maz-sn.
(o*nu / gr*m / o*la*maz*sn )
You can not have seen her.
Ylan- ldr-m-ler-dir.
(y*la*n / l*dr*m*ler*dir )
They must have killed the snake.

176

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


-i/n/-den kov-ul-mu-tur.
(i*in*den / ko*vul*mu*tur )
He must (may) have been fired.

Negative:
After the verb roots, stems or frames, one of the [me, ma] negation allomorphs is used; and then only the [mi, m] allomorphs follow them according to the vowel harmony rules, and finally the personal allomorphs are
added:

al-ma-/y/a bala-ma-m bile. (al-ma is a nominal infinitive.)


(a*l*ma*ya / ba*la*ma*m / bi*le )
They say he hasnt started work-ing yet. (Work-ing is a nominal gerund.)
Snav- ge-me-mi-sin.
(s*na*v / ge*me*mi*sin )
They say you didnt pass, or havent passed the examination.
Olun dn okul-a git-me-mi.
(o*lun / dn / o*ku*la / git*me*mi )
They say, or I heard that your son didnt go to school yesterday.
Mektup-u at-ma-m.
(mek*tu*bu / at*ma*m )
I heard that he hadn't posted the letter.
Teklif-i kabul et-me-mi-ler. (Kabul et = accept)
(tek*li:*fi / ka*b:I / et*me*mi*ler )
I heard that they hadnt accepted the proposal.
(Ben-im) oul-um dn okul-a git-me-mi.
(be*nim / o*lum / dn / o*ku*la / git*me*mi )
I heard that my son didnt go to school yesterday.
This type of verb structure is also used to express surprise:
Kedi papaan-m- ye-mi!
(ke*di / pa*pa*a*n*m / ye*mi~)
The cat has eaten up my parrot! (Astonishment and anger)
Kek yan-m!
(kek / yan*m~)
The cake has been burned (burnt)! (Astonishment)

Positive question:

177

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


In positive questions, [mi-/y/im, m-/y/m, m-/y/m, mu-/y/um]; [mi-sin,
m-sn, m-sn, mu-sun]; [mi, m, m, mu]; [mi-/y/iz, m-/y/z, m-/y/z,
mu-/y/uz]; [mi-sin.iz, m-sn.z, m-sn.z, mu-sun.uz] and [ler mi, lar m]
words are separately used in accordance with the harmony rules:
Oul-un dn ma-a git-mi mi?
(o*lun / dn / ma*a / git*mi / mi )
Tell me whether your son went to the football match yesterday.
Kap-/y/ kilitle-mi mi-/y/im?
(ka*p*y / ki*lit*le*mi / mi*yim )
Tell me whether I have locked the door.
(The /y/ glides are inserted between the successive vowels.)
Yen-il-mi-ler mi!
(ye*nil*mi*ler / mi)
Have they been beaten! (Astonishment)
Araba-am tamir et-il-mi mi?
(a*ra*bam / ta:*mir / e*dil*mi / mi )
Do they say (have you heard) that my car has been repaired? (Passive)

Negative question:
In negative questions, the [me, ma] negation allomorphs are attached to
verb roots, stems or frames:
Kap-/y/ kilit-le-me-mi-ler mi?!
(ka*p*y / ki*lit*le*me*mi*ler / mi)
Do they say that they didn't lock the door? (Im shocked to hear that.)
Ben-i gr-me-mi mi?
(be*ni / gr*me*mi / mi)
Does he say that he didn't see me? (I can't believe!) (Incredible!)
Ev dev-i-/n/i yap-ma-m m?
(ev / *de*vi*ni~ / yap*ma*m / m)
Does he say that he hasn't done his homework? (Anger and astonishment)
Daha kalk-ma-m m?
(da*ha / kalk*ma*m / m) (Surprise)
Do you say that he hasnt got up yet? (How lazy he is!)

178

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Oul-un Trke bil-me-i.yor mu/y/-mu?
(o*lun / trk*e / bil*mi*yor / muy*mu)
Do you say that your son doesnt know Turkish?
Ben-i tan-ma-.yor mu/y/-mu? Hayret bir ey!
(be*ni / ta*n*m*yor / muy*mu) (Hay*ret / bi*ey~)
Does he say that he doesnt know me? Unbelievable! Ridiculous!

THE SIMPLE FUTURE AND BE GOING TO


Gelecek Zaman
The two different English time concepts above are expressed in [e.cek,
a.cak] time allomorphs in Turkish. The compulsory personal allomorphs
follow these two time allomorphs as usual, such as:
(ben) [im, m]; (sen) [sin, sn]; (o) []; (biz) [iz, z]; (siz) [sin.iz,
sn.z]; (onlar) [] or [ler, lar].
The same concepts can also be expressed in The Present Continuous
Tense (imdiki Zaman), as well. Consider the following:
Yeni bir araba satn al-a.cak-z.
(ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / sa*tn / a*la*ca*z )
We are going to buy a new car. We will buy a new car.
.

Bir gn ben-i anla-/y/a.cak-sn.


(bir / gn / be*ni / an*la*ya*cak*sn )
You will understand me some day.
(The /y/ glide is inserted between the successive a-/y/a vowels.)
Para-am ol-un.ca sana yardm et-er-im.
(pa*ram / o*lun*ca / sa*na / yar*dm / e*de*rim )
I will help you when I have enough money.
(The /t/ consonant changes into the voiced /d/.) (Promise)
Para-am ol-un.ca sana yardm et-e.cek-im.
(pa*ram / o*lun*ca ~/ sa*na / yar*dm / e*de*ce*im )
I will certainly help you when I have enough money. (Strong promise)
The underlined /t/ and /k/ unvoiced consonants above change into the
voiced /d/ and // consonants respectively.

179

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Baz hayvan-lar bir gn yok ol-a.cak. (Liaison)
(ba:*z / hay*van*lar / bir / gn / yo*ko*la*cak )
Some animals will be extinct some day.
(Kap-/y/) ben a-ar-m. (Liaison)
(ka*p*y / be*na*a*rm )
Ill open (the door).
(One can use this form as soon as one hears the doorbell.)
(Telefon-a) ben cevap ver-ir-im.
(te*le*fo*na / ben / ce*vap / ve*ri*rim )
Ill answer (the phone).
(This expression is used as soon as one hears the telephone ring.)
Mr. Brown yarn niversite-de bir konferans ver-e.cek. (ve*re*cek)
Mr. Brown is going to give a lecture at the university tomorrow.

Negative:
The negative making allomorphs of this tense are [me] or [ma], which are
followed by [e.cek] or [a.cak] allomorphs. When "me-/y/e.cek" or "ma/y/a.cak" allomorphs follow one another, the successive /e/ or /a/ vowels are
linked by the /y/ glides to maintain the harmonious link between these vowels:
Toplant-/y/a git-me-/y/e.cek-im.
(top*lan*t*ya / git*me*ye*ce*im ), or impolitely, (git*miy*cem)
I wont go to the meeting. (Refusal).
The /y/ glide is inserted between the successive e-e vowels, and the unvoiced consonant /k/ changes into the voiced form //.
Onlar-n teklif-i-/n/i kabul et-me-/y/e.cek-iz.
(on*la*rn / tek*li:*fi*ni / ka*bl / et*me*ye*ce*iz )
We will not accept their proposal.
(The /n/ and /y/ are the glides inserted between the successive i-i and e-e
vowels. The /k/ unvoiced consonant in ecek changes into the voiced //.)
Yamur ya-ma-/y/a.cak.
(ya*mur / ya*ma*ya*cak )
It is not going to rain. (to rain is a nominal infinitive.)
(The /y/ glide is inserted between the successive a-a vowels.)

180

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Positive question:
In positive questions, mi-/y/im?, mi-sin?, mi?, mi-/y/iz?, misin.iz?, (ler) mi? or their allomorphs are separately used:
Bu mektup-lar- daktilo et-e.cek mi-sin?
(bu / mek*tup*la*r / dak*ti*lo / e*de*cek / mi*sin )
Are you going to type these letters?
Yarn git-e.cek mi-sin?, or Yarn git-i.yor mu-sun?
(ya*rn / gi*de*cek / mi*sin ) (ya*rn / gi*di*yor / mu*sun )
Are you leaving tomorrow? (The /t/ changes into /d/.)
Biz-i ziyaret et-e.cek-ler mi? (ziyaret et = visit)
(on*lar / bi*zi / zi*ya:*ret / e*de*cek*ler / mi )
Are they going to visit us?
Note: Although the [mi, m, m, mu] adverbial interrogative allomorphs and the [me,
ma] adverbial negative making allomorphs are written in green, The negative making
allomorphs may be written in some senences in red from now on as they are the
allomorphs of the verb compositions in Turkish, and difficult to write them in different
colors.

In polite requests, geni zaman (The Simple Present Tense) is used in


Turkish in place of The Simple Future Tense (will) of the English language:
Bu mektup-lar- ben-im iin ltfen daktilo et-er mi-sin?
(bu / mek*tup*la*r / be*nim / i*in / lt*fen / dak*ti*lo / e*der / mi*sin )
Will you please type these letters for me? (Polite request)
Lutfen ben-im iin bir fincan kahve yap-ar m-sn?
(lt*fen / be*nim / i*in / bir / fin*can / kah*ve / ya*par / m*sn )
Will you please make a cup of coffee for me? (Polite request)

Negative question:
In the negative question form, [me] or [ma] negation allomorphs follow the
verb roots, stems or frames:
Biz-im-le gel-me-/y/e.cek mi-sin?
(bi*zim*le / gel*me*ye*cek / mi*sin )
Wont you come with us?
(The /y/ glide links the successive /e/ vowels.)

181

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


When the question words are involved, mi-/y/im, mi-sin, etc. are not
used:
Saat ka-ta ev-e dn-e.cek-sin?
(sa*at / ka*ta / e*ve / d*ne*cek*sin )
What time will you come back home?
Yarn nere-/y/e git-i.yor-sun?
(ya*rn / ne re*ye / gi*di*yor*sun )
Where are you going tomorrow? (The /t/ changes into /d/.)
Yarn hava nasl ol-a.cak?
(ya*rn / ha*va / na * sl / o*la*cak )
What is the weather going to be like tomorrow?
Soru-um-a kim cevap ver-e.cek?
(so*ru*ma / kim / ce*vap / ve*re*cek )
Who is going to answer my question?
Soru-um-a sen mi cevap ver-e.cek-sin?
(so*ru*ma / sen / mi / ce*vap / ve*re*cek*sin )
Are you going to answer my question?
(If this question is asked with a rising () intonation, it becomes sarcastic.)
Toplant-/y/ nerede yap.a.cak.lar?
(top*lan*t*y / ne*re*de / ya*pa*cak*lar )
Where are they going to hold the meeting?
Bu kimin kitap-?
(bu / ki*min / ki*ta*b)
Whose book is this? (The /p/ transplaces, and changes into the voiced
/b/.)
Size nasl yardm et-e.bil-ir-im? (yardm et = help)
(si*ze / na*sl / yar*dm / e*de*bi*li*rim )
How can I help you? (Yardm et is an intransitive verb in Turkish. However, the English verb help is a transitive verb.

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE


imdiki Zamann Hikyesi
This tense is used like The Past Continuous Tense of the English Language. The time morpheme of this tense is a combination of [.YOR] morpheme followed by the [D] morpheme, which are followed by the usual per-

182

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


sonal allomorphs. The allomorphs of these morphemes are simultaneously
chosen by the phonological component in accordance with the Turkish harmony rules as usual.
The allomorphs of [.YOR] are [i.yor, .yor, .yor, u.yor] as they are in
The Present Continuous Tense. As all the allomorphs of the [.YOR] morpheme end with yor syllables, only the [du] allomorph of the morpheme
[D] is used after the allomorphs of [.YOR]. For instance:
i.yor-du, .yor-du, .yor-du, u.yor-du.
Although the personal morphemes are [M], [N], [], [K], [N.Z], and [LERD], only their allomorphs [um], [un], [], [uk], [un.uz] and [lar-d] are used
due to the [du] past time allomorph. As the vowels of the [du] allomorphs
coincide with the vowels of the personal allomorphs, they combine and
verbalize as single vowels:
(ben) [du-um] (dum); (sen) [du-un] (dun); (o) [du] (du); (biz) [du-uk] (duk);
(siz) [du-un.uz] (du*nuz); (onlar) [du] (du) or [lar-d] (lar*d).
As all these allomorphs are attached to [i.yor-du] allomorphs, they become
i.yor-du-um, i.yor-du-un, i.yor-du, i.yor-du-uk, i.yor-du-un.uz, i.yorlar-d:
Ankara-/y/a git-i.yor-du-um.
(an*ka*ra*ya / gi*di*yor*dum )
I was going to Ankara.
Onlar biz-e yardm et-i.yor-lar-d. ( yardm et is intransitive; biz-e is
adverbial.) (on*lar / bi*ze / yar*dm / e*di*yor*lar*d )
They were helping us. (help is transitive; us is its object.)
Televizyon seyret-i.yor-du-un.
(te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*di*yor*dun )
You were watching television.
Arkada-lar-m.z- ara-.yor-du-uk. (The verb ara is transitive in Turkish.)
(ar*ka*da*la*r*m*z / a*r*yor*duk )
We were looking for our friends. (The verb look is intransitive in English.)
Bir problem z-.yor-du-um.
(ben / bir / prob*lem / *z*yor*dum )
I was solving a problem.

183

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Onlar- bekle-i.yor-du-uk. (Bekle is a transitive verb in Turkish.)
(on*la*r / bek*li*yor*duk )
We were waiting for them. (Wait is an intransitive verb in English.)
O ben-i sev-i.yor-du. (Sev is a transitive verb in Turkish.)
(o / be*ni / se*vi*yor*du )
She was in love with me. (In love is subject complement in English.)
renci-ler retmen-ler-i-/n/i dikkat-le dinle-i.yor-lar-d.
(*ren*ci*ler / *ret*men*le*ri*ni / dik*kat*le / din*li*yor*lar*d )
The students were listening to their teacher carefully.
(Listen is an intransitive verb in English; dinle is transitive in Turkish.)
Uyu-u.yor-du-uk. (The /u/ drops, the /y/ attaches to /u/, and the u-u combine.) (u*yu*yor*duk )
We were sleeping.

Negative:
Although the negative making allomorphs of this tense are [me] and [ma],
their last vowels drop when they are attached to the allomorphs of [.YOR]:
Gel-me-i.yor-lar-d. (The /e/ drops, and the /m/ attaches to /i/.) (One word)
(gel*mi*yor*lar*d )
They were not coming.
Onlar- bekle-me-i.yor-du-uk. (Bekle is transitive in Turkish.)
(on*la*r / bek*le*mi*yor*duk )
We were not waiting for them. (Wait is intransitive in English.)
O ben-i sev-me-i.yor-du. (Sev is a transitive verb.)
(o / be*ni / sev*mi*yor*du )
She wasnt in love with me. (In love is a subject complement.)
Ben-i anla-ma-.yor-du. (O ben-i anla-ma-d.)
(be*ni / an*la*m*yor*du )
She didnt understand me.
Uyu-ma-u.yor-du-um. (One word)
(u*yu*mu*yor*dum )
I wasn't sleeping.

Positive question:

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The question allomorphs of this tense are [mi, m, m, mu]. Each one of
these allomorphs may be separately used after any stressed word in a sentence:
Ahmet okul-a otobs-le mi git-i.yor-du?
(ah*met / o*ku*la / o*to*bsle*mi / gi*di*yor*du )
Was Ahmet going to school by bus?
Ahmet otobs-le okul-a m git-i.yor-du?
(ah*met / o*to*bs*le / o*ku*la m / gi*di*yor*du )
Was Ahmet going to school by bus?
Ahmet okul-a otobs-le git-i.yor mu/y/-du?
(ah*met / o*ku*la / o*to*bs*le / gi*di*yor / mu/y/-du )
Was Ahmet going to school by bus?
Uyu-u.yor mu/y/-du-un.uz? (The [mi, m ,m, mu] are queston allomorps.)
(u*yu*yor / muy*du*nuz )
Were you sleeping?
al-.yor mu/y/-du-uk?
(a*l**yor / muy*duk )
Were we working?
When the verb is stressed, the question allomorph [mu] attaches to [du]
followed by the personal allomorphs:
"Gidiyor mu/y/-du-um?" "Bekliyor mu/y/-du-un?" "alyor mu/y/-du?" "Uyuyor mu/y/-du-uk?" "Kouyor mu/y/-du-un-uz?" "Glyor-lar m/y/-d?"

Negative question :
The [me, ma] negative allomorphs are used in negative questions as usual:
Otobs-le git-me-i.yor-lar m/y/-d?
(on*lar / o*to*bs*le / git*mi*yor*lar / my*d )
Were they not going by bus?
The double underlined /e/ drops, the /m/ attaches to /i/ and the /y/ glide is
inserted between [mu] and [du]. Instead of Gitmiyor-lar myd?, Gitmiyor
mu/y/du-lar? is often heard.
When the question words are involved, the [mi, m, m, mu] allomorphs are
not used, and the verbs are in positive form:

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ne yap-.yor-du-un?
(ne / ya*p*yor*dun)
What were you doing?
Sana kim yardm et-i.yor-du? (Yardm etmek is intransitive in Turkish.)
(sa*na / kim / yar*dm / e*di*yor*du)
Who was helping you? (Help is transitive, and you is its object.)
Nere-/y/e git-i.yor-du-un?
(nere*ye / gi*di*yor*dun)
Where were you going?
The /t/ changes into the voiced /d/, and the /u-u/ vowels combine.
Cadde-de bir kadn niin ko-u.yor-du?
(cad*de*de / bir / ka*dn / niin / ko*u*yor*du)
Why was a woman running along the street?
The intonation patterns of the Turkish and English interrogative sentences
are different when the question words are involved. In the Turkish sentences, the stress is on the question words, but in English, the stress is on
the verbs: (ne*re*ye / gi*di*yor*sun ); (where / are / you / gowing )

THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


imdiki Zamann Hikyesi
The past continuous verb structure of the Turkish language is also used in
place of the Past Perfect Continuous Tense of the English language. Consider and compare the following sentences:
Ahmet gel-dik-i/n/-de ben onu bir saat-tir otobs durak-/n/-da bekle-i.yor-du-um.

(ah*met / gel*di*in*de~/ ben / o*nu / i*ki / sa*at*tir / o*to*bs / du*ra*n*da /bek*li*yor*dum)


I had been waiting for Ahmet at the bus stop for an hour when he arrived.

Snav son-a er-dik-i/n/-de iki saat-tir soru-lar-a cevap ver-me-/y/e al.yor-du-um. I had been trying to answer the questions for two hours
when the exam ended. (er-dik and ver-me are infinitives.)
Iklar sn-dk-/n/-de iki saat-tir ev dev-im-i yap-.yor-du-um.
(*k*lar / sn*d*n*de / i*ki / sa*at*tir / ev / *de*vi*mi / ya*p*yor*dum)
When the lights went off, I had been doing my homework for two hours.
Otobs durak-/n/-da bekle-i.yor-du-um.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(o*to*bs / du*ra*n*da / bek*li*yor*dum )
I was waiting at the bus stop. (Past Continuous)
Otobs durak-/n/-da iki saat-tir bekle-i.yor-du-um.
(o*to*bs / du*ra*n*da / i*ki / sa*at*tir / bek*li*yor*dum )
I had been waiting at the bus stop for two hours. (Past Perfect Continuous)
Sabah-le.yin kalk-tk-m-da saat-ler-dir yamur ya-.yor-du.
(sa*bah*le*yin / kalk*t*m*da / sa*at*ler*dir / ya*mur / ya**yor*du )
It had been raining for hours when I got up in the morning.
As it is seen in the examples above, only The Past Continuous Tense is
used in Turkish to express both The Past Continuous and The Past Perfect continuous Tenses of the English language.

WAS (WERE) GOING TO


Gelecek Zamann Hikyesi
This tense expresses an action that was going to be done in the past, but
was interrupted for some reason. The same tense exists in the English language, as well.
To form this tense in Turkish, the [e.cek] or [a.cak] allomorphs are attached to verb roots, stems or frames first, and then they are followed by
[ti, t] past allomorphs, and finally personal allomorphs (ben) [im, m];
(sen) [in, n]; (o) []; (biz) [ik, k]; (siz) [in.iz, n.z]; (onlar) [ler-di,
lar-d] are added:
Ev dev-im-i yap-a.cak-t-m, ama birden elektrik-ler sn-d.
(ev / *de*vi*mi / ya*pa*cak*tm / a*ma ~/ bir*den / e*lek*trik*ler / sn*d )
I was going to do my homework, but suddenly the lights went out.
Tam retmen-in soru-/s/u-/n/a cevap ver-e.cek-ti-im, ama zil al-d.
(tam / *ret*me*nin / so*ru*su*na / ce*vap / ve*re*cek*tim / a*ma / zil / al*d)
I was just going to answer the teachers question, but the bell rang.
Tam uyku-/y/a dal-a.cak-t-m, telefon al-d.
(tam / uy*ku*ya / da*la*cak*tm~/ te*le*fon / al*d )
Just as I was going to sleep, the telephone rang.
This tense is also used in conditional unreal past tenses in Turkish:
Bilet bul-sa/y/-d-m, tiyatro-/y/a git-e.cek-ti-im.
(bi*let / bul*say*dm~/ ti*yat*ro*/y/a / gi*de*cek*tim )

187

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


If I had found a ticket, I would have gone to the theatre. (If is a subordinating conjunjtion.)
retmen ben-i kopya ek-er-ken yakala-ma-sa/y/-d, tm soru-lar-a cevap ver-e.cek-ti-im.
I would have answered all the questions if the teacher hadnt caught
me cheat-ing.

USED TO
Geni Zamann Hikyesi
The equivalent of the expression of used to is used in Turkish as it is used
in English. To form this expression, the simple present tense allomorphs of
[R], [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar], are used followed by [di, d, d, du] past allomorphs; and finally, (ben) [im, m, m, um]; (sen) [in, n, n, un]; (o)
[]; (biz) [ik, k, k, uk]; (siz) [in.iz, n.z, n.z, un.uz]; (onlar) [lerdi, lar-d] personal allomorphs are added. The identical i-i, -, -, u-u
vowels combine and verbalize as single vowels:
Onsekiz ya-m-da/y/-ken futbol oyna-ar-d-m.
(on*se*kiz / ya*m*day*ken / fut*bol / oy*nar*dm )
I used to play football when I was eighteen.
Her akam televizyon seyret-er-di-ik.
(biz / her / ak*am / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*der*dik)
We used to watch television every evening.

Negative:
The negation allomorph, which is used without the /z/ consonant for the first
person in The Simple Present Tense (Geni Zaman) negative, is used with
the phoneme /z/ in negative used to tenses, such as git-mez, oku-maz.
After this, the allomorphs of the morpheme [D] and the personal allomorphs
follow. The underlined words are infinitives:
Gen-ken basketbol oyna-maz-d-m.
(gen*ken / bas*ket*bol / oy*na*maz*dm )
I didnt use(d) to play basketball when I was young.
Okul-a otobs-le git-mez-di-ik.
(o*ku*la / o*to*bs*le / git*mez*dik )
We didnt use(d) to go to school by bus.

188

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Baba-am gzlk-ler-i-/n/i tak-ma-am-a izin ver-mez-di.
(ba*bam / gz*lk*le*ri*ni / tak*ma*ma / i*zin / ver*mez*di )
My father didnt use(d) to let me wear his eyeglasses.

Positive question:
To produce a positive question, one of the Simple Present Tense allomorphs is attached to a verb root, stem or frame, and then, as a separate
word, one of the question allomorphs [mi, m, m, mu], and one of the
Simple Past Tense allomorphs [di, d, d, du] is linked to the question
allomorphs by the /y/ glides, and finally a suitable personal allomorph follows
them:
Siz her gn ngilizce al-r m/y/-d-n.z?, or (alyor muydunuz?)
(siz / her*gn / in*gi*liz*ce / a*l*r / my*d*nz )
Did you use(d) to study English every day?
(The /y/ glide is inserted between [m] and [d].)
Mutfak-ta anne-en-e her gn yardm et-er mi/y/-di-in?
(mut*fak*ta / an*ne*ne / her / gn / yar*dm / e*der / miy*din )
Did you use to help your mother in the kitchen every day?
Sen gen-ken kz-lar futbol oyna-ar m/y/-d?
(sen / gen*ken / kz*lar / fut*bol / oy*nar/ m/y/*d )
Did girls used to play football when you were young?
This verbal composition is also used in conditional sentences:
Sen-in yer-in-de ol-sa-am baba-am-n t--/n/ dinle-er-di-im.
(se*nin / ye*rin*de / ol*sam / ba*ba*mn / **d*n / din*ler*dim )
If I were you, I would listen to my fathers advice. (Advice)
Jack bura-da ol-sa, biz-e yardm et-er-di. (Bura-da is subj complement.)
(Jack / bur*da / ol*sa~ / bi*ze / yar*dm / e*der*di )
If Jack were here, he would help us. (Here is subject complement.)

THE RUMOR FORMS OF THE SIMPLE


AND THE CONTINUOUS TENSES
The rumor forms of The Simple Present, The Present Continuous, The
Simple Future, and the modals such as must, mustn't, can, can't, and
double rumor forms are also possible in Turkish. To form these tenses, one
of the allomorphs of The Simple Present Tense [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar], the

189

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


allomorphs of The Present Continuous [i.yor, .yor, .yor, u.yor], The
Simple Future [e.cek, a.cak], and the modal morphemes [me.li,
ma.l], [e.bil, a.bil], and their negative forms, and additional rumor suffixes [mi, m, m, mu] can be attached to verb roots, stems or frames,
which are followed by personal allomorphs:
(ben) [im, m, m, um]; (sen) [sin, sn, sn, sun]; (o) []; (biz) [iz,
z, z, uz]; (siz) [sin.iz, sn.z, sn.z, sun.uz]; (onlar) [ler, lar]:
al-r-m-m. (a*l*r*m*m) They say that I work.
al-maz-m-m. (a*l*maz*m*m) They say that I don't work.
al-r m/y/-m-m? (a*l*r / my*m*m) Do they say that I work?
al-maz m/y/-m-m? (a*l*maz / my*m*m) Do they say that I don't work?
Gl-er-mi-sin-iz. (g*ler*mi*si*niz) They say that you laugh.
Gl-mez-mi-sin-iz. (g*mez*mi*si*niz) They say that you don't laugh.
Gl-er-mi mi-sin.iz? (g*ler*mi / mi*si*niz) Do they say that you laugh?
Gl-mez-mi mi-sin.iz? (gl*mez*mi / mi*si*niz) Do they say that you don't laugh?
Sat-.yor-mu-um. (sa*t*yor*mu*um) They say that I am selling.
Sat-ma-.yor-mu-um. (sat*m*yor*mu*um) They say that I am not selling.
Sat-.yor mu/y/-mu-um? (sa*t*yor / muy*mu*um) Do they say that I am selling?
Sat-ma-.yor mu/y/-mu-um? (sat*m*yor / muy*mu*um) ... that I am not selling?
Git-e.cek-mi-iz. (gi*de*cek*mi*iz) They say that we will go.
Git-me-/y/e.cek-mi-iz. (git*me*ye*cek*mi*iz.) They say that we will not go.
Git-e.cek mi/y/-mi-iz? (gi*de*cek / miy*mi*iz) Do they say that we will go?
Git-me-/y/e.cek mi/y/-mi-iz? (git*me*ye*cek / miy*mi*iz) ... that we will not go?

In all [mi, m, m, mu] sentences the origin and the time of the rumor
are either unknown or unimportant.
Bekle-me.li/y/-mi-im. (bek*le*me*liy*mi*im) They say that I must wait.
Bekle-me-me.li/y/-mi-im. (bek*le*me*me*liy*mi*im) They say that I mustn't wait.
Bekle-me.li mi/y/-mi-im? (bek*le*me*li / miy*mi*im) Do they say that I must wait?
Bekle-me-me.li mi/y/-mi-im? (bek*le*me*me*li / miy*mi*im) Do they say I mustn't
Bitir-e.bil-ir-mi-im. (bi*ti*re*bi*lir*mi*im) They say that I can finish.
Bitir-e.mez-mi-sin. (bi*ti*re*mez*mi*sin) They say that you can't finish.
Bitir-e.mez mi/y/-mi-im? (bi*ti*re*mez / miy*mi*im) Do they say I can't finish?
al-a.maz-lar m/y/-m? (a*l*a*maz*lar / my*m) ... that they can't work?

190

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Jack bir Rus kz--/n/ m sev-i.yor-mu?
(jack~ / bir / rus / k*z*n / m /se*vi*yor* mu ) (Surprise)
Do they say that Jack is (was) in love with a Russian girl?
Btn kzlar Jack'e ak-m-m.
(b*tn / kz*lar / ja*ke / a:*k*m*m )

Jack says (or I have heard) that all girls are in love with him, which is
unbelievable.
"Mi mi", "m m", "m m", "mu mu" express unbelievable rumor.
Ben-i tan-ma-.yor mu/y/-mu? Daha neler!
(be*ni / ta*n*m*yor / muy*mu) (da*ha / ne*ler)
Does he (she) say that he (she) doesn't know me? Ridiculous!
Jack bekr deil mi/y/-mi?
(jack / be*kr / de*il / mi/y/*mi)
Have you heard that Jack isn't a bachelor?
Patron bugn ok megul-mu.
(pat*ron / bu*gn / ok / me*gul*mu)
They say that the boss is very busy today.

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE


Mili Gemiin Hikyesi
This tense is generally used in complex sentences. To form this tense, one
of the allomorphs of [mi, m, m, or mu] is used after a verb root,
stem or frame, then one of the [ti, t, t, tu] past allomorphs is added, and
finally they are followed by one of the personal allomorphs. As the following
sentences are complex sentences, the main clauses are red, the noun
clauses are black, and the English adverbial clauses and the Turkish adverbial phrases are green when necessary.
The personal allomorphs used in this tense are: (ben) [im, m, m, um];
(sen) [in, n, n, un]; (o) []; (biz) [ik, k, k, uk]; (siz) [in.iz, n.z,
n.z, un.uz]; (onlar) [] or [ler-di, lar-d]. All these suffixes follow the
vowel and consonant harmony rules while they are being suffixed. As the
last vowels of the past allomorphs and the first vowels of the personal allomorphs coincide, they combine and vocalize as single vowels:
Yat-ma-dan nce ev dev-in-i bitir-mi mi/y/-di-in?
(yat*ma*dan / n*ce / ev / *de*vi*ni / bi*tir*mi / miy*din )
Had you finished your homework before you went to bed?

191

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Misafir-ler gel-me-den nce akam yemek-im.iz-i ye-mi-ti-ik.
(mi*sa:*fir*ler / gel*me*den / n*ce / ak*am / ye*me*i*mi*zi / ye*mi*tik )
We had eaten our lunch before the visitors arrived.
Birisi baba-am-a telefon et-tik-i/n/-de baba-am ev-den yeni k-m-t.
(bi*ri*si / ba*ba*ma / te*le*fon / et*ti*in*de~ / ba*bam / ev*den / ye*ni /
k*m*t )
When somebody telephoned my father, he had just left home.
(Ben-im) hava alan--/n/a var-dk-m-da uak havalan-m-t bile
noun + infinitive compound - da
adverbial phrs of time

subject

verb

adverb

When I arrived at the airport, the plane had already taken off.
(O) (ben-im) hangi lke-ler-e git-tik-im-i
subj

(noun compound) object of renmek


definite object

ren-mek

iste-di.

object of iste

verb

He wanted to know which countries I had been to.


Daha nce (kendi-/s/i-/n/in) ben-im-le karla-m ol-duk-u-/n/u syle-di.
(da*ha / n*ce / be*nim*le / kar**la*m / ol*du*u*nu / sy*le*di )
He said that he had met me before.
The /k/ phonemes in [dik, dk, dk, duk] change into the voiced // phonemes.

THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE


This tense expresses an action going on at a certain time in the future. To
compose this tense, one of the progressive allomorphs [i.yor, .yor, .yor,
or u.yor] is attached to verb roots, stems or frames first, and then, as a separate word, the verb ol is used attached to [a.cak] allomorph, which is
followed by one of the personal allomorphs:
Yarn saat sekiz-de sen-i bekle-i.yor ol-a.cak-m.
(ya*rn / sa*at / se*kiz*de / se*ni / bek*li*yor / o*la*ca*m )
I will be wait-ing for you at eight oclock tomorrow. (Bekle-iyor and
wait-ing are nouns, and so they are subject complements.)
The double underlined /e/ drops, and the /k/ in ol-a.cak changes into its
voiced form //, and the single underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the first syllables of the following inflectional allomorphs. The English underlined words are gerunds, and the
Turkish underlined words are nominals:

192

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Yarn bu saat-te al-.yor ol-a.cak-m.
(ya*rn / bu / sa*at*te / a*l**yor / o*la*ca*m )
I will be work-ing at this hour tomorrow. (The /k/ changes into //.)
Yarn bu saat-te ne yap-.yor ol-a.cak-sn?
(ya*rn / bu / sa*at*te / ne / ya*p*yor / o*la*cak*sn)
What will you be do-ing at this hour tomorrow?
The same verb composition above can also be used in Turkish when The
Future Perfect Continuous Tense verb expression is needed:
Gel-e.cek yl bu zaman bir yl-dr Trke ren-i.yor ol-a.cak-m.
(ge*le*cek / yl / bu / za*man ~/ bir / yl*dr / trk*e / *re*ni*yor /
o*la*ca*m )
I will have been study-ing Turkish for a year by this time next year.
Misafir-ler gel-dik-i/n/-de e-im saat-tir mutfak-ta yemek piir-i.yor ol-a.cak.

My wife will have been cook-ing in the kitchen for three hours by the
time the visitors arrive.

THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE


(mi ol-acak)
Both in English and Turkish, this tense expresses an action that will have
been finished before a certain time in the future. To form this tense, one of
the [mi, m, m, mu] allomorphs is attached to a verb root, stem or
frame, and then, as a separate word, one of the [e.cek or a.cak] allomorphs is attached to the ol verb root, and finally the verb composition is
ended with one of the personal allomorphs:
Saat be-te i-im-i bitir-mi ol-a.cak-m.
(sa*at / be*te / i*i*mi / bi*tir*mi / o*la*ca*m )
I will have finished my work by five oclock.
(The underlined /k/ is replaced by its voiced form //.)
Televizyon-da ben-im favori program-m bala-dk-/n/-da ev odev-im-i
yap-m ol-a.cak-m.
I will have done my homework by the time my favorite program starts
on TV. (Bitir-mi, yap-m and havalan-m are adjectives in Turkish.)
Hava alan--/n/a var-dk-n-da uak havalan-m ol-a.cak.
(sen / ha*va / a*la*n*na / var*d*n*da / u*ak / ha*va*lan*m / o*la*cak)
The plane will have taken off by the time you arrive at the airport.

193

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


INFINITIVES (MASTARLAR)
In Turkish, the grammar term infinitive (mastar) covers both the gerunds
and the infinitives of the English language. Therefore, we will talk about
only infinitives. When you see a verb-mek, mak, a verb-me, me, a
verb-i, , , u or a verb-dik, dk, dk, du, tk, tk, tk, tuk inflectional allomorphs attached to verbs, they turn them into infinitives. All infinitives are nouns, and they are timeless.
There are four kinds of infinitives in Turkish:
1. The [mek, mak] allomorphs attached to verb roots, stems or frames:
oku-mak (reding, to read); yz-mek (swimming, to swim); yardm et-mek
(helping, to help); konu-mak (talking, to talk); temizle-mek (cleaning, to
clean); oyna-mak (playing, to play); tart-mak; tart-l-mak (tar*tl*mak); tart-mak (tar*t*mak); ka-mak; ka-n-mak (ka*n*mak); ka--mak (ka**mak); srt-mek; srt-l-mek (sr*tl*mek); srt-n-mek (sr*tn*mek); srt--mek (sr*t*mek); dv-mek; dv-l-mek (d*vl*mek);
dv-n-mek (d*vn*mek); dv--mek; ek-mek; ek-il-mek; ek-inmek; ek-i-mek; at-mak; at-l-mak; at--mak; sev-mek; sev-il-mek;
sev-in-mek; sev-i-mek; de-mek; de-in-mek; de-il-mek.
2. The [me, ma] allomorphs attached to verb roots, stems and frames:
git-me (going, to go); gel-me (coming, to come); al-ma (working, to
work); eletir-me (criticizing, to criticize); anla-ma (understanding, to understand); ezberle-me (memorizing, to memorize); tart-ma, tart-l-ma (tar*tl*ma), tart--ma (tar*t*ma); gr-me, gr-l-me (g*rl*me), gr-n-me
(g*rn*me), gr--me; ka-ma; ka-n-ma; ka--ma.
3. The [i, , , u, e, a] allomorphs attached to verb roots or stems:
gl- (g*l) (way of smiling); bak- (ba*k) (way of looking); anla/y/ (an*la*y) (ability of understanding), gel-i (ge*li) (way of) coming);
dav-ran- (dav*ra*nu) (way of behaving).
4. The [dik. dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] allomorphs attached to verb
roots, stems and frames:
yz-dk, gel-dik, oku-duk, temizle-dik, bekle-dik, al-tk; soy-un-duk
(so*yun*duk), anla-a-tk (an*la*tk), kes-i-tik, sev-il-dik, yz-le-tik,
bek-le-e-tik (bek*le*tik) tart--tk (tar*t*tk).

194

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The Nr. 4 infinitives are used in transforming sentences into possessive
+ owned (noun + infinitive) compounds such as: ben-im gr-dk-m
(be*nim / gr*d*m); Hasann al-tk- (ha*sa*nn / a*l*t*);
biz-im bekle-e-tik-im.iz (bi*zim / bek*le*ti*i*miz).
In the examples above, the [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk ] allomorphs are not the allomorphs used in "Futbol oyna-d-k." For instance,
when the sentence "O futbol oynuyor" is transformed into a nominal phrase
(noun + infinitive compound), it becomes "onun futbol oyna-dk-". This
transformed phrase can be used as the object of "gryorum". "Onun futbol
oyna-dk-/n/ (oynuyor olduunu) gryorum." In this sentence, the allomorph [dk] does not convey a past time concept as the other infinitives.
Consequently, "oynuyor, oynar, oynard, oynad, oynuyordu" tenses
are all transformed into a noun + infinitive compound as "oyna-dk-"
(oy*na*d*):
O futbol oynuyor. onun futbol oyna-dk- (oy*na*d*)
O futbol oynar. onun futbol oyna-dk-
O futbol oynad. onun futbol oyna-dk-
O futbol oynuyordu. onun futbol oyna-dk-
When all the four sentences above are transformed and nominalized, they
can be used in the following sentences as definite objects:
Onun futbol oyna-dk--/n/ gryor-um. I can see that he is playing football.
Onun her gn futbol oyna-dk--/n/ biliyor-um. I know that he plays football every
day. Onun dn futbol oyna-dk--/n/ grd-m. I saw that he was playing football
yesterday.
These examples clearly prove that the [DK] morpheme is not the past time
[di-ik] morpheme. It is a morpheme attached to a verb to produce an infinitive:
Onun araba-/y/ al-dk- is a noun + infinitive compound like onun
araba-/y/ al-ma-/s/.
Generally speaking, "ben-im al-ma-am", "ben-im al--m", "ben-im al-dk-m"
expressions are all possessive + owned noun compounds like "ben-im
kap-m". The "verb-[mek, mak]" infinitives are timeless as the other infinitives are, but they are not used in compounds. For instance *onun git-mek-i
is not used in Turkish; the verb-[me, ma] infinitives are used instead.

195

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Note: You can find further explanations in the article written by Eser Erguvanl Taylan, Boazii niversitesi, (Trke'de Tmce Yapsna Sahip Tmle Yantmceleri)

WHERE AND HOW THE INFINITIVES ARE USED


1 (a). The [mek, mak] allomorphs, which turn verbs into infinitives, which are
nouns, can be used in the subject position in a sentence. They are timeless and have no personal possessive allomorphs attached to them.
Yr-mek salk iin yararl-dr. (Yr-mek is an infinitive.)
(y*r*mek / sa*lk / i*in / ya*rar*l*dr )
Walk-ing is good for health.
(Walk-ing is a gerund. Walk is a verb, but when the ing suffix attaches to the verb, this suffix turns the verb into a gerund.
Sigara i-mek zararl-dr.
(si*ga*ra / i*mek / za*rar*l*dr )
Smok-ing is harmful.
Gn-de sekiz saat uyu-mak salkl bir kii iin yeterli-dir.
(gn*de / se*kiz / sa*at / u*yu*mak / sa*lk*l / bir / ki*i / i*in /
ye*ter*li*dir)
Sleep-ing eight hours a day is enough for a healthy person.
Btn gn televizyon seyret-mek zaman kayb-dr.
(b*tn / gn / te*le*viz*yon / sey*ret*mek / za*man / kay*b*dr )
Watch-ing television all day long is a waste of time.
O-/n/u ikna et-mek kolay-dr.
(o*nu / ik*na: / et*mek / ko*lay*dr )
To convince him is easy. It is easy to convince him. He is easy to convince

1 (b).The same [mek, mak] infinitives are used before yerine and
iin postpositions:
al-mak yerine Bahe-de tenis oyna-d-k
infinitive
postp.
postp phrs (adverbial)

(bah*e*de / a*l*mak / ye*ri*ne / te*nis / oy*na*dk )


We played tennis in the garden instead of work-ing.
Televizyon seyret-mek yerine i-in-i yap.

196

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(te*le*viz*yon / sey*ret*mek / ye*ri*ne / i*i*ni / yap )
Do your work instead of watch-ing television. (Watch-ing is the object of
the preposition instead of.)

Okul-a git-mek yerine sinema-/y/a git-ti-ler


(o*ku*la / git*mek / ye*ri*ne~/ si*ne*ma*ya / git*ti*ler )
They went to the cinema instead of go-ing to school.
The same [mek, mak] allomorphs are also used before iin postpositions
to express purpose:
Ev dev-im-i tamamla-mak iin sabah-le.yin erken kalk-t-m. (Liaison)
(e*v*de*vi*mi / ta*mam*la*mak / i*in~/ sa*bah*le*yin / er*ken / kalk* tm )
I got up early to complete my homework. (To complete is an infinitive that functions as an adverb.).

The functions of English infinitives are of three kinds; some of them are
adverbal, some others are nominal, and some others are adjectival.
Yepyeni bir araba al-mak iin para biriktir-i.yor-uz. (Adverbial)
(yep*ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / al*mak / i*in / pa*ra / bi*rik*ti*ri*yo*ruz )
We are saving money to buy a brand new car. (Adverbial)
Onlar- gr-mek iin pencere-den bak-t-m. (Adverbial)
(on*la*r / gr*mek / i*in ~/ pen*ce*re*den / bak*tm )
I looked out of the window to see them. (Adverbial)
O/n/u bitir-mek iin zaman-a ihtiya-m.z var. (Adverbial)
(o*nu / bi*tir*mek / i*in ~/ za*ma:*na / ih*ti*ya:*c*mz / var )
We need time to finish it. (Adverbial)
Cumhurbakan-/n/ gr-mek iin herkes ayak-a kalk-t. (a*ya*a)
Everybody stood up to see the president. (Adverbial)
Yabanc dil ren-mek iin ok al-mak zorunda-sn. (Adverbial, nominal)
(ya*ban*c / dil / *ren*mek / i*in~ / ok / a*l*mak / zo*run*da*sn )
You have to study hard to learn a foreign language. (Nominal, adverbial)
Ben-i anla-mak iin dikkat-le dinle. (Adverbial)
(be*ni / an*la*mak / i*in ~/ dik*kat*le / din*le )
Listen carefully to understand me. (Adverbial)
Islan-ma-mak iin emsiye-/s/i-/n/i al-d. (Negative infinitive)
(s*lan*ma*mak / i*in / em*si*ye*si*ni / al*d )
She took her umbrella not to get wet. (Adverbial)

197

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ben-i daha iyi gr-mek iin gzlk-ler-i-/n/i tak-t. (Adverbial)
(be*ni / da*ha / i*yi / gr*mek / i*in / gz*lk*le*ri*ni / tak*t )
She put her glasses on to see me better. (Adverbial)
Biz-e yardm et-mek iin israr et-ti. (Liaison)
(bi*ze / yar*dm / et*mek / i*in / is*ra:r / et*ti ) (is*ra:*ret*ti)
He insisted on help-ing us. (Help-ing is the object of the preposition on)
Otobs-e yeti-mek iin ko-tu-uk. (Adverbial)
(o*to*b*se / ye*ti*mek / i*in / ko*tuk)
We ran to catch the bus. (Adverbial)

1 (c). The infinitives with [mek, mak] are used as objects of the
verb iste" and "zorunda" ("want, wish" and "have to")
Trke ren-mek iste-i.yor-um. (The underlined infinitives are all nominal.)
(trk*e / *ren*mek / is*ti*yo*rum )
I want to learn Turkish. (Nominal)
Trke ren-mek zorunda-/y/m. (Nominal)
(trk*e / *ren*mek / zo*run*da*ym )
I have to learn Turkish. (Nominal)
Bulak-lar- yka-mak iste-me-i.yor-um. (Nominal)
(bu*la*k*la*r / y*ka*mak / is*te*mi*yo*rum )
I dont want to wash the dishes. (Nominal)
Bu kitap- oku-mak iste-i.yor mu-sun? (Nominal)
(bu / ki*ta*b / o*ku*mak / is*ti*yor / mu*sun )
Do you want to read this book? (Nominal)
Canm okul-a git-mek iste-me-i.yor. (Nominal)
(ca*nm / o*ku*la / git*mek / is*te*mi*yor )
I dont feel like go-ing to school. (Nominal gerund)

1 (d). The [mek, mak] allomorphs attached to [ten, tan] allomorphs:


The [mek, mak] allomorphs can also be used attached to [ten, tan]
allomorphs as all nouns can. When the [ten, tan] allomorphs attach to the
[mek, mak] allomorphs, they turn them into adverbials, which are followed by
intransitive verbs. However, in the corresponding English sentences the
verbs are all transitive or linking verbs.

198

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Yanl-lk yap-mak-tan kan-ma.l-sn. (Yap-mak-tan is an adverb.)
(yan*l*lk / yap*mak*tan / ka*n*ma*l*sn )
You must avoid make-ing mistakes. (Avoid is a transitive verb, and the
gerund Make-ing is the object of the verb avoid)
Gece-le.yin yalnz dar-/y/a k-mak-tan kork-u.yor-um.
(ge*ce*le*yin / yal*nz / d*a*r / k*mak*tan / kor*ku*yo*rm )
I am afraid of go-ing out alone at night. (All the gerunds are the objects of of)
Tm kadn-lar yalan-mak-tan kork-ar.
(tm / ka*dn*lar / ya*lan*mak*tan / kor*kar )
All women are afraid of grow-ing old.
Btn gn ev-de otur-mak-tan bk-t-m (skl-d-m).
(b*tn / gn / ev*de / o*tur*mak*tan / bk*tm )
I am tired (bored) of stay-ing at home all day long.
Yalan syle-mek-ten utan-ma-.yor mu-sun?
(ya*lan / sy*le*mek*ten / u*tan*m*yor / mu*sun )
Arent you ashamed of tell-ing lies?
zl-mek-ten kendim-i al-a.ma-.yor-um.
(*zl*mek*ten / ken*di*mi / a*la*m*yo*rum )
I cant help be-ing sorry. (be-ing is the object of help.)
Bekle-mek-ten neftet et-er-im. (nefret et is an intransitive verb.)
(bek*le*mek*ten / nef*ret / e*de*rim )
I hate wait-ing. (hate is transitive, and wait-ing is the object of hate.)
ou renciler ev dev-i yap-mak-tan holan-maz. (holan is intrans.)
(o*u / *ren*ci*ler / e*v*de*vi / yap*mak*tan / ho*lan*maz )
Most students dislike do-ing homework. (dislike is transitive.)
Pervasz-ca araba sr-mek-ten kan-ma.l-sn. (kan is intransitive.)
(per*va:*sz*ca / a*ra*ba / sr*mek*ten / ka*n*ma*l*sn )
You must avoid driv-ing recklessly.(avoid is transitive; driving is its obj).
Gl-mek-ten kendi-im-i al-a.ma-d-m.
(gl*mek*ten / ken*di*mi / a*la*ma*dm )
I couldnt help laugh-ing. (help is transitive)
Kz karde-im ev i-i yap-mak-tan nefret et-er. (nefret et is intransitive)
(kz*kar*de*im / e*vi*i / yap*mak*tan / nef*re*te*der )
My sister hates do-ing housework. (hate is transitive.)

199

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Aldat-l-mak-tan nefret et-er-im. (nefret et is intransitive.)
(al*da*tl*mak*tan / nef*re*te*de*rim )
I hate be-ing cheated. (hate is transitive.)
Yardm iste-mek-ten ekin-me. (ekin is intransitive.)
(yar*dm / is*te*mek*ten / e*kin*me)
Dont avoid ask-ing for help. (avoid is transitive.)
Tavla oyna-mak-tan sz et-ti-ik. (sz et is intransitive.)
(tav*la / oy*na*mak*tan / s*zet*tik)
We talked about play-ing backgammon. (talk is intransitive.)
2 (a). The [me, ma] infinitives are used in the second parts of the possessive + owned noun compounds. They are timeless, but they have
possessive personal allomorphs attached to them. Compare the following:
Kitap-n kapak- (ki*ta*bn / ka*pa*) (the cover of the book)
ben-im pencere-em (be*nim / pen*ce*rem) (my window)
ben-im git-me-em (be*nim / git*mem) (my go-ing, me to go)
Gerek-i syle-me-en-i iste-i.yor-um.
(Ger*e*i / sy*le*me*ni / is*ti*yo*rum)
I want you to tell the truth.
sen-in gerek-i syle-me-en is a transformed nominal phrase:
(Sen) gerei syler-sin. (sen-in) gerek-i syle-me-en
(Sen) gerei sylyor-sun (sen-in) gerek-i syle-me-en
(Sen) gerei syledi-in. (senin) gerek-i syle-me-en
(Sen) gerei sylerdi-in. (senin) gerek-i syle-me-en
(Sen) gerei syleyecek-sin. (sen-in) gerek-i syle-/y/e.cek ol-ma-an
(Sen) gerei sylemiti-in. "(sen-in) gerek-i syle-mi ol-ma-an"
As the possessive pronouns with the possessive personal allomorphs,
and the possessive allomorphs attached to the second parts of the noun
compounds mean the same person, the possessive pronouns used in the
beginning of the sentences can be ignored:
(ben-im) git-me-em, (ben-im) al-ma-am, (ben-im) bekle-me-em
(sen-in) git-me-en, (sen-in) al-ma-an, (sen-in) bekle-me-en
(o-/n/un) git-me-/s/i, (o-/n/un) al-ma-/s/, (o-/n/un) bekle-me-/s/i
(biz-im) git-me-em.iz, (biz-im) al-ma-am.z,(biz-im) bekle-me-em.iz
(siz-in) git-me-en.iz, (siz-in) al-ma-an.z, (siz-in) bekle-me-en.iz
(onlar-n) git-me-/s/i, (onlar-n) al-ma-/s/, (onlar-n) bekle-me-/s/i

200

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


All the shared identical e-e, a-a vowels combine, and the single underlined syllables detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of
the following allomorphs.
Note: All the owned personal allomorphs written in purple above mean the
possessive pronouns in brackets. Therefore, only the possessive allomorphs written in purple can be used in all Turkish sentences. For instance,
all the possessive allomorphs written in purple can be used instead of the
possessive pronouns that they represent.
In other words, as the owned personal allomorphs used in the owned parts
of a compound are enough to express the possessive pronouns (ben-im,
sen-in, etc.), these possessive pronouns may be ignored unless they are
thought to be necessary to attract the listeners attention.
Since the compounds like ben-im syle-me-em are noun compouns, they
are nominal phrases, and so the [i, ], [e, a], [de, da], [den, dan] and [le, la]
suffixes can be attached to the infinitive (owned) parts of the compounds:
syle-me-en-i, syle-me-en-e, syle-me-en-de, syle-me-enden, syle-me-en-le. All the allomorphs written in purple mean the
pronoun sen-in.
Baba-am (ben-im) daha ok al-ma-am- iste-i.yor. (is*ti*yor)
subject

(definite noun + infinitive comp) object

verb

My father wants me to study harder. (to studyis an infinitive.)


A final rule to add to the previous explanations is that in Turkish, certain
verbs need certain morphemes such as [], [E], [DE], [DEN] or [LE] attached
to nouns or pronouns. The allomorphs of these morphemes can also be attached to infinitives, or noun + infinitive (or infinitive + noun) compounds, which might be named as syntactic nouns or nominal phrases.

2 (b). The verbs that take noun + infinitive compounds as objects:


noun + infinitive - []
Yamur,

(biz-im)

zaman-n-da

tiyatro-/y/a git-me-em.iz-i engelle-di.

subject possessive pronoun


adverbial
adverbial
owned
verb
(definite noun + infinitive compound) definite object
(ya*mur / bi*zim / za*ma:*nn*da / ti*yat*ro*ya / git*me*mi*zi / en*gel*le*di )

The rain

prevented

us

from go-ing

to the theatre

in time.

subject

verb

object

prep phrs
adverbial

prep phrs
adverbial

prep phrs
adverbial

201

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(Ben)
subj

(sen-in)

byle

davran-ma-an-

anla-ma-.yor-um.

possessive pron adverb


owned-
(definite noun compound) definite object

verb

I dont understand your behave-ing like that.


(Ben) (o/n/-dan) (Ben-im) siyah pantolon-um-u (o-/n/un) tle-me-/s/i-/n/i rica et-ti-im.
subj

adverbial possessive
owned-u
possessive
owned
indef obj verb
definite noun comp (obj of tle) def noun comp (obj of rica et)
definite object
definite object
(chain noun compound) definite object

The mental development of this last sentence contains two simple sentences:
1 . O ben-im siyah pantolon-um-u tle-sin. 2. Ben ondan bu-/n/u rica ettim.
The first simple sentence is transformed and nominalized as o/n/un ben-im
siyah pantolon-um-u tle-me-/s/i, and then it is embedded and used in
place of the object bu-/n/u in the second sentence:
(Ben) o/n/-dan (benim) siyah pantolon-um-u (onun) tle-me-/s/i-/n/i rica et-ti-im
(si*yah / pan*to*lo*nu*mu / *t*le*me*si*ni / ri*ca: / et*tim )
I asked her to iron my black trousers.
Ben, benim and onun words are optional because they are understood
from the suffixes in etti-/im/", "pantolon-um and tle-me-/s/i
(Ben) Mary/n/in

piyano al-ma-/s/-/n/ seyret-ti-im.

subj possessive noun


owned
(noun compound) definite object
predicate

|
verb

(ma*ri*nin / pi*ya*no / al*ma*s*n / sey*ret*tim )


I watched Mary play-ing the piano.
(The /n/, /s/ and /n/ glides are respectively used.)
(Ben) (Sen-in) ev-e dn-me-en-i bekle-i.yor-um. (e*ve / dn*me*ni)
subj possessive adverb
owned-i
(definite noun compound) definite object
predicate

|
verb

I am waiting for your com-ing back home. (The underlined part is the object of for)

(O/n/un) konu-ma-/s/-/n/ anla-ma-.yor-um.


(o*nun / ko*nu*ma*s*n / an*la*m*yo*rum )
I dont understand his way of speak-ing. (speak-ing is the object of of)
(The /n/, /s/ and /n/ glides are respectively used.)

202

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Sana kahve getir-me-em-i iste-er mi-sin?
(sa*na / kah*ve / ge*tir*me*mi / is*ter / mi*sin )
Would you like me to serve you coffee?
(Ben-im)

onun-la

evlen-me-em

possessive
adverbial
owned
(noun compound) subject

imknsz. (Benim is optional.)

subject complement

(o*nun*la / ev*len*mem / im*kn*sz )


It is impossible for me to marry her.
(Ben) onu, (o-nun) bize yardm et-me-/s/i iin ikna et-ti-im.
subj def obj

noun + inf comp (object of iin)


postp.
postpositional adverbial phrase of purpose

verb

I convinced him to help us. (To help is adverbial infinitive.)


In the sentence above, the /s/ is a glide; onun is not necessary, it is put
there to show the reader the deleted "possessive pronoun" of the compound.
Mektub-u (ben-im) tekrar yaz-ma-am- rica et-ti. (Benim is optional.)
He asked me to write the letter again. (to write is a nominal infinitive.)
Tm erkekler tm kadn-lar-n gzel gr-n-me-/s/i-/n/i iste-er.
(tm / er*kek*ler / tm / ka*dn*la*rn / g*zel / g*rn*me*si*ni / is*ter )
All men want all women to look beautiful.
In the sentences above, bizim git-me-em.iz, senin davran-ma-an, onun
tle-me-/s/i, bekle-me-/n/in fayda-/s/, Mary/n/in piyano al-ma-/s/,
(senin) ev-e dn-me-en, (benim) getir-me-em, onun konu-ma-/s/,
(benim) evlen-me-em, onun yardm et-me-/s/i, and tm kadnlarn gzel
grn-me-/s/i are all noun + infinitive compounds that have been transformed from the simple sentences by the transformational component in
order to be used in phrase structure patterns. The transformational component performs this mental activity to shape and use the simple sentences in
phrase structure patterns. As the aim of this activity of the mind is to build up
infinite oral sentences out of simple sentences, it may be reasonable to call
such phrases as syntactic, which means that such oral nominal phrases
have been built up for syntactic purposes.
As important information, we have to assert that all the allomorphs used in
transforming simple sentences are inflectional allomorphs because these
allomorphs help simple sentences to be used in longer sentences without
changing their simple sentence concepts.

203

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


In the following lines, the simple sentences are printed in italics, and the
transformed noun + infinitive compounds are printed in bold face, which
have been produced for syntactic purposes. By the way, it is necessary to
remember that the meaning of an oral sentence is always hidden in the
simple sentence underlying the oral sentence production. Listeners and
readers can understand an oral sequence so long as they realize the morphemic sequence underlying the oral sequence.
Read the simple sentences, and the syntactic nominal phrases produced by the transformational rules of the Turkish language:
Biz tiyatroya gidecektik. bizim tiyatroya git-e.cek ol-ma-am.z
Sen byle davranyorsun. senin byle davran-ma-an, davran-dk-n"
(O) siyah pantolon-um-u tlesin. siyah pantolon-um-u tle-me-si, tle-dik-i"

Mary piyano alyordu. Marynin piyano al-ma-/s/, al-dk-"


Sen eve dn-d-n. senin eve dn-me-en, dn-dk-n"
O konuur. onun konu-ma-/s/, konu-tuk-u"
Ben kahve getiririm. benim kahve getir-me-em, getir-dik-im
Ben onunla evlenirim. benim onunla evlen-me-em, evlen-dik-im
O bize yardm eder. onun bize yardm et-me-si, et-tik-i
Ben mektubu tekrar yazaym. benim mektubu tekrar yaz-ma-am
Ben bir mektup yazmtm. benim bir mektup yaz-m ol-ma-am
As it is seen in the noun compounds above, when sentences are transformed and nominalized, they lose their time concepts like all infinitives. The
benim, senin parts of the compounds may be ignored, and so, only
tiyatro-/y/a git-me-e.miz or mektup-u tekrar yaz-ma-am can be used
as noun compounds without the possessive pronouns.
Bekle-me-/n/in fayda-/s/ yok. Wait-ing is of no use.
(Literally: "There is not the use of wait-ing") (beklemenin faydas is an infinitive + noun compound used as the subject of the sentence.
(Sen) (ben-im) emsiye-em-i geri getir-me-/y/i unut-ma.
(em*si*ye*mi / ge*ri / ge*tir*me*yi / u*nut*ma )
Dont forget to bring my umbrella back.
In the example above, the /y/ glide is used between the /e/ phoneme and the
[i] defining allomorph. The sen and benim words can naturally be ignored.

204

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Biz-im takm kazan-ma-/y/ hak et-ti.
(bi*zim / ta*km / ka*zan*ma*y / ha*ket*ti )
Our team deserved to win. (to win is a nominal infinitive.)
Eski araba-am.z- sat-ma-/y/ ertele-di-ik.
(es*ki / a*ra*ba*m*z / sat*ma*y / er*te*le*dik )
We postponed sell-ing our old car. (Sell-ing is a nominal gerund.)
Araba-am.z- is the definite object of sat-mak; eski araba-am.z- satma-/y/ is the definite object of ertele-mek.
Yz-me-/y/i bana baba-am ret-ti.
(yz*me*yi / ba*na / ba*bam / *ret*ti )
My father taught me to swim. (to swim is a nominal infinitive.)
Biz-im-le Bursa/y/a git-me-/y/i kabul et-ti.
(bi*zim*le / bur*sa*ya / git*me*yi / ka*bu:*let*ti )
He agreed to go to Bursa with us. (To go is a nominal infinitive.)
Hrsz kasa-/y/ a-ma-/y/ dene-di.
(hr*sz / ka*sa*y / a*ma*y / de*ne*di )
The thief tried open-ing the safe. (Open-ing is a nominal gerund.)
Yeni bir araba al-ma-/y/ dn-.yor-uz.
(ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / al*ma*y / d**n*yo*ruz )
We are considering buy-ing a new car.
Note: The Turkish underlined words are all infinitives.

2 (c). The verbs that need noun + infinitive compounds followed


by [e], or [a] allomorphs:
Baba-am,
subject

(ben-im) futbol ma--/n/a git-me-em-e izin


(noun compound - [e]) adverbial phrs

indefinite obj

ver-di.
verb

My father allowed me to go to the football match.


Babam, kzkarde-im-in gece yalnz sinema-/y/a git-me-/s/i-/n/e kz-d.
subject

possessive noun
adv
adv
adverbial
owned-/n/e
(noun + infinitive compound + [e]) adverbial phrase

verb

My father got angry about my sisters go-ing to the cinema alone at night.
Babam, araba-/s/-/n/ (ben-im) kullan-ma-am-a hi izin ver-me-i.yor.
(ba*bam / a*ra*ba*s*n / kul*lan*ma*ma / hi / i*zin / ver*mi*yor )
My father is never allowing me to use his car. (Benim is optional.)

205

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Baba-am (ben-im) balk tut-ma-/y/a git-me-em-e itiraz et-ti.
(ba*bam / ba*lk / tut*ma*ya / git*me*me / i:*ti*ra:z / et*ti )
My father objected to my go-ing fish-ing.

2 (d). noun + infinitive compounds can also be followed by [den,


dan] allomorphs:
Anne-em (ben-im) ev-e ge gel-me-em-den holan-ma-.yor.
subject

possessive adv adv


owned-den
noun + infinitive comp - [den]
adverbial phrs

verb

My mother dislikes my (me) com-ing home late.


There are two basic simpe sentences in the oral sentence above:
1. Ben eve ge geliyorum.
2. Annem bundan holanmyor.
Sentence Nr.1 is transformed and nominalized as "benim eve ge gelmem".
When this transformed-nominal phrase is put in the place of "bundan" in the
second sentence, the new synonymous sentence "Annem benim eve ge
gelmem-den holanmyor" oral sentence structure is produced. In this
transformed phrase, "ev-e" is an adverbial, and "ge" is an adverb modifying the ifinitive gel-me. Ben-im ev-e ge gel-me-em is a noun compound (nominal phrase). If the allomorph [den] is attached to this nominal
phrase, it turns it into an adverbial phrase.
(Ben) (onun)
subj

her ey-i

anla-ma-/s//n/-dan

possessive def obj of anla


noun + infinitive compound
nominal phrase-[dan]
adverbial phrs

owned-dan

kork-u.yor-um.
verb

I am afraid of her understand-ing everything.

The [me, ma] infinitives attached to [e or a] allomorphs:


main verb-[me/y/e, ma/y/a]
(Ben) klasik mzik dinle-me-/y/e dkn-m.
subj

indef obj of dinle


infinitive-[e]
adverbial phrs

subj complement

I am fond of listen-ing to classical music.


(Ben) i-im-i tamamla-ma-/y/a al-.yor-um.
(i*i*mi / ta*mam*la*ma*ya / a*l**yo*rum )
I am trying to complete my work. To complete is a nominal infinitve.)

206

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(O) dert et-me-/y/e de-mez. (Liaison)
(der*det*me*ye / de*mez )
It is not worth trouble-ing about.
(O) al-ma-/y/a devam et-ti. (Liaison)
(a*l*ma*ya / de*va:*met*ti )
He went on work-ing. (work-ing is a nominal gerund; object of on.)
Yamur ya-ma-/y/a bala-d.
(ya*mur / ya*ma*ya / ba*la*d )
It began to rain (rain-ing).

3 (a). The third kind of noun + infinitive compounds are made by adding
[i, , , u] allomorphs to verb roots, stems or frames such as: ben-im
gl--m, sen-in bak--n, which means my way of smiling, your way
of looking, etc. When these compounds take [E], [DE] or [DEN] morphemes,
they become adverbials:
Gl--m-e (g*l**me) hayran-dr.
She adores my way of smil-ing. (Smile-ing is a nominal gerund object of of.)
Bana bak--n- zle-di-im. (ba*k**n)
I missed your way of look-ing at me.
Gitar al--m- sev-er. (a*l**m)
He likes my way of play-ing the guitar.
Ev-e dn--m-den mutlu ol-du-lar.
They became happy about my com-ing back home.

4 (a). The following noun + infinitive compound is widely used in transforming simple sentences into syntactic nominal phrases or "modifiers".
The following example shows how a simple sentence is transformed into a
noun + infinitive compound, and then how it is used as a syntactic nominal phrase in a sentence:

possessive pronoun + verb - [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk][possessive personal allomorph]
(ben-im)

yz-dk-m

possessive

owned

Deniz-de yz-.yor-du-um. deniz-de yz-dk-m


simple sentence

(noun compound) nominal phrase

207

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(O) deniz-de yz-dk-m- gr-d. (yz*d**m)
subj

adverbial

definite object
predicate

verb

He saw that I was swimming in the sea.


subj verb (object of see) noun clause adverbial phrs
predicate

Note: In the sentence above, the /k/ phoneme changes into the voiced //,
and the last [] is the definer that defines the nominal phrase benim
deniz-de yz-dk-m.
The same noun + infinitive compound can also be used as a modifier:
(Ben) okul-a git-i.yor-um. (ben-im) git-tik-im okul
modifier
noun
nominal phrase

ben-im git-tik-im okul


modifier

noun

the school that I go to


noun

modfier

Benim gittiim okul ok kalabalk. The school that I go to is very crowded.


subject

subj complement

(nominal phrs) subject

subj complement

The owned parts of the noun + infinitive compounds are also used as
objects of postpositions (English prepositions):
(Ben-im) her zaman okul-a ge gel-dik-im iin ngilizce gretmeni-im ben-i azarla-d.
noun infinitive comp (object of iin)
postp
postpositional adverbial phrase of cause

subject

object

verb

My English teacher shouted at me because of my always come-ing to school late.


simple sentence

preposition
nominal phrs (object of because of)
prepositional adverbial phrase of cause

A final note that should be added to the above explanations is that as the
infinitives are made up of verbs, they can take objects like verbs when they
are transitive, but if they are intransitive, they can take only adverbs or
adverbials. The sentences that contain infinitives are produced as follows:
1. O ben-i bekle-sin. o-/n/un ben-i bekle-me-/s/i
2. Ben bu-/n/u istiyor-um.
If the first nominalized phrase is used in the place of bunu in the second
sentence, we produce the following sentence containing a noun compound:
(Ben) (o-/n/un) ben-i bekle-me-/s/i-/n/i iste-i.yor-um.
(be*ni / bek*le*me*si*ni / is*ti*yo*rum )
I want him to wait for me. (to wait is a nominal infinitive.)

208

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


THE PASSIVE INFINITIVE
Only the transitive verbs can be put into the passive voice in English, but in
Turkish, both transitive and intransitive verbs can be changed into the passive form. Therefore, the passive making allomorphs can be attached to all
kinds of verb roots, stems or frames. If the passive making allomorphs are
attached to transitive verbs, these verbs are put into the passive voice, but if
the intransitive ones are put into the passive form, only their forms are
changed; they are not put into the passive voice. For instance, if Bu
hapishane-den ka-l-maz sentence is said, it can be literally written in English as "*This prison cant be escaped", which means, It is impossible to
escape from this prison. In this book, such verbs are called passive
shaped intransitive verbs.
The passive making allomorphs are as follows:
1. The verbs ending with both vowels and /L/ and /r/ consonants are put
into the passive form by using [in, n, n, un, en, an] passive making allomorphs such as bekle-en, dene-en, ba-la-an, yakala-an, yr-n,
doku-un, oku-un, al-n, al-n, gel-in, del-in, koru-un.
2. The verbs ending with consonants take [il, l, l, ul] passive making allomorphs such as ek-il, se-il, ge-il, sr-l, gr-l. When some of
these verbs take [in, n, n, un, en, an] allomorphs, they also become reflexive verbs such as ek-in, ge-in, sr-n, gr-n, besle-en, yala-an.
All the verb frames above can take [me, ma] or [mek, mak] allomorphs to be
used as passive infinitives:
bala-an-ma(k), topla-an-ma(k), besle-en-me(k), temizle-en-me(k), ekle-enme(k), yr-n-me(k), doku-un-ma(k) (weave), oku-un-ma(k), oyala-anma(k), ge-il-me(k), ge-in-me(k), sr-l-me(k), sr-n-me(k), gr-l-me(k),
gr-n-me(k), bak-l-ma(k), bak-n-ma(k), a-l-ma(k), se-il-me(k), yen-ilme(k), ed-il-me(k), ed-in-me(k), tap-l-ma(k), tap-n-ma(k), yap-l-ma(k), uyul-ma(k), konu-ul-ma(k), sr-l-me(k), sr-n-me(k).
The shared identical vowels above combine, and the single underlined consonants detach from their syllablers and attach to the first vowels of the following inflectional morphemes.
Consider the following:

209

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Kendi-/s/i/y/-le alay et-il-me-/s/i/n/-den nefret et-er.
(ken*di*siy*le / a*lay / e*dil*me*sin*den / nef*ret / e*der ).
She hates being made fun of her.
In the sentence above, the /t/ is replaced by the voiced /d/; and the /s/ and
/n/ consonants are used as glides.
Kendi-/s/i-/n/e kaba davran-l-ma-/s//n/-dan holan-maz.
(ken*di*si*ne / ka*ba / dav*ra*nl*ma*sn*dan / ho*lan*maz )
She dislikes be-ing rudely treated.
Takm--/n/n yen-il-me-/s/i/n/-den nefret eder. (nefret et is intransitive)
(ta*k*m*nn / ye*nil*me*sin*den / nef*ret / e*der )
He hates his team be-ing beaten. (hateis transitive)
Btn kadn-lar kendi-ler-i-/n/e yumuak davran-l-ma-/s//n/-dan holan-r.
(b*tn / ka*dn*lar / ken*di*le*ri*ne / yu*mu*ak / dav*ra*nl*ma*sn*dan /
ho*la*nr ) All women like be-ing tenderly treated.
Rahatsz et-il-mek iste-me-i.yor-um.
(ra*hat*sz / e*dil*mek / is*te*mi*yo*rum )
I dont want to be disturbed.
Herkes kendi-/s/i-/n/e eit davran-l-ma-/s/-/n/ iste-er.
(her*kes / ken*di*si*ne / e*it / dav*ra*nl*ma*s*n / is*ter )
Everybody wants to be equally treated.
Bu cmle-ler dikkat-le oku-un-ma.l-dr.
(bu / cm*le*ler / dik*kat*le / o*kun*ma*l*dr )
These sentences should be read carefully.

MODALS
PRESENT MODALS
While English modals are made of auxiliary verbs, Turkish modals are made
either of morphemes, or of words, or of both. They convey nearly the same
concepts as they do in English. Therefore, instead of giving detailed boring
explanations of the Turkish modals, we prefer giving English equivalents of
them, which we think, might be more useful. Moreover, the English sentences given as the equivalents of the Turkish modals can be considered more
satisfactory and precise than detailed English explanations of them, which
may lead to misunderstanding.

(can) (may) [e.bil, a.bil]

210

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The [e.bil, a.bil] allomorphs convey ability, possibility or permission as
can do in English. To form the Simple Present Tense concept of this
modal morpheme, one of its allomorphs "[e.bil] or [a.bil]" is attached to a
main verb followed only by [ir] Simple Present Tense time allomorph. The
other Simple Present Tense allomorphs are not used after [e.bil] or [a-bil]
allomorphs due to the vowel harmony rules. The time allomorphs are naturally followed by suitable personal (suffixes) allomorphs:
Yemek pi-ir-e.bil-ir-im.
(ye*mek / pi*i*re*bi*li*rim )
I can cook. (Ability)
Bilgisayar-m- kullan-a.bil-ir-sin.
(bil*gi*sa*ya*r*m / kul*la*na*bi*lir*sin )
You can (may) use my computer. (Permission)
Baz soru-lar zor ol-a.bil-ir. (Purple adjectives are subject complements.)
(ba*z / so*ru*lar / zor / o*la*bi*lir )
Some questions may be difficult. (Possibility)
Siz-e yardm et-e.bil-ir-iz. (yardm et is intransitive)
(si*ze / yar*dm / e*de*bi*li*riz )
We can help you. (help is transitive) (Ability or possibility)
Dar-/y/a k-a.bil-ir-sin. (k is intransitive)
(d*a*r / *ka*bi*lir*sin )
You can go out. (go is intransitive) (Permission)
To change the [e.bil, a.bil] allomorphs into the negative concept,
[e.mez, a.maz] allomorphs are used in place of them with some phoneme
removals and changes. They convey the concepts of inability, impossibility or prohibition:
Piyano al-a.maz-am.
(pi*ya*no / a*la*mam ).
I cant play the piano. (Inability)
(The double underlined /z/ drops and the identical a-a vowels combine .)
Bu kk harf-ler-i gzlk-sz gr-e.mez-em.
(bu / k*k / harf*le*ri / gz*lk*sz / g*re*mem ).
I cant see these small letters without glasses. (Inability)

211

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bekle-/y/e.mez-em. (The e, e vowels combine.)
(bek*le*ye*mem )
I cant wait. (Impossibility or inability)
In the sentences above, the /y/ glide is put between the successive /e/ vowels. (Impossibility)
Bu leke sabun-la temiz-le-en-e.mez.
(bu / le*ke / sa*bun*la / te*miz*le*ne*mez )
This stain cant be cleaned with soap. (Impossibility) (Passive)
Bura-da bekle-/y/e.mez-sin.
(bur*da / bek*le*ye*mez*sin )
You cant wait here. (Prohibition)
Bakteri-ler plak gz-le gr-l-e.mez.
(bak*te*ri*ler / p*lak / gz*le / g*r*le*mez )
Germs cant be seen with the naked eye. (Impossibility) (Passive)
Yarn sen-i gr-e.mez-em.
(ya*rn / se*ni / g*re*mem )
I cant see you tomorrow. (Impossibility)
Ev-de ol-a.maz.
(ev*de / o*la*maz)
He cant be at home. (Impossibility)
ocuk-lar bahe-de oyna-u.yor ol-a.maz.
(o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / oy*nu*yor / o*la*maz )
The children cant be play-ing in the garden. (Impossibility)
The same [e.bil] modal concept can also be used with The Present Continuous [.YOR] morpheme. In order to form this modal composition, [e.bil] or
[a.bil] allomorphs are attached to main verbs followed by the [i.yor] and the
personal allomorphs:
Kara tahta-/y/ gr-e.bil-i.yor-um. Tahta-/y/ gr-.yor-um.
(ka*ra / tah*ta*y / g*re*bi*li*yo*rum )
I can see the blackboard. (Ability)
The Simple Present Tense of this modal form does not express ability. If it
is used, it expresses possibility:

212

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Sen-i yarn gr-e.bil-ir-im.
(se*ni / ya*rn / g*re*bi*li*rim )
I can see you tomorrow. (Possibility)
Kenar-a ekil-ir-se-en karatahta-/y/ gr-e.bil-ir-im.
(ke*na*ra / e*ki*lir*sen~ / ka*ra*tah*ta*y / g*re*bi*li*rim )
If you move aside, I can see the blackboard. (Possibility)
In the negative forms of The Present Continuous modal tenses, the [e.me] or
[a.ma] negative making allomorphs are used followed by the [i.yor, .yor]
progressive allomorphs, and naturally suitable personal allomorphs are attached to them:
Sen-i anla-/y/a.ma-.yor-um.
(se*ni / an*la*ya*m*yo*rum )
I cant understand you.
The /y/ glide is placed between the successive /a/ vowels. (Inability) (Seni
anlayamam is impossible here. It can be used in conditional sentences):
Daha yksek ses-le konu-maz-sa-an sen-i anla-/y/a.ma-am.
(da*ha / yk*sek / ses*le / ko*nu*maz*san / se*ni / an*la*ya*mam )
I can't understand you unless you speak louder.
Sen-i iit-e.me-i.yor-um.
(se*ni / i*i*te*mi*yo*rum )
I cant hear you.
(The double underlined /e/ drops as it is in imdi zaman.) (Inability)
Bekle-/y/e.me-i.yor-um.
(bek*le*ye*mi*yo*rum )
I cant wait. (Inability)
Bekle-/y/e.me-em.
(bek*le*ye*mem )
I cant wait. It is impossible for me to wait. (Impossibility)
Sen-i gr-e.me-i.yor-um.
(se*ni / g*re*mi*yo*rum )
I cant see you. (Inability)
Syle-dik-ler-in anla-l-ma-.yor.
(sy*le*dik*le*rin / an*la*l*m*yor )
What you are saying isn't understood. (The underlined part is a noun clause)

213

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The [e.bil, a.bil] modal allomorphs followed by the allomorphs of the morpheme [.YOR] are used attached to verbs in question forms, and finally
mu-/y/um?, mu-sun?, mu?, mu-/y/uz?, mu-sun.uz?, lar m?, etc are
separately added:
Gzlk-sz televizyon seyret-e.bil-i.yor mu-sun.uz?
(gz*lk*sz / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*de*bi*li yor / mu*su*nuz )
Can you watch television without glasses?
(The /t/ changes into /d/.) (Ability)
When the intention of request is involved, The Simple Present Tense allomorphs of [R] are used after [e.bil or a.bil] allomorphs, and finally, mi/y/im?, mi-sin?, mi?, mi-/y/iz?, mi-sin.iz?, ler mi? question
allomorphs are separately said or written.
Bana yardm et-e.bil-ir mi-sin.iz? (Yardm et is intransitive)
(ba*na / yar*dm / e*de*bi*lir / mi*si*niz )
Can you help me? (Help is transitive) (Request)
Siz-e yardm et-e.bil-ir mi-/y/im?
(si*ze / yar*dm / e*de*bi*lir / mi*yim )
Can I help you? (Request)
Ben-i gr-mek iin yarn bro-um-a gel-e.bil-ir mi-sin-(iz)?
(be*ni / gr*mek / i*in / ya*rn / b*ro*ma / ge*le*bi*lir / mi*sin )
Can (could) you come to my office to see me tomorrow? (Request)
The Turkish equivalents of wh question words of English can also be
used with [e.bil], [a.bil] allomorphs:
Bu soru-/y/a kim cevap ver-e.bil-ir? (Cevap ver is intransitive)
(bu / so*ru*ya / kim / ce*vap / ve*re*bi*lir )
Who can answer this question? (Answer is transitive) (Ability)
Nere-de le yemek-i ye-/y/e.bil-ir-iz?
(ne*re*de / *le / ye*me*i / yi*ye*bi*li*riz)
Where can we have lunch? (Possibility)
(*"Nerede le yemei yiyebiliyoruz?" is not possible in Turkish.)
Nasl baar-a.bil-ir-im?
(na *sl / ba*a*ra*bi*li*rim)
How can I succeed?

must [me.li, ma.l]

214

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


This morpheme has two allomorphs; [me.li] and [ma.l], which can be attached to verb roots, stems or frames followed by personal allomorphs.
When it is used with the verb "be, it conveys the concepts of certainty or
probability, but when it is used with action verbs like go, write, do,
help, etc., it implies obligation imposed by the speaker:
Snav-lar-da baar-l ol-mak iin daha ok al-ma.l-sn.
(s*nav*lar*da / ba*a*r*l / ol*mak / i*in / ok / a*l*ma*l*sn )
You must study harder to succeed in the examinations.
(Strong advice or obligation imposed by the speaker)
Anne-en-e ev i-ler-i/n/-de yardm et-me.li-sin. (yardm et is intransitive)
(an*ne*ne / ev / i*le*rin*de / yar*dm / et*me*li*sin )
You must help your mother with the housework. (help is transitive.)
(Obligation imposed by the speaker or strong advice)
Ev dev-im-i bitir-mek iin ge vakte kadar otur-ma.l-/y/m. (Liaison)
(e*v*de*vi*mi / bi*tir*mek / i*in / ge / vak*te / ka*dar / o*tur*ma*l*/y/m)
I must sit up late to finish my homework. (The infinitive is adverbial.)
Src-ler trafik kural-lar--/n/a uy-ma.l-dr. (uy is intransitive)
(s*r*c*ler / tra*fik / ku*ral*la*r*na / uy*ma*l*dr )
Drivers must obey the traffic rules. (obey is transitive) (Obligation)
Yorgun ol-ma.l-sn. (Purple adjectives are subject complements.)
(yor*gun / ol*ma*l*sn )
You must be tired. (I am sure you are tired.)
Sabah-le.yin erken kalk-l-ma.l.
(sa*bah*le*yin / er*ken / kal*kl*ma*l )
It is necessary to get up early in the morning. (Passive shaped intransitive.)
nem-li evrak-lar kasa-da saklan-ma.l.
(*nem*li / ev*rak*lar / ka*sa*da / sak*lan*ma*l )
Important documents must be kept in a safe. (It is necessary to keep)
Anne-en fkeli ol-ma.l.
(an*nen / f*ke*li / ol*ma*l )
Your mother must be angry. (Very probability or certainty)
Matematik skc ol-mal.
(ma*te*ma*tik / s*k*c / ol*ma*l )
Mathematics must be boring.

215

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The negative form of [me.li, ma.l] is [me-me.li, ma-ma.l] (must not),
which conveys the concept of prohibition:
Ben-im-le byle konu-ma-ma.l-sn. Benimle byle konu-a.maz-sn.
(be*nim*le / by*le / ko*nu*ma*ma*l*sn )
You mustnt (cant) talk to me like that. (Prohibition)
Kz karde-in-in dev yap-ma-/s/-/n/ engel-le-me-me.li-sin.
(kz / kar*de*i*nin / *dev / yap*ma*s*n / en*gel*le*me*me*li*sin )
You mustnt prevent your sister from do-ing her homework. (Prohibition)
Bir renci televizyon izle-/y/e.rek zaman--/n/ boa harca-ma-ma.l-dr.
(bir / *ren*ci / te*le*viz*yon / iz*le*ye*rek / za*ma:*n*n / bo*a / har*ca*ma*ma*l*dr ) A student mustnt waste time watch-ing television.
Another negative form of [ol-ma.l] (must be) is ol-a.maz (cant be).This
form is used with the verbs *be in sentences. The underlined words are
subject complements:.
Olum sinema-da ol-a.maz; okul-da ol-ma.l.
(o*lum / si*ne*ma*da / o*la*maz / o*kul*da / ol*ma*l )
My son cant be at the cinema; he must be at school.(Impossibility; certainty)
Matematik ilgin ol-a.maz; skc ol-ma.l.
(ma*te*ma*tik / il*gin / o*la*maz / s*k*c / ol*ma*l )
Mathematics cant be interesting; it must be boring. (Impossibility; certainty)
Mehmet hasta ol-a.maz; rol yap-.yor ol-ma.l.
(meh*met / has*ta / o*la*maz / rol / ya*p*yor / ol*ma*l )
Mehmet cant be ill; he must be pretend-ing. (Pretend-ing is adjective.)
Jack ders al-.yor ol-a.maz, futbol oyna-u.yor ol-ma.l
(jack / ders / a*l**yor / o*la*maz) (fut*bol / oy*nu*yor / ol*ma*l )
Jack cant be study-ing; he must be play-ing football.
Karde-in ciddi ol-a.maz; aka yap-.yor ol-ma.l.
(kar*de*in / cid*di: / o*la*maz / a*ka / ya*p*yor / ol*ma*l )
Your brother cant be serious; he must be jok-ing.
Bu hediye ben-im iin ol-a.maz; siz-in iin ol-ma.l.
(bu / he*di*ye / be*nim / i*in / o*la*maz / si*zin / i*in / ol*ma*l )
This present cant be for me; it must be for you.
Cidd ol-a.maz. Rol yap-.yor ol-a.maz m?
(cid*d: / o*la*maz / rol / ya*p*yor / o*la*maz / m )
He cant be serious. Can't he be pretend-ing? (pretend-ing is adjective.)

216

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bu portre gerek ol-a.maz; kopya ol-ma.l.
(bu / por*tre / ger*ek / o*la*maz / kop*ya / ol*ma*l )
This portrait cant be genuine; it must be a reproduction.

have to (verb-[mek, mak] + zorunda-pers)


This modal form expresses obligation imposed by an external authority
or circumstances:
-e git-mek iin her sabah saat alt-da kalk-mak zorunda-/y/m.
(i*e / git*mek / i*in / her / sa*bah / sa*at / al*t*da / kalk*mak / zo*run*da*ym ) I have to get up at six oclock every morning to go to work.
(The /y/ glide is inserted between /a/ and // vowels.) (External obligation)
Patron-la konu.ur.ken dikkatli ol-mak zorunda-sn.
(pat*ron*la / ko*nu*ur*ken / dik*kat*li / ol*mak / zo*run*da*sn )
You have to be careful when you are talking to the boss.
(external obligation)
Bu yaz dikkat-le yaz-l-mak zorunda. (yaz-l-mak passive infinitive.)
(bu / ya*z / dik*kat*le / ya*zl*mak / zo*run*da )
This text has to be written carefully. (To be written is passive infinitive.)
Oda-am- tertiple-mek zorunda-/y/m.
(o*da*m / ter*tip*le*mek / zo*run*da*/y/m )
I have to tidy my room. (to tidy is nominal infinitive.)
(External obligation)
Bu cmle-ler-i ren-mek zorunda m-/y/m?
(bu / cm*le*le*ri / *ren*mek / zo*run*da / m*ym )
Do I have to learn these sentences?

neednt or dont (doesn't) have to


Lack of necessity neednt or dont (doesnt) have to is expressed in
Turkish with a negative making allomorph "[me, or ma]" attached to a verb
root, stem or a frame such as, git-me, yaz-ma, satn al-ma, al-ma,
"te-mizle-en-me", and then one of the [e.bil, or a.bil] allomorphs is attached
to the preceding [me, ma] negation allomorphs. After the [e.bil or a.bil] allomorphs, The Simple Present Tense allomorph [ir] is used, and finally personal allomorphs are added:

217

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Okul-a git-me-/y/e.bil-ir-im.
(o*ku*la / git*me*ye*bi*li*rim )
I neednt go to school. (Lack of necessity)
imdi bala-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-iz.
(im*di / ba*la*ma*ya*bi*li*riz )
We neednt start now. (Lack of necessity)
Sabah-le.yin erken kalk-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-im.
(sa*bah*le*yin / er*ken / kalk*ma*ya*bi*li*rim )
I neednt get up early in the morning. (Lack of necessity)
Bugn bro temizle-en-me-/y/e.bil-ir.
(bu / gn / b*ro / te*miz*len*me*ye*bi*lir )
The office neednt be cleaned today. (Passive)
Git-me-/y/e-bil-ir-iz.
(git*me*ye*bi*li*riz)
We neednt go.
Gitmesem de olur, balamasak da olur, kalkmasam da olur,
"kalkmama gerek yok", "gelmene gerek yok" expressions can also
be used as alternatives to the sentences above:
Sabah-le.yin erken kalk-ma-sa-am da ol-ur.
(sa*bah*le*yin / er*ken / kalk*ma*sam / da / o*lur )
I needn't get up early in the morning. (Lack of necessity)
When a question is asked with [me.li, ma.l], the answer to this question
may be as follows:
Konser-e git-me.li mi-/y/im? Git-me-se-en de ol-ur. Git-me-/y/e.bil-ir-sin.
Must I go to the concert? No, you neednt."

should or ought to
(Gerek-ir) (Advice)
In order to compose this modal concept, one of the personal possessive
allomorphs is attached to the owned part of a noun + infinitive compound. In the second parts of this compound, the second type of infinitive
making allomorphs [me, or ma] are used, which are made by attaching them
to verb roots, stems or frames, such as: git-me, bekle-me, bekle-en-me,
satn al-ma, satn al-n-ma, ezberle-me, ezber-len-me, spr-l-me,
etc.

218

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The personal possessive allomorphs attached to the infinitive parts of the
noun + infinitive compounds are in the following list:
(ben-im)
(sen-in)
(o-/n/un)
(biz-im)
(siz-in)
(onlar-n)

[em, am]
[en, an]
[/s/i, /s/]
[em.iz, am.z]
[en.iz, an.z]
[/s/i, /s/] or [leri, lar]

(bekle-me-em) (ko-ma-am)
(bekle-me-en) (ko-ma-an)
(bekle-me-si) (ko-ma-s)
(bekle-me-em.iz) (ko-ma-am.z)
(bekle-me-en.iz) (ko-ma-an.z)
(bekle-me-si) (ko-ma-s)

In short, bekle-me-em means ben-im bekle-me-em because the em


attached to bekle-me means ben-m. Therefore, the possessive pronoun
ben-im is generally ignored.
Finally, after the above possessive pronoun + infinitive compounds
gerek-ir verb is used as a separate word:
Daha ok al-ma-an gerek-ir. (Turkish and English sentence structures
are different.) (da*ha / ok / a*l*man / ge*re*kir )
You should (ought to) study harder. (Advice)
(Sen-in) al-ma-an is a noun + infinitive compound, and daha ok is
an adverial.
In place of the verb gerek-ir, it is easier and safer to attach the [me.li, ma.l]
allomorphs to main verbs instead.
renciler yeni kelimeleri ezberle-me.li.
subject
definite object
verb
The students should memorize the new words.
(Sen) baba-an-n t--/n/ iyi
subj

definite object

dn-me.li-sin

adverb
predicate

verb

subj

(ba*ba*nn / **d*n / i*yi / d*n*meli*sin )


You should think well about your fathers advice.
Snav sonu-lar- beklen-me.li. (Passive)
(s*nav / so*nu*la*r / bek*len*me*li )
The examination results should be waited. (Passive)
To make a negative advice, the [me] or [ma] negative making allomorphs
are inserted between the main verbs and the [me.li, ma.l] allomorphs:
ok para harca-ma-ma.l-sn.
(ok / pa*ra / har*ca*ma*ma*l*sn)
You shouldnt spend much money. (Advice)

219

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bir baba ocuk-lar--/n/ ihml et-me-me.li.
(bir / ba*ba / o*cuk*la*r*n / ih*ma:l / et*me*me*li )
A father shouldnt neglect his children.
Vergi de-mek ertelen-me-me.li.
(ver*gi / *de*mek / er*te*len*me*me*li)
Pay-ing tax shouldnt be postponed. (Advice) (Passive)

may or can (e.bil, a.bil)


May and can are both expressed in [e.bil, a.bil] allomorphs in Turkish. Therefore, they can be used with the question tag mi in questions.
Compare the following sentences:
Haber doru ol-a.bil-ir. The adjective Doru is a subject complement.)
(ha*ber / do*ru / o*la*bi*lir )
The news may (can) be true. (The underlined words are subject complements.)
Haber doru ol-a.bil-ir mi?
(ha*ber / do*ru / o*la*bi*lir / mi )
Can the news be true? (In question forms may cannot be used in English.)
ocuk-lar ev-de ol-a.bil-ir.
(o*cuk*lar / ev*de / o*la*bi*lir )
The children may (can) be at home.
ocuklar ev-de ol-a.bil-ir mi?
(o*cuk*lar / ev*de / o*la*bi*lir / mi )
Can the children be at home?
Hakl ol-a.bil-ir-sin.
(hak*l / o*la*bi*lir*sin )
You may (can) be right.
Hakl ol-a.maz m-/y/m?
(hak*l / o*la*maz / mi*yim )
Can't I be right?
Bekle-i.yor ol-a.maz-lar m?
(bek*li*yor / o*la*maz*lar / m)
Can't they be wait-ing?

220

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Tercme yanl ol-a.bil-ir.
(ter*c*me / yan*l / o*la*bi*lir )
The translation may be incorrect.

PAST MODALS
Could
Could expresses ability in the past. To express the same concept in
Turkish, main verb-[e.bil,a.bil]-[i.yor]-[du]-[pers] verb composition should
be used:
Yedi ya-m-da/y/-ken yz-e.bil-i.yor-du-um.
(ye*di / ya*m*day*ken / y*ze*bi*li*yor*dum )
I could swim when I was seven years old. (Ability in the past)
Ahmet okul-a git-me-den nce oku-/y/up yaz-a.bil-i.yor-du.
(ah*met / o*ku*la / git*me*den / n*ce / o*ku*yup / ya*za*bi*li*yor*du )
Ahmet could read and write before he went to school.
The negative form of this modal verb is verb-[e.me, a.ma]-[.YOR]-[du][pers], which expresses both the negative of "could" and "was able to":
Ben okul-a git-me-den nce oku-/y/up yaz-a.ma-.yor-du-um.
(ben / o*ku*la / git*me*den / n*ce / o *ku*yup / ya*za*m*yor*dum )
I couldn't read and write before I went to school.
-im-i bitir-e.me-di-im.
(i*i*mi / bi*ti*re*me*dim)
I could not finish my work. (Not is an adverb.)
(I wasn't able to finish my work.)
Yeni ders-i anla-/y/a.bil-di-in mi?
(ye*ni / der*si / an*la*ya*bil*din / mi)
Were you able to understand the new lesson? (Could is not used.)
Glk-ler-i a-a.bil-di-in.iz mi?
(g*lk*le*ri / a*a*bil*di*niz / mi )
Were you able to overcome the difficulties?
Tasar-/y/ bitir-e-bil-di-in.iz mi?
(ta*sa*r*y / bi*ti*re*bil*di*niz / mi )
Were you able to finish the project? (The underlined words are infinitives.)

221

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


was (were) able to (verb- [me-/y/i, ma-/y/] baar-d-m)
When a past success is implied, the verb baar is used in Turkish in
place of the was able to, the succeeded in, or the managed to expressions of the English language:
Snav-da iyi bir not al-ma-/y/ baar-d-m.
(s*nav*da / i*yi / bir / not / al*ma*y / ba*ar*dm)
I was able to get a good grade in the examination.
(The underlined words are infinitives.)
Bizim takm, misafir takm- yen-me-/y/i baar-d.
(bi*zim / ta*km~ / mi*sa:*fir / ta*k*m / yen*me*yi / ba*ar*d )
Our team succeeded in beat-ing the visiting team.
(The underlined beat-ing is the object of in, so it is a nominal gerund.)
-in-i bitir-me-/y/i baar-d-n m? or -in-i bitir-e.bil-di-in mi?
(i*i*ni / bi*ti*re*bil*din / mi )
Were you able to complete your work?
(The /y/ glide is used between [me] and [i].)
As an alternative to the above sentence types, verb-[e-bil, a-bil]-[di]-[pers]
verb composition could be used:
En son-u/n/-da i-im-i bitir-e.bil-di-im.
(en / so*nun*da / i*i*mi / bi*ti*re*bil*dim )
I was able to finish my work at last.
verb-[e.me, a.ma]-[di, d]-[pers] verb composition can be used in place of
"couldn't, wasn't able to or didn't succeed in":
Ma- kazan-a.ma-d-k.
(ma* / ka*za*na*ma*dk )
We could not win the match.
Bu problem-i z-e.me-di-im.
(bu / prob*le*mi / *ze*me*dim )
I could not solve this problem.
As could is used in English conditional clauses, so verb-[E-BiL]-[ir]-di[pers] verb composition is used in Turkish conditional sentences:
Yeter-in.ce vakti-im ol-sa sana imdi yardm et-e.bil-ir-di-im.
(ye*te*rin*ce / vak*tim / ol*sa / im*di / sa*na / yar*dm / e*de*bi*lir*dim~)
If I had enough time, I could help you now.
(The /t/ in et changes into the voiced /d/.)

222

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Hava daha iyi ol-sa piknik-e git-e.bil-ir-di-ik.
(ha*va / da*ha / i*yi / ol*sa / pik*ni*e / gi*de*bi*lir*dik~)
We could go for a picnic if the weather were (was) better.

Would or could (Polite request)


verb-[R]-[M]/y/-[D]-[pers] verb composition is used to express a polite
request in Turkish:
In this verb composition, V symbolizes a verb root, a verb stem or a
verb frame. [R] is a morpheme that includes all the allomorphs of the Simple Present Tense [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar]. [M] includes all interrogative
allomorphs [mi, m, m, mu]. [D] represents the simple past tense allomorphs [di, d, d, du]; and [pers] symbolizes all the personal allomorphs. Consider the following sentences:
Bir saniye ben-i dinle-er mi/y/-di-in.iz? (Dinle is transitive.)
(bir / sa:*ni*ye / be*ni / din*ler / miy*di*niz )
Would you listen to me for a second? (Listen is intransitive.)
In fact, this sort of request is the second part of a conditional sentence:
Rica et-se-em, bir saniye ben-i dinle-er mi/y/-di-in.iz?
(ri*ca: / et*sem / bir / sa:*ni*ye / be*ni / din*ler / miy*di*niz )
Would you listen to me for a second if I asked?
Ben-im-le bir fincan ay i-er mi/y/-di-in-iz? (miy*di*niz)
Would you have a cup of tea with me?
Bavul-um-u ta-ma-am-a yardm et-er mi/y/-di-in.iz?
(ba*vu*lu*mu / ta**ma*ma / yar*dm / e*der / miy*di*niz )
Would you help me to carry my suitcase?
In the last example above, the /t/ in et changes into /d/, and the /y/ glide is
inserted between [mi] and [di].
If someone wishes to be politer, he can add the [E.BL] and [R] morphemes
to the verb composition above:
Ben-i bir saniye dinle-/y/e.bil-ir mi/y/-di-in-iz? (Dinle is transitive.)
(be*ni / bir / sa:*ni*ye / din*le*ye*bi*lir / miy*di*niz )
Could you listen to me for a second please? (Listen is intransitive.)
The [R] Simple Present, and [D] Simple Past Tense morphemes are also
used together in Turkish conditional sentences:

223

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bura-da ol-sa biz-e yardm et-er-di. (yardm et is an intransitive verb.)
(bur*da / ol*sa / bi*ze / yar*dm / e*der*di )
If he were here, he would help us. (Help is a transitive verb in English.)
(The /t/ changes into the /d/ voiced consonant.)
Sen-in yer-in-de ol-sa-am bu eski araba-/y/ sat-ar-d-m.
(se*nin / ye*rin*de / ol*sam / bu / es*ki / a*ra*ba*y / sa*tar*dm )
If I were you, I would sell this old car. (Advice)
retmen sen-i gr-se/y/-di kz-ar-d.
(*ret*men / se*ni / gr*sey*di / k*zar*d )
If the teacher saw you, he would get angry.

PERFECT MODALS
must have verb - [mi, m, m, mu] + [ol-ma.l]-[pers]
This perfect modal verb composition conveys a past concept of certainty.
Consider the following:
Grev-i-/n/i bitir-mi ol-ma.l. (Purple underlined words are adjectives.)
(g*re*vi*ni / bi*tir*mi / ol*ma*l )
He must have finished his duty. (I am sure he has finished it.)
Ev-den ayrl-m ol-ma.l. (Ayrl is intransitive.)
(ev*den / ay*rl*m*ol*ma*l )
He must have left home. (Leave is transitive.)
Uak in-mi ol-ma.l.
(u*ak / in*mi*ol*ma*l ) (Liaison)
The plane must have landed. (I am sure it has landed. )
Ben-i anla-m ol-ma.l-sn.
(be*ni / an*la*m*ol*ma*l*sn ) (Liaison)
You must have understood me.
(I am sure you (have) understood me.)
O-/n/u bir yer-de gr-m ol-ma.l-/y/m.
(o*nu / bir / yer*de / gr*m*ol*ma*l*ym ) (Liaison)
I must have seen her somewhere.
(I am sure I saw her somewhere.)
Both certainty and possibility concepts can also be conveyed by
verb-[M]-[DR] verb composition:

224

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Grev-i-/n/i bitir-mi-tir.
(g*re*vi*ni / bi*tir*mi*tir )
He must (may) have finished his duty.
Ev-den ayrl-m-tr. (Ayrl is intransitive.)
(ev*den / ay*rl*m*tr )
He must (may) have left home. (Leave is transitive.)
Haber-i duy-mu mu-dur?
(ha*be*ri / duy*mu / mu*dur )
Is he likely to have heard the news?
Haber-i duy-ma-m-tr.
(ha*be*ri / duy*ma*m*tr )
He cant (couldnt) have heard the news.
Haber duy-ul-ma-m-tr. (Passive)
(ha*ber / du*yul*ma*m*tr )
The news may not have been heard. (Passive)
Bu saat-te yat-m-tr bile.
(bu / sa*at*te / yat*m*tr / bi*le )
He must have already gone to bed at this hour.
Yamur dur-mu mu-dur?
(ya*mur / dur*mu / mu*dur )
Is it likely to have stopped rain-ing? (rain-ing is a nominal gerund.)
The same verb composition may be used in conditional sentences, as well:
Paris-e git-ti/y/-se, Eyfel Kulesi-/n/i gr-m-tr.
(pa*ri*se / git*tiy*se / ey*fel / ku*le*si*ni / gr*m*tr )
If he went to Paris, he must have seen the Eiffel Tower.
Bir yanllk yap-t/y/-sa zr dile-mi-tir.
(bir / yan*l*lk / yap*ty*sa / *zr / di*le*mi*tir )
If he made a mistake, he must have apologized.
Note: git-ti/y/-se means if he went, but git-se/y/-di means if he
had gone:
Paris-e git-se/y/-di Eyfel Kulesi-/n/i gr-r-d.
(pa*ri*se / git*sey*di / ey*fel / ku*le*si*ni / g*rr*d )
If he had gone to Paris, he would have seen the Eiffel Tower.
(He didnt go, and he didnt see.)

225

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Yeter-in.ce al-sa/y/-d kt bir not al-maz-d.
(ye*te*rin*ce / a*l*say*d / k*t / bir / not / al*maz*d )
If he had studied hard enough, he wouldnt have got a poor mark.
(He didnt study, so he got a poor mark.)
Oyun-u seyret-se/y/-di-in ho-un-a git-er-di.
(o*yu*nu / sey*ret*sey*din / ho*u*na / gi*der*di )
If you had watched the play, you would have enjoyed it.

cant have

verb- [mi, m, m, mu] + ol - [a.maz] - [pers]

The verb chain above is used to form a verb composition to convey past
impossibility. In doing this, when [a.maz] negation allomorph is attached to
the first person personal allomorph [am], the /z/ consonant drops, the /a-a/
vowels combine, and they verbalize as a single vowel:
Gr-m ol-a.maz-am. (gr*m / o*la*mam )
Gr-m ol-a.maz-sn. (gr*m / o*la*maz*sn )
Gr-m ol-a.maz. (gr*m / o*la*maz )
Gr-m ol-a.ma-/y/z. (gr*m / o*la*ma*yz )
Gr-m ol-a.maz-sn.z. (gr*m / o*la*maz*s*nz )
Gr-m ol-a.maz-lar. (gr*m / o*la*maz*lar )
Example sentences:
O-/n/u yanl anla-m ol-a.maz-am. (The underlined words are adjectives.)
(o*nu / yan*l / an*la*m / o*la*mam )
(o*nu / yan*l*an*la*m*o*la*mam ) (Liason)
I can't (couldnt) have misunderstood it.
Sen-i yanl anla-m ol-a.maz m?
(se*ni / yan*l / an*la*m / o*la*maz / m )
Cant he have misunderstood you?
Sen-i iit-mi ol-a.maz.
(se*ni / i*it*mi / o*la*maz )
(se*ni / i*it*mi*o*la*maz ) (Liaison)
He cant (couldnt) have heard you

226

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Lastik-i patla-m ol-a.maz.
(las*ti*i / pat*la*m / o*la*maz )
He cant (couldnt) have had a flat tire.
Tm soru-lar-a cevap ver-mi ol-a.maz-sn. (Cevap ver is intransitive.)
(tm / so*ru*la*ra / ce*vap / ver*mi / o*la*maz*sn )
You cant (couldnt) have answered all the questions. (Transitive)
Fenerbahe yen-il-mi ol-a.maz m?
(fe*ner*bah*e / ye*nil*mi / o*la*maz / m )
Cant Fenervahe have been beaten?

should have (ought to have) main verb-[me.li, ma.l]-[D]-pers


This perfect modal composition is used to express a past obligation or expectation that was not carried out:
(Sen) ev dev-in-i yap-ma.l/y/-d-n.
subj

object

verb

(ev / *de*vi*ni / yap*ma*ly*dn )


You should have done your homework.) (But you didnt.)
Bu araba-/y/ satn al-mak iin daha ok para biriktir-me.li-/y/-di-in.
(bu / a*ra*ba*y / sa*tn / al*mak / i*in / da*ha / ok / pa*ra / bi*rik*tir*me*liy*din)
You should have saved more money to buy this car. (But you didnt.)
Snav-da daha dikkat-li ol-ma.l/y/-d-n.
(s*nav*da / da*ha / dik*kat*li / ol*ma*ly*dn )
I should have been more careful in the examination. (But I wasnt.)
Dn bana telefon et-me.li/y/-di-in. (Telefon et is intransitive.)
(dn / ba*na / te*le*fon / et*me*liy*din )
You should have telephoned me yesterday.(Telephone is transitive.)
dev-in-i yap-a.maz m/y/-d-n?
(*de*vi*ni / ya*pa*maz / my*dn )
Couldnt you have done your homework?
(You haven't done your homework. Why?)
To change the above modal composition into the negative form, the [me]
or [ma] negative making allomorphs are put after the main verbs, and the
[me.li/y/-di, ma.l/y/-d]-[pers] allomorphs follow them:

227

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ekmek al-ma-ma.l/y/-d-n.
(ek*mek / al*ma*ma*ly*dn)
You shouldnt have bought bread. (But you did.) (Advice)
Kz karde-in-e bar-ma-ma.l/y/-d-n.
(kz / kar*de*i*ne / ba*r*ma*ma*ly*dn )
You shouldnt have shouted at your sister. (But you did.) (Advice)
Yalan syle-me-me.li/y/-di.
(o*nun / ya*lan / sy*le*me*me*liy*di )
He shouldnt have told a lie. (But he did.)
Mehmet snav-da kopya ek-me-me.li/y/-di.
(meh*me*din / s*nav*da / kop*ya / ek*me*me*si / ge*re*kir*di )
Mehmet shouldnt have cheated in the examination. (But he did.)

may have verb - [mi, m, m, mu] + ol-a.bil-ir-[pers]


This modal form adds possibility to main verbs:
Dar-/y/a k-m ol-a.bil-ir. (verb-[mi, m,m, mu] is an adjective.)
(d*a*r / k*m / o*la*bi*lir )
He may have gone out. (Perhaps he has gone out.)
Dar-/y/a k-m-tr.
(d*a*r / k*m*tr )
He must have gone out. (I am sure he has gone out.)
Otobs- kar-m ol-a.bil-ir.
(o*to*b*s / ka*r*m / o*la*bi*lir )
He may have missed the bus. ( I am sure he has missed it.)
-i-/n/i bitir-mi ol-a.bil-ir.
(i*i*ni / bi*tir*mi / o*la*bi*lir )
He may have finished his work.
Sen-i yanl anla-m ol-a.bil-ir.
(se*ni / yan*l*an*la*m*o*la*bi*lir ) (Liaison)
She may have misunderstood you. (Perhaps she misunderstood you.)
Bro temizle-en-mi ol.a.bil-ir.
(b*ro / te*miz*len*mi / o*la*bi*lir )
The office may have been cleaned. (Perhaps it has been cleaned.)

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Haber-i iit-mi ol-a.bil-ir-ler mi?
(ha*be*ri / i*it*mi / o*la*bi*lir*ler / mi )
Are they likely to have heard the news?
(The English double underlined parts are perfect infinitives.)
Vazo-/y/u kedi kr-m ol-a.bil-ir mi?
(va*zo*yu / ke*di / kr*m / o*la*bi*lir / mi )
Is the cat likely to have broken the vase?
Bir anlama-/y/a var-m ol-a.bil-ir-ler. (var is intransitive.)
(bir / an*la*ma*ya / var*m / o*la*bi*lir*ler )
They may have reached an agreement. (reach is transitive.)

might have main verb- [e.bil, a.bil]-[ir]-[di]-[pers]


Kaza geir-e.bil-ir-di-ik.
(ka*za: / ge*i*re*bi*lir*dik )
We might have had an accident. (It was probable, but we didnt.)
Pencere-/y/i kr-a.bil-ir-di-in.
(pen*ce*re*yi / k*ra*bi*lir*din )
You might have broken the window.
(It was probable, but you didnt.)
Ma kaybet-il-e.bil-ir-di.
(ma / kay*be*di*le*bi*lir*di )
The match might have been lost. (It was probable, but it wasnt lost.)
(The /t/ changes into /d/.) (Passive)
n-/n/-de-ki araba-/y/a arp-a.bil-ir-di-in. (nndeki is an adjective.)
(*nn*de*ki / a*ra*ba*ya / ar*pa*bi*lir*din )
You might have hit the car in front of you. (But you didn't hit it.)
n-/n/-de-ki araba-/y/a carp-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-di-in.
(*nn*de*ki / a*ra*ba*ya / arp*ma*ya*bi*lir*din )
You might not have hit the car in front of you. (But you hit it.)

neednt have noun + infinitive-[e, a] + gerek yok-tu


This modal composition is used to express absence of obligation or necessity. The noun compounds used in the following sentences are showed
between inverted commas.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Aye-/n/in acele et-me-/s/i-/n/e gerek yok-tu.
noun + infinitive comp - [e] (adverbial)

(ay*e*nin / a*ce*le / et*me*si*ne / ge*rek / yok*tu )


Aye neednt have hurried. (But she did.)
Btn soru-lar-a cevap ver-me-en-e gerek yok-tu.
(b*tn / so*ru*la*ra / ce*vap / ver*me*ne / ge*rek / yok*tu )
You neednt have answered all the questions. (But you did.)
Ma- ertele-me-ler-i-/n/e gerek yok-tu.
(on*la*rn / ma* / er*te*le*me*le*ri*ne / ge*rek / yok*tu )
They neednt have postponed the match. (But they did.)
iek-ler-i sula-ma-an.z-a gerek yok-tu.
(i*ek*le*ri / su*la*ma*n*za / ge*rek / yok*tu )
You neednt have watered the flowers. (But you did.)
ift ayakkab al-ma-an-a gerek yok-tu.
( / ift / a*yak*ka*b / al*ma*na / ge*rek / yok*tu )
You needn't have bought three pairs of shoes.
Note: git-me-se de ol-ur-du, sula-ma-sa-lar da ol-ur-du sentence
types can also be used as alternatives to the sentences above. The noun
compounds in the sentences above and below are all showed between inverted commas.

didnt need to verb - [me, ma]-[pos]-[e, a] + gerek kal-ma-d


This modal form is used to express unfulfilled necessity in the past:
Uzun zaman bekle-me-em-e gerek kal-ma-d.
noun + infinitive comp -[e] (adverbial)

(u*zun / za*man / bek*le*me*me / ge*rek / kal*ma*d )


It was not necessary for me to wait for a long time.
We didn need to wait for a long time.
Okul-a yr-/y/e.rek git-me-em.iz-e gerek kal-ma-d.
(o*ku*la / y*r*ye*rek / git*me*mi*ze / ge*rek / kal*ma*d )
We didnt need to walk to school.
iek-ler-in sula-an-ma-/s/-/n/a gerek kal-ma-d.
(i*ek*le*rin / su*lan*ma*s*na / ge*rek / kal*ma*d )
The flowers didnt need to be watered. (Passive infinitive)
(The /s/ and /n/ glides are used after [ma] and [] allomorphs respectively.)

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bir araba kirala-ma-am.z-a gerek kal-ma-d.
(bir / a*ra*ba / ki*ra:*la*ma*m*za / ge*rek / kal*ma*d )
We didnt need to hire a car.
Toplant yap-ma-am.z-a gerek kal-ma-d.
(top*lan*t / yap*ma*m*za / ge*rek / kal*ma*d )
We didnt need to hold a meeting.
Yardm iste-me-em.iz-e gerek kal-ma-d.
(yar*dm / is*te*me*mi*ze / ge*rek / kal*ma*d )
We didnt need to ask for help.
Bekle-me-em.iz-e gerek kal-ma-d )
(bek*le*me*mi*ze / ge*rek / kal*ma*d )
We didnt need to wait. (The English underlined words are infinitives.)

TRANSFORMATIONS (ENGLISH)
The transformational activity of the mind has two interactive functions. One
of these functions is to recall the morphemes of his native language matching his set of thought before producing a simple sentence using the innate
logical structures, and the other one is to transform the same simple sentence into a Nominal Phrase to use it in the same NP + VP (subject +
predicate) logical sentence-producing pattern to produce a longer sentence.
One of the language activities of the mind is to recall the morphemes stored
up in its memory fitting to express ones sets of thought in a target language.
During this mental activity, the mind finds the most reasonable and available
ones to fit into the NP + VP innate sentence producing system.
Besides the innate sentence producing system (NP + VP), the memory of a
human being possesses the phonemes, the syllabication and the transformational rules of his native language that have been stored up in his memory including some basic speculative concepts generalized in the question
words in languages such as the English interrogative words who, whom,
what, where, when, how, why, "whose", for whom, from whom,
from where, to whom, by whom, since when and until what time, etc.
One, or some of these inquisitive thoughts, or the answers to them, may
also be chosen by the mind of a person to be reflected into a projected oral
sentence.
The simple sentences that are printed in italics in this book are presumed to
possess these fundamental free morphemes (words) as well as all the
bound morphemes (derivational and inflectional) of a language. These morphemes are illustrated with detailed tree diagrams in transformational gram-

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


mars. As it is inconvenient and unnecessary to show all the sentences in
tree diagrams in this book, we prefer taking simple sentences as starting
points. The aim of this book is not to teach Transformational Generative
Grammar, but to put it into practice by using it as a new grammar approach.

NOMINALIZATION OF THE SIMPLE ENGLISH SENTENCES


If a speaker or writer wants to express him in longer sentences, he transforms the simple sentences that are also produced by the innate logical
function of the language-producing system of the mind into syntactic nominal phrases to be used in the same "NP+VP" logical sentence pattern. By
operating this function of the language-producing system, a speaker or writer
can transform the simple sentences, which are the shortest NP+VP sentences, into longer sentences shaped and fitted into the same NP+VP logical sentence-producing system. Sentences may be infinitely long within the
framework of the NP+VP logical sentence-producing system.
However, there is another important fact to keep in mind that when the logical system builds up a simple sentence, it can simultaneously and interactively transform it into a nominal phrase, and it can use it as a nominal
phrase in the same logical pattern as a subject or an object. The simple
sentence building, and building sentences containing transformed phrases,
function one within the other interactively while someone is building up sentences.
For instance, Jack likes pop music is a simple sentence. If someone wants
to use this sentence as an object in a sentence, he spontaneously transforms it into a nominal phrase that jack likes pop music, and uses it as an
object in the sentence as I know that Jack likes pop music.
Some boys are swimming in the lake is a simple sentence. If we want to
produce a syntactic nominal phrase out of this sentence, we can produce
the boys (who are) swimming in the lake to be used in any part of a NP +
VP logical pattern where any noun or a pronoun can be used. For instance:
The boys (who are) swimming in the lake are my sons.
(nominal phrase) subject

predicate

You can see the boys (who are) swimming in the lake.
subj

verb

(nominal phrase) object

The explanations above are grammatical explanations, but thought acts


more inclusively while producing a sentence. When somebody has an item
of thought, such as "article" in his mind, he may have had two simple sen-

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


tence alternatives in store in his mind to convey his thought to his listener or
reader. It may be a sentence that he uttered before, such as "I read an article in a newspaper". If he has uttered this sentence before, he goes on conveying his thought by saying that "It was interesting". If he did not utter the
same sentence, but he already has it in store in his mind (in his memory), he
transforms the same sentence into a noun + modifier compound, such as
"an article, which I read in the newspaper", and completes his sentence saying that "An article, which I read in the newspaper, was interesting.
On the other side, the person who has heard what the speaker said may go
on saying, "Yes, I saw it, or Yes, I saw the article that you read in the
newspaper". This shows us that the logic transforms the simple sentences
into nominal phrases so that they may be used as subjects or objects in the
NP+VP sentence pattern.
In English, however, some transformations are also carried out within a simple sentence itself to change it into the question form such as, You like
pop music Do you like pop music?; You haven't done your
homework Haven't you done your homework?
A passive transformation may also be carried out within a simple sentence so as the object to be used as if it were the subject of a sentence. It
is also possible to transform the interrogative and passive simple sentences into Nominal Phrases:
.

Have you done your homework? whether I have done my homework


Mother wants to know whether I have done my homework.
(noun clause) object of know.
Thieves stole a necklace. "A necklace was stolen by some thieves"
"the necklace that was stolen by the thieves"
The necklace that was stolen by the thieves hasn't been found yet.
(nominal phrase) subject

Transformational, phonological, and syllabication rules are specific to every


language, which means that all languages have their own transformational,
phonological, and syllabication rules. Without knowing these rules, one cannot produce sentences. To sum up, we can say that the semantic, the transformational, and the phonological rules in ones mind act in close coordination differently in different languages to produce sentences.
Therefore, the same process in Turkish differs as follows:
"Ben gazete-de bir makale oku-du-um." "O ilgin-ti."
(Ben-im) gazete-de oku-duk-um makale ilgin-ti.
(noun + infinitive compound) modifier
noun subj complement

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The sentences that contain only one finite verb (simple sentences) can be
transformed into nominal phrases (noun compounds) to be used in the "NP
+ VP" sentence-producing pattern as subjects, objects, and as objects of
prepositions. Consider the following:
Jane went to the supermarket by bus to buy some toys for her children last week
who

verb

where (adverbial)

how (adverbial)

why (adverbial)

for whom (adverbial) when (adv)

The question words under the lines and the answers to them on the lines
are the basic conceptual elements of thought of simple sentences in languages. Therefore, I avoid using the term kernel sentence in this book. For
instance, when you hear the word went, you want to find answers in your
mind to the questions who? and where? because only the word went
does not convey satisfactory information. If you hear the sentence Jane
went to the supermarket, your mind accepts it as a reasonable and satisfactory sentence. Additionally, when the simple sentences are nominalized in
Turkish, they are nominalized together with the adverbials that they contain.
The interrogative words are "who", whom, where, to whom, for whom,
"when", how, why, which, "whose", how long, from where, from
whom, by whom, etc. These question words and/or the answers to
them are the essential elements of a simple sentence. For instance, Did
Jane go? does not make sense if it is not preceded by some other sentences. However, Where did Jane go? is a complete sentence as it is
Jane went to the supermarket.
The entire simple example sentence above can be nominalized only by
putting that in the beginning of a sentence in English, and leaving the rest
of the sentence unchanged:
that Jane went to the supermarket by bus to buy some toys for her children in the morning is a transformed, nominalized and vocalized sentence
because it can occupy the place of any NP in S NP + VP basic sentence-producing system.
The same sentence can also be nominalized by starting the sentence with
the above-mentioned question words, and omitting the underlined phrases
above them. The following sentences are all noun clauses.
who:
where:
how:
why:
for whom:
when:

who went to the supermarket


where Jane went
how Jane went to the supermarket
why Jane went to the supermarket
for whom Jane wanted to buy toys
when Jane went to the supermarket

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


As it is seen, the nominalized phrases beginning with question words are
not in the interrogative form. They are transformed, and nominalized oral
phrases ready to occupy the places of nouns or pronouns that can be used
as subjects or objects of verbs as all nouns and pronouns can.
I

know

it.

subj

verb

object

What do I know?

I know that Jane went to the supermarket by bus to buy some toys for her children.
subj verb

(nominal phrase) object


predicate

I know who went to the supermarket.. (Nominal phrase)


I know where Jane went. (Nominal phrase)
I know how Jane went to the supermarket. (Nominal phrase)
I know why Jane went to the supermarket. (Nominal phrase)
I know for whom Jane wanted to buy toys. (Nominal phrase)
I know when Jane went to the supermarket. (Nominal phrase)
I know what Jane did. (Nominal phrase)
The parts that are printed in bold face in the sentences above are all used
as the objects of the verb know. The same nominal phrases can also be
used as the objects of the following verbs:
Know, guess, ask, tell, remember, say, and the like
I guess (that) she went to the supermarket.
He asked me when Jane went to the supermarket.
She says (that) Jane went to the supermarket.
They asked me how Jane went to the supermarket.
Do you remember when Jane went to the supermarket?
The parts of the sentences that are printed in bold face above are nominal
phrases, and all of them are used as objects.
When someone talks about the verb, he says:
I can guess what Jane did yesterday,
I dont know whether Jane went to the supermarket or not.
The same nominal phrases can also be used as subjects:

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Who went to the supermarket is a mystery.
(nominal phrase) subject

When Jane went to the supermarket is unknown.


(nominal phrase) subject

How Jane went to the supermarket is not important.


(nominal phrase) subject

The same nominal phrases can be used as the objects of some prepositions, as well:
It depends on what Jane says.
object of on

I am bored of what you are talking about.


object of of

It reminds me of how we went to Bursa.


object of of

I was surprised at (by) what he said to me.


object of at

The interrogative simple sentences can also be nominalized:


Have you done your work? whether I have done my work
Mother asks me whether I have done my work.
(nominal phrase) object

Why didnt you come to the party? why I didnt come to the party
Jane wonders why I didnt come to the party.
(nominal phrase) object
Where am I? where I am
You cant guess where I am.
(nominal phrase) object
What am I interested in? what I am interested in
You cant guess what I am interested in.
(nominal phrase) object

What is Jack doing? what Jack is doing


Mother wants to know what Jack is doing.
Are you ready? if I am ready
Mother asks me if I am ready.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


TRANSFORMATION OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCES
INTO NOUN MODIFIERS
A simple sentences can be transformed into a noun modifier in order to modify one of the nouns in the same simple sentence. These nouns, together
with the transformed phrases, create noun + modifier compounds in order to be used as nominal phrases in sentences. These compounds are
structurally compounds but syntactically nominal phrases. When needed,
these nominal phrases are used as subjects, objects, or objects of prepositions, and as predicates in sentences.
All noun compounds and noun + modifier compounds are structural units
that have been transformed from simple sentences into Nominal Phrases to
be used in NP + VP logical pattern. This operation is performed by the
mind while producing sentences. To sum up, we can say that the first aim of
transforming simple sentences is to restructure and fit them into syntactic
nominal phrases to be used in the logical NP + VP sentence pattern.
First, let us see how a simple sentence transforms into a noun + modifier
compound:
Some girls were picking flowers in the garden.
noun

noun

noun

To modify the underlined noun girls, the girls that (who) is put in the
beginning of the sentence, and the rest of it is added to it without being
changed:
the girls who were picking flowers in the garden" is constructionally a
noun + modifier compound, but syntactically it is a syntactic nominal
phrase that can be used as a subject or an object in a sentence:
The girls who were picking flowers in the garden were my students.
det

noun
modifier
(synt nominal phrase) subject

verb subj complement


predicate

The same simple sentence can also be transformed so as the noun flowers could be modified by the rest of the sentence. To carry out this transformation activity, the flowers that (which) is used as the head of the
transformed phrase, and the rest of the sentence is left unchanged.
In this way, the transformed phrase the flowers that the girls were
picking in the garden can be used in "NP+VP" logical sentence pattern
as a NP. Incidentally, it is necessary to say that all the suffxes used in
transforming sentences into nominal phrases in Turkish are inflectional.

237

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The flowers that the girls were picking in the garden were beautiful.
det

noun
(nominal phrase) subject

modifier

verb

subj comp
predicate

saw the flowers that the girls were picking in the fields.

subj verb

(nominal phrase) object

The same process above can also be initiated to modify the noun garden:
the garden in which (where) the girls were picking flowers
det

noun

modifier
nominal phrase

The garden in which the girls were picking flowers was not in good condition.
(nominal phrase) subject

verb

subject complement

The same transformed phrases can be used in other parts of different sentences, as well:
I

didnt know

subj

verb

the girls who were picking flowers in the harden,


(nominal phrase) object
predicate

A woman was chasing the girls who were picking flowers in the garden.
subject

verb

(nominal phrase) object


predicate

The simple sentences with verbs be and have (got) are transformed as
follows:
The roses were red the roses that were red the red roses
simple sentence

transformed nominal phrase

I picked the roses that were red.

nominal phrase

I picked the red roses.

(nominal phrase) object

(nominal phrase) object

There are some books on the table. the books that are on the table
simple sentence

want

subj

verb

nominal phrase

to borrow

the books (that are) on the table.

infinitive, obj of want nominal phrs (obj of the infinitive to borrow)

The books (that are) on the table


(nominal phrase) subject

are

mine.

verb subj comp

I have got a car. the car that I have got my car


simple sentence

nominal phrase

nominal phrase

The car that I have got is a second-hand car. My car is a second-hand car.
(nominal phrase) subject

subject complement

238

subject

subject complement

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


THE PRODUCTIVITY OF THE NATURAL LANGUAGES
All natural languages are infinitely productive so long as the sentences are
kept within the framework of the Phrase Structure Rules: S NP + VP.
Consider the following simple sentences:
The girls were picking flowers in the garden.
The girls were playing in the garden.
The girls were singing in the garden.
In the three sentences above, the girls and in the garden expressions are
repeated. To avoid repeating them, a speaker or writer can delete the repeated four words, and use the necessary others in his speech or writing:
The girls were picking flowers, singing, and playing in the garden.
These simple sentences can also be transformed so as the girls should
be modified by the rest of the sentence, and by doing so, the following oral
sentence is produced:
The girls who were picking flowers, playing and singing in the garden were happy.
subject

verb complement

Now, consider the following four simple sentences:


1. Jack caught a fish.
2. Mr. Brown cleaned it.
3. Mary fried it.
4. Jane ate it.
To transform and combine these four thoughts in a complex (syntactic) sentence, we begin with the last one, and delete the repeated understandable
others:
Jane ate the fish that Mary fried that Mr. Brown cleaned that Jack caught.
subj verb

noun

successive modifiers
(nominal phrase) object

Contrary to the above sentence production, if we start with the first simple
sentence, the complex sentence will become as follows:
Jack caught the fish that Mr. Brown cleaned that Mary fried that Jane ate.

239

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


If you try to understand the sentence above, it sounds funny, doesnt it? How
can Jack catch the fish that Jane ate? A fish cannot be caught after it has
been eaten.
This example shows us that while producing complex sentences out of simple sentences, one should be careful about the sequence of the modifiers.
Furthermore, only the words that jack caught that Mr. Brown cleaned
that Mary fried that Jane ate do not make sense without the word the
fish, which completes the chain of modifiers as a NP although the word
the fish is in the beginning of the sentence. Therefore, one can say that all
natural languages may be infinitely long as long as they are approved by the
Phrase Structure rules, and so long as the human short-term memory can
tolerate them.
An example from a Turkish sentence may clarify the explanation above:
Jackin yakalad, Mr. Brownn temizledii, Marynin piirdii (?) sequence of words do not make sense without the word balk, which is the
final word of the nominal phrase in Turkish. Moreover, to complete this
nominal phrase, a person has to add a verbal phrase to produce a grammatically well-formed acceptable sentence:
The fish that Jack caught that Mary fried that Jane ate was delicious.
subject

verb

complemet

To sum up, we can say that whether sentences are infinitely long or short,
they end up in NP + VP inborn logical sentence-producing system.
A final point to add to the explanations above is that the final word in Turkish
is at the end of a NP, but in English, it is in the beginning. The reason
why we begin organizing the logical simple sentences beginning with the last
simple sentence and going on to the first one in English is that the mind organizes the transformed phrases starting with the last one and going to the
first. However, in Turkish, this process is just the opposite; the mind does
not start with the last sentence, it starts with the first one, and goes on to
the last because the final word balk, which binds the nominal phrase, is
at the end of the nominal phrase.

TRANSFORMED SIMPLE SENTENCES USED AS


ADVERB CLAUSES
If one wants to transform a simple sentence into an adverbial concept such
as time, place, manner, degree, cause, contrast, purpose, comparison,

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


result or condition, he chooses a suitable word (subordinating conjunction)
to put it before a simple sentence in English. When this is done, these simple sentences are mentally transformed into adverb clauses (concepts) that
can be used in a "NP + VP" sentence producing rational pattern. The subordinating conjunctions that are chosen to convert the simple sentences
into adverb clauses in English are as follows:
TIME

when, while, before, after, as soon as, until, since, just as,

PLACE

where, wherever

MANNER

as, how

DEGREE

as... as, not so ...as, the ... the, so long as, as long as

COMPARISON

adj (adv)-[ER] + than or more + adj (adv) + than

CAUSE

because, as, since, for

CONTRAST

although, even though, even if, no matter how (who, when)

PURPOSE

so that, in order that, in case, lest

RESULT

so, so ... that

CONDITION

if, unless

TIME

when:

Jane was beautiful when she was a baby.

while:

It began to rain while I was watering the flowers.

before:

Mary wants to buy a car before she gets old.

after:

Ill do these exercises after I go to bad.

as soon as:

The students stood up as soon as the teacher arrived.

until:

Ill stay here until you promise to marry me.

by the time:

Ill have finished my work by the time the visitors arrive.

just as:

The postman knocked on the door just as I was leaving home.

since:

I have been waiting here since you telephoned me.


PLACE

where:
wherever:

Put my dictionary back where you found it.


I will remember you wherever I go.
MANNER

as:

You can do it as you wish.

241

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


DEGREE

as ... as:

You should study as hard as you can.

not so... as:

You are not so careful as you ought to be.

the ... the:

The easier they rise, the harder they fall.

so ... as:

You can stay here so long as you keep quite.


COMPARISON

than:

The bus arrived earli-er than we expected.


Turkish is more complicated than English.
Mary studies hard-er than her brother.
CAUSE

because:

I cant help you now because Im busy watching television.

as:

As Im busy doing my homework, I cant help you right now.

since:

Since you are not interested in watching football, wed


better go fishing.

for:

Mary cant drive for she is only a baby.


She is not ready yet, for she is stil doing her make up.
CONTRAST or CONCESSION

although:

Although she studied hard, she couldnt succeed in the examination


I have to go on working although I am madly in love with you.

even if:

We cant get to the bus stop in time even if we hurry.

while:

While some people are poor, others are wealthy.


PURPOSE

so that:

They ran to the bus stop so that they shouldnt miss the bus.

in case:

Take an umbrella in case it rains.


RESULT

so... that:

The book was so boring that I was able to read only a few
pages.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Such... that:

The children were making such a lot of noise that I had to

leave home.
He didnt study hard, so he failed.

so:

CONDITION

If you dont understand, please ask me.

if :

If you were a fish, a cat would eat you.


If you had passed the examination, I would have bought you
a new car.

She wont speak to you unless you apologize to her.

unless:

Don't sign the document unless you read it carefully.

TURKISH SENTENCE NOMINALIZATIONS


A simple sentence, which contains only one finite verb and adverbs or
adverbials, can be transformed into various transformed phrases by following certain rules in both English and Turkish. First, it is necessary to say that
there are no clauses in Turkish (except the conditional clauses) as those of
the English language; there are noun + infinitive and modifier + noun
compounds, instead. Let us first consider the following Turkish simple sentence:
Aye ocuklarna baz oyuncaklar almak iin sabahleyin otobsle spermarkete gitti.
kim?

kime?

niin?

ne zaman?

nasl?

nereye?

ne yapt?

When the whole sentence above is transformed into a syntactic nominal


phrase (structurally into a noun compound), it results in as follows:
Aye/n/in ocuk-lar--/n/a baz oyuncak-lar al-mak iin sabah-le.yin
otobs-le supermarket-e git-me-/s/i or git-tik-i. (git*ti*i)
As you notice, only the words Ayenin and git-me-/s/i or git-tik-i
are different from Aye and gitti. The English equivalent of this transformed nominal phrase is the transformed nominal clause that Aye went to
the supermarket by bus to buy some toys for her children in the morning. In
English, only the word that is put in the beginning of the transformed nominal clause and the rest of the sentence is left unchanged.
When Aye-/n/in git-me-/s/i compound is considered, this transformation
reminds us of the possessive + owned noun compounds like Aye/n/in
anta-/s/, okul-un kap-/s/, or Aye/n/in amca-/s/.These are structurally

243

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


noun + infinitive compounds, but syntactically they are nominal phrases.
A syntactic noun is a transformed simple sentence (nominal phrase) that can
be used in any part of a sentence where nouns and pronouns can. These
nouns and pronouns are the words like book, table, I, he, him, "it"
and them. The units that are used between "Aye'nin" and "git-me-si",
such as "ocuklarna", "baz oyuncaklar almak iin", "sabahleyin", "otobsle",
"supermarkete" are all adverbials which are the answers to the basic interrogative adverbial concepts of for whom, why, how, where, when.
Compare and consider the following sentences:
(Ben) cevab- bil-i.yor-um. I
subject

def object

verb

subj

know the answer.


verb

def object

(Ben) Aye/n/in okul-a git-tik-i-/n/i bil-i.yor-um. I know that Aye went to school.
subject (noun compound) definite object
predicate

verb

subj verb

(nouminal phrase) object


predicate

In the sentence above, Ayenin okul-a git-tik-i is structurally a noun+


infinitive compound, but syntactically it is a syntactic nominal phrase
because it is a transformed simple sentence nominalized so as to be used in
the NP+VP logical pattern as a NP. (A VP may contain a V and a
NP). The phoneme changes in the above sentence are as follows: The /k/
changes into its voiced form //, the first [i] is the personal possessive allomorph [i], the /n/ is a glide, and the second [i] is the defining allomorph.
These syntactic phrases can occupy the places of nouns and pronouns in
sentences:
Aye-nin okul-a git-tik-i bil-in-i.yor. That Aye goes to school is known.
(noun compound) subject

Ayenin git-tik-i okul


modifier
+
noun
nominal phrase

passive verb

(noun clause) subject

passive verb

the school that Aye goes to


det

noun
modifier
nominal phrase

Ayenin gittii + okul is a modifier + noun compound, but when both


parts of this compound is considered, it is a syntactic nominal phrase. In
short, it is a nominal phrase.
The reason why there are two different owned infinitives in the ends of the
transformed phrases is that either git-tik-i or git-me-/s/i is used in accordance with the existence or nonexistence (absence) of the question
words or the answers to them in the transformed phrases. In short, the

244

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


compounds without question words can only be used when the compounds that have infinitives are used as the subjects of sentences.
Some of the most frequently used question words that can be used in noun
compounds are kim-in?, kim-i?, kim-e?, kim-de?, kim-den?, kimle?, kim iin?, ne zaman?, nasl?, nere-/y/i?, nere-/y/e?, nere-de?,
nere-den?, niin?, neden?, ne kadar?, ka para?, ne?, ne/y/-le?,
ne-/y/in i-i/n/-den?, (alt-/n/-dan), kim-in arka-/s//n/-dan?, etc.
Consider the following:
Ayenin supermarket-e otobs-le git-me-si ben-i ilgilendir-mez.
(noun compound) subject

def obj

verb

In the sentence above, no question words are used, and the noun compound is used as a subject.
Kimin spermaket-e git-tik-i ben-i ilgilendir-mez. (git-tik is an infinitve.)
(The question word kim-in is added.) (*Kimin gitmesi is not used.)
Aye/n/in supermarket-e niin git-tik-i ben-i ilgilendir-mez.
(git*ti*i) (The question word niin is added.)
Aye/n/in kim-e oyuncak al-mak iin spermarkete git-tik-i ben-i ilgilendir-mez.
(The question word kim-e is added.)
Kim-in, niin, ne zaman, ne/y/-le, nere-/y/e, nasl git-tik-i ben-i ilgilendir-mez.
(Successive question words are added.)
When the answers to the above question words are put into the sentences, the [tik, tk, tk, tuk] allomorphs are also used in noun compounds:
(Sen) Aye/n/in her hafta bir futbol ma--/n/a git-tik-i-/n/i bil-iyor mu-sun?
subject

(noun compound) definite object

verb

Do you know that Aye goes to a football match every week?


However, if a transformed noun compound is used as the subject of a sentence, a possessive noun + verb- [me-/s/i, ma-/s/] noun compound is
used:
Jackin basketbol oyna-ma-/s/ biz-i ilgilendir-mez.
(noun compound) subject

def object

verb

That Jack plays basketball doesnt concern us.


(noun clause) subject

verb

245

object

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


TURKISH SIMPLE SENTENCE NOMINALIZATIONS
As has been noted, there are no clauses in Turkish as those of the clauses
in English. When English simple sentences are nominalized, (transformed
into noun clauses) they do not lose their time concepts. On the contrary,
when the Turkish simple sentences are nominalized, they are transformed
into possessive + owned noun compounds that result in losing their
time concepts that they had before being transformed. The time concepts
that they do not convey can be inferred from the time allomorphs attached to
the finite verbs used at the ends of the sentences.
Nominalizing English simple sentences are easier than nominalizing the
Turkish simple sentences:
I know (that) Jack likes pop music.

I guess (that) she loves me.

(noun clause) object

(noun clause) object

(Ben) Jack'in pop mzik sev-dik-i-/n/i bil-i.yor-um.


subject

(noun compound) definite object


predicate

verb

(Ben) onun ben-i sev-dik-i-/n/i tahmin et-i.yor-um. I guess that she loves me.
subject (noun compound) def object indef obj
predicate

verb

When the Turkish simple sentences are nominalized, they are logically
transformed into noun compounds, and used as Nominal Phrases in sentences. Although "(that) Jack likes pop music", and "(that) she loves me"
subordinate English noun clauses do not look like physically transformed
phrases, they can be considered as syntactically and mentally transformed
phrases when they are used as Nominal Phrases.
The Present Continuous, The Past Continuous, The Simple Present,
The Simple Past, The Present Perfect, The Present Perfect Continuous and Used To tenses can all be transformed into noun clauses.

TRANSFORMED NOMINAL PHRASES


When simple sentences are nominalized in Turkish, they are transformed
into noun compounds containing infinitives. Possessive personal allomorphs
are attached to both parts of the possessive and the owned parts of these
timeless compounds. Although all infinitives are timeless, the [mek, mak]
infinitives are both timeless and devoid of possessive allomorphs; therefore
they are not used in noun compounds. There are two personal possessive
allomorphs attached to both the possessive and the owned parts of a
noun compound representing the same person:

246

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


In English, there is only one possessive morpheme: the [s], which is generally used attached to proper nouns such as jacks, Ahmets, and common
nouns such as the boys, the womans. This possessive morpheme is not
attached to personal pronouns such as *Is *yous, *hes, *wes,
theys. There are different words in English to express them: English
speaking people use my, instead of *Is, your, instead of *yous,
our instead of *wes, etc.
However in Turkish, people use allomorphs like the English possessive allomorph [s] like [Is] attached to personal pronouns like *bens = ben-im,
*sens= sen-in. In short, possessive personal allomorphs representing
the possessive pronouns are attached to both parts of a noun compound
following the vowel harmony:
ben-im al-ma-am:
ben-im and am both mean my..
sen-in al-ma-an:
sen-in and an both mean your.
o/n/un al-ma-/s/:
o-/n/un and /s/ both mean his, her, its.
biz-im al-ma-am.z: biz-im and am.z both mean our.
siz-in al-ma-an.z:
siz-in and an.z both mean your.
o-/n/-lar-n al-ma-lar-: o/n/lar-n and lar- both mean their.
Although the personal possessive allomorphs attached to personal pronouns do not change, (do not have different allomorphs), the allomorphs
attached to owned parts of the compounds change following the harmony
rules:
ben-im gl-me-em, ben-im al-ma-am, , ben-im ev-im, ben-im at-m, benim gl-m, ben-im uyku-um. The allomorphs em, am, im, m, m,
um in the owned parts of the compounds all mean ben-im my.
sen-in gl-me-en, sen-in al-ma-an, sen-in ev-in, sen-in at-n, sen-in gln, sen-in uyku-un. The allomorphs en, an, in, n, n, un in the
owned parts of the compounds all mean sen-in your.
o-/n/un gl-me-/s/i, o-/n/un al-ma-/s/, o/n/un ev-i, o-/n/un at-, o-/n/un gl, o-/n/un uyku-/s/u. The i, , , u allomorphs all mean onun his,
her, or its. The /n/ and /s/ phonemes are glides used between vowels.
biz-im gl-me-em.iz, biz-im al-ma-am.z, biz-im ev-im.iz, biz-im at-m.z,
biz-im trk-m.z, biz-im okul-um.uz. The em.iz, am.z, im.iz, m.z,
m.z, um.uz all mean bizim our.
siz-in gl-me-en.iz, siz-in bala-ma-an.z, siz-in ev-in.iz, siz-in at-n.z, siz-in
trk-n.z, siz-in okul-un.uz. The en.iz, an.z, in.iz, n.z, n.z,
un.uz all mean sizin your.

247

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


onlar-n bekle-me-/s/i, onar-n bala-ma-/s/, onlar-n ev-i, onlar-n ba-,
onlar-n trk-/s/, onlar-n uyku-/s/u. onlar-n okul-u. The i, , , u
all mean onlarn their. However, if the possessive pronons are not used,
ler-i, lar- are used in place of [i, , , u] possessive personal allomorphs.
As a rule, the /n/ glides are used between the vowels used in the possessive parts, and the /s/ glides are used between the vowels in the owned
parts of the noun compounds. The coinciding vowels combine, and the
underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the following vowels as usual.
Therefore, al-ma-am means benim al-ma-am (my work-ing), alma-lar- means onlarn al-ma-lar- (their work-ing).
The other noun infinitive compounds are the same as the compounds above:
al-tk-m = ben-im al-tk-m (be*nim / a*l*t*m)
al-tk-n = sen-in al-tk-n (se*nin / a*l*t*n)
gel-i-im = ben-im gel-i-im (be*nim / ge*li*im)
gel-i-in = sen-in gel-i-in (se*nin / ge*li*in)
Consequently, when the simple sentences are transformed into nominal
phrases, they become timeless noun compounds, and lose the time concepts that they had before being transformed. However, the simple sentences with the [e.cek, a.cak] or [mi, m, m, mu] allomorphs keep their time
concepts. Follow the example sentences:

The infinitives with [me, ma]:


(Ben) balk tut-ar-m. (Simple Present) ben-im balk tut-ma-am
(Ben) balk tut-u.yor-um. (Present Continuous) ben-im balk tut-ma-am
(Ben) balk tut-u.yor-du-um. (Past Continuous) ben-im balk tut-ma-am
(Ben) balk tut-ar-d-m. (used to) ben-im balk tut-ma-am
(Ben) iki saat-tir balk tut-u.yor-um. ben-im iki-saat-tir balk tut-ma-am
(Ben) balk tut-a.cak-m. (Simple Future) ben-im balk tut-a.cak ol-ma-am
(Ben) balk tut-mu-tu-um. (Past Perfect) ben-im balk tut-mu ol-ma-am

The infinitives with [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk]:
(Ben) balk tut-ar-m. (Simple Present) ben-im balk tut-tuk-um
(Ben) balk tut-u.yor-um. (Present Continuous) ben-im balk tut-tuk-um
(Ben) balk tut-u.yor-du-um. (Past continuous) ben-im balk tut-tuk-um
(Ben) balk tut-ar-d-m. (used to) ben-im balk tut-tuk-um
(Ben) iki saat-tir balk tut-u.yor-um. ben-im iki saat-tir balk tut-tuk-um

248

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(Ben) balk tut-a.cak-m. (Simple Future) ben-im balk tut-a.cak-m
(Ben) balk tut-mu-tu-um. (Past Perfect) ben-im balk tut-mu ol-duk-um
In the examples above, the single underlined consonants detach from their
syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes, and if the
e-e, a-a, i-i, -, -, u-u identical vowels follow one another,
they combine and verbalize as single vowels: e, a, i, , , u
according to the harmony rules. Besides, the /k/ unvoiced consonants
change into their voiced counterpart // when they detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes.
As the two parts of the noun compounds have personal possessive suffixes
(allomorphs) loaded with the same meaning, only the owned parts of the
compounds can be used without the possessive parts (possessive adjectives).
For instance:
In the sentence, (Ben-im) baba-am (ben-im) al-ma-am- istiyor, babaam means, ben-im baba-am, and al-ma-am means, ben-im al-maam. Therefore, the ben-im parts are generally omitted unless they are emphasized: Baba-am al-ma-am- istiyor. (ba*bam / a*l*ma*m / is*ti*yor)

SIMPLE SENTENCE NOMINALIZATION


1: main verb-[DK]-[pers]-()
(Ben) dn bir balk tut-tu-um. (ben-im) dn bir balk tut-tuk-um
Ben-im dn bir balk tut-tuk-um (be*nim / dn / bir / ba*lk / tut*tu*um) is
structurally a noun compound like ben-im okul-um. The only difference in
this compound is that the owned part of the compound is an infinitive. This
noun compound can occupy any place of a noun or pronoun in a sentence.
Annem (ben-im) bir balk tut-tuk-um-u grd. My mother saw that I caught a fish.
subject

(noun compound) definite object


predicate

verb

subject

verb (noun clause) object


predicate

The [u] allomorph is one of the allomorphs of the defining [] morpheme.


(Ben-im) bir balk tut-tuk-um kocaman bir yalan-dr. That I caught a fish is a big lie.
(noun compound) subject

predicate

(noun clause) subject

predicate

(be*nim / bir / ba*lk / tut*tu*um / ko*caman / bir / ya*lan*dr )


The nominalization of the rest of the tenses above result in the same noun
+ infinitive compounds because all infinitives are timeless:

249

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The noun + infinitive compounds (syntactic nominal phrases) above can
be used in the following sentences:
Herkes (ben-im) balk tut-tuk-um-u bil-ir. Everybody knows that I catch fish
subject

(noun compound) definite obj


predicate

verb

subject

verb (noun clause) obj


predicate

(Sen) balk tut-tuk-um-u gr-m-yor mu-sun? Don't you see that I am catching fish?
Subject (noun comp) def obj
predicate

verb

verb subj verb

(noun clause) object


predicate

(Ben-im) baba-am gel-in.ce (ben-im) balk tut-tuk-um-u gr-d.


(ba*bam / ge*lin*ce / ba*lk / tut*tu*u*mu / gr*d )
When my father came, he saw that I was catching fish.
Her gn (ben-im) balk tut-tuk-um-u bil-i.yor-sun.
(her / gn / ba*lk / tut*tu*u*mu / bi*li*yor*sun )
You know that I catch fish every day.
ki saat-tir (ben-im) balk tut-tuk-um-u baba-am-a syle-me.
(i*ki / sa*at*tir / ba*lk / tut*tu*u*mu / ba*ba*ma / sy*le*me )
Dont tell my father that I have been catching fish for two hours.
The other three tenses are transformed as follows:

The Simple Future Tense: main verb-[e.cek, a.cak]-[pers]-([])


Yarn onu satn al-a.cak-m. (ben-im) yarn onu satn al-a.cak-m
(Satn al means buy)
(Sen) (Ben-im) yarn onu satn al-a.cak-m- bil-i.yor-sun.
subject

(noun compound) def object

verb

(ya*rn / o*nu / sa*t*na*la*ca**m / bi*li*yor*sun ) (Liaison)


You know (that) I will buy it tomorrow.
subj

verb

(noun clause) object

Ne zaman bitir-e.cek-im? (ben-im) onu ne zaman bitir-e.cek-im


(Ben) (Ben-im) onu ne zaman bitir-e.cek-im-i tahmin et-e.me-em.
subject

(noun compound) definite object

cant guess

subj

indef obj

when I will finish it.

verb

(noun clause) object

kesin

deil.

subj complement

verb

(Benim) onu ne zaman bitir-e.cek-im


(noun compound) subject

When I will finish it


(noun clause) subject

is not

certain.

verb subj complement

250

verb

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The (ben) and (benim) parts of the above compounds are optional. They are
not used unless they are intentionally stressed.

The Past Perfect: verb-[mi, m, m, mu] + ol-[duk]-[pers]-([])


(Ben) ev-e gel-mi-ti-im. (ben-im) ev-e gel-mi ol-duk-um
(O) (Benim) ev-e gel-mi ol-duk-um-u bil-i.yor-du.
subj

(noun compound) definite object

verb

He knew that I had come home.


subj verb

(noun clause) object

The Future Perfect: verb-[mi, m, m, mu] + ol-[a.cak]-[pers]-([])


(Ben) onu ne zaman bitir-mi ol-a.cak-m?
(ben-im) onu ne zaman bitir-mi ol-a.cak-m
Ben bile (ben-im) onu ne zaman bitir-mi ol-a.cak-m- bilmiyor-um.
subject

possessive def obj adverbial


owned
(noun compound) def object of bilmiyorum
predicate

|
verb

Even I don't know when Ill have finished it. (Even" is an intensifier.)
subject

verb

(noun clause) object

The examples of some frequently used tense nominalizations are as follows:

SIMPLE SENTENCES WITH THE VERB ROOT OL (BE)


One should use the following verb composition to nominalize a simple sentence that contains a noun, an adjective, a prepositional phrase or a
noun- [DE] followed by [], [DR], [D], [M] inflectional morphemes used
in the predicate part of a sentence:
a noun, an adjective, a prep phrase, or a noun-[DE] + ol-[duk]-[pers]-([])
In this composition, as the verb stem is always ol, the allomorphs of the
morpheme of [DK] are always [duk], and the possessive allomorphs, and
the defining [] morpheme follow the vowel harmony rules. When ol-up olma-dk- expression is used, the allomorphs in the chain also change according to the harmony rules:
(Sen-in) anne-en ev-de. (sen-in) anne-en-in ev-de ol-duk-u
Your mother is at home. that your mother is at home
(Ben) (sen-in) anne-en-in ev-de ol-duk-u-/n/u tahmin et-i.yor-um.
subj

(chain noun compound-/n/u) definite object


predicate

251

verb

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


I guess that your mother is at home.
subj

verb

(noun clause) object


predicate

CHAIN NOUN COMPOUNDS


There is a chain noun compound in the nominalized sentence above.
Therefore, an example from the English language may be helpful to understand such noun compounds better:
the cover of the book of your mother anne-en-in kitap--/n/n kapak-
The first part of this chain is sen-in anne-en, which is a possessive +
owned compound. To lengthen this compound to a chain, sen-in anneen compound is made the possessive part of another compound by attaching another [N] morpheme to it: sen-in anne-en-in. Now, this chain
becomes the possessive part of another noun kapak-:
sen-in
possessive

anne-en = one possessive and one owned


owned

sen-in anne-en-in kitap- = two possessives and one owned


chain possessives

owned

sen-in anne-en-in kitap--/n/n kapak- = three possessives and one owned


chain possessives

owned

sen-in anne-en-in kitap--/n/n kapak--/n/n renk-i = four possessives and one owned
chain possessives
nominal phrase

owned

(sen-in) anne-en-in kitap--/n/n kapak--/n/n renk-i


(se*nin / an*ne*nin / ki*ta*b*nn / ka*pa**nn / ren*gi )
the color of the cover of your mothers book
Although a possessive + owned compound is a finite sequence, one can
turn it into an infinite sequence by using successive possessive nouns.
When we add an owned noun to the end of the sequence, however, the
sequence closes and becomes a Nominal Phrase. We can show this endless sequence with the following nonsense chain of possessives:
ey-in ey-i-/n/in ey-i-/n/in ey-i-/n/in ey-i-/n/in ey-i-/n/in ey-i
posseessive

infinite (modifiers) possessives


CHAIN NOUN COMPOUND

owned

The last nonsense word ey-i ends the sequence and turns it into a nominal phrase.
The possessive sequences that are not put into Nominal Phrases are incomplete chains of words. For instance, that Jack built that Mary bought
that Mr. Brown lived in is an incomplete infinite sequence of modifiers if

252

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


the house is not put in the beginning of the sequence. When this is done,
the house that Jack built that Mary bought that Mr. Brown lived in becomes
a nominal phrase suitable to be used in the subject and predicate logical
sentence-producing system.
In such English sequences, the noun that ends the infinite sequence of modifiers is at the beginning of a nominal phrase contrary to a Turkish nominal
phrase, where the final word is at the end.
As it is seen in the meaningless chain, the infinite chain is ended with ey-i.
All noun compounds, whether they are made up of two, three, or even more
parts (chain noun compounds), they syntactically function as one single
nominal phrase in sentences:
(Ben) onu hatrla-.yor-um. I remember her.
subj

def obj

verb

subj

verb

def object

(Ben) (sen-in) anne-en-i hatrlyorum. I


subj

(noun comp) def object

verb

remember your mother.

subj

verb

definite object

(Ben) (sen-in) anne-en-in gl---/n/ hatrlyorum.


subj

(chain noun comp) definite object

verb

remember the smile of your mother.

subj

verb

(noun comp) definite object

(Ben) (sen-in) anne-en-in ev-de ol-duk-u-/n/u biliyorum.


subject

(chain noun comp) definite object

verb

know that your mother is at home.

subj verb

(noun clause) definite object

The black underlined part of the Turkish sentence above is a chain noun
compound that acts as a syntactic nominal phrase in the sentence. In the
Turkish sentence, the /k/ consonant changes into the // voiced consonant,
and the /n/ glide links the last two vowels.
(Sen) doktor-sun. sen-in) doktor ol-duk-un (ol*du*un)
simple sentence

noun compound

Herkes (sen-in) doktor ol-duk-un-u biliyor. Everybody knows that you are a doctor.
subject

(noun compound) definite object

verb

subject

verb

(noun clause) object

The [u] allomorph above is one of the allomorphs of the defining [] morpheme.
Btn kzlar gzel-dir. btn kzlar-n gzel ol-duk-u- (ol*du*u)
simple sentence

noun compound

All girls are beautiful. that all girls are beautiful


simple sentence

noun clause

(Ben) btn kz-lar-n gzel ol-duk-u-/n/u dn-.yor-um.


subject

(noun compound) definite object

253

verb

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(b*tn / kz*la*rn / g*zel / ol*du*u*nu / d**n*yo*rum )
I think that all girls are beautiful.
subj verb

(noun clause) object

1. (O) (ben-im) kalem-im-i iste-di. (ka*le*mi*mi / is*te*di )


2. (O) (ben-im) bekle-me-em-i iste-di. (bek*le*me*mi / is*te*di )
3. (O) (ben-im) gel-i-im-i gzle-di. (ge*li*i*mi / gz*le*di )
4. (O) (ben-im) gel-dik-im-i gr-me-di. (gel*di*i*mi / gr*me*di )
5. (O) (ben-im) ala-dk-m- iit-me-di. (a*la*d**m / i*it*me*di )
As has already been stated, the single underlined consonants detach from
their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs.
Sen bir grei-sin. sen-in bir grei ol-duk-un (ol*du*un)
simple sentence

noun compound

You are a wrestler. that you are a wrestler


simple sentence

noun clause

Sen-in bir grei ol-duk-un


(noun compound) subject

That you are a wrestler


(noun clause) subject

nemli deil.

(subject complement) predicate

is not important. (It is not important that

(subj complement) predicate

ocuklar hazr m? Are the children ready?


ocuklar hazr m? ocuklar-n hazr ol-up ol-ma-dk- (ol*ma*d*)
simple sentence

noun compound

Are the children ready? "whether the children are ready"


simple sentence

noun clause

When someone hesitates over whether the verb is positive or negative, olup ol-ma-dk- positive and negative successive infinitives (ol-duk-u-/n/u
ya da ol-ma-dk--/n/) are used as whether is used in English:
(Ben) ocuklar-n hazr olup ol-ma-dk--/n/ bil-me-i.yor-um.
subject

(noun compound) definite object

verb

(o*cuk*la*rn / ha*zr / o*lup / ol*ma*d**n / bil*mi*yo*rum )


I dont know whether the children are ready (or not).
subj

verb

(noun clause) object

Karde-im nere-de? karde-im-in nere-de ol-duk-u (ol*du*u)


Where is my sister? where my sister is
Karde-im-in nerede ol-duk-u-/n/u bilmiyorum. I dont know where my sister is.
Ben kim-im? ben-im kim ol-duk-um (be*nim / kim / ol*du*um)
Who am I? who I am
(Sen) (ben-im) kim ol-duk-um-u tahmin et-e.bil-ir mi-sin?
subject (noun compound) definite object

indef obj

254

verb

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Can you guess who I am?
subj

verb

noun clause

The simple sentences containing verbs other than be are also nominalized
using possessive + owned noun compounds. As there are no clauses in
Turkish, they lose their time concepts as usual when simple sentences are
transformed into noun compounds. However, some others keep them when
they are nominalized. The tenses that result in the same transformed nominal phrases are as follows:
(Ben) ev-i temizle-er-im. (benim) ev-i temizle-dik-im-(i) (Simple Present)
(Ben) ev-i temizle-i.yor-um. (benim) ev-i temizle-dik-im-(i) (Present continuous or Present Perfect Continuous)
(Ben) ev-i temizle-di-im. (benim) ev-i temizle-dik-im-(i) (Simple Past
or Present Perfect)
(Ben) ev-i temizle-i.yor-du-um. (benim) ev-i temizle-dik-im-(i) (Past
Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous)
(Ben) ev-i temizle-er-di-im. (benim) ev-i temizle-dik-im-(i) (Used to)
As one could understand, all the five different tenses (simple sentences) are
transformed and nominalized using the same transformational composition:
The verb composition above covers only the morphemes, therefore the allomorphs of these morphemes are given as follows:

2. verb-[dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk]-[pers]-([])


All the /k/ phonemes chance into //, except when they are preceded by [ler, lar].
The personal owned allomorphs that are attached to the nouns and infinitives are as follows:
(ben-im): [im, m, m, um, em, am]; (sen-in): [in, n, n, un en, an]; (o/n/un): [i, , , u]; (biz-im): [im.iz, m.z, m.z, um.uz, em.iz, am.z]:
(siz-in): [in.iz, n.z, n.z, un.uz, en.iz, an.z]; (onlar-n): [i, , , u] or
[ler-i, lar-]. Example: "ben-im git-tik-im", "onlar-n gr-dk-"
The defining [] morpheme has naturally four allomorphs [i, , , u]. Only
one of them is used following the harmony and syllable rules when a nominalized phrase is used in the object position:
(Ben) her gn ev-i temizle-er-im. (ben-im) her gn ev-i temizle-dik-im
(Sen) (ben-im) her gn ev-i temizle-dik-im-i bil-i.yor-sun.
subject

(noun compound) definite object

255

verb

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


You know that I clean the house everyday.
subj

verb

(noun clause) object

(The last [i] is the defining [i] allomorph.)


ocuk-lar bahe-de oyna-u.yor-du. ocuk-lar-n bahe-de oyna-dk-
(Ben) ocuk-lar-n bahe-de oyna-dk--/n/ gr-d-m.
subject

(noun compound) definite object


predicate

verb

saw that the children were playing in the garden.

subj verb

(noun clause) object


predicate

(Ben) (ben-im) ev dev-im-i yap-.yor-um. ev dev-im-i yap-tk-m


(Sen) (ben-im) ev dev-im-i yap-tk-m- gr-.yor-sun. (yap*t**m)
subject

(noun compound) definite object

verb

You can see that I am doing my homework.


Seyahat et-tik-i-/n/i bil-i.yor-um. = I know that he travels; I know that he
is traveling; I know that he has traveled; I know that he has been traveling; I know that he traveled; I know that he used to travel.
As it is seen, all the six English sentences above are expressed in the same
transformed Turkish nominal phrase. To avoid this time ambiguity, suitable
adverbs of time should be added to the Turkish transformed phrases to
make the meaning clearer. This is necessary because after the simple sentences are transformed and nominalized, they become noun + infinitive
compounds. Like all infinitives, these compounds are timeless.
u anda seyahat et-tik-i-/n/i bil-i.yor-um. I know that he is (you are) traveling right now.
To avoid the above second ambiguity, either sen-in or o-/n/un possessive
modifiers should be added to the above sentence:
Senin (or onun) u anda seyahat et-tik-i-/n/i bil-i.yor-um.
Onun her yl seyahat et-tik-i-/n/i biliyor-um.
I know that he travels every year.
Onun btn yl bounca seyahat et-tik-i-/n/i bil-i.yor-um.
I know that he travels all the year round.
Senin geen yl seyahat et-tik-i-/n/i bil-i.yor-um.
I know that you were traveling last year.

256

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Senin geen sene boyuna seyahat et-tik-i-/n/i biliyor-um.
I know that you were always traveling last year.
When one adds boyuna, habire or durmakszn adverbs to continuous tenses, he implies that he is complaining about something:
Karm durmakszn fiyat-lar-dan yakn-.yor.
(ka*rm / dur*mak*s*zn / fi*yat*lar*dan / ya*k*n*yor )
My wife is always complaining about the prices.
Sen boyuna televizyon seyret-i.yor-sun.
(sen / bo*yu*na / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*di*yor*sun )
You are always watching television.
The seyahat et-tik-in nominal phrase above can naturally be used in the
subject position, as well:
Sen her sene seyahat et-er-sin. senin her sene seyahat et-tik-in or et-me-en
Sen-in her sene seyahat et-tik-in mehur-dur.
(noun compound) subject

(subj complement) predicate

That you travel every year is well-known.


Or "It is well-known that you travel every year."
The Simple Future Tense allomorphs [e.cek, a.cak] are kept when such
sentences are nominalized:
Yarn eski araba-am- sat-a.cak-m. (ben-im) yarn eski araba-am- sat-a.cak-m
sentence

nominal phrase

(Benim) yarn eski araba-am- sat-a.cak-m kesin deil. (sa*ta*ca*m)


(nominal phrase) subject

predicate

I will sell my old car tomorrow. that I will sell my old car tomorrow
simple sentence

nominal phrase (noun clause)

That I will sell my old car tomorrow is not certain. (It is not certain that
subject (noun clause)
predicate
(Sen) (ben-im) yarn eski araba-am- sat-a.cak-m- bil-me-i.yor mu-sun?
subj

(nominal phrase) definite object

verb

(sen / be*nim / ya*rn / es*ki / a*ra*ba*m / sa*ta*ca**m / bil mi*yor /


mu*sun)
Dont you know that I will sell my old car tomorrow?
(The /k/ consonants used in the satacak verbs change into the voiced //.)
In The Past Perfect Tense, [M] and [D] morphemes are used one after
the other. When the same tense is nominalized, the [M] morpheme is attached to the verb root, stem or frame, then the ol verb root is used
atached to the [duk] allomorph, which is followed by a personal suffix.

257

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Main verb - [mi, m, m, mu] + ol - [duk] - [pers] - ([])
(Ben) ev-i temizle-mi-ti-im. (ben-im) ev-i temizle-mi ol-duk-um"
simple sentence

nominal phrase

Dn (sen) (ben-im) ev-i temizle-mi ol-duk-um-u gr-d-n.


adv

subj

(nominal phrase) definite object

verb

(dn / e*vi / te*miz*le*mi / ol*du*u*mu / gr*dn )


You saw that I had cleaned the house.
subj verb

(noun clause) object

(Sen) (ben-im) ev-i temizle-mi ol-duk-um-u gr-.yor-sun.


subj

(nominal phrase) definite object

verb

(e*vi / te*miz*le*mi / ol*du*u*mu / g*r*yor*sun )


You (can) see that I have cleaned the house.
All nominal phrases can be used in the "subject + predicate" = subject +
object + verb Turkish syntactic pattern as nominal phrases.

NOMINALIZED PHRASES CONTAINING QUESTION WORDS


niin (why), nere-de (where), kim (who), kim-i (whom), kim-e (to whom),
kim-den (from whom), kim-in (whose), ne (what), kim-le (with whom), ne
kadar sre (how long), nasl (how) question words and the like are used between the possessive and the owned parts of the noun compounds when
sentences are nominalized. Note: When [dik, dk, dk, dk, duk] infinitive
producing allomorphs attach to verbs, they turn verbs into infinitives.
(Sen) niin bekle-i.yor-sun? sen-in niin bekle-dik-in
Why are you waiting? why you are waitig
(Ben) (sen-in) niin bekle-dik-in-i bil-i.yor-um.
subj

(noun compound) definite object


predicate

verb

(se*nin / ni*in / bek*le*di*i*ni / bi*li*yo*rum ) I know why you are waiting.


(Ben) (Sen-in) nere-de bekle-dik-in-i gr-d-m.
subj

(nominal phrase) definite object

verb

(ner*de / bek*le*di*i*ni / gr*dm )


I saw where you were waiting.
subj verb

(noun clause) object

(Ben) (sen-in) kim-e gl-dk-n- anla-d-m.


subj

I
subj

(nominal phrase) definite object

verb

understood who you were laughing at.


verb

(noun clause) object

258

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(Sen) Jackin kim-i sev-dik-i-/n/i bil-i.yor mu-sun?
(jac*kin / ki*mi / sev*di*i*ni / bi*li yor / mu*sun )
Do you know who Jack is in love with?
(Ben) (o-/n/un) ne syle-dik-i-/n/i hatrla-ma-.yor-um.
(o*nun / ne / sy*le*di*i*ni / ha*tr*la*m*yo*rum )
I dont remember what he said.
(Sen) (ben-im) sana niin kz-dk-m- bil-i.yor mu-sun?
(sa*na / ni* in / kz*d**m / bi*li yor / mu*sun )
Do you know why I am angry with you?
(Ben-im) sen-i ne kadar zle-dik-im-i tahmin et-e.mez-sin.
(se*ni / ne / ka*dar / z*le*di*i*mi / tah*min / e*de*mez*sin )
You cant guess how much I miss you.
(Sen) (sen-in) ne ren-mek iste-dik-in-i bana akla.
(ne / *ren*mek / is*te*di*i*ni / ba*na / a*k*la )
Explain to me what you want to learn.
(Sen) (sen-in) ne kadar sre bekle-dik-in-i bana syle.
(ne / ka*dar / s*re / bek*le*di*i*ni / ba*na / sy*le )
Tell me how long you have been waiting.
(O-/n/un) niin ala-dk--/n/ bil-me-i.yor-um.
(o*nun / ni *in / a*la*d**n / bil*mi*yo*rum )
I dont know why she is crying.
(Sen-in) ne satn al-dk-n- gr-d-m. (Liaison)
(se*nin / ne / sa*t*nal*d**n / gr*dm )
I saw what you bought.
All the transformed and nominalized phrases above are used in the object
position, and the /k/ unvoiced consonants in [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk,
tk, tuk] allomorphs change into the // voiced consonants. The last allomorphs are the defining allomorphs. All the words in brackets above are
optional, and may be ignored unless they are intentionally emphasized. The
following nominalized phrases are used in the subject position:
(O-/n/un) nasl zengin ol-duk-u bir sr-dr.
(nominal phrase) subject

subj complement

(o*nun / na*sl / zen*gin / ol*du*u / bir / sr*dr )


How he became rich is a mystery.
(noun clause) subject

subj complemet

259

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(Ben-im) ne dn-dk-m sen-i ilgilendir-mez.
(nominal phrase) subject

def object

verb

(be*nim / ne / d*n*d*m / se*ni / il*gi*len*dir*mez )


What I am thinking about doesnt concern you.
(noun clause) subject

verb

object

Soru-lar-n niin bu kadar zor ol-duk-u retmen tarafndan aklan-ma.l-/y/d.


(nominal phrase) subject

postp phrase (adverbial)

verb (passive)

(The reason) why the questions were so difficult should have been
explained by the teacher.
(Sen-in) dolap-ta gr-dk-n bir iskelet ol-a.maz.
(noun compound) subject

subj complement

verb

(do*lap*ta / gr*d*n / bir / is*ke*let / o*la*maz )


What you saw in the cupboard cant be a skeleton.
(noun clause) subject

verb

subj complement

(Onlar-n) ne iste-dik-ler-i anla-l-a.ma-d.


(nominal phrase) subject

verb (passive)

(on*la*rn / ne / is*te*dik*le*ri / an*la**la*ma*d )


(The /k/ does not change.)
What they wanted couldn't be understood.
(noun clause) subject

verb (passive)

(O-/n/un) tm ye-dik-i sadece be sandvi-ti.


(nominal phrase) subject

adverb

subject complement

(o*nun / tm / ye*di*i ~/ sa:*de*ce / be / san*d*vi*ti )


All he ate was only five sandwiches.
(O-/n/un) kim ol-duk-u polis tarafndan aratr-l-.yor.
(nominal phrase) subject

adverbial phrase

verb (passive)

(o*nun / kim / ol*du*u / po*lis / ta*ra*fn*dan / a*ra*t*r*l*yor )


Who he is is being investigated by the police.
(noun clause) subj

verb (passive)

adverbial phrase

(Sen-in) ara-dk-n (ey) ekmece-/n/in i-i/n/-de. (Subject complement)


(a*ra*d*n~/ ek*me*ce*nin / i*in*de )
What you are looking for is in the drawer. (Subject complement)
Banka-/y/ kim-in soy-duk-u hl bir sr. (Subject complement)
(ban*ka*y / ki*min / soy*du*u / ha:*l: / bir / sr ):
Who robbed the bank is still a mystery. (Subject complement)
Fatma-/n/n niin ala-dk--/n/ bil-i.yor mu-sun?
(fat*ma*nn / ni*in / a*la*d**n / bi*li*yor / mu*sun )
Do you know why Fatma is crying?

260

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


TURKISH MODIFIER + NOUN COMPOUNDS
After having given a short description of the possessive + owned transformation of the simple English sentences, we can go on with the parallel
modifier + noun Turkish simple sentence transformations:
Kzlar tarlalarda icek topluyor. The girls are picking flowers in the fields.
noun 1

noun 2

noun 3

1. tarlalar-da iek topla-/y/an kzlar the girls who are picking flowers in the fields
modifier

noun

2. kzlar-n iek topla-dk- tarlalar the fields where the girls are picking flowers
modifier

noun

3. kzlar-n tarlalar-da topla-dk- iekler the flowers that the girls are picking in the fiels
modifier

noun

We can derive the following rules from the transformed nominal phrases
above:
1. When someone wants to modify the subject of a simple sentence, he
transforms the sentence into a modifier + noun compound by using
main verb - [en, an] + noun composition. This composition is a nominal phrase that can be used in the subject + predicate logical sentence
pattern. If a verb ends with a consonant, it takes one of these allomorphs
such as "konu-an" (ko*nu*an), a-an (a*an), "bekle-en (bek*le*en).
However, if a verb ends with a vowel, it needs the /y/ glide to link the verb to
one of the following [en] or [an] allomorphs: bekle-/y/en, oku-/y/an,
bala-/y/an.
This transformational rule can be applied to the verbs in The Simple Present, The Simple Past, The Present Continuous, The Past Continuous
Tenses and (imdiki Zamann Hikyesi) used to. However, the verbs in
The Simple Future and The Past Perfect Tenses keep their forms when the
verb ol is used:
Kzlar yarn tarlalar-da iek topla-/y/a.cak-lar. yarn tarlalar-da iek
topla-/y/a.cak ol-an kzlar (o*lan)
Kzlar tarlalar-da iek topla-m-t. tarlalar-da iek topla-m ol-an kzlar
Consequently, Kzlar bahede koar, Kzlar bahede kotu, Kzlar bahede kouyor, Kzlar bahede kouyordu, and Kzlar bahede koard
simple sentences are all transformed into the modifier + noun structure
as bahe-de ko-an kzlar. As has already been noted, none of the time
concepts in these tenses (except The Simple Future and The Past Perfect)
is carried into the transformed Turkish nominal phrases.

261

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


2. and 3. When one wants to modify one of the nouns, other than the subject, he has to use verb - [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] - [i, , ,
u] - [possessive pers] + noun structure. In this transformation, the unvoiced /k/ consonants change into the voiced // consonants, except when
they are followed by [ler, lar] plural allomorphs such as "topla-dk-lar-",
yr-dk-ler-i, oku-duk-lar-, ek-tik-ler-i, where the /k/ consonants
do not change.
As in the examples above, none of the tenses carry their time concepts into
the transformed nominal phrases. The time concepts of such nominal phrases
are inferred from the time allomorphs of the finite verbs.
1. ki kz mutfak-ta patates soy-u.yor. mutfak-ta patates soy-an iki kz
1

modifier

noun

2. ki kz mutfak-ta patates soy-u.yor. iki kz-n patates soy-duk-u mufak


2

modifier

noun

3. ki kz mutfak-ta patates soyuyor. iki kz-n mutfak-ta soy-duk-u patatesler


3

modifier

noun

As all the modifier + noun (Turkish), or noun + modifier (English) compounds are syntactic nominal phrases, they can be used in the subject +
predicate basic sentence pattern as Nominal Phrases because they constitute nominal phrases together.
1. Mutfakta patates soy-an iki kz ben-im kzlar-m-dr. (so*yan)
(nominal phrase) subject

(subject complement) predicate

2. ki kz-n patates soy-duk-u mutfak ok geni-tir. (soy*du*u)


(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

3. ki kz-n mutfakta soy-duk-u patates-ler ok kaliteli-dir. (soy*du*u)


(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

(Ben) mutfakta patates soy-an iki kz gr-d-m.


subject

(nominal phrase) indefinite object


predicate

verb

If the simple sentences from which the transformed phrases were in different
tenses, except the future and the past perfect tenses, the result would also
be the same transformed phrases above:
Mutfakta iki kz patates soyar, soyuyor, soydu, soyuyordu, soyard are
all transformed as mutfakta patates soyan kzlar or kzlarn soyduu
patatesler, or kzlarn patates soyduu mutfak.
The English equivalents of the sentences above are as follows:
1. the two girls that are peeling potatoes in the kitchen
noun (1)

modifier

262

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


2. the kitchen where the two girls are peeling potatoes
noun (3)

modifier

3. the potatoes that the girls are peeling in the kitchen


noun (2)

modifier

As all the noun + modifier compounds are syntactic nominal phrases, they
can be used in the subject + predicate basic sentence pattern as Nominal
Phrases:
The two girls that are peeling potatoes in the kitchen are my daughters.
(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

The kitchen where the two girls are peeling potatoes is very large.
(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

The potatoes that the girls are peeling in the kitchen are of good quality.
(nominal phrase) subject

verb

(subj comp)

saw the two girls that were peeling potatoes in the kitchen.

subj verb

(nominal phrase) object


predicate

As an exception, the sentences in The Simple Future and The Past Perfect Tenses are transformed as follows:
(Ben) bir problem z-e.cek-im. (ben-im) z-e.cek-im problem
simple sentence

modifier

noun

I will solve a problem. the problem that I will solve


simple sentence

noun

modifier

(Benim) z-e.cek-im problem ok zor. The problem that I will solve is very difficult.
(nominal phrase) subject

subj comp

(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

(Ben) bir problem z-m-t-m. (ben-im) z-m ol-duk-um problem


I had solved a problem. the problem that I had solved
z-m ol-duk-um problem

ok zor-du.

(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

The problem that I had solved


(nominal phrase) subject

was very difficult.

(subject complement) predicate

Some examples of the modifier + noun sentence transformations are as


follows:
O dn bir mektup yaz-d. onun dn yaz-dk- mektup
modifier

noun

Onun dn yaz-dk- mektup kaybol-du.


(nominal phrase) subject

intransitive verb

The letter that she wrote yesterday has been lost.


(nominal phrase) subject

passive verb

Annem her gn ev-i tertiple-er. anne-em-in her gn tertiple-dik-i ev

263

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Anne-em-in her gn tertiple-dik-i ev karmakark.
(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

(an*ne*min / her / gn / ter*tip*le*di*i / ev~ / kar*ma*ka*r*k )


The house, which my mother tidies every day, is in a mess.
(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

ocuk-lar havuz-da model kayk-lar yzdr-.yor-du.


ocuk-lar-n havuz-da yz-dr-dk- model kayk-lar
ocuk-lar-n havuz-da yzdr-dk- model kayklar el yapm/y/-d.
(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

(o*cuk*la*rn / ha*vuz*da / yz*dr*d* / mo*del / ka*yk*lar~ / el /


ya*p*my*d )
The modal boats that the children were sailing on the pond were handmade.
(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

Parmak-m-a bir ine bat-t. parmak-m-a bat-an ine


Parmak-m-a bat-an ine kck-t.
(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

The needle that stuck in my finger was very small.


(nominal phrse) subject

(subj comp) predicate

Bir problem z-me-/y/e al-.yor-du-um. "z-me-/y/e al-tk-m problem"


z-me-/y/e al-tk-m problem ok g-t
(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

(z*me*ye / a*l*t*m / prob*lem / ok / g*t )


The problem that I was trying to solve was very difficult.
(nominal phrase) subject

verb subject complement

Dn iek-ler-in hepsi-/n/i sula-d-m. dn sula-dk-m iek-ler-in hepsi


simple sentence

(chain noun compound) nominal phrase

Dn sula-dk-m iek-ler-in hepsi


(nominal phrase) subject

sol-du

(intransitive verb) predicate

(dn / su*la*d*m / i*ek*le*rin / hep*si / sol*du )


All the flowers that I watered yesterday have faded.
(nominal phrase) subject

(intransitive verb) predicate

Geen hafta bana bir cep telefon-u al-d-n. geen hafta bana al-dk-n cep telefon-u
Geen hafta bana al-dk-n cep telefon-u-/n/u kaybet-ti-im.
(nominal phrase) definite object

verb

(ge*en / haf*ta / ba*na / al*d*n / cep / te*le*fo*nu*nu / kay*bet*tim )


I have lost the mobile telephone that you bought me last week.
Amca-am patates yetitir-i.yor. amca-am-n yetitir-dik-i patates-ler
Amca-am-n yetitir-dik-i patatesler en st kalite-dir.
(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

The potatoes that my uncle grows are of top quality.

264

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


When a simple sentence having a future tense is transformed, the [e.cek,
a.cak] allomorphs do not change:
Prof. Brown yarn niversite-de bir konuma yap-a.cak .
yarn Prof. Brownn niversite-de yap-a.cak- konu-ma
Yarn Prof. Brownn niversite-de yap-a.cak- konu-ma-/y/ dinle-mek
iste-i.yor mu-sun?
Do you want to listen to the lecture that Prof. Brown is going to give at
the university tomorrow?
When someone wants to transform a simple sentence into a modifier that
modifies the subject, he begins the transformed phrase with the subject of
the simple sentence using the above-mentioned Nr.1 kind of transformational rule:
Mart-lar gkyz/n/-de uu-u.yor-lar. gkyz/n/-de uu-an mart-lar
Gkyz/n/-de uu-an mart-lar harika/y/-d.
(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

(gk*y*zn*de / u*u*an / mar*t*lar / ha:*ri*kay*d)


The seagulls that were flying about in the sky were fantastic.
(nominal phrase) subject

verb subj complement

renci-ler saat sekiz-den beri retmen-ler-i-/n/i bekle-i.yor-lar.


saat sekiz-den beri retmen-ler-i-/n/i bekle-/y/en renci-ler"
Saat sekizden beri retmenler-i/n/i bekle/y/en renciler sabrszlan-.yor.
(nominal phrase) subject

(intran verb) predicate

The students who have been waiting for their teachers for an hour are being impatient.
(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

Kedi masa-/n/n alt-/n/-da kan-.yor. masa-/n/n alt-/n/-da kan-an kedi


Masann altnda kanan kedi senin mi?
(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

(ma*sa*nn / al*tn*da / ka**nan / ke*di / se*nin / mi )


Is the cat (that is) scratching under the table yours?
(nominal phrase) subject

(subj comp) predicate

Renk-ler sonbahar-da dei-ir. sonbahar-da dei-en renkler


Sonbahar-da dei-en renkler herkes-i byle-er.
(son*ba*har*da / de*i*en / renk*ler / her*ke*si / b*y*ler )
The colors that change in the autumn fascinate everybody.
iek-ler sabah-le.yin a-ar. sabah-le.yin a-an iek-ler
Sabah-le.yin a-an iekler ho kok-ar.
(sa*bah*le*yin / a*an / i*ek*ler / ho / ko*kar )
The flowers that open in the morning smell sweet.

265

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


renci-ler retmen-ler-i-/n/i dikkat-le dinle-i.yor-lar-d.
retmen-ler-i-/n/i dikkat-le dinle-/y/en renci-ler
retmen-ler-i-/n/i dikkat-le dinle-/y/en renci-ler mutlu grn-.yor-lar-d.
The students who were listening to their teacher carefully were looking happy.

SIMPLE SENTENCES AND TRANSFORMED NOMINAL PHRASES


There is an important difference between a simple sentence and a transformed syntactic nominal phrase in Turkish. The words in a simple sentence may take different positions. The meanings of the following sentences
are much less the same if the word stress and intonation are not taken into
account:
Ben dn bahede bir saat bul-du-um.
Bir saat buldum dn bahede ben.
Bir saat buldum bahede dn ben.
Buldum dn bahede bir saat ben.
Bahede buldum ben dn bir saat.
Buldum bahede bir saat dn ben.
Although the first sentence is considered the valid grammatical order of the
sentence, the other five are also understandable, but they are generally
used in Turkish poetry to help rhyming. The only inseparable grammatical
unit in these sentences is "bir saat", which is a "D + N" unit. However, when
the same sentence is nominalized, the owned part of the compound is always at the end of the nominalized phrase; the other words may change
places:
"ben-im dn bahe-de bir saat bul-duk-um"
"dn ben-im bahe-de bir saat bul-duk-um"
"bahe-de dn ben-im bir saat bul-duk-um"
"bahe-de ben-im dn bir saat bul-duk-um

(noun compound)
(noun compound)
(noun compound)
(noun compound)

When the same sentence is transformed into the modifier + noun compound, the transformed phrases may change as follows:
"ben-im dn bahe-de bulduum
"bahe-de ben-im dn bulduum
"dn ben-im bahe-de bulduum
"ben-im bahe-de dn bulduum

saat" (modifier + noun)


saat" (modifier + noun)
saat" (modifier + noun)
saat" (modifier + noun)

As one can notice, the indefinite modifier "bir" is not used in the above transformed phrases because the word "bul-duk-um" becomes a definite modifier
that modifies the noun "saat", which proves that "benim dn bahede buldu-

266

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


um" and the following three are modifiers. In the transformed phrases
above, the last syllables before the words bul-duk-um are primarily
stressed which shows the importance given to these words. If the second
noun "bahe" is modified, the transformed phrase becomes as follows:
"ben-im dn i-i/n/-de (bir) saat bul-duk-um
"i-i/n/-de ben-im dn (bir) saat bul-duk-um
"dn ben-im i-i/n/-de (bir) saat bul-duk-um
"ben-im i-i/n/-de dn (bir) saat bul-duk-um

bahe" (modifier +noun)


bahe" (modifier + noun)
bahe" (modifier + noun)
bahe" (modifier + noun)

We can give the following table to sum up the above transformational rules:
1. benim gitmem

noun + infinitive = noun comp= syntactic noun

= NP

2. benim gidiim

noun + infinitive = noun comp= syntactic noun

= NP

3. benim gittiim

noun + infinitive = noun comp = syntactic noun = NP

4. benim gittiim

noun + infinitive = modifier+noun = syntactic noun = NP

5. benim gideceim

noun + infinitive = noun comp = synt noun

= NP

6. benim gideceim

noun + infinitive = modifier + noun = synt noun

= NP

7. benim gitmi olduum noun + infinitive = noun comp = synt noun

= NP

8. benim gitmi oldugum noun + infinitive = modifier + noun = synt noun

= NP

9. benim gitmi olacam noun + infinitive = noun comp = synt noun

= NP

10.benim gitmi olacam noun + infinitive = modifier + noun = synt noun

= NP

In the examples above, only the first person is given; the other persons
might have been given accordingly, which would not change the result. Nr.1
and Nr.2 compounds can only be used as noun compounds, such as
Benim oraya gitmem olanaksz. or Benim gidiim-i bekliyor
Nr. 3 and 4; 5 and 6; 7 and 8; and 9 and 10 are used both as noun compounds and as modifiers such as: Benim gittiim-i grd. (syntactic nominal phrase). However, Benim gittiim okul" is structurally a modifier +
noun compound, but syntactically it is a nominal phrase. Therefore, these
noun compounds are used both as noun compounds and as modifiers. As
in all infinitives, the infinitive parts of these compounds may have one or
more adverbials preceding to supply them with time, place, reason, etc:
Benim

geen hafta bir futbol ma seyretmek iin Bursaya gitme-em karm- kzdr-d.

possessive adverbial.

postpositonal adverbial phrs

adverbial

owned

def obj

verb

My going to Bursa last week to watch a football match made my wife mad.

267

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(Ben-im) geen hafta bir ift ayakkab almak iin git-tik-im dkkn ok kalablk-t.
modifier

noun

(subj comp) predicate

(nominal phrase) subject

The shop where I went to buy a pair of shoes last week was very crowded.

THE PASSIVE TRANSFORMATION AND THE PASSIVE


VERB FRAMES
A speaker or writer generally prefers a passive sentence when he does not
know the actual doer of an action, or when, for some reason, he does not
want to mention it, or if he thinks it is unimportant, or if he begins his sentence with the object. This type of transformation is carried out within a simple sentence itself. It is not done to be used as a nominal phrase in the
subject + predicate sentence producing system. However, if necessary, a
passive simple sentence can also be transformed to be used as a nominal
phrase:
Somebody stole a necklace. "A necklace was stolen." (passive sentence)
A necklace was stolen. the necklace that was stolen" (nominalized phrase)
"the necklace that was stolen" the stolen necklace" (nominalized phrase)
The necklace that was stolen hasnt been found yet.
The stolen necklace hasnt been found yet.
To perform a passive transformation, the object of a sentence is used as if it
were the real subject (mentally it is the object) of the sentence, and a passive making allomorph is attached to it. These allomorphs are as follows:
c

When a verb ends with a consonant (V ), one of the [il, l, l, ul] allomorphs is attached to it before the time and personal allomorphs:

subject + Vc-[il, l, l, ul]-([NEG])-[time]-[pers]


kahve fincan- kr-l-d. (There are no real subjects in passive entences.)
subject

passive verb
predicate

( / kah*ve / fin*ca*n / k*rl*d )


Three coffee cups have been broken.
nominal phrase
subject

|
passive verb
predicate

268

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Davetiye-ler bas-l-.yor.
(da:*ve*ti*ye*ler / ba*s*l*yor )
The invitations are being printed.
imdi ne yap-l-a.bil-ir?
(im*di / ne / ya*p*la*bi*lir )
What can be done now?
Dn ne yap-l-d?
(dn / ne / ya*pl*d )
What was done yesterday?
Her ey bitir-il-di bile.
(her*ey / bi*ti*ril*di / bi*le )
Everything has already been finished.
Bura-da ttn sat-l-maz.
(bu*ra*da / t*tn / sa*tl*maz )
Tobacco is not sold here.
Aldat-l-d-m.
(al*da*tl*dm )
I have been cheated.
Araba-an.z onar-l-d.
(a*ra*ba*nz / o*na*rl*d )
Your car has been repaired.
Nehir kenar-/n/-da byk bir ev yap-l-.yor.
(ne*hir / ke*na*rn*da / b*yk / bir / ev / ya*p*l*yor )
A large house is being built by the river.
Cezalandr-l-a.bil-ir-sin.
(ce*za:*lan*d*r*la*bi*lir*sin )
You may be punished.
Bahe henz spr-l-me-di.
(bah*e / he*nz / s*p*rl*me*di )
The garden hasnt been swept yet.
Mikroplar cplak gz-le gr-l-e-mez.
(mik*rop*lar / p*lak / gz*le / g*r*le*mez )
Germs cant be seen with the naked eye.

269

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bu pis yzme havuz-u/n/-da yz-l-mez.
(bu / pis / yz*me / ha*vu*zun*da / y*zl*mez )
It is impossible to swim in this dirty swimming pool.
(Passive shaped intransitive)
Saat-im bahe-de bul-un-du.
(sa*a*tim / bah*e*de / bu*lun*du )
My watch has been found in the garden.
Bu kasa matkap-la del-in-e.mez.
(bu / ka*sa / mat*kap*la / de*li*ne*mez )
This safe cant be drilled.
Pazar gn-ler-i okul-a gel-in-mez.
(pa*zar / gn*le*ri / o*ku*la / ge*lin*mez )
It is a general rule that students do not come to school on Sundays.
(Passive shaped intransitive)
Akl supermarket-ten satn al-n-maz.
(a*kl / s*per*mar*ket*ten / a*ln*maz )
Wisdom cant be bought from a supermarket.
v

The verbs ending with vowels (V ) are put into the passive form by using
the following verb composition. In this composition, as the last vowels and
the first vowels of the passive making allomorphs are identical, they combine and they are used as single vowels:

Subject + Vv- [in, n, n, un, en, an]-(neg)-[time]-[pers]


Bu gmlek sadece lk su-da yka-an-r.
(bu / gm*lek / sa:*de*ce / *lk / su*da / y*ka*nr )
This shirt is washed only in lukewarm water.
Duvar-lar beyaz-a boya-an-.yor.
(du*var*lar / be*ya*za / bo*ya*n*yor )
The walls are being painted white.
Hrsz yakala-an-d.
(hr*sz / ya*ka*lan*d )
The thief has been caught.
(Ben-im) oda-am yarn temizle-en-e.cek.
(O*dam / ya*rn / te*miz*le*ne*cek )
My room is going to be cleaned tomorrow.

270

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ma ertele-en-me-di.
(ma / er*te*len*me*di )
The match hasnt been postponed.
Bu yk (ben-im) kamyon-um-da ta-n-a-maz.
(bu / yk / be*nim / kam*yo*num*da / ta**na*maz )
This load cant be carried in my lorry.
As an exception to the above rule, the verb "anla" is put into the passive
form with [l]: "Anla-l-d" (an*la*l*d) is used in place of *"anla-an-d".

THE VERB FRAMES


A list of frequently used verbs, and their intransitive, transitive, causative,
passive, reflexive and reciprocal forms, which are called verb frames,
are given in the following list. While using reflexive and reciprocal verb
frames, one should be careful because these two forms may have meanings
different from the verb roots or stems that they are attached to. For instance,
although anla means understand, anla means reach an agreement. Therefore, one should consult a dictionary before using them.
Some of the most frequently used verb frames whose meanings are different
from their root or stem meanings are as follows:
aldrmak: care, care about; almak: get used to; atmak: have a row
with; bozulmak: deteriorate, embarrass; bozumak: break up, fall out with;
bulumak: meet with someone; atlatmak: make somebody jealous;
znmek: dissolve; dalamak: fight; dayanmak: act in solidarity with;
dnmek: transform; dvnmek: beat ones chest; durulmak: calm
down, settle down; geinmek: get on well with, make a living; gelitirmek:
improve, develop; gerinmek: stretch; kanmak: avoid; karmak: miss,
abduct, frighten away, hijack, go out of ones mind; kapmak: fall out with;
kayrmak: bestow a privilege on; kesimek: intersect; kestirmek: dose,
have a short nap, estimate; krmak: become wrinkled; korunmak: protect
oneself; rtmek: coincide, correspond to, match up with; sylenmek:
grumble; sylemek: chat; srnmek: creep, live a dogs life; armak:
be confused, be mixed up; iinmek: boast; tartmak: argue, discuss,
dispute; uydurmak: fabricate, feign; karmak: put ones nose into something.

271

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The suffixes (inflectional allomorphs) used in producing verb frames are the
first suffixes to be attached to verb roots or stems; the others such as the
negative making, time and personal suffixes follow them.

The Structural Composition of the Causative Verb Frames


All the monosyllabic verb roots, and all the other ones ending with /t/ phonemes take [dir, dr, dr, dur, tir, tr, tr, tur] inflectional allomorphs to
change them into the causative verb frames.
Examples of monosyllabic verbs:
al-dr, at-tr, boz-dur, bul-dur, al-dr, arp-tr, ek-tir, z-dr, del-dir, dvdr, ger-dir, kap-tr, kes,tir, kr-dr, kur-dur, rt-tr, v-dr, soy-dur, et-tir,
z-dr, yak-tr, yap-tr, yaz-dr, sat-tr, at-tr, tat-tr, a-tr, yak-tr, yrt-tr
Examples of the polysyllabic (two or more syllables) verbs ending with /t/:
iit-tir, ilet-tir, oturt-tur, kapat-tr, kzart-tr, patlat-tr, sarkt-tr, yaat-tr, ykselt-tir, tket-tir, tant-tr, boyat-tr, arat-tr, ykat-tr, ayklat-tr.
All the polysyllabic verbs ending with /r/ take /t/ phonemes:
Example: yaptr yap-trt; gldr gl-drt
art*trt, bi*tirt, ge*tirt, at*trt, al*trt, *kart, dal*drt, dei*tirt, do*urt,
dol*durt, dn*drt, dur*durt, d*rt, ge*irt, ge*tirt, geli*tirt, ger*dirt,
gez*dirt, gl*drt, *srt, it*tirt, ka*rt, kan*drt, karla*trt, ka*yrt, kaz*drt,
konu*turt, ko*part, ko*turt, o*nart, l*drt, pi*irt, sinirlen*dirt, sus*turt,
s*prt, i*irt, ta*rt, uy*durt, yar*trt, yap*trt, ya*trt, ye*dirt, yz*drt
The last syllables of the above causative forms are all four-phoneme syllables such as tirt, trt, trt, turt, drt, durt, etc. When the polysyllabic
verbs ending with vowels are attached to [it, t, t, ut, et, at] allomorphs,
the last vowels of the verb roots or stems, and those of the coinciding first
vowels of the allomorphs combine and verbalize as single vowels:
boya-at (bo*yat), by-t (b*yt), atla-at (at*lat), daya-at (da*yat), yrt (y*rt), dene-et (de*net), denetle-et (de*net*let), dinle-et (din*let), erteleet (er*te*let), frala-at (fr*a*lat), hatrla-at (ha*tr*lat), hazrla-at (ha*zr*lat), kovala-at (ko*va*lat), ka-t (ka*t), kokla-at (kok*lat), kuru-ut (ku*rut), ona-at (o*nat), sakla-at (sak*lat), sorgula-at (sor*gu*lat), syle-et.

272

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


A SHORT LIST OF VERB FRAMES
INTRANSITIVE

TRANSITIVE

CAUSATIVE

PASSIVE

REFLEXIVE

a
ak

a
akt
al
anla
anlat
ara
artr
as
ar
aykla
at
atlat
azdr

atr
akttr
aldr

al
aktl
aln
anlal
anlatl
aran
artrl
asl
arl
ayklan
atl
atlatl
azdrl
bakl
basl
batrl
balatl
bayltl
beklen
bekletil
beslen
biil
bilin
binil
bitiril
bkl
bozul
bln
bulun
bkl
cayl

al

art

atla
az
bak
bat
bala
bayl
bekle

bin
bit
bk

cay
co
al
al
arp
atla

bas
batr
balat
bayl
bekle
beklet
besle
bi
bil
bitir
bktr
boz
bl
bul
bk
caydr
cotur
al
al(tr)
arptr
atlat
ek
iz

anlattr
arat
artrt
astr
art
ayklat
attr
atlattr
azdrt
baktr
bastr
batrt
balattr
baylt
beklet
beklettir
beslet
bitir
bildir
bindir
bitirt
bktrt
bozdur
bldr
buldur
bktr
caydrt
coturt
aldr
altrt
arptrt
atlattr
ektir
izdir

aln
altrl
arpl
atlatl
ekil
izil

273

RECIPROCAL

aln
anla

at

bakn

bak

balan
bekle
beslen

bozul
bln

bozu
bl
bulu

arp
ekin

eki

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


INTRANSITIVE

k
dal
dayan
damla
de
dei

do
dol
don
doy
dn
dn

d
dn

es

esne

TRANSITIVE

CAUSATIVE

PASSIVE

REFLEXIVE

rp
kert
z
daldr
daya

rptr
kerttir
zdr
daldrt
dayat

rpn

damlat
de
dedir
dein
deitir
del
dene
denetle
dengele
dik
dinle
dila
dour
doku
doldur
dondur
doyur
dk
dndr
dndr
duy
drt
dr
dn
ekle
elle
engelle
ertele
estir

damlattr
dedirt
dedirt
deitirt
deldir
denet
denetlet
dengelet
diktir
dinlet
dlat
dourt
dokut
doldurt
dondurt
doyurt
dktr
dndrt
dndrt
duyurt
drttr
drt
dndrt
eklet
ellet
engellet
ertelet
estirt

rpl
kertil
zl
daldrl
dayatl
dayanl
damlatl
denil
deil
deinil
deitiril
delin
denen
denetlen
dengelen
dikil
dinlen
dlan
dourul
dokun
doldurul
dondurul
doyurul
dkl
dndrl
dnl
duyurul
drtl
drl
dnl
eklen
ellen
engellen
ertelen
estiril

eitle
esnet
et
ez

eitlet
esnet
ettir
ezdir

eitlen
esnetil
edil
ezil

274

zn

RECIPROCAL

z
dala
dayan

dei

dolu

dkn
dn

drt

elle

esnen

esne

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


INTRANSITIVE

ge
gel
gez

TRANSITIVE

CAUSATIVE

PASSIVE

frlat
ge
ger
getir
gez
gster

frlattr
geir
gerdir
getirt
gezdir
gstert

frlatl
geil
geril
getiril
gezdiril
gsteril
giril
gidil
giyil
grl
gsteril
gln
halan
hatrlan
hazrlan
hesaplan
iil
indiril
srl
slatl
iitil
iletil
inkr edil
itil
izlen
karl
kaln
kandrl
kapl
kapatl
kaplan
karalan
karl
karlatrl
kasl
kan

gir
git

gl

in
sr

ile

ka
kal
kan

kar
karla

giy
gr
gster
gldr
hala
hatrla
hazrla
hesapla
i
indir
sr
slat
iit
ilet
inkr et
it
izle
kar

gstert
gldrt
halat
hatrlat
hazrlat
hesaplat
iir
indirt
srt
slattr
iittir
ilettir
inkr ettir
ittir
izlet
kart

kandr
kap
kapat
kapla
karala
kartr
karlatr
kas
ka
kat
kaydet
kayr

kandrt
kaptr
kapattr
kaplat
karalat
kartrt
karlatrt
kastr
kat
kattr
kaydettir
kayrt

275

yaydedil
kay()rl

REFLEXVE

RECIPROCAL

gein
gerin
gezin
giri
giyin
grn

gr
gl

hazrlan
hesapla

slan

iti
kan

ka

kap
kapan

kasl
kan

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


INTRANSITIVE

kzar
kok
kon
konu
kop
kork

TRANSITIVE

CAUSATIVE

PASSIVE

kaz
kes
kr
ky
kz
kzart
kokla
kondur
konutur
kopar
korkut
koru

kazdr
kestir
krdr
kydr
kzdr
kzarttr
koklat
kondurt
konuturt
kopart
korkut
korut
kotur
koydur
kurdur
kuruttur
kurulat
kusturt
kstrt
kuruttur
kurulat
lekelet
okuttur
onart
oturttur
oydur
oyalat
oynat
ltr
det
ldrt
ptr
rdr
rttr
ttrt
vdr
patlattr
piirt

kazl
kesil
krl
kyl
kzl
kzartl
koklan
kondurul
konuul
koparl
korkutul
korun
koul
koyul
kurul
kurutul
kurulan
kusul
ksl
kurutul
kurulan
lekelen
okun
onarl
oturul
oyul

ko

kuru
kus
ks
kuru

oku
otur

oyna

patla
pi

koy
kur
kurut
kurula
kustur
kstr
kurut
kurula
lekele
oku
onar
oturt
oy
oyala
oyna
l
de
ldr
p
r
rt
ttr
v
patlat
piir
san
sakla

REFLEXIVE

RECIPROCAL

kesi
kr
kz
kokla

korun
kou

kurulan
ks
kurulan

oturu
oyalan

oynan
ll
den
ldrl
pl
rl
rtl
vl
patlatl
piiril
sanl
saklan

saklat

276

oyna
l
de
ln
p
rtn
vn

saklan

rt
t

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


INTRANSITIVE

TRANSITIVE

CAUSATIVE

PASSIVE

sap

saptr
sar
sarkt
sars
sat
say
se
sev
seyret
sez
sdr

saptrt
sardr
sarkt(tr)
sarstr
sattr
saydr
setir
sevdir
seyrettir
sezdir
sdrt

saptrl
sarl
sarktl
sarsl
satl
sayl
seil
sevil
seyredil
sezil
sl

sk
szdr
sil
sindir
sout
soldur
sor
sorgula
soy
sk
sndr

sktr
szdrt
sildir
sindirt
souttur
soldurt
sordurt
sorgulat
soydur
sktr
sndrt
svdr
sylet

sark

s
sz
sin
sou
sol

sn
sv

sus

a
i

ta

syle
sun
sustur
srt
ssle
sz
art
iir
tak
tara
tar
ta
tat
temizle
tercih et
tut

susturt
srttr
sslet
szdr
arttr
iirt
taktr
tarat
tart
tat
tattr
temizlet
tercih ettir
tuttur

277

REFLEXIVE

RECIPROCAL

sarn
sarsl

say
sevin

sevi

sn

skl
szdrl
silin
sindiril
soutul
soldurul
sorul
sorgulan
soyul
skl
sndrl

skn

sk

sylen
sunul
susturul
srtl
sslen
szl
artl
iiril
takl
taran
tarl

sylen

tan

tan

temizlen
tercih edil
tutul

temizlen

soyun

srtn
sslen
ar
iin
takn
taran

sv
syle
susu
srt

tak

tutu

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


INTRANSITIVE

TRANSITIVE

CAUSATIVE

PASSIVE

uur
um
unut
uydur
uyar
uygula
uyut
uzat
fle
tle
z
ver
vur
yadr
yakala
yak
yaat
yaz
yedir
yen
yerletir
yetitir
y
yka
yldr
yrt
yut
yor
ykselt
yrt
yzdr

uurt

uurul
umul
unutul
uydurul
uyarl
uygulan
uyutul
uzatl
flen
tlen
zl
veril
vurul

uy

uyu
uza

ya
yan
yaa

yerle
yeti

yksel
yr
yz

unuttur
uydurt
uyart
uygulat
uyuttur
uzattr
flet
tlet
zdr
verdir
vurdur
yadrt
yakalat
yaktr
yaattr
yazdr
yedirt

yakalan
yakl
yaatl
yazdrl
yediril
yenil
yerleil
yetiil
yl
ykan
yldrl
yrtl
yutul
yorul
ykseltil
yrtl
yzl

yerletirt
yetitirt
ydr
ykat
yldrt
yrttr
yuttur
ykselttir
yrttr
yzdrt

REFLEXIVE

RECIPROCAL

uu

uyu

uyun
uzan

vuru

yakn
yaan
yaz
yeni

ykan
yrtn
yorul
yrn
yz

CAUSATIVE VERB FRAME EXAMPLES


We use a causative verb frame when we do not carry out the action ourselves, but we are responsible for the action being done:
Ahmete arabam ykamasn syledim; o da ykad.
Ahmete araba-am- ykat-t-m

278

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


I made Ahmet wash my car. I had Ahmet wash my car.
I got Ahmet to wash my car.
.

I asked someone to wash my car. Araba-am- ykat-t-m.


I had my car washed. (The doer of the verb is not mentioned.)
As it is seen in the two sentences above, the two Turkish verb compositions
are identical: ykat-t-m. However, in the first sentence, the doer of the
verb wash is mentioned, but in the second one, it is not. In English, when
the doer of the verb is mentioned make somebody do something, or the
alternative ones above are used, but when the doer of the action is not
mentioned, a different sentence type have something done is used.

THE PASSIVE CAUSATIVE


The passive causative frames are frequently used in both English and
Turkish:
Onlar bana kap-/y/ a-tr-d-lar.
(on*lar / ba*na / ka*p*y / a*tr*d*lar )
They made me open the door. (Causative)
Kap kim-e a-tr-l-d?
(ka*p / ki*me / a*t*rl*d )
Who was made to open the door?
(Passive causative)

Kap bana a-tr-l-d.


(ka*p / ba*na / a*t*rl*d )
I was made to open the door.

Hrsz kasa-/y/ bana a-tr-d.


(hr*sz / ka*sa*y / ba*na / a*tr*d )
The thief made me open the safe. (Causative)
Kasa kim-e a-tr-l-d?
(ka*sa / ki*me / a*t*rl*d )
Who was made to open the safe?
(Passive causative)

Kasa bana a-tr-l-d.


(ka*sa / ba*na / a*t*rl*d )
I was made to open the safe.

Double causative forms are rarely used in Turkish, therefore they are not
put in the verb frames list above:
Araba-am- ykat-trt-t-m.
(a*ra*ba*m / y*kat*trt*tm )
I asked someone to have my car washed. (double causative)

279

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


SOME EXAMPLE SENTENCES OF THE VERB FRAMES
It may be useful to give further explanations on word stress before giving
some more example sentences on the verb frames. There are three kinds of
stresses in Turkish: weak stress, secondary stress, and primary stress. If
a syllable is printed in normal type, it is weakly stressed.
Turkish words generally have weak stress on the first syllables. The syllables following the weak syllables are all secondarily stressed, and when a
word is thought important, the last secondarily stressed syllable is primarily
stressed. If a root is monosyllabic, its single syllable is naturally the last syllable, so it is secondarily stressed. However, there may also be some other
secondarily stressed syllables in the first syllables of some borrowed words.
If a speaker thinks that a word is important, he strengthens the last secondarily stressed syllable of a word to make it dominant in a sentence. This definition, however, differs in verb compositions because the verb roots,
stems or frames, whether monosyllabic or polysyllabic, are suffixed by several inflectional morphemes. In verb compositions, the verb roots, stems
and frames, and the following syllables are all secondarily stressed. Only
one of these syllables in the verb compositions can be primarily stressed,
which does not depend on the speaker's choice. Besides, some of the
morphemes used in the verb compositions are formed of two or more syllables such as me.li, ma.l, e.cek, a.cak, e.bil.ir. Only the last syllables of such morphemes can be primarily stressed, except for "e.mez",
a.maz, which are negative making allomorphs.
One can change the meaning of a sentence by changing a secondary stress
at the end of a word (except the ones in a verb composition) into a primary
stress:
(an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor )
In the sentence above, each word has several secondarily stressed syllables that are printed in italics. The last secondarily stressed syllables in each
word are not only secondarily stressed, but they also imply the hearer a suspended juncture as if another word is going to follow it.
The word roots and stems may have one or more syllables. If a word stem
has only one syllable, it is naturally secondarily stressed. If it has two or
more syllables, these syllables are secondarily stressed except for the first
weak syllable. When the stems are suffixed with inflectional or derivational
suffixes, these suffixes are also secondarily stressed together with the other
secondarily stressed syllables. Consider the secondarily stressed syllables
in the following words:

280

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(ter*lik), (ter*lik*i), (ter*lik*i*lik); (ba*ba), (ba*ba*s) (ba*ba*s*nn),
(ba*ba*sn*dan); (yz), (y*z), (y*z*ne), (y*zn*de), (y*zn*den)
However, when one wants to primarily stress one of these words, he can
only primarily stress the last secondarily stressed syllable in a word such as:
(ter*lik), (ter*lik*i), (ter*lik*i*lik); (ba*ba), (ba*ba*s), (ba*ba*s*nn),
(ba*ba*sn*dan); (yz), (y*z), (y*z*ne), (y*zn*de), (y*zn*den)
Compare the following sentences:
(an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor ) means, My mother is swimming in the
sea; not any other woman.
(an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor ) means, My mother is swimming in the
sea; not in a lake or a river.
(an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor ) means, My mother is swimming in the
sea; not sunbathing or chatting with her friends on the beach.
Another point to consider in a language is its intonation, which is the music
of a language that influences its meaning significantly. To describe a piece
of music using words is almost impossible. Therefore, listening to native
speakers speaking it in their own native languages is of vital importance for
students of languages. The longer one is exposed to a foreign language, the
easier and more soundly, he can learn it.
In the following example sentences, some frequently used verb frames and
their syllables are given in brackets. Most of the primarily stressable syllables are also printed in bold face, but this does not mean that the other important words in a sentence cannot be stressed. Any one of the words that is
thought important in a sentence can be primarily stressed. The open junctures (pauses) between words are showed by / slashes.

a:
iek-ler sabah-le.yin a-ar.
(i*ek*ler / sa*bah*le*yin / a*ar )
Flowers open in the morning. (Open is an intransitive verb.)
Jack kap-/y/ a-t.
(jack / ka*p*y / a*t )
Jack opened the door. (Open is a transitive verb.)

281

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Jacke kap-/y/ a-tr-d-m. (Causative)
(ce*ke / ka*p*y / a*tr*dm )
I made (had) Jack open the door.
Kap-/y/ a-tr-d-m. (Causative)
(ka*p*y / a*tr*dm )
I had the door opened.
Kap bil-in-me-/y/en bir kii tarafndan a-l-d. (Passive)
(ka*p / bi*lin*me*yen / bir / ki*i / ta*ra*fn*dan / a*l*d )
The door was opened by an unknown person.
Hava a-l-d (at). (Reflexive)
(ha*va / a*l*d)
The clouds scattered and the sun began to shine.
Kap, Jacke a-tr-l-d. (Passive causative)
(ka*p /ce*ke / a*t*rl*d )
Jack was made to open the door.

al:
Kitap- al-d-m. (Transitive)
(ki*ta*b / al*dm )
I have taken (received, bought) the book.
Kitap- satn aldr-d-m. (Causative)
(ki*ta*b / sa*t *nal*dr*dm ) (Liaison)
I (have) had the book bought.
Kitap- satn al-drt-t-m. (Double causative)
(ki*ta*b / sa*t*nal*dr(t)*tm ) (Liaison)
I asked someone to have the book bought.
Kitap satn al-n-d. (Passive)
(ki*tap / sa*t*na*ln*d ) (Liaison)
The book has been bought.
Kitap- satn al-dr-d-m. (Causative)
(ki*ta*b / sa*tn / al*dr*dm )
I have had the book bought.

282

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Aldr-ma! (An expression)
(al*dr*ma )
Never mind!
Elma-lar Ahmete al-dr-l-d. (Passive causative)
(el*ma*lar / ah*me*te / al*d*rl*d )
Ahmet was made to buy the apples.
Elma-lar- Ahmete al-dr-d. (Causative)
(el*ma*la*r / ah*me*te / al*dr*d )
She had Ahmet buy the apples.
Bu elma-lar geen hafta al-n-d. (Passive)
(bu / el*ma*lar / ge*en / haf*ta / a*ln*d )
These apples were bought last week.
Bu elma-lar satn al-ma-/y/a de-mez.
(bu / el*ma*lar / sa*tn / al*ma*ya / de*mez )
These apples are not worth buy-ing. (subject complement)
Yarn bana bir bilgisayar al-n-.yor. (Passive)
(ya*rn / ba*na / bir / bil*gi*sa*yar / a*l*n*yor )
A computer is going to be bought for me tomorrow.
Sz-ler-im-den aln-d. (Reflexive)
(sz*le*rim*den / a*ln*d )
She was offended by what I said. (What I said is the object of by.)

anla:
Jack ders-i anla-d. (Transitive)
(jack / der*si / an*la*d )
Jack understood the lesson.
Ders anla-l-d. (Passive)
(ders / an*la*l*d )
The lesson has been understood.
(Onlar) anla-t-lar. (Reciprocal)
(on*lar / an*la*t*lar )
They (have) reached an agreement.

283

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


anlat:
Jack biz-e bir masal anlat-t. (transitive)
(jack / bi*ze / bir / ma*sa*lan*lat*t ) (Liaison)
Jack told us a story.
retmen masal- Ahmete anlat-tr-d. (Causative)
(*ret*men / ma*sa*l / ah*me*te / an*lat*tr*d )
The teacher made (had) Ahmet tell the story.
Masal- anlat-tr-d-m. (Causative)
(ma*sa*l / an*lat*tr*dm )
I had the story told.
Masal dn anlat-l-d. (Passive)
(ma*sal / dn / an*la*tl*d )
The story was told yesterday.
Masal Ahmete anlat-tr-l-d. (Passive causative)
(ma*sal / ah*me*te / an*lat*t*rl*d)
Ahmet was made to tell the story.
retmen bir konu anlat-.yor (retiyor). (Transitive)
(*ret*men / bir / ko*nu / an*la*t*yor )
The teacher is teaching a subject.

art:
Hz art-t. (Intransitive)
(hz / art*t)
The speed increased.
Hz- artr-d. (Transitive)
(h*z / ar*tr*d )
He increased the speed.
Hz artr-l-d. (Passive)
(hz / ar*t*rl*d )
The speed has been increased.

284

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


O/n/a hz--/n/ artrt-t. (Causative)
(o*na / h*z*n / ar*trt*t )
He made him increase his speed.
Hz- artrt-t. (Causative)
(h*z / ar*trt*t )
He had the speed increased.
Hz Jacke artrt-l-d. (Passive causative)
(hz / ja*ke / ar*tr*tl*d )
Jack was made to increase the speed.

bala:
Oyun bala-d. (Intransitive)
(o*yun / ba*la*d )
The game (has) started.
Hakem oyun-u balat-t. (Transitive)
(ha*kem / o*yu*nu / ba*lat*t )
The referee started the game.
Hakem oyun-u Ahmete balat-t. (Causative)
(ha*kem / o*yu*nu / ah*me*te / ba*lat*t )
The referee made Ahmet start the game.
Oyun Ahmete balat-l-d. (Passive causative)
(o*yun / ah*me*te / ba*la*tl*d )
Ahmet was made to start the game.
Oyun balat-l-d. (Passive)
(o*yun / ba*la*tl*d )
The game was started (by someone).
Oyun-a bala-an-d. (Passive shaped intransitive verb)
(o*yu*na / ba*lan*d )
The game was started.

bat:

285

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


kinci Dnya Sava-/n/da birok gemi bat-t. (Intransitive)
(i*kin*ci / dn*ya: / sa*va*n*da / bir*ok / ge*mi / bat*t )
A lot of ships sank during The Second World War.
kinci Dnya Sava-/n/-da ok gemi batr-d-lar. (Transitive)
(i*kin*ci / dn*ya: / sa*va*n*da / ok / ge*mi / ba*tr*d*lar )
They sank a lot of ships during The Second World War.
Sava-ta birok gemi batr-l-d. (Passive)
(sa*va*ta / bir*ok / ge*mi / ba*t*rl*d )
A lot of ships were sunk during the war.
Parmak--/n/a bir ine batr-d. (Transitive)
(par*ma**na / bir / i*ne / ba*tr*d )
She stuck a needle into her figer.
Parmak-m-a ine bat-t. (Intransitive)
(par*ma**ma / i*ne / bat*t )
A needle stuck into my finger.

bul:
Yzk--/n/ bul-du. (Transitive)
(y*z**n / bul*du )
She has found her ring.
Yzk--/n/ koca-/s/-/n/a bul-dur-du. (Causative) .
(y*z**n / ko*ca*s*na / bul*dur*du )
She got her husband to find her ring.
Yzk koca-/s/-/n/a bul-dur-ul-du. (Passive causative)
(y*zk / ko*ca*s*na / bul*du*rul*du )
Her husband was made to find the ring.
Yzk--/n/ bul-dur-du. (Causative)
(y*z**n / bul*dur*du )
She had her ring found.
Yzk- bul-un-du. (Passive)
(y*z* / bu*lun*du )
Her ring has been found.

286

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


al:
Birisi o-/n/un anta-/s/-/n/ al-d. (Transitive)
(bi*ri*si / o*nun / an*ta*s*n / al*d )
Somebody stole her handbag.
anta-/s/-/n/ al-dr-d. (Causative)
(an*ta*s*n / al*dr*d )
She had her handbag stolen.
Geen hafta o-/n/un anta-/s/ al-n-d. (Passive)
(ge*en / haf*ta / o*nun / an*ta*s / a*ln*d )
Her handbag was stolen last week.
Jack piyano al-a.bil-ir. (Transitive)
(jack / pi*ya*no / a*la*bi*lir )
Jack can play the piano.
Hakem ddk--/n/ al-d. (Transitive)
(ha*kem / d*d**n / al*d )
The referee blew his whistle.

arp:
Top pencere-/y/e arp-t.
(top / pen*ce*re*ye / arp*t ), or (top / pen*ce*re*ye / carp*t )
The ball hit the window.
(Turkish is intransitive; English is transitive)
Klp-im sen-in iin arp-.yor. (Intransitive)
(kl*bim / se*nin / i*in / ar*p*yor )
My heart is beating for you.
Araba-/s/-/n/ elektrik direk-i-/n/e arp-t. (Intransitive)
(a*ra*ba*s*n / e*lek*trik / di*re*i*ne / arp*t )
She hit her car to a lamppost.
Kap-/y/ arp-t. (Transitive)
(ka*p*y / arp*t )
He slammed the door.

287

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Kap arp-l-d. (Passive)
(ka*p / ar*pl*d )
The door was slammed.
ki kamyon arp--t. (Reciprocal)
(i*ki / kam*yon / ar*p*t )
Two lorries collided.

al:
Almanyada al-.yor. (Intransitive)
(al*man*ya*da / a*l**yor )
He is working in Germany.
Motor-u al-tr-a.ma-d. (Transitive)
(mo*to*ru / a*l*t*ra*ma*d )
He couldnt start the engine.
Kar-/s/-/n/ al-tr-ma-.yor. (Causative)
(ka*r*s*n / a*l*tr*m*yor )
He doesnt let his wife work.
Eskiden otomobil motor-lar- el-le al-tr-l-r-d. (Passive)
(es*ki*den / o*to*mo*bil / mo*tor*la*r / el*le / a*l*t*r*lr*d )
In the past car engines used to be manually started.
Bu fabrika-da kask-sz al-l-maz.
(bu / fab*ri*ka*da / kask*sz / a*l*l*maz )
It is forbidden (dangerous) to work without helmets in this factory.
(Passive shaped intransitive verb)

atla:
Bardak atla-d. (Intransitive)
(bar*dak / at*la*d )
The glass (has) cracked.
Kaynar su bardak- atla-at-t. (Transitive)
(kay*nar / su / bar*da* / at*lat*t )
The boiling water cracked the glass.

288

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bardak- sen atla-at-t-n. (Causative)
(bar*da* / sen / at*lat*tn )
You made the glass crack. (You cracked the glass.)
Bardak atla-at-l-d. (Passive)
(bar*dak / at*la*tl*d )
The glass was cracked.

ek:
Bu baca iyi ek-er. (Intransitive)
(bu / ba*ca / i*yi / e*ker )
This chimney draws well.
Anne-/s/i-/n/e ek-mi. (Intransitive)
(an*ne*si*ne / ek*mi )
She seems to have taken after her mother.
Araba-/y/ iki at ek-i.yor-du. (Transitive)
(a*ra*ba*y / i*ki / at / e*ki*yor*du )
Two horses were pulling the cart.
Kl--/n/ ek-ti. (Transitive)
(k*l*c*n / ek*ti )
He drew his sword.
Ac ek-i.yor. (Transitive)
(a*c / e*ki*yor )
He is suffering.
Eskiden insan-lar kuyu-lar-dan su cek-er-di. (Transitive)
(es*ki*den / in*san*lar ~ / ku*yu*lar*dan / su / e*ker*di )
People used to draw water from wells in the past.
Teklif dikkat-im-i ek-ti. (Transitive)
(tek*lif / dik*ka*ti*mi / ek*ti )
The proposal attracted my attention.
Araba-am ek-il-di. (Passive)
(a*ra*bam / e*kil*di), or (a*ra*bam / e*kil*di )
My car has been towed away.

289

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Araba-am- ek-tir-di-im. (Causative)
(a*ra*ba*m / ek*tir*dim )
I had my car towed.
Bir di-im-i ektir-di-im. (Causative)
(bir / di*i*mi / ek*tir*dim )
I had a tooth pulled out.
O ekin-i.yor. (Reflexive) (*She is pulling herself)
(o / e*ki*ni*yor )
She is avoiding.
Onlar eki-i.yor-lar. (Reciprocal)
(on*lar / e*ki*i*yor*lar )
They are struggling with each other.
Can eki-i.yor. (Reciprocal)
(can / e*ki*i*yor )
He is in the death agony. (Subject complement)

k:
Ev-den k-t. (Intransitive)
(ev*den / k*t )
He (has) left home. (Leave is transitive.)
Ceket-i-/n/i kar-d. (Transitive)
(ce*ke*ti*ni / *kar*d )
He took off his coat.
apka-am- kart-t. (Causative)
(ap*ka*m / *kart*t )
He made me take off my hat.
Dar k-ar-l-d. (Passive)
(d*a*r / *ka*rl*d )
He was taken out.
Boyuna sorun kar-.yor. (Transitive)
(bo*yu*na / so*run / *ka*r*yor )
He is always creating problems.

z:

290

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bir problem z-.yor. (Transitive)
(bir / prob*lem / *z*yor )
He is solving a problem.
Problem-i baba-/s/-/n/a z-dr-d. (Causative)
(prob*le*mi / ba*ba*s*na / z*dr*d )
She got her father to solve the problem.
Tm sorun-lar-m.z z-l-d. (Passive)
(tm / so*run*la*r*mz / *zl*d )
All our problems have been solved.
Bu dm- z-e.me-i.yor-um. (Transitive)
(bu / d**m / *ze*mi*yo*rum )
I can't untie this knot.

daya:
Merdiven-i duvar-a daya-d. (Transitive)
(mer*di*ve*ni / du*va*ra / da*ya*d )
He leaned the ladder against the wall.
Merdiven-i duvar-a dayat-t. (Causative)
(mer*di*ve*ni / du*va*ra / da*yat*t )
He had the ladder leaned against the wall.
Merdiven duvar-a daya-an-d. (Passive)
(mer*di*ven / du*va*ra / da*yan*d )
The ladder has been leaned against the wall.

dayan:
Bu ayakkab-lar daha ok daya-an-r. (Intransitive)
(bu / a*yak*ka*b*lar ~ / da*ha / ok / da*ya*nr )
These shoes last longer.
Bu scak-a dayan-a.ma-.yor-um. (Intransitive)
(bu / s*ca*a / da*ya*na*m*yo*rum )
I can't endure (tolerate) this warm weather.

dal:

291

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Deniz-e dal-d. (Intransitive)
(de*ni*ze / dal*d )
He dived into the sea.
El-i-/n/i su-/y/a dal-dr-d. (Transitive
(e*li*ni / su*ya / dal*dr*d )
He plunged his hand into the water.)
O/n/u deniz-e daldrt-t. (Causative)
(o*nu / de*ni*ze / dal*drt*t )
He got him to dive into the sea.

dei:
Sen-i son gr-dk-m-den beri ok dei-ti-in (deimisin).
(se*ni / son / gr*d*m*den / be*ri / ok / de*i*tin )
You have changed a lot since I last saw you. (Intransitive)
Ev-e gel-in.ce giysi-ler-i-/n/i dei-tir-di. (Transitive)
(e*ve / ge*lin*ce~ / giy*si*le*ri*ni / de*i*tir*di )
He changed his clothes when he came home.
Eski lastik-ler-im-i dei-tirt-i.yor-um. (Causative)
(es*ki / las*tik*le*ri*mi / de*i*tir*ti*yo*rum )
I am having my old tires changed.
Kirli masa rt-/s/ dei-tir-il-di. (Passive)
(kir*li / ma*sa / r*t*s / de*i*ti*ril*di )
The dirty tablecloth has been changed.
Futbol kural-lar- degi-tir-il-e.cek. (Passive)
(fut*bol / ku*ral*la*r / de*i*ti*ri*le*cek )
The football rules are going to be changed.

dinle:
Syle-dik-im-i dinle. (Transitive)
(sy*le*di*i*mi / din*le )
Listen to what I say. (Intransitive)
Bana ark-/s/-/n/ dinle-et-ti. (Causative)
(ba*na / ar*k*s*n / din*let*ti )
She got me to listen to her song.

292

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


do:
Ben Adanada do-du-um. (Intransitive),
(ben / a*da*na*da / do*dum )
I was born in Adana. (Passive)
Gne alt-da do-du. (Intransitive)
(g*ne / al*t*da / do*du )
The sun rose at six.
Geen ay bir olan dour-du. (Transitive)
(ge*en / ay / bir / o*lan / do*ur*du )
She gave birth to a son last month.
Ay da dou-dan do-ar. (Intransitive)
(ay / da / do*u*dan / do*ar )
The moon also rises in the east.

dol:
Okul hemen ocuk-lar-la dol-du. (Intransitive)
(o*kul / he*men / o*cuk*lar*la / dol*du )
The school soon filled with children.
Sepet-i-/n/i elma/y/-la doldur-du. (Transitive)
(se*pe*ti*ni / el*may*la / dol*dur*du )
She filled her basket with apples.
Sepet-i-/n/i bana elma/y/-la dol-durt-tu. (Causative)
(se*pe*ti*ni / ba*na / el*may*la / dol*durt*tu )
She made me fill her basket with apples.
(onun) sepet-i elma/y/-la dol-dur-ul-du. (Passive)
(o*nun / se*pe*ti / el*may*la / dol*du*rul*du )
Her basked was filled with apples.
Sepet ban-a dol-durt-ul-du. (Passive causative)
(se*pet / ba*na / dol*dur*tul*du )
I was made to fill the basket.

dn:

293

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Tekerlek-ler yava yava dn-.yor. (Intransitive)
(te*ker*lek*ler / ya*va / ya*va / d*n*yor )
The wheels are turning slowly.
Geri dn. (Intransitive)
(ge*ri / dn )
Turn back.
Sa-a dn. (Intransitive)
(sa*a / dn ) (Normal): (sa*a: ~ / dn ) (Military order)
Turn right.
Sonbahar-da yaprak-lar sar-/y/a dn-er (sarar-r). (Intransitive)
(son*ba*har*da / yap*rak*lar / sa*r*ya / d*ner ), or (sa*ra*rr )
Leaves turn yellow in the autumn.
Yz- kzar-d. (Intransitive)
(y*z / k*zar*d )
Her face turned red. She was ashamed.
Kasa-/y/ a-mak iin anahtar- evir-di (dndrd). (Transitive)
(ka*sa*y / a*mak / i*in / a*nah*ta*r / e*vir*di )
He turned the key to open the safe.

d:
Kalem-im yer-e d-t. (Intransitive)
(ka*le*mim / ye*re / d*t )
My pen fell on the floor.
Kalem-im-i dr-d-m. (Transitive)
(ka*le*mi*mi / d*r*dm )
I dropped my pencil.
Ben-i dr-d. (Causative)
(be*ni / d*r*d )
He made me fall down.
Ar bavul-u-/n/u dr-d. (Transitive)
(a*r / ba*vu*lu*nu / d*r*d )
He let his heavy bag fall.

294

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Dr-l-d-m. (Passive causative)
(d**rl*dm )
I was made to fall down.

ge:
Araba-lar n-m-den ge-i.yor. (Intransitive)
(a*ra*ba*lar / *nm*den / ge*i*yor )
Cars are passing in front of me.
Snav- ge-e.me-di-im. (Transitive
(s*na*v / ge*e*me*dim )
I couldnt pass the exam.)
Onlar iyi gein-i.yor-lar. (Reflexive)
(on*lar / i*yi / ge*i*ni*yor*lar )
They are getting on well with each other.
n-m-de.ki araba-/y/ ge-ti-im. (nmdeki is adjective.)
(*nm*de*ki / a*ra*ba*y / ge*tim )
I overtook the car in front of me. (Transitive)

gr:
Yanllk- gr-me-di-im. (Transitive)
(yan*l*l* / gr*me*dim )
I didnt (notice) see the mistake.
Yorgun gr-n-.yor-sun. (Reflexive)
(yor*gun / g*r*n*yor*sun )
You look tired. (Tired is a subject complement.)
Bu teklif ilgin gr-n-.yor. (Reflexive)
( bu / tek*lif / il*gin / g*r*n*yor )
This proposal sounds interesting. (Interesting is a subject complement.)
mkn-sz gr-n-.yor. (Reflexive)
(im*kn*sz / g*r*n*yor )
It seems (sounds) impossible. (mpossible is a subject complement.)

gl:

295

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bebek gl-.yor. (Intransitive)
(be*bek / g*l*yor )
The baby is laughing.
O ben-i her zaman gl-dr-r. (Causative)
(o / be*ni / her*za*man / gl*d*rr )
She always makes me laugh.
Gl-dr-l-d-m. (Passive causative)
(gl*d*rl*dm )
I was made to laugh.
Bu sorun-lar-a gl-n-mez. (Passive shaped intransitive
(bu / so*run*la*ra / g*ln*mez )
It is not decent to laugh at such problems.)
Kz-lar bahe-de gl--.yor-lar-d. (Reciprocal)
(kz*lar / bah*e*de / g*l**yor*lar*d )
The girls were giggling in the garden.

hatrla:
O/n/un isim-i-/n/i hatrla-.yor-um. (Transitive)
(o*nun / is*mi*ni / ha*tr*l*yo*rum )
I remember her name.
Kar-m k-lar- kapat-ma-am- hatrlat-t. (Transitive)
(ka*rm / *k*la*r / ka*pat*ma*m / ha*tr*lat*t )
My wife reminded me to turn the lights off.
Bu eski fotograf bana bykanne-em-i hatrlat-.yor. (Transitive)
(bu / es*ki / fo*tog*ra *lar / ba*na / b*y*kan*ne*mi / ha*tr*la*t*yor )
This old photograph reminds me of my grandmother.
Bu zafer uzun sre hatrla-an-a.cak. (Passive)
(bu / za*fer / u*zun / s*re / ha*tr*la*na*cak )
This victory will be remembered for a long time.

hazrla:
Anne-em le yemek-i-/n/i hazrla-d. (Transitive)
(an*nem / *le / ye*me*i*ni / ha*zr*la*d )
Mother has prepared the lunch.

296

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Anne-em yemek-i bana hazrla-at-t. (Causative)
(an*nem / ye*me*i / ba*na / ha*zr*lat*t )
Mother made me prepare the lunch.
Yemek hazrla-an-d. (Passive)
(ye*mek / ha*zr*lan*d )
The lunch has been prepared.
Hazrla-an-.yor-um. (Reflexive) (*I am preparing myself.)
(ha*zr*la*n*yo*rum )
I am getting ready. (Ready is subject complement.)

i:
Anne-em her sabah bir bardak ay i-er. (Transitive)
(an*nem / her / sa*bah / bir / bar*dak / ay / i*er )
Mother drinks a cup of tea every morning.
Anne-em bana her sabah iki bardak st i-ir-ir. (Causative)
(an*nem / ba*na / her / sa*bah / i*ki / bar*dak / st / i*i*rir )
Mother makes me drink two cups of milk every morning.
Bu su i-il-ir. (Passive)
(bu / su / i*i*lir )
This water is drinkable. (Drinkable is subject complement.)

iit:
yi iit-e-bil-i.yor mu-sun? (Intransitive)
(i*yi / i*i*te*bi*li*yor / mu*sun )
Can you hear well?
O/n/un Londrada ol-duk-u-/n/u iit-ti-im. (Transitive)
(o*nun / Lon*dra*da / ol*du*u*nu / i*it*tim )
I heard that he is (was) in London.
O-/n/un yalan syle-dik-i hi iit-il-me-di. (Passive)
(o*nun / ya*lan / sy*le*di*i / hi / i*i*til*me*di )
He has never been heard to tell a lie.

sr:

297

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Havla-/y/an kpek sr-maz. (Intransitive)
(hav*la*yan / k*pek / *sr*maz )
A bark-ing dog never bites. (a proverb)
(Sen-in) kopek-in dn bacak-m- sr-d. (Transitive)
(K*pe*in / dn / ba*ca**m / *sr*d)
Your dog bit my leg yesterday.
Kuduz bir kpek tarafndan sr-l-d. (Passive)
(ku*duz / bir / k*pek / ta*ra*fn*dan / *s*rl*d)
She was bitten by a mad dog.
Ben-i kopek-i-/n/e srt-t. (Causative)
(be*ni / k*pe*i*ne / *srt*t )
She made (let) her dog bite me.

ka:
ki hkml hapis-ten ka-t. (Intransitive)
(i*ki / h*km*l / ha*pis*ten / ka*t )
Two prisoners (have) escaped from prison.
ki kii be ya-n-da bir ocuk-u kar-d. (Transitive.)
(i*ki / ki*i / be / ya*n*da / bir / o*cu*u / ka*r*d )
Two men kidnapped a five year old child.
Herkes gen kadn-n kar-l-dk--/n/ dn-.yor. (Passive)
(her*kes / gen / ka*d*nn / ka**rl*d**n / d**n*yor )
Everybody thinks that the young woman has been abducted.
ocuk-lar- bahe-den kart-t. (Causative)
(o*cuk*la*r / bah*e*den / ka*rt*t )
He frightened the children away from the garden.
Grev-in-i yap-mak-tan ka-n-ma-ma.l-sn. (Reflexive)
(g*re*vi*ni / yap*mak*tan / ka*n*ma*ma*l*sn )
You shouldnt avoid do-ing your duty.
Herkes dei-ik ynler-e ka--t. (Reciprocal)
(her*kes / de*i*ik / yn*le*re / ka**t )
Everybody ran to different directions.

298

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Akl-/n/ ka-r-d. (Idiomatic) (Transitive)
(ak*l*n / ka*r*d )
He went mad. (Mad is subject complement.)

it:
Ben-i kenar-a it-ti. (Transitive)
(be*ni / ke*na*ra / it*ti )
He pushed me aside.
Kenar-a it-il-di-im. (Passive)
(ke*na*ra / i*til*dim )
I was pushed aside.
Araba-/s/-/n/ bana it-tir-di. (Causative)
(a*ra*ba*s*n / ba*na / it*tir*di )
She made me push her car.
t-i-i.yor-lar. (Reciprocal)
(i*ti*i*yor*lar )
They are pushing each other.
Ben-i kim it-ti? (Transitive)
(be*ni / ki mit*ti ) (Liaison)
Who pushed me?

kandr:
Adam ben-i kandr-d. (Transitive)
(a*dam / be*ni / kan*dr*d )
The man cheated me.
Kandr-l-d-m. (Passive)
(kan*d*rl*dm )
I was cheated.
Ben-i kandr-ma-/y/a al-ma! (Transitive)
(be*ni / kan*dr*ma*ya / a*l*ma )
Don't try to deceive me!

kap:

299

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Kk bir ocuk anta-am- kap-t. (Transitive)
(k*k / bir / o*cuk / an*ta*m / kap*t )
A little boy snatched my handbag.
anta-am- kap-tr-d-m. (Causative)
(an*ta*m / kap*tr*dm )
I had my handbag snatched.
anta-am kap-l-d. (Passive)
(an*tam / ka*pl*d ) (an*tam / ka*pl*d )
My handbag has been (was) snatched.

kapat:
Kap-/y/ kapat-t-m. (Transitive)
(ka*p*y / ka*pat*tm )
I have closed the door.
Kap-/y/ bana kapat-tr-d. (Causative)
(ka*p*y / ba*na / ka*pat*tr*d )
She made me close the door.
Bahe kap-/s/ hizmeti tarafndan kapat-l-d. (Passive)
(bah*e / ka*p*s / hiz*met*i / ta*ra*fn*dan / ka*pa*tl*d )
The garden gate was closed by the servant.
Dkkn-lar saat yedi-de kapa-an-r. (Reflexive) (They close themselves.)
(dk*kn*lar / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*nr )
Shops close at seven p.m.
Gen kadn kapa-an-d. (Reflexive)
(gen / ka*dn / ka*pan*d )
The young woman veiled herself.
Hava kapa-an-d. (Reflexive)
(ha*va / ka*pan*d )
It has got cloudy. (Cloudy is subject complement.)

karla:

300

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Araba-/s/-/n/ ben-im-ki/y/-le karla-tr-d. (Transitive)
(a*ra*ba*s*n / be*nim*kiy*le / kar**la*tr*d )
He compared his car with mine.
retmen bana ngilizce/y/-le Franszca-/y/ karla-trt-t. (Causative)
(*ret*men / ba*na / in*gi*liz*cey*le / fran*sz*ca*y / kar**la*trt*t )
The techer made me compare English to French.
Mutluluk-la znt karlatr-l-a.maz. (Passive)
(mut*lu*luk*la / *zn*t / kar**la*t*r*la*maz )
Happiness and sorrow cant be compared.
Onlar sokak-ta karla-t. (Reciprocal)
(on*lar / so*kak*ta / kar**la*t )
They came across in the street.

ka:
Ba--/n/ ka-d. (Transitive)
(ba**n / ka**d )
He scratched his head.
Srt--/n/ kar-/s/-/n/a kat-t. (Causative)
(sr*t*n / ka*r*s*na / ka*t*t )
He got his wife to scratch his back.
Srt-m ka-n-.yor. (Intransitive)
(sr*tm / ka**n*yor )
My back is itching.
Kpek ka-n-.yor. (Reflexive) (It is scratching itself.)
(k*pek / ka**n*yor )
The dog is scratching.

kr:
Vazo-/y/u sen kr-d-n, deil mi? (Transitive)
(va*zo*yu / sen / kr*dn / de*il / mi )
You broke the vase, didnt you?
Vazo dn kr-l-d. (Passive)
(va*zo / dn / k*rl*d )
The vase was broken yesterday.

301

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Sen ben-i kr-d-n. You refused me. (Transitive)
(sen / be*ni / kr*dn )
You hurt my feelings. .
Klp-im-i kr-d-n. (Transitive)
(kl*bi*mi / kr*dn )
You broke my heart.
Kr-l-d-m. (Passive)
(k*rl*dm )
I was hurt.
Tahta kutu-/y/u bana kr-dr-d. (Causative)
(tah*ta / ku*tu*yu / ba*na / kr*dr*d )
She made me break the wooden box.

kz:
O bana kz-d. (Intransitive)
(o / ba*na / kz*d )
He got angry with me. (angry is subject complement.)
O ben-i kz-dr-d. (Transitive)
(o / be*ni / kz*dr*d )
He made me angry. (angry is object complement.)
(O) kz-dr-l-d. (Passive)
(kz*d*rl*d )
He was irritated.
Bu-/n/a kz-l-maz. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(bu*na / k*zl*maz )
This is not a matter to get angry.

kzar:
Balk-lar kzar-.yor. (Intransitive)
(ba*lk*lar / k*za*r*yor )
The fish are frying.
Balk kzart-.yor. (Transitive)
(ba*lk / k*zar*t*yor )
She is frying fish.

302

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Tm balk-lar- bana kzart-t. (Causative)
(tm / ba*lk*la*r / ba*na / k*zart*t )
She made me fry all the fish.
Tm balk-lar kzart-l-d. (Passive)
(tm / ba*lk*lar / k*zar*tl*d )
All the fish have been fried.
Yz- kzar-d. (Intransitive)
(y*z / k*zar*d )
Her face reddened. She blushed with shame.

kok:
Bu balk bayat kok-u.yor. (Kok is an action verb.) (Intransitive)
(bu / ba*lk / ba*yat / ko*ku*yor )
This fish smells stale. (Stale is subject complement)
Bu ekmek dilim-i sarmsak kok-u.yor. (Intransitive)
(bu / ek*mek / di*li*mi / sa*rm*sak / ko*ku*yor )
This slice of bread smells of garlic.
Her sabah gl-ler-i-/n/i kokla-ar. (Transitive)
(her / sa*bah / gl*le*ri*ni / kok*lar )
She smells her roses every morning.
Bana yeni parfm--/n/ koklat-t. (Causative)
(ba*na / ye*ni / par*f*m*n / kok*lat*t )
She made me smell her new perfume.
Kokla-.yor-lar. (Reciprocal)
(kok*la**yor*lar )
They are smelling each other. (Transitive)
Bu balk kokmu. (Subject complement)
(bu / ba*lk / kok*mu ~)
This fish is rotten. (Subject complement)

konu:
O-/n/un-la yarn konu-a.cak-m. (Intransitive)
(o*nun*la / ya*rn / ko*nu*a*ca*m )
I will talk (speak) to him tomorrow.

303

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Polis onu konu-tur-a-bil-ir. (Causative)
(po*lis / o*nu / ko*nu*tu*ra*bi*lir )
The police can make him talk.
O, iki dil konu-ur (konu-u.yor). (Transitive)
(o / i*ki / dil / ko*nu*ur )
She speaks two languages.
Trkiyede Trke konu-ul-ur. (Passive)
(tr*ki*ye*de / trk*e / ko*nu*u*lur )
Turkish is spoken in Turkey.

kop:
p kop-tu. (Intransitive)
(ip / kop*tu )
The rope broke.
Aa-n bir dal--/n/ kop-ar-d. (Transitive)
(a*a*cn / bir / da*l*n / ko*par*d )
He broke a branch off the tree.
Aa-n dal-lar-/n/-dan bir-i-/n/i bana kopart-t. (Causative)
(a*a*cn / dal*la*rn*dan / bi*ri*ni / ba*na / ko*part*t )
He made me break off one of the branches of the tree.

ko:
Baz ocuk-lar okul-a ko-u.yor. (Intransitive)
(ba:*z / o*cuk*lar / o*ku*la / ko*u*yor )
Some children are running to school.
At--/n/ drtnal ko-tur-du. (Causative)
(a*t*n / drt*nal / ko*tur*du )
He made his horse run at a gallop.
At- drtnal ko-tur-ul-du. (Passive causative)
(a*t / drt*nal / ko*tu*rul*du )
His horse was made to run at a gallop.

304

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


ocuk-lar bahe-de ko-u-u.yor-lar. (Reciprocal)
(o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / ko*u*u*yor*lar )
The children are running about in the garden.
Bu tarla-da ko-ul-maz. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(bu / tar*la*da / ko*ul*maz )
It is impossible to run in this field.)

kuru:
iek-ler-im-den baz-lar- kuru-du. (Intransitive)
(i*ek*le*rim*den / ba:*z*la*r / ku*ru*du )
Some of my flowers dried.
Yaz-n baz nehir-ler kuru-ur. (Intransitive)
(ya*zn / ba:*z / ne*hir*ler / ku*rur )
Some rivers dry up in summer.
Kzgn gne iek-ler-im-i kurut-tu. (Transitive)
(kz*gn / g*ne / i*ek*le*ri*mi / ku*rut*tu )
The hot sun dried my flowers.
Sa--/n/ bana kurut-tu. (Causative)
(sa**n / ba*na / ku*rut*tu )
She got me to dry her hair.
Islak ceket-in kurut-ul-du. (Passive)
(s*lak / ce*ke*tin / ku*ru*tul*du )
Your wet coat has been dried.

oku:
Osmann baba-/s/ gazete-/s/i-/n/i oku-u.yor. (Transitive)
(os*ma*nn / ba*ba*s / ga*ze*te*si*ni / o*ku*yor )
Osmans father is reading his newspaper.
Mektup-u bana okut-tu. (Causative)
(mek*tu*bu / ba*na / o*kut*tu )
He made (had) me read the letter.

305

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Btn hikye bana okut-ul-du. (Passive causative)
(b*tn / hi*k:*ye / ba*na / o*ku*tul*du )
I was made to read all the story.
u an-a kadar on sayfa oku-un-du. (Passive)
(u / a:*na / ka*dar / on / say*fa / o*kun*du )
Ten pages have been read up to now.

onar:
Musluk-u sz-an bir boru-/y/u onar-.yor. (Transitive)
(mus*luk*u / s*zan / bir / bo*ru*yu / o*na*r*yor )
The plumber is repairing (fixing) a leak-ing pipe.
Bu sz-an boru-/y/u onart-ma.l-sn. (Causative)
(bu / s*zan / bo*ru*yu / o*nart*ma*l*sn )
You must have this leak-ing pipe repaired.
Araba-am henz onar-l-ma-d. (Passive)
(a*ra*bam / he*nz / o*na*rl*ma*d )
My car hasnt been repaired yet.
Anne-em krk vazo-/y/u bana onart-t. (Causative)
(an*nem / k*rk / va*zo*yu / ba*na / o*nart*t )
Mother made me fix the broken vase.

otur:
Onlar bir bank-ta otur-u.yor-lar. (Intransitive)
(on*lar / bir / bank*ta / o*tu*ru*yor*lar )
They are sitting on a bench.
Kk ocuk-u masa-/y/a oturt-tu. (Causative)
(k*k / o*cu*u / ma*sa*ya / o*turt*tu )
He made (helped) the little boy sit on the table.
Ke-/y/e oturt-ul-du. (Passive causative)
(o~/ k*e*ye / o*tur*tul*du )
He was made to sit in the corner.
Hl otur-u-u,yor-sun.uz. (Reciprocal) (Complaint)
(h:*l: / o*tu*ru*u*yor*su*nuz )
You are still sitting and doing nothing.

306

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Kadkyde otur-u.yor. (Intransitive)
(ka*d*ky*de / o*tu*ru*yor )
He lives in Kadky.
Bu ev-de otur-ul-maz. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(bu / ev*de / o*tu*rul*maz )
It is impossible to live in this house. (mpossible is subject complement)

oyna:
ocuk-lar bahe-de basketbol oyna-u.yor-lar. (Transitive)
(o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / bas*ket*bol / oy*nu*yor*lar )
The children are playing basketball in the garden.
Ko o-/n/u ma-ta oynat-ma-d. (Causative)
(ko / o*nu / ma*ta / oy*nat*ma*d )
The coach didnt let him play in the match.
Ma-ta oynat-l-ma-d. (Passive causative)
(ma*ta / oy*na*tl*ma*d)
He wasnt allowed to play in the match.
Onlar oyna-a-.yor-lar. (Reciprocal)
(on*lar / oy*na**yor*lar )
They are carrying on a love affair.
Sahne-de oyna-u.yor. (Intransitive)
(sah*ne*de / oy*nu*yor )
She is belly dancing on the stage.
renci-ler bir piyes oyna-ma-/y/a karar ver-di-ler. (Transitive)
(*ren*ci*ler / bir / pi*yes / oy*na*ma*ya / ka*rar / ver*di*ler )
The students decided to perform a play.
Bu saha-da futbol oyna-an-maz. (Passive)
(bu / sa:*ha*da / fut*bol / oy*nan*maz )
Football cant be played on this field.

l:
O, 1920de l-d. (Intransitive)
(o~/ bin / do*kuz / yz / yir*mi*de / l*d )
He died in 1920.

307

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Onu yanl-lk-la ldr-d. (Transitive)
(o*nu / yan*l*lk*la / l*dr*d )
He killed him by mistake.
O-/n/u o-/n/a ldrt-t. (Causative)
(o*nu~ / o*na / l*drt*t )
She made him kill her.
O, ona ldrt-l-d. (Passive causative)
(o~/ o*na / l*dr*tl*d )
He was made to kill her.
Vatan iin l-n-r. (Reflexive)
(va*tan / i*in / *l*nr )
One can sacrifice himself for his country.

rt:
Koltuk-lar- toz-dan koru-mak iin rt-t. (Transitive)
(kol*tuk*la*r / toz*dan / ko*ru*mak / i*in / rt*t )
She covered the armchairs to protect them from dust.
Mobilya-/y/ bana rttr-d. (Causative)
(mo*bil*ya*y / ba*na / rt*tr*d )
She made me cover the furniture.
Duvar-lar boya-an-ma-dan nce btn mobilya rt-l-m-t. (Passive)
(du*var*lar / bo*yan*ma*dan / n*ce / b*tn / mo*bil*ya / r*tl*m*t )
All the furniture had been covered before the walls were painted.
Ben-i gr-n.ce rt-n-d. (Reflexive)
(be*ni / g*rn*ce / r*tn*d )
She put on her scarf when she saw me.
She covered her head with a scarf when she saw me.

t:
Ku-lar t-er. (Liaison) (Intransitive)
(ku*la*r*ter ) (ku*lar / *ter )
Birds sing.
Hakem ddk--/n/ t-tr-d (al*d). (Transitive)
(ha*kem / d*d**n / al*d )
The referee blew his whistle.

308

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


O gzel ark syle-er. (Transitive)
( o / g*zel / ar*k / sy*ler )
She sings beautifully. (Intransitive)
Ddk-m- t-trt-t. (Causative
(d*d**m / t*trt*t )
He made (let) me blow my whistle.)
Ddk al-n-d. (Passive)
(d*dk / a*ln*d )
The whistle has been blown.
Ku-lar t--.yor. (Reciprocal)
(ku*lar / *t**yor )
The birds are singing. (Intransitive)
Horoz-lar t-.yor. (Intransitive)
(ho*roz*lar / *t*yor )
The roosters are crowing.

v:
O ben-i v-d. (Transitive)
(o / be*ni / v*d )
He praised me.
O, kz karde-i-/n/i bana v-drt-t. (Causative)
(o~/ kz*kar*de*i*ni / ba*na / v*drt*t )
He made me praise his sister.
O, karde-i tarafndan ok v-l-r. (Passive).
(o~ / kz*kar*de*i / ta*ra*fn*dan / ok / *v*lr )
He is praised a lot by his sister.
Boyuna v-n-.yor. (Reflexive) (He is praising himself.)
(o / bo*yu*na / *v*n*yor )
He is always boasting. (Intransitive)

patla:

309

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bir su boru-/s/u patla-d ve ev su/y/-la dol-du. (Intransitive)
(bir / su / bo*ru*su / pat*la*d~/ ve / ev / suy*la / dol*du )
A water pipe burst, and the house filled with water.
Bir bomba patla-d. (Intransitive)
(bir / bom*ba / pat*la*d )
A bomb exploded.
Bir bomba patlat-t-lar. (Transitive)
(bir / bom*ba / pat*lat*t*lar )
They exploded a bomb.
Bomba-/y/, ona patla-at-tr-d-lar. (Causative)
(bom*ba*y / o*na / pat*lat*tr*d*lar )
They made him explode the bomb.
Bomba ona patla-at-tr-l-d. (Passive causative)
(bom*ba / o*na / pat*lat*t*rl*d )
He was made to explode the bomb.
Bomba o-/n/un tarafndan patlatl-d. (Passive)
(bom*ba / o*nun / ta*ra*fn*dan / pat*la*tl*d )
The bomb was exploded by him.

pi:
Yemek pi-i.yor. (Intransitive)
(ye*mek / pi*i*yor )
The meal is cooking.
Anne-em mutfak-ta yemek pi-ir-i.yor. (Transitive);
(an*nem / mut*fak*ta / ye*mek / pi*i*ri*yor )
Mother is cooking in the kitchen. (Intransitive)
Anne-em mutfak-ta bana yemek piirt-ti. (Causative)
(an*nem / mut*fak*ta / ba*na / ye*mek / pi*irt*ti )
Mother made me cook in the kitchen.
Yemek pi-ir-il-i.yor. (Passive)
(ye*mek / pi*i*ri*li*yor) (ye*mek / pi*i*ri*li*yor )
The meal is being cooked.

310

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


sakla:
ocuk, oyuncak-lar--/n/ dolap-n arka-/s/-/n/a sakla-d. (Transitive)
(o*cuk / o*yun*cak*la*r*n / do*la*bn / ar*ka*s*na / sak*la*d )
The boy hid his toys behind the cupboard.
Jack, yrtk gmlek-i-/n/i bana sakla-at-t. (Causative)
(jack~ / yr*tk / gm*le*i*ni / ba*na / sak*lat*t )
Jack made me hide his torn shirt.
al-n-m mal-lar bir maara-/y/a sakla-an-d. (Passive)
(a*ln*m / mal*lar / bir / ma*a*ra*ya / sak*lan*d )
The stolen goods were hidden in a cave.
Kedi koltuk-un arka-/s/-/n/a sakla-an-d. (Reflexive) (It hid itself.)
(ke*di / kol*tu*un / ar*ka*s*na / sak*lan*d )
The cat hid behind the armchair.

sark:
Duvar-dan sark-t. (Intransitive)
(du*var*dan / sark*t)
He hung down the wall.
Sepet-i pencere-den sark-t-t.
(se*pe*ti / pen*ce*re*den / sar*kt*t )
He let the basket hang down the window.
(Turkish is transitive; English is causative.)
Sepet-i bana pencere-den sark-t-tr-d. (Causative)
(se*pe*ti / ba*na / pen*ce*re*den / sar*kt*tr*d )
He made me hang down the basket from the window.
Sepet pencere-den sark-t-l-d. (Passive)
(se*pet / pen*ce*re*den / sar*k*tl*d )
The basket was allowed to hang down the window.

sars:
Patla-ma yer-i sars-t. (Transitive)
(pat*la*ma / ye*ri / sars*t )
The explosion shook the ground.

311

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Yer sars-l-d.
(yer / sar*sl*d )
The ground was shaken. The ground shook.
(Turkish and English are both passive and reflexive.)

sat:
Eski araba-/s/-/n/ sat-t. (Transitive)
(es*ki / a*ra*ba*s*n / sat*t )
He has sold his old car.
Eski araba-/s/-/n/ bana sat-tr-d. (Causative)
(es*ki / a*ra*ba*s*n / ba*na / sat*tr*d )
He made me sell his old car.
(Ben-im) eski araba-am sat-l-d. (Passive)
(es*ki / a*ra*bam / sa*tl*d )
My old car has been sold.

sev:
Sen ben-i sev-me-i.yor-sun. (Transitive)
(sen / be*ni / sev*mi*yor*sun )
You dont love me.
O bana kendi-/s/i-/n/i sev-dir-di. (Causative)
(o / ba*na / ken*di*si*ni / sev*dir*di )
She made me love her.
O herkes tarafndan sev-il-ir. (Passive)
(o / her*kes / ta*ra*fn*dan / se*vi*lir )
She is loved by everybody.
Hep-im-iz sev-in-di-ik. Hepimiz mutlu ol-du-uk.
(he*pi*miz / se*vin*dik )
We all became happy. (Mutlu and happy are subject complements.)
Onlar sev-i-i.yor-lar. (Reciprocal)
(on*lar / se*vi*i*yor*lar )
They are in love with each other. (They are carrying on a love affair.)

seyret:

312

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Boyuna televizyon seyret.i.yor. (Transitive) (Complaint)
(bo*yu*na / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*di*yor )
She is always watching television.
Anne-em bana televizyon izlet-tir-me-i.yor. (Causative)
(an*nem / ba*na / te*le*viz*yon / iz*let*tir*mi*yor )
Mother doesnt let me watch TV.
Byle televizyon program-lar- seyret-il-me-me.li. (Passive)
(by*le / te*le*viz*yon / prog*ram*la*r / sey*re*dil*me*me*li )
Such TV programs shouldnt be watched.
Byle televizyon program-lar- ocuk-lar-a seyret-tir-il-me-me.li.
(by*le / te*le*viz*yon / prog*ram*la*r / o*cuk*la*ra / sey*ret*ti*ril*me*me*li )
Children shouldnt be allowed to watch such TV programs. (Passive)
Baz televizyon program-lar- seyret-me-/y/e (izlenmeye) de-mez.
(ba*z / te*le*viz*yon / prog*ram*la*r / sey*ret*me*ye / de*mez )
Some TV programs are not worth watch-ing.

sinirlen:
Onun ne syle-dik-i-/n/i iit-in.ce sinirlen-di-im. (Intransitive)
(o*nun / ne / sy*le*di*i*ni / i*i*tin*ce / si*nir*len*dim )
I became angry when I heard what he said.
Kz karde-im ben-i sinirlen-dir-di. (Transitive)
(kz*kar*de*im / be*ni / si*nir*len*dir*di )
My sister made me mad.(angry).
Sinirlen-dir-il-di-im. (Passive)
(si*nir*len*di*ril*dim )
I was irritated.

sou:
Hava sou-du. (Sou is an intransitive verb.)
(ha*va / so*u*du )
It became (turned) cold. (Cold is a subject complement.)
-me-den nce limonata-an- sout. (Transitive)
(i*me*den / n*ce / li*mo*na*ta*n / so*ut )
Cool your lemonade before you drink it.

313

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Sou-du-um. (Intransitive) (Idiomatic)
(so*u*dum )
I have lost my interest or desire.

soy:
Patates soy-u.yor. (Transitive)
(pa*ta*tes / so*yu*yor )
She is peeling potatoes.
Elma-lar soy-ul-u.yor. (Passive)
(el*ma*lar / so*yu*lu*yor )
The apples are being peeled.
Patates-ler-i hep bana soy-dur-u.yor. (Causative) (Complaint)
(pa*ta*tes*le*ri / hep / ba*na / soy*du*ru*yor )
She is always making me peel the potatoes.
Banyo yap-tr-mak iin bebek-i-/n/i soy-du. (Transitive)
(ban*yo / yap*tr*mak / i*in / be*be*i*ni / soy*du )
She undressed her baby to bath.
Dn gece bir banka soy-du-lar. (Transitive)
(dn / ge*ce / bir / ban*ka / soy*du*lar )
They robbed a bank last night.
Dn gece bir banka soy-ul-du. (Passive)
(dn / ge*ce / bir / ban*ka / so*yul*du )
A bank was robbed last night.
Soy-un-u.yor. (She is undressing herself) (Reflexive)
(so*yu*nu*yor )
She is undressing. (Intransitive)

syle:
Bana bir ey syle-me-di. (Transitive)
(ba*na / bir / ey / sy*le*me*di)
He didnt tell me anything.
Ne iste-dik-in-i bana syle. (Transitive)
(ne / is*te*di*i*ni / ba*na / sy*le )
Tell me what you want.

314

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ona herey-i sylet-ti-ler. (Causative)
(o*na / her*e*yi / sy*let*ti*ler )
They made him tell everything.
Byle ey-ler syle-en-mez. (Passive)
(by*le / ey*ler / sy*len*mez )
Such things are never mentioned.
O boyuna syle-en-i.yor (homurdan-.yor). (Reflexive)
(o / bo*yu*na / sy*le*ni*yor )
He is always grumbling.) (Intransitive)
O-/n/a, o-/n/u tan-dk--/n/ syle-di. (Transitive)
(o*na ~/ o*nu / ta*n*d**n / sy*le*di )
He told him that he knew her.
Polis ona herey-i sylet-ti. (Causative)
(po*lis / o*na / her*e*yi / sy*let*ti )
The police made him tell everything.
Ona herey sylet-il-di. (Passive causative)
(o*na / her*ey / sy*le*til*di )
He was made to tell everything.
Bana herey syle-en-di. (Passive)
(ba*na / her*ey / sy*len*di )
I was told everything.

sus:
Sus-tu. (Intransitive)
(sus*tu )
He stopped talk-ing or cry-ing. (Transitive)
retmen renci-ler-i sus-tur-du. (Causative)
(*ret*men / *ren*ci*le*ri / sus*tur*du )
The teacher made the students stop talking.
O sus-tur-ul-du. (Passive causative)
(o / sus*tu*rul*du )
He was made to stop talk-ing or cry-ing.

315

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bu kpek havla-ma-dan dur-a.maz. (Intransitive)
(bu / k*pek / hav*la*ma*dan / du*ra*maz )
This dog cant stop bark-ing.
Sus-ma-/y/a.cak-m. (Intransitive) (mpolite refusal)
(sus*ma*ya*ca*m)
I wont stop talk-ng. (Transitive)

spr:
Kuru yaprak-lar- bahe-den spr-d-m. (Transitive)
(ku*ru / yap*rak*la*r / bah*e*den / s*pr*dm )
I have swept the dry leaves out of the garden.
Anne-em bahe-/y/i bana sprt-t. (Causative)
(an*nem / bah*e*yi / ba*na / s*prt*t )
Mother made me sweep the garden.
Oturma oda-/s/ henz spr-l-me-di. (Passive)
(o*tur*ma / o*da*s / he*nz / s*p*rl*me*di )
The living room hasnt been swept yet.

sr:
O araba-/s/-/n/ dikkat-li sr-er. (Transitive)
(o~ / a*ra*ba*s*n / dik*kat*li / s*rer )
She drives her car carefully.
(Ben) tarla-am- sonbahar-da sr-dr-r-m. (Causative)
(Tar*la*m / son*ba*har*da / sr*d*r*rm )
I have my field ploughed in the autumn.
Tarla-lar k-n sr-l-mez. (Passive)
(tar*la*lar / k*n / s*rl*mez )
Fields arent ploughed in winter.

ssle:
ocuklar Christmas iin oturma oda-/s/-/n/ ssle-di. (Transitive)
(o*cuk*lar / kris*mas / i*in / o*tur*ma / o*da*s*n / ss*le*di )
The children decorated the sitting room for Christmas.

316

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Oda ssle-en-i.yor (Dekore ediliyor) (Passive)
(o*da / ss*le*ni*yor )
The room is being decorated.
Yeni ev-im.iz-i dekore et-tir-e.cek-iz. (Causative)
(ye*ni / e*vi*mi*zi / de*ko*re / et*ti*re*ce*iz )
We are going to have our new house decorated.
Ssle-en-i.yor. (Reflexive)
(ss*le*ni*yor )
She is putting on her best dress and doing her make-up.

a:
O-/n/un syle-dik-i sz-e sa-t-m.
(o*nun / sy*le*di*i / s*ze / a*tm )
I was astonished by what he said.
(Turkish is intransitive; English is passive.)

art:
Syle-dik-i sz ben-i art-t. (Transitive)
(sy*le*di*i / sz / be*ni / a*rt*t )
What he said surprised me.
Snav-da sor-ul-an soru-lar ben-i art-t. (Transitive.)
(s*nav*da / so*ru*lan / so*ru*lar / be*ni / a*rt*t )
The questions asked in the exam confused me.
art-l-d-m. (Passive)
(a*r*tl*dm )
I was confused.

tara:
Sa--/n/ tara-.yor. (transitive)
(sa**n / ta*r*yor)
She is combing her hair.
Sa--/n/ anne-/s/i-/n/e tara-at-t. (Causative)
(sa**n / an*ne*si*ne / ta*rat*t )
She got her mother to comb her hair.

317

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Sa- tara-an-.yor. (Passive)
(sa* / ta*ra*n*yor )
Her hair is being combed.
Tara-an-.yor. (Reflexive)
(ta*ra*n*yor )
She is combing.

tart:
Yal adam uyan-r uyan-maz altn-lar--/n/ tart-t. (Transitive)
(ya*l / a*dam / u*ya*nr / u*yan*maz ~/ al*tn*la*r*n / tart*t )
The old man weighed his gold coins as soon as he woke up.
unlar- tart-tr. (Causative)
(un*la*r / tart*tr )
Have these things weighed.
Tart--.yor-lar. (Reciprocal)
(tar*t**yor*lar )
They are discussing. They are having a row.

ta:
Nehir ta-t. (Intransitive)
(ne*hir / ta*t )
The river overflowed.
St ta-t. (Intransitive)
(st / ta*t )
The milk boiled over.
St- ta-r-ma. (Causative)
(s*t / ta*r*ma )
Dont let the milk boil over.

ta:
Baz bcek-ler hastalk ta-r. (transitive)
(ba*z / b*cek*ler / has*ta*lk / ta*r )
Some insects carry disease.

318

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bebek-i-/n/i bana ta-t-t. (Causative)
(be*be*i*ni / ba*na / ta*t*t )
She made me carry her baby.
Ar yk-ler kamyon-la ta-n-r. (Passive)
(a*r / yk*ler / kam*yon*la / ta**nr )
Heavy loads are carried by lorries.
Ta-n-.yor-uz. (Reflexive) (*We are carrying ourselves.)
(ta**n*yo*ruz )
We are moving house. (Transitive)

temizle:
Anne-em buzdolab-/n/ temizle-i.yor. (Transitive)
(an*nem / buz*do*la*b*n / te*miz*li*yor )
Mother is cleaning the refrigerator.
Anne-em ev-i temizle-et-e.cek. (Causative)
(an*nem / e*vi / te*miz*le*te*cek)
Mother is going to have the house cleaned.
Snf temizle-en-i.yor. (Passive)
(s*nf / te*miz*le*ni*yor )
The classroom is being cleaned.

tercih et:
Kz-m, televizyon seyret-me-/y/i dev yap-ma-/y/a tercih et-er.
(k*zm~ / te*le*viz*yon / sey*ret*me*yi ~ / *dev / yap*ma*ya /
ter*ci:*he*der ) (Liaison)
My daughter prefers watching TV to doing her homework.
Genellik-le kalabalk ehirler-de kk araba-lar tercih et-il-ir. (Passive)
(ge*nel*lik*le~ / ka*la*ba*lk / e*hir*ler*de~ / k*k / a*ra*ba*lar /
ter*ci:*he*di*lir ) (Liaison)
Compact cars are generally preferred in crowded cities.

unut:
Ik-lar- sndr-me-/y/i unut-ma. (The underlined words are infinitives.)
(*k*la*r / sn*dr*me*yi / u*nut*ma )
Dont forget to turn off the lights. (Transitive)

319

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Mektup-u at-ma-/y/ unut-tu. (Transitive)
(mek*tu*bu / at*ma*y / u*nut*tu )
He forgot to post the letter.
la--/n/ al-dk--/n/ unut-tu. (Transitive)
(i*l*c*n / al*d**n / u*nut*tu )
He forgot take-ing his medicine. (Take-ing is nominal gerund.)
Mutlu gn-ler hi unut-ul-maz. (Passive)
(mut*lu / gn*ler / hi / u*nu*tul*maz )
Happy days are never forgotten.
Bana o/n/un doum gn--/n/ unut-tur-ma. (Causative)
(ba*na~ / o*nun / do*um / g*n*n / u*nut*tur*ma )
Dont let me forget her birthday.

uy:
Bu ceket bana uy-ma-u.yor. (Intransitive)
(bu / ce*ket / ba*na / uy*mu*yor )
This coat doesnt fit (become) me. (Transitive)
Gmlek-in sana iyi uy-u.yor (yakyor). (Intransitive)
(gm*le*in / sa*na / i*yi / u*yu*yor )
Your shirt fits (becomes) you well. (Transitive)

uyu:
Ml ml uyu-u.yor. (Intransitive)
(m*l / m*l / u*yu*yor )
She is sleeping soundly.
Bir saat-tir uyu-u.yor. (Intransitive)
(bir / sa*at*tir / u*yu*yor )
He has been sleeping for an hour.
Bebek-i yarm saat nce uyu-ut-tu-um. (Causative)
(be*be*i / ya*rm / sa*at / n*ce / u*yut*tum )
I had the baby sleep half an hour ago.

320

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bebek daha yeni uyu-ut-ul-du. (Passive causative)
(be*bek / da*ha / ye*ni / u*yu*tul*du )
The baby has just been made to sleep.
Bu grlt-de uyu-un-maz. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(bu / g*rl*t*de ~/ u*yun*maz )
It is impossible to sleep in such a noise.
Saat 11de uyu-du-um. (Intransitive)
(sa*at / on*bir*de / u*yu*dum )
I fell asleep at 11.
Daha uyu-ma-d. (Intransitive)
(da*ha / u*yu*ma*d )
He hasnt fallen asleep yet.

tle:
Pantalon-um-u tle-di-in mi? (Transitive)
(pan*to*lo*nu*mu / *t*le*din / mi)
Have you ironed my trousers?
Sabah-tan beri t yap-.yor.
(sa*bah*tan / be*ri / *t / ya*p*yor )
She has been ironing since morning.
(Turkish is transitive, English is intransitive.)
Giysi-ler-i-/n/i hep kz karde-i-/n/e tlet-i.yor. (Causative)
(giy*si*le*ri*ni / hep / kz*kar*de*i*ne / *t*le*ti*yor )
He is always making his sister iron his clothes.
Gmlek-ler-in tle-en-i.yor. (Passive)
(gm*lek*le*rin / *t*le*ni*yor )
Your shirts are being ironed.

z:
it-tik-im sz-ler ben-i z-d. (z is an action verb.)
(i*it*ti*im / sz*ler / be*ni / z*d )
What I heard made me sorry.

321

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


z-l-d-m. (Reflexive)
(*zl*dm )
I became sorry. (Sorry is subject complement)
z-l-me. (Reflexive)
(*zl*me )
Dont worry.

yakala:
Kaleci top-u yakala-d. (Transitive)
(ka*le*ci / to*pu / ya*ka*la*d )
The goal-keeper caught the ball.
Son-u/n/-da tavan yakala-an-d. (Passive)
(so*nun*da / tav*an / ya*ka*lan*d )
The rabbit was caught at last.
retmen ben-i kopya ek-er-ken yakala-d. (Transitive)
(*ret*men / be*ni / kop*ya / e*ker*ken / ya*ka*la*d )
The teacher caught me cheating.
Halk hrsz- polis-e yakala-at-t. (Causative)
(halk~/ hr*s*z / po*li*se / ya*ka*lat*t )
The people had (helped) the police catch the thief.

yan:
Kuru odun kolay yan-ar. (Intransitive)
(ku*ru / o*dun / ko*lay / ya*nar )
Dry wood burns easily.
Mutfak-ta yemek piir-ir-ken parmak-lar--/n/ yak-t. (Transitive)
(mut*fak*ta / ye*mek / pi*i*rir*ken / par*mak*la*r*n / yak*t )
She burnt her fingers while cooking in the kitchen.
Tepe-de bir ate yak-t-lar. (Transitive)
(te*pe*de / bir / a*te / yak*t*lar )
They lit a fire on the hill.
Anne-em mum-lar- bana yaktr-d. (Causative)
(an*nem / mum*la*r / ba*na / yak*tr*d )
Mother had me light the candles.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Yak-n-.yor. (Reflexive)
(ya*k*n*yor )
She is complaining. (Intransitive)

yap:
Zarf-a pul yaptr-ma-/y/ unut-tu-um. (Transitive)
(zar*fa / pul / ya*p*tr*ma*y / u*nut*tum )
I forgot to stick a stamp on the envelope.
Bu pul yap-ma-.yor. (Intransitive)
(bu / pul / ya*p*m*yor )
This stamp doesnt stick.
Anne-em bana yatak oda-am-n kap-/s/-/n/a bir uyar yap-trt-t.
(an*nem / ba*na / ya*tak / o*da*mn / ka*p*s*na / bir / u*ya*r / ya*p*trt*t )
Mother made me stick a notice on my bedroom door. (Causative)
Duvar-lar-a birey yap-tr-l-ma-sn. (Passive)
(du*var*la*ra / bir*ey / ya*p*t*rl*ma*sn )
Nothing should be stuck on the walls.

yat:
Saat 11de yat-t-m. (Intransitive)
(sa*at / on*bir*de / yat*tm )
I went to bed at 11 p.m.
Anne-ler-i onlar- saat 10da yat-r-r. (Causative)
(an*ne*le*ri / on*la*r / sa*at / on*da / ya*t*rr )
Their mother makes them go to bed at 10 p.m.
Bebek-i yatak--/n/a yatr-d. (Transitive)
(be*be*i / ya*ta**na / ya*tr*d )
She laid the baby in her bed.
O-/n/u gr-dk-m-de yer-de yat-.yor-du. (Intransitive)
(o*nu / gr*d*m*de / yer*de / ya*t*yor*du )
When I saw her, she was lying on the floor.
Yorgun-um. Yat-ma.l-/y/m. (Intransitive)
(yor*gu*num) (yat*ma*l*ym )
I am tired. I must lie down.

323

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


yaz:
Mary bir mektup yaz-.yor. (Transitive)
(ma*ry / bir / mek*tup / ya*z*yor )
Mary is writing a letter.
rertmen snav-da biz-e bir kompozisyon yaz-dr-d. (Causative)
(*ret*men / bi*ze / s*nav*da / bir / kom*po*zis*yon / yaz*dr*d )
The teacher made us write a composition in the examination.
Mektup yaz-l-d bile. (Passive)
(mek*tup / ya*zl*d / bi*le )
The letter has already been written.

ye:
Saat ka-ta akam yemek-i ye-er-sin.iz? (Transitive)
(sa*at / ka*ta / ak*am / ye*me*i / yer*si*niz )
What time do you eat dinner?
Bebek-i ye-dir-i.yor. (Transitive)
(be*be*i / ye*di*ri*yor )
She is feeding the baby.
Bu hamburger yen-(il)-mez. (Passive) (It cant be eaten.)
(bu / ham*bur*ger / yen*mez )
This hamburger is not edible. (Edible is a subject complement.)
Akam yemek-i yen-i.yor. (Passive)
(ak*am / ye*me*i / ye*ni*yor )
Dinner is being eaten.
Anne-em bana iki tabak sebze ye-dir-di. (Causative)
(an*nem / ba*na / i*ki / ta*bak / seb*ze / ye*dir*di )
Mother made me eat two plates of vegetables.

yka:
Kz karde-im bulak-lar- yka-.yor. (Transitive)
(kz*kar*de*im / bu*la*k*la*r / y*k*yor )
My sister is washing the dishes.

324

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Annem kk karde-im-e yemek-ten nce el-ler-i-/n/i ykat-r. (Causative)
(an*nem / k*k / kar*de*i*me / ye*mek*ten / n*ce / el*le*ri*ni / y*ka*tr )
Mother makes my little brother wash his hands before lunch.
Araba yka-an-.yor. (Passive)
(a*ra*ba / y*ka*n*yor )
The car is being washed.
Jack yka-an-.yor. (Reflexive)
(jack / y*ka*n*yor)
Jack is having a bath.

yor:
Btn gn bahe-de al-mak ben-i yor-du. (Transitive)
(b*tn / gn / bah*e*de / a*l*mak / be*ni / yor*du )
Work-ing in the garden all day long tired me.
Yor-ul-du-um. (Reflexive) (I feel myself tired)
(yo*rul*dum )
I have got tired. (I feel tired.) (Tired is subject complement.)
Sen-in sama sapan soru-lar-n-dan bk-t-m. (Intransitive)
(se*nin / sa*ma / sa*pan / so*ru*la*rn*dan / bk*tm )
I am tired of your nonsense questions.

yksel:
Balon gk-te yksel-i.yor. (Intransitive)
(ba*lon / gk*te / yk*se*li*yor )
The balloon is rising in the sky.
iddet-li yamur-dan sonra nehir yksel-di. (Intransitive)
(id*det*li / ya*mur*dan / son*ra / ne*hir / yk*sel*di )
The river rose after the heavy rainfall.
Gne dou-dan do-ar ve bat-dan bat-ar. (Intransitive)
(g*ne / do*u*dan / do*ar / ve / ba*t*dan / ba*tar )
The sun rises in the east, and sets in the west.

325

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Soru-/y/a cevap ver-mek iin el-i-/n/i kaldr-d. (Transitive)
(so*ru*ya / ce*vap / ver*mek / i*in / e*li*ni / kal*dr*d )
He raised his hand to answer the question.
Genellik-le gne do-ma-dan kalk-ar-m. (Intransitive)
(ge*nel*lik*le / g*ne / do*ma*dan / kal*ka*rm )
I usually rise before the sun rises.

yr:
O-/n/a rasla-dk-m-da cadde-de yr-.yor-du-um. (Intransitive)
(o*na / ras*la*d*m*da / cad*de*de / y*r*yor*dum )
I was walking along the street when I met him.
Otobs-e yeti-mek iin ben-i hz-la yr-t-t. (Causative)
(o*to*b*se / ye*ti*mek / i*in / be*ni / hz*la / y*rt*t )
She made me walk fast to catch the bus.
Hz-la yr-t-l-d-m. (Passive causative)
(hz*la / y*r*tl*dm )
I was made to walk fast.
Bu yol-da yr-n-mez. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(bu / yol*da / y*rn*mez )
It is impossible to walk in this street.
yz:
Anne-em deniz-de yz-.yor. (Intransitive)
(an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor )
Mother is swimming in the sea.
Onlar gl-de model kayk-lar yz-dr-.yor-lar. (Transitive)
(on*lar / gl*de / mo*del / ka*yk*lar / yz*d*r*yor*lar )
They are sailing model boats on the lake.
Kpek-i-/n/i gl-de yz-dr-d. (Causative)
(k*pe*i*ni / gl*de / yz*dr*d )
He made (let) his dog swim in the lake.
Frtna var-ken deniz-de yz-l-mez. (Passive shaped intransitive)
(fr*t*na / var*ken / de*niz*de / y*zl*mez )
It is impossible to swim in the sea when there is a storm.

326

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Snav-lar- ge-mez-se-em baba-am deri-im-i yz-e.cek. (Transitive)
(s*nav*la*r / ge*mez*sem / ba*bam / de*ri*mi / y*ze*cek)
My father will skin me if I don't pass the examinations.

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
Turkish Postpositional Adverbial Phrases
In general, we can transform Turkish simple sentences into timeless adverbial phrases to furnish them with the concepts of time, contrast, cause,
purpose, result, manner, degree, and place, etc. However, when we want
to build up a conditional sentence, we attach either [se] or [sa] allomorphs to
the ends of simple sentences to produce the only Turkish conditional
clauses.
English adverbial clauses are structurally simple sentences that are connected to main clauses by subordinating conjunctions, which are characterized by some fundamental adverbial concepts mentioned above. On the
other hand, Turkish simple sentences undergo some transformational
changes before they are used as adverbial phrases. Therefore, we can say
that the English adverbial clauses are structurally adverbial sentences
(clauses) as they have finite verbs at the ends of all adverbial clauses.

TIME
BEFORE (NCE)
This time concept is expressed in main verb- [me-den] or [ma-dan] +
nce in Turkish.
Ev dev-im-i yap-t-m. Sonra okul-a gel-di-im. (im = benim) (m = ben)
I did my homework. Then I came to school.
One can understand from these sentences that the time of the first sentence
is before the time of the second one. To furnish the first English sentence
with a previous time concept, The Past Perfect Tense may be used to convey this time difference and the conjunction before is put in the beginning
of the second sentence without its simple sentence order being changed.
I had done (or did) my homework
simple sentence

before

I came to school.

subordinating conj
simple sentence
adverbial clause

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Although the normal order of the English sentence is like the sentence
above, the regular order of the Turkish sentence is Before I came to school,
I had done my homework. If we think about how this sentence is produced,
we can find out that there are two simple sentences underlying it in our
minds:
(Ben) ev dev-im-i yap-t-m. (Ben) okul-a gel-di-im.
In order to add a "before" time concept to the sentence "I came to school",
only the word "before" is put in the beginning of the English sentence. However, in Turkish, to add the same concept "before (nce)" to the Turkish
sentence, the sentence "Ben okul-a geldim + nce" is transformed into
"ben okul-a gel-me-den nce", which is a timeless postpositional phrase.
ben okul-a geldim + nce ben okul-a gel-me-den nce
(Ben) okul-a gel-me-den nce (ben) ev dev-im-i yap-t-m. (m = ben)
subject
infinitive-den
posp
|
|
postpositional adverbial phrs
predicate

definite object

verb

(Ben) ev-e git-e.cek-im + nce ben ev-e git-me-den nce


(Ben) ev-e git-me-den nce biraz meyve al-a.cak-m. (m = ben)
subject

infinitive-den
postp
|
postp adverbial phrase
indefinite object
predicate

|
verb

I will go home + before before I go home


I will buy some fruit before I go home.
subj

verb

object
predicate

adverbial clause

In the sentence above, the [me, ma] allomorphs are a cause of confusion in
Turkish. They are considered either as the allomorphs of infinitive allomorphs [me, ma] or the negative making allomorphs [me, ma]. Therefore, Turkish students tend to build up English sentences like *"I had done
my homework before I didn't come to school. This is because the syllable
stress in speech is generally used on the verb root or stem (gel*me*den),
not on the [den, dan] allomorphs, which misleads the learners of English. In
fact, these are the infinitive allomorphs; if they were not, the [den, dan]
allomorphs would not be attached to them.
The sentence order above may also change as follows:
Ev dev-im-i okul-a gel-me-den nce yap-m-t-m. (im = ben-im)
|
definine object

infinitive-[den]
postp
postpositional phrs of time
predicat

328

|
verb

|
subject

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The sentence order above is used when the adverb of time is stressed.
The adverbial clauses in English start with subordinating conjunctions,
and both the main clauses and the subordinate clauses in such complex
sentences have finite verbs, which mean that both clauses are structurally
simple sentences. When a subordinating conjunction such as before, after, since, although, until, when, or while, etc. is placed before one
of these sentences, these subordinating conjunctions transform them into
adverbial clauses, which are furnished by the concepts of these conjunctions. On the contrary, when adverbial phrases are formed in Turkish, the
simple sentences are transformed into postpositional phrases before they
become adverbials.
If we think about how this sentence is produced, we can see that there is a
simple sentence underlying the phrase "ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am" such
as in the following example. (var-ma-am = ben-im var-ma-am
(Ben) istasyon-a var-d-m + nce "(ben-im) istasyon-a var-ma-am-dan + nce

(Ben) istasyon-a var-d-m + nce "ben istasyon-a var-ma-dan + nce"


(Ben-im) istasyon-a var-ma-am-dan nce tren git-ti (git-mi-ti).
Ben istasyon-a var-ma-dan (nce) tren git-mi-ti.
Tren (Ben-im) istasyon-a var-ma-am - dan nce
subject

noun + infinitive compound-dan


postpositional phrase of time
predicate

postp

git-mi-ti
|
verb

This sentence is like the English sentence, The train had left before my
arriving at the station. In this sentence, ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am is a
noun + infinitive compound. stasyon-a is an adverbial which is composed of a noun-[E]. Ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am is a nominal phrase.
As all nouns can be followed by [], [E], [DE], [DEN] and [LE] morphemes,
this nominal phrase can be followed by a [dan] allomorph. nce is a postposition used after a noun-[DEN] such as: le-den nce, okul-dan nce,
sen-den nce, yemek-ten nce, sen gel-me-den nce. Therefore, benim istasyon-a var-ma-am-dan nce is a noun compound-dan + nce,
which is a postpositional phrase functioning as an adverb of time.
Important note: There are two kinds of very important subjects in Turkish
sentences. One in the beginning of a sentence as a pronoun, and the other
one as a personal allomorph attached to the verb at the end. The personal
allomorphs attached to the ends of the sentences are essential because the
pronouns are always optional. The other two-sided expressions are the
noun compounds. They have possessive personal allomorphs attached to

329

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


the possessive and the noun parts of the compounds, such as in Arkda-n gel-di
sentence, the n allomorph means sen-in. Therfore, sen-in is always omitted.

Ben istasyon-a var-ma-dan (nce) tren git-mi-ti.


(ben / is*tas*yo*na / var*ma*dan / n*ce / tren / git*mi*ti )
Before I arrived at the station, the train had left.
Tren, ben istasyon-a var-ma-dan (nce) git-mi-ti.
(tren / ben / is*tas*yo*na / var*ma*dan / n*ce / git*mi*ti )
The train had left before I arrived at the station.
Cevap ver-me-den (nce) dn.
(Cevap is a noun, ver-me is an infinitive, ver-me-den is an adverbial)
(ce*vap / ver*me*den / n*ce / d*n )
Think before you answer.
Unut-ma-dan (nce) onu defter-im-e yaz-a.cak-m. (m = ben)
(u*nut*ma*dan / n*ce / o*nu / def*te*ri*me / ya*za*ca*m )
I will write it in my notebook before I forget it.
Bro-un-a git-me-den (nce) tra ol-ma.l-sn. (un = senin, sn = sen)
(b*ro*na / git*me*den / n*ce / tra / ol*ma*l*sn )
You must shave before you go to your office.
Dar-/y/a k-ma-dan (nce) ceket-in-i giy.
(d*a*r / k*ma*dan / n*ce / ce*ke*ti*ni / giy )
Put your coat on before you go out.
Kompozisyon-u-/n/u teslim et-me-den (nce), baba-/s/ yanl-lar--/n/
dzelt-mi-ti.
(kom*po*zis*yo*nu*nu / tes*lim / et*me*den / n*ce / ba*ba*s / yan*l*la*r*n / d*zelt*mi*ti )
Her father had corrected her mistakes before she handed in her composition.
la- al-ma-dan (nce) sie-/y/i iyi-(ce) calkala.
(i*la*c / al*ma*dan / n*ce / i*e*yi / i*yi*ce / al*ka*la )
Shake the bottle well before you take the medicine.
Cami-/y/e gir-me-den (nce) ayakkab-lar-n- kar-ma.l-sn.
(ca:*mi*ye / gir*me*den / n*ce / a*yak*ka*b*la*r*n / *kar*ma*l*sn )
You must take your shoes off before you enter the mosque.
Baz renci-ler zil al-ma-dan (nce) snf-tan k-t-lar. (lar = onlar)
(ba:*z / *ren*ci*ler / zil / al*ma*dan / n*ce / s*nf*tan / k*t*lar )
Some students (had) left the classroom before the bell rang.

330

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Note: When the [e, a], [de, da, te, ta], [den, dan, ten, tan] and [le, la] allomorphs
attach to nouns or infinitives, these allomorphs turn them into adverbials.
mzala-ma-dan (nce) onu dikkat-le oku. (mzala-ma ileminden once.)
(im*za:*la*ma*dan / n*ce / o*nu / dik*kat*le / o*ku )
Read it carefully before you sign it.
Yat-ma-dan (nce) k-lar- sndr. (Yat-ma iinden once)
(yat*ma*dan / n*ce / *k*la*r / sn*dr )
Turn the lights off before you go to bed.
Sou-ma-dan (nce) orba-an- i. (sou-ma iinden once.)
(so*u*ma*dan / n*ce / or*ba*n / i )
Eat up your soup before it becomes cold.
(Sen) ack-ma-dan (nce) birey ye-me.
(a*ck*ma*dan / n*ce / bi*ey / ye*me )
Dont eat anything before you feel hungry.
Dn-me-den (nce) konu-ma. (dnme iini yapmadan nce)
(d*n*me*den / n*ce /ko*nu*ma )
Dont speak before you think.
Tiyatro-/y/a git-me-den (nce) piyes-i oku-mu-tu-um.
(ti*yat*ro*ya / git*me*den / n*ce / pi*ye*si / o*ku*mu*tum )
I had read the play before I went to the theatre.
Hava karar-ma-dan (nce) ev-e dn.
(ha*va / ka*rar*ma*dan / n*ce / e*ve / dn )
Come back home before it gets dark.
Satn al-ma-dan (nce) ikinci el bir araba-/y/ test et-me.li-sin.
(i*kin*ci / el / bir / a*ra*ba*y /sa*tn / al*ma*dan / n*ce / test / et*me*li*sin)
You must test a second-hand car before you buy it.
Okul-a git-me-den nce oku-/y/up yaz-a.bil-i.yor-du.
(o*ku*la / git*me*den / n*ce / o*ku*yup / ya*za*bi*li*yor*du)
He could read and write before he went to school.
Sev-dik-im program televizyon-da bala-ma-dan (nce) ev-de ol-a.cakm. (sev*di*im / prog*ram / te*le*viz*yon*da / ba*la*ma*dan / n*ce /
ev*de / o*la*ca*m )
Ill be home before my favorite program starts on TV.

331

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Yemek-e gel-me-den (nce) el-ler-in-i yka-ma.l-sn.
(ye*me*e / gel*me*den / n*ce / el*le*ri*ni / y*ka*ma*l*sn )
You must wash your hands before you come to dinner.
k-ma-dan (nce) kasiyer-e de.
(k*ma*dan / n*ce / ka*si*ye*re / *de )
Pay the cashier before you leave.
AFTER (SONRA)
To transform a simple sentence into a sonra phrase, one should use
verb- [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk]-[ten, tan] + sonra composition
following the vowel and consonant harmony rules. Sonra is a postposition
used after noun-[DEN] + sonra such as okul-dan sonra, sen-den sonra, sen gel-dik-ten sonra, which are all postpositional adverbial phrases.
For example:
gel-dik-ten sonra, al-dk-tan sonra, oku-duk-tan sonra, se-tik-ten sonra, piir-dik-ten sonra, gr-n-dk-ten sonra, bekle-e-tik-ten sonra,
anla-tk-tan sonra, pi-ir-il-dik-ten sonra, ben-den sonra, etc.
Note: The word verb covers both the verb roots, stems, frames,
and verbal compositions.
In the composition above, the [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] allomorphs produce infinitives that are attached to [den, dan, ten, tan] allomorphs that are followed by the "sonra" postposition. This composition produces a timeless prepositional adverbial phrase whose time is inferred from
the time of the finite verbs at the ends of the sentences.
Like all infinitives, this composition does not convey a time concept. Its time
concept is inferred from the time concept of the finite verb that is used together with the postpositional adverbial phrase: Follow the examples:
(O)

ev dev-i-/n/i yap-tk-tan sonra yat-t.

subj

definite obj of yap infinitive-tan postp


postp adverbial phrase of time
predicate

|
verb

He went to bed after he had done (he did) his homework.


ocuk-lar zil al-dk-tan sonra futbol oyna-mak iin dar-/y/a k-a.cak
subject

infinitive- tan
postp
postp adverb phrs of time

The boys will go out


subject

verb

adv

infinitive
postp
|
postp adverb phrs of cause adverbial
predicate

to play football

after the bell rings.

prep phrs of cause


predicate

adverbial clause of time

332

|
verb

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Bitir-dik-ten sonra kompozisyon-um-u teslim et-ti-im.
(bi*tir*dik*ten / son*ra / kom*po*zis*yo*nu*mu / tes*lim / et*tim )
After I had finished, I handed in my composition.
Onlar k-tk-tan sonra al-ma-/y/a bala-d-m.
(on*lar / k*tk*tan / son*ra / a*l*ma*ya / ba*la*dm )
I began to study after they (had) left. (To study is a nominal infinitive.)
stanbul-dan ayrl-dk-tan sonra sana bir mektup yaz.a.cak-m.
(is*tan*bul*dan / ay*rl*dk*tan / son*ra / sa*na / bir / mek*tup /
ya*za*ca*m) I will write you a letter after I leave stanbul.
Bir ift yeni ayakkab al-dk-tan sonra ev-e git-ti.
(bir / ift / ye*ni / a*yak*ka*b / al*dk*tan / son*ra / e*ve / git*ti )
She went home after she (had) bought a new pair of shoes.
Emekli ol-duk-tan sonra bir ky-de yaa-ma-/y/a bala-d.
(e*mek*li / ol*duk*tan / son*ra / bir / ky*de / ya*a*ma*ya / ba*la*d )
He began to live in a village after he (had) retired.
Okul-dan ayrl-dk-tan sonra ne yap-a.cak-sn?
(o*kul*dan / ay*rl*dk*tan / son*ra / ne / ya*pa*cak*sn)
What will you do after you leave (have left) school?
Du yap-tk-tan sonra yat-t.
(du / yap*tk*tan / son*ra / yat*t )
He went to bed after he had (had) a shower.
Konser bit-tik-ten sonra bir restoran-a git-e.lim.
(kon*ser / bit*tik*ten / son*ra / bir / res*to*ra*na / gi*de*lim )
Let us go to a restaurant after the concert is over.
WHEN and WHILE
To transform a simple Turkish sentence into a when clause, verb[in.ce, n.ca, n.ce, un.ca] adverbial phrase is used. The [N.CE] morpheme is a suffix that is attached to verb roots, stems or frames to express
the concept of when of the English language. Likewise, the [R-KEN] morpheme, which has the allomorphs of [ir-ken, r-ken, r-ken, ur-ken, erken, ar-ken], is attached to verb stems and frames to expresses while.
The [N.CE] and [R-KEN] morphemes correspond to the English words
when and while respectively. In the following examples, the [N.CE] and
[R-KEN] morphemes are attached to verbs that end with consonants:

333

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


When

while

ben okul-a gel-in.ce


ben onu sat-n.ca
o gl-n.ce
sen ona dokun-un.ca
zil al-n.ca
okul al-n.ca
elma-lar sat-l-n.ca

ben okul-a gel-ir-ken


sen onu al-r-ken
sen ksr-r-ken
sen konu-ur-ken
sen elma-lar- e-er-ken
sen patates-ler-i soy-ar-ken
biz bahe-de gez-er-ken

When the verbs end with vowels, however, the allomorphs of [N.CE] are
attached to these verbs by the /y/ glides. On the other hand, when the allomorphs of [R-KEN] are attached to verbs ending with vowels, the coinciding
vowels i-i, -, -, u-u, e-e, a-a combine:
when

while

durak-ta bekle-/y/in.ce
ben onu anla-/y/n.ca
ben oku-ma-/y/a bala-/y/n.ca
sen uyu-/y/un.ca

sen durak-ta bekle-er-ken


Ahmet horoz-u kovala-ar-ken
Mary sa--/n/ kurula-ar-ken
sen uyu-ur.ken

Besides the [N.CE] morpheme, there are two more adverbial alternatives
that convey the concept of when:
verb- [DK]-[possessive personal morpheme] + zaman, or
verb- [DK]-[possessive personal morpheme]-[de, da]
Okul-a git-in.ce retmen-in-i grecek-sin. (gi*din*ce)
Okul-a git-tik-in zaman retmen-in-i grecek-sin. (git*ti*in / za*man)
Okul-a git-tik-in-de retmen-in-i grecek-sin. (git*ti*in*de)
The meaning of all the three sentences above is You will see your teacher when you go to school, and the underlined expressions are the equivalents of the English coordinating conjunction when.
We can explain how this mental composition is transformed as follows:
Sen onu grecek-sin + zaman "sen onu gr-n.ce, or sen onu grdk-n zaman, or sen onu gr-dk-n-de
O beni gr-d + zaman o beni gr-n.ce, or o beni gr-dk- zaman, or o beni gr-dk-n-de (gr*d*n*de).
You will see him + when when you see him

334

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The basic English simple future sentence structure above transforms into
The Simple Present vocalized adverbial clause.
1. (Sen) okul-a git-in.ce (senin) retmen-in-i gr-e.cek-sin.
subject

adverbial of time

(noun comp-i) definite obj


predicate

verb

(o*ku*la / gi*din*ce / *ret*me*ni*ni / g*re*cek*sin )


You will see your teacher when you go to school.
2. Okul-a git-tik-in zaman retmen-in-i gr-e.cek-sin.
(o*ku*la / git*ti*in / za*man / *ret*me*ni*ni / g*re*cek*sin )
You will see your teacher when you go to school.
3. Okul-a git-tik-in-de retmen-in-i gr-e.cek-sin.
(o*ku*la / git*ti*in*de / *ret*me*ni*ni / g*re*cek*sin )
You will see your teacher when you go to school.
When Turkish simple sentences are transformed into when adverbial
phrases, they lose their time concepts as they do in before and after
clauses. This time deficiency is fulfilled by the finite verbs at the ends of the
sentences. Although, the inflectional allomorphs attached to verb roots, stems
or frames are all secondarily stressed such as (gi*der*ken), (gi*din*ce),
(git*ti*in*de), (gi*der*sen), (git*mem), (git*mez*sen), only one of them can be
primarily stressed.
Follow the examples:
(Biz) al-n.ca (biz) ren-ir-iz.
(a*l*n*ca / *re*ni*riz )
We learn when we study.
(O) ben-i gr-n.ce glmse-di.
(be*ni / g*rn*ce / g*lm*se*di )
She smiled when she saw me.
(Siz) susa-/y/n.ca (siz) ne i-er-sin.iz?
(su*sa*yn*ca / ne / i*er*si*niz)
What do you drink when you are thirsty?
retmen snf-a gir-in.ce btn renciler ayak-a kalk-ar.
(*ret*men / s*n*fa / gi*rin*ce ~/ b*tn / *ren*ci*ler / a*ya*a / kal*kar)
All the students stand up when the teacher enters the classroom.
(Sen) haber-i iit-in.ce (sen) mutlu ol-a.cak-sn.
(ha*be*ri / i*i*tin*ce / mut*lu / o*la*cak*sn )
You will be happy when you hear the news.

335

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(Sen) yabanc bir lke-/y/e git-tik-in zaman (sen) para-an- deitir-me.lisin. (ya*ban*c / bir / l*ke*ye / git*ti*in / za*man / pa*ra*n / de*i*tir*me*li*sin )
When you go to a foreign country, you must change your money.
(Ben-im) onu gr-dk-m-de (o) kiraz ye-i.yor-du.
(o*nu / gr*d*m*de / ki*raz / yi*yor*du )
She was eating cherries when I saw her.
Oku-ma-/y/ bitir-in.ce, ltfen kitap-m- geri gnder.
(o*ku*ma*y / bi*ti*rin*ce / lt*fen / ki*ta*b*m / ge*ri / gn*der )
Please send my book back when you have finished read-ing it.
Yorgun ol-duk-um zaman (ben) bir fincan kahve i-mek-ten zevk al-rm. (yor*gun / ol*du*um / za*man ~/ bir / fin*can / kah*ve / i*mek*ten /
zevk / a*l*rm ) I enjoy having a cup of coffee when I am tired.
Hazr ol-duk-um zaman ne yap-ma-am- iste-i.yor-sun?
(ha*zr / ol*du*um / za*man / ne / yap*ma*m / is*ti*yor*sun)
What do you want me to do when I am ready? (To do is an infinitive.)
Biz bir yanl-lk yap-n.ca retmen-im.iz dzelt-ir.
(biz / bir / yan*l*lk / ya*pn*ca / *ret*me*ni*miz / d*zel*tir )
When we make a mistake, our teacher corrects it.
Zaman-m ol-un.ca gel-ip sen-i gr-e.cek-im.
(za*ma:*nm / o*lun*ca / ge*lip / se*ni / g*re*ce*im )
I will come and see you when I have time.
Trafik k-lar- krmz-/y/a dn-n.ce dur-ma-l-/y/z.
(tra*fik / *k*la*r / kr*m*z*ya / d*nn*ce / dur*ma*l*yz )
We must stop when the traffic lights turn red.
Fatma gel-in.ce ders al-a.cak-z.
(fat*ma / ge*lin*ce / ders / a*l*a*ca*z )
We will study when Fatma comes.
stasyon-a var-n.ca bilet-in-i (satn) al-a.bil-ir-sin.
(is*tas*yo*na / va*rn*ca / bi*le*ti*ni / a*la*bi*lir*sin )
You can buy your ticket when you arrive at the station.
Note: The pronouns in parentheses are not generally used. They are put in
the sentences above to make the meaning clearer for the learners.

336

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


WHILE
In order to insert the duration concept of while into a transformed adverbial phrase, you should use the verb-[ir-ken, r-ken, r-ken, ur-ken, erken, ar-ken] duration allomorphs when action verbs are involved, such as
gel-ir-ken, git-er-ken, yaz-ar-ken, otur-ur-ken, beklen-ir-ken. This
morpheme is like the morpheme [.YOR] whose second syllable never follows the vowel harmony rules. However, when you use adjectives,
nouns or prepositional adverbials, you should attach only ken
morpheme to these words to convey both when and while.
Note: The /y/ glide is used when a word ends with a vowel; but when a word
ends with a consonant only ken morpheme is attached to such words,
such as ev-de/y/-ken, okul-da/y/-ken, boyal/y/-ken, evli/y/-ken, bekr-ken, ocuk-ken, var-ken, kasap-ken, gen-ken, yal/y/-ken, bura-da/y/-ken, sokak-ta-/y/ken, etc.
The mental composition of "while" (duration) allomorphs are as follows:
Jack okul-a git-i.yor-du + duration Jack okul-a git-er-ken (gi*der*ken)
Jack okul-a git-er-ken bir kese altn para bul-du.
subj

adverbial
adverbial
adverbial phrase of time

|
indefinite object
predicate

|
verb

Jack was going to school + duration while Jack was going to school
Jack found a purse of gold coins while he was going to school.
subj

verb

indefinite object
predicate

adverbial clause of time

Consider the example sentences below:


Oul-um bahe-de oyna-ar-ken eski bir para bul-du. (The /u/ drops, and
the /l/ attaches to /u/.) (o*lum / bah*e*de / oy*nar*ken / es*ki / bir / pa*ra /
bul*du)
My son found an old coin while he was playing in the garden.
Ben ev-de/y/-ken btn ev i-ler-i-/n/i kendim yap-ar-m. (Liaison)
(ben / ev*dey*ken / b*tn / e*vi*le*ri*ni / ken*dim / ya*pa*rm )
I do all the housework myself when I am at home.
Biz ocuk-ken televizyon seyret-e.me-i.yor-du-uk, nk televizyon
daha kefet-il-me-mi-ti.
(biz / o*cuk*ken / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*de*mi*yor*duk / n*k~ /
te*le*viz*yon / da*ha / ke*fe*dil*me*mi*ti )

337

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


We couldnt watch television when we were children because it hadnt
been invented yet.
Ev dev-in-i ben bura-da/y/-ken yap.
(ev / *de*vi*ni / ben / bu*ra*day*ken / yap )
Do your homework while (when) I am here.
Ben yeni szck-ler-i ret-ir-ken Fatma pencere-den dar bak-.yor-du.
(ben / ye*ni / sz*ck*le*ri / *re*tir*ken / fat*ma / pen*ce*re*den / d*a*r
/ ba*k*yor*du )
While I was teaching the new words, Fatma was looking out of the window.
Ben bura-da/y/-ken grlt et-me.
(ben / bu*ra*day*ken / g*rl*t / et*me )
Dont make a noise while (when) I am here.
Radyo dinle-er-ken ders al-a.bil-ir mi-sin?
(rad*yo / din*ler*ken / ders / a*l*a*bi*lir / mi*sin )
Can you study while (when) you are listening to the radio?
Karde-in-i ders al-r-ken rahatsz et-me. (in means sen-in)
(kar*de*i*ni / ders / a*l*r*ken / ra*hat*sz / et*me )
Dont disturb your brother while (when) he is studying.
Ben dar-da/y/-ken kimse bana telefon et-ti mi?
(ben / d*a*r*day*ken / kim*se / ba*na / te*le*fon / et*ti / mi )
Did anyone telephone me when (while) I was out?
Fatma onsekiz ya-n-da/y/-ken ok gzel-di.
(fat*ma / on*se*kiz / ya*n*day*ken / ok / g*zel*di )
Fatma was very beautiful when she was eighteen.
Sen mutfak-ta megul-ken kedi btn st- i-ti.
(sen / mut*fak*ta / me*gul*ken / ke*di / b*tn / s*t / i*ti )
The cat drank up all the milk when you were busy in the kitchen.
Onlar rmak-ta yz-er-ken biri-/s/i onlar-n giysi-ler-i-/n/i al-d.
(on*lar / r*mak*ta / y*zer*ken / bi*ri*si / on*la*rn / giy*si*le*ri*ni / al*d )
Somebody stole their clothes while (when) they were swimming in the river.
Zaman-n var-ken ders-ler-in-i al. (n and in mean senin)
(za*ma:*nn / var*ken / ders*le*ri*ni / a*l )
Study your lessons while you have time.

338

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Zaman-n ol-un.ca araba-/y/ yka-/y/a.bil-ir-sin. (n means senin)
(za*ma:*nn / o*lun*ca / a*ra*ba*y / y*ka*ya*bi*lir*sin )
You can wash the car when you have time.
Ko-ar-ken d-t-m.
(ko*ar*ken / d*tm )
I fell down while I was running.
Kz-m-a bir hikye anlat-r-ken uyu-/y/a.kal-d. (m means benim)
(k*z*ma / bir / hi*k:*ye / an*la*tr*ken / u*yu*ya / kal*d )
My daughter fell asleep while I was telling her a story.
Merdiven-den aa-/y/a in-er-ken dikkat-li ol.
(mer*di*ven*den / a*a* / i*ner*ken / dik*kat*li / ol )
Be careful when you are walking down the stairs.
Ev dev-in-i yap-ar-ken televizyon seyret-e.mez-sin. (in means senin)
(e*v*de*vi*ni / ya*par*ken / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*de*mez*sin )
You can't watch television while you are doing your homework.
AS SOON AS
In order to express as soon as in Turkish, one should use a positive and
negative verb composition of The Simple Present Tense following one another. The adverbial phrases that are built up with these verbal compounds
are timeless and their function is adverbial:
Zil ald. zil al-ar al-maz (a*lar / al*maz)
Jack eve geldi. Jack ev-e gel-ir gel-mez (ge*lir / gel*mez)
Gne doacak. gne do-ar do-maz (do*ar / do*maz)
Mary beni grd. Mary ben-i gr-r gr-mez (g*rr / gr*mez)
Mary odasna girdi. Mary oda-/s/-/n/a gir-er gir-mez (gi*rer / gir*mez)
As it is seen, the transformed phrases above are timeless and function as
adverbial phrases of time:
Jack ev-e gel-ir gel-mez dev-i-/n/i yap-ma-/y/a bala-d.
Gne do-ar do-maz yol-a koyul-a.cak-lar.
Mary ben-i gr-r gr-mez kap-/n/n arka-/s/-/n/a saklan-d.
Mary oda-/s/-/n/a gir-er gir-mez bir iskelet-le karla-t.

339

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


renci-ler zil al-ar al-maz bahe-de oyna-mak iin dar-/y/a k-t-lar.
subject

|
adv phrase of time

|
adverbial

infinitive postp
|
postp phrs of purpose adverbial
predicate

|
verb

As soon as the bell rang, the students went out to play in the garden.
The places of adverbs and nouns are arranged in sentences in accordance
with the importance given to these units. Therefore the following alternatives
of the sentence above may also be produced as follows:
renciler, zil alar almaz bahede oynamak iin diar-/y/a ktlar.
renciler, bahede oynamak iin zil alar almaz dar-y/a ktlar.
Zil alar almaz, bahede oynamak iin renciler dar-/y/a ktlar.
*Dar-/y/a ktlar renciler zil alar almaz bahede oynamak iin.
The last sentence above is understandable, but a Turkish teacher may not
accept it as a good sentence.
The main point in changing the places of the adverbial units above is that the
nearer to the verb, the more important these units are. However, in doing
this, the grammatical units should be kept intact. The grammatical units in
the sentences above are as follows:
1. renciler 2. zil alar almaz 3. bahede oynamak iin 4. dar ktlar.
Examples:
Yatak--/n/a yat-ar yat-maz uyku-/y/a dal-d. (I means kendisinin)
(ya*ta**na / ya*tar / yat*maz / uy*ku*/ya / dal*d )
He fell asleep as soon as he went to bed.
Sokak-ta-ki ocuk-u gr-r gr-mez fren-e bas-t.
(so*kak*ta*ki / o*cu*u / g*rr / gr*mez / fre*ne / bas*t )
He hit the brakes as soon as he saw the boy in the street.
Sen hazr ol-ur ol-maz dar-/y/a k-a.cak-z.
(sen / ha*zr / o*lur / ol*maz / d*a*r / *ka*ca*z )
Well go out as soon as you are ready.
Avc kaplan- gr-r gr-mez ate et-ti.
(av*c / kap*la*n / g*rr / gr*mez / a*te / et*ti )
The hunter fired as soon as he saw the tiger.
Vakt-in ol-ur ol-maz gel ben-i gr. (in means sen-in)
(vak*tin / o*lur / ol*maz / gel / be*ni / gr )
Come and see me as soon as you have time.

340

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Gne do-ar do-maz yol-a koyul-du-lar. (lar means onlar)
(g*ne / do*ar / do*maz / yo*la / ko*yul*du*lar )
They set off as soon as the sun rose.
UNTIL (KADAR, DEK)
When the nouns, such as sabah, yarn, saat alt is chosen, they are
attached to the [e, a] allomorphs followed by the postposition kadar:

noun-[e, a] + kadar (dek)


(Onlar) sabah-a kadar al-a.cak-lar. They will work until morning.
subject

postp phrs of time


predicate

verb

subject

verb

prep phrs of time


predicate

Gece yars-/n/a kadar (dek) televizyon seyret-ti-ik. (ik means biz)


(ge*ce / ya*r*s*na / ka*dar / te*le*viz*yon / sey*ret*tik )
We watched TV until midnight. (Kadar and dek are postpositions.)
Saat -e kadar ben-i bekle.
(sa*at / *e / ka*dar / be*ni / bek*le )
Wait for me until three oclock.
Gelecek sene-/y/e kadar ngilizce al-ma-/y/a devam et-e.cek-im.
(ge*le*cek / se*ne*ye / ka*dar / in*gi*liz*ce / a*l*ma*ya / de*va:m /
e*de*ce*im ) I will go on study-ing English until next year.
If a simple sentence is chosen to be used as an adverb of time, verb-
[e.ne, a.na] + kadar structure, which is a timeless adverbial phrase of time,
is used to express until in Turkish. The logical development of "until" is as
follows:
Gne do-du + kadar gne do-a.na kadar (do*a*na)
Gne do-a.na kadar tarla-da al-t-lar. (lar means onlar)
The sun rose + until until the sun rose
They worked in the field until the sun rose.
Gne do-a.cak + kadar ne do-a.na kadar
Gne do-a.na kadar tarla-da al-a.cak-z. (z means biz)
The sun will rise + until until the sun rises
We will work in the field until the sun rises.
(Onlar) gne do-a.na kadar tarla-da alt-lar. (lar means onlar)
subject

adverbial
postp
|
postp adverbial phrs adverbial
predicate

341

|
verb

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


They worked in the field until the sun rose
subject

verb

adv phrase
adverbial clause
predicate

(Sen) yarn-a kadar bekle. (You) wait until tomorrow.


subject noun-a postp
postp phrs of time
predicate

|
verb

subject

|
verb

prep phrs of time


adverbial
predicate

As an alternative to the above adverbial phrase verb-[in.ce-/y/e, n.ca/y/a, n.ce-/y/e, un.ca-/y/a] + kadar form can also be used:
Boya kuru-/y/un.ca-/y/a kadar duvar-lar-a dokun-ma.
(bo*ya / ku*ru*ya*na / ka*dar / du*var*la*ra / do*kun*ma )
Dont touch the walls until the paint dries.
Sen ev-e dn-e.ne kadar ders al-a.cak-m-a sz ver-i.yor-um.
(sen / e*ve / d*ne*ne / ka*dar / ders / a*l*a*ca**ma / sz /
ve*ri*yo*rum )
I promise I will study until you come back home.
Hava karar-a.na kadar ocuk-lar bahe-de oyna-d-lar.
(ha*va / ka*ra*ra*na / ka*dar / o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / oy*na*d*lar )
The children played in the garden until it got dark.
(Sen) bir iftlik-e gel-e.ne kadar bu patika-/y/ izle.
(bir / ift*li*e / ge*le*ne / ka*dar / bu / pa*ti*ka*y / iz*le )
Follow this path until you come to a farm.
Yardm gel-e.ne kadar bekle-mek zor-u/n/-da kal-d-lar.
(yar*dm / ge*le*ne / ka*dar / bek*le*mek / zo*run*da / kal*d*lar )
They had to wait until the help came.
l-e.ne kadar sava-t-lar.
(*le*ne / ka*dar / sa*va*t*lar )
They fought until they died.
ar-l-a.na kadar dar-da bekle.
(a*r*la*na / ka*dar / d*a*r*da / bek*le )
Wait outside untill you are called. (Passive)
Bir ada-/y/a gel-e.ne kadar krek ek-ti-ler.
(bir / a*da*ya / ge*le*ne / ka*dar / k*rek / ek*ti*ler )
They rowed until they came to an island.

342

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Yamur dur-a.na kadar bir yer-e sn-a.lm.
(ya*mur / du*ra*na / ka*dar / bir / ye*re / s**na*lm )
Let us shelter somewhere until it stops rain-ing.
Onlar gel-e.ne kadar bir ey yap-a.ma-/y/z.
(on*lar / ge*le*ne / ka*dar / bir*ey / ya*pa*ma*yz )
We cant do anything untill they come.
(Sen) zr dile-/y/e.ne kadar sen-in-le konu-ma-/y/a.cak-m.
(*zr / di*le*ye*ne / ka*dar / se*nin*le / ko*nu*ma*ya*ca*m )
I wont speak with you until you apologize.
Saat ka-a kadar (ben-im) bura-da bekle-me-em-i iste-i.yor-sun?
(sa*at / ka*a / ka*dar / bu*ra*da / bek*le*me*mi / is*ti*yor*sun )
Until what time do you want me to wait here?
(Sen) ben-i sev-dik-in-i syle-/y/e.ne kadar bura-da otur-a.cak-m.
(be*ni / sev*di*i*ni / sy*le*ye*ne / ka*dar / bu*ra*da / o*tu*ra*ca*m )
I am going to sit here until you tell me that you love me.
Sen-i l-e.ne kadar sev-e.cek-im.
(se*ni / *le*ne / ka*dar / se*ve*ce*im )
I will love you until I die.
BY and BY THE TIME
By or by the time means not later than in English. This time concept
is reflected into Turkish sentences by using The Future Perfect Tense, such
as: bitir-mi ol-a.cak-m, gel-mi ol-a.cak-lar, etc., preceded by a
noun- [e, a] + kadar, or "verb- [e.ne, a.na] + kadar", or "verb- [in.ce/y/e, n.ca-/y/a, n.ce-/y/e, un.ca-/y/a] + kadar" timeless adverbial phrases:
Consider the following:
(Ben)

yarn-a kadar

subject

postp phrs of time definite obj


predicate

I
subj

i-im-i

bitir-mi ol-a.cak-m.
adjective

verb

will have finished my work by tomorrow.


verb

object
prep phrs of time
predicate

If a simple sentence is needed to be transformed, verb- [e.ne, a.na] +


kadar structure is used in the adverbial phrase section of a sentence. The
logical process of this transformation is as follows:

343

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Annem eve dnecek + o zamana kadar anne-em ev-e dn-e.ne kadar
Mother will come back home + by the time by the time mother comes back home
(Ben) anne-em ev-e dn-e.ne kadar i-im-i
subject

postpositional phrase of time


predicate

bitir-mi ol-a.cak-m.

definite object

verb

(an*nem / e*ve / d*ne*ne / ka*dar / i*i*mi / bi*tir*mi / o*la*ca*m )


I will have finished my work by the time my mother comes back home.
subj

verb

object

adverbial clause of time


predicate

Dn-n.ce-/y/e kadar may also be used as an alternative to the above


expression:
Biz stadyum-a var-n.ca-/y/a kadar ma bit-mi ol-a.cak.
(biz / stad*yu*ma / va*rn*ca*ya / ka*dar / ma / bit*mi / o*la*cak )
The match will have been over by the time we get to the stadium.
Sen ev-e var-n.ca-/y/a kadar btn pasta-/y/ ye-mi ol-a.cak-lar.
(sen / e*ve / va*rn*ca*ya / ka*dar / b*tn / pas*ta*y / ye*mi / o*la*cak*lar)
They will have eaten up all the cake by the time you arrive home.
SINCE (BER)
If single nouns or modifier + noun compounds such as dokuz, sabah, le, dn, "geen hafta", "geen ay", "geen yl" are chosen
to express, a noun-[den, dan] + beri or a possessive + owned-
[den, dan] + beri postpositional phrase structure is used to express since
nine, since morning, "since last year", since last summer, or since you
went away expressions. The word beri is a postposition. The functions
of these phrases are adverbial:
(Ben) onu geen hafta-dan beri

gr-me-di-im.

subject def obj postp adverbial phrs of time


predicate

verb

I
subj

havent seen
verb

her

since last week. (Since is a preposition.)

object prep phrase of time


predicate

Saat dokuz-dan beri bekle-i.yor-um.


(sa*at / do*kuz*dan / be*ri / bek*li*yo*rum )
I have been waiting since nine.
As dokuz, sabah. le, etc. are nouns, a noun + infinitive"-[DEN] +
beri can also be used in their places:

344

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(Ben) seni gr-dk-m-den beri (ben-im) sen-i gr-dk-m-den beri
I saw you + since since I saw you (Since is a subordinate conjunction.)
(ben-im) sen-i gr-dk-m-den beri
noun compound-den
postp
postpositional adverbial phrase of time

(Sen) (ben-im) sen-i gr-dk-m-den beri birsey yap-ma-d-n


subject

noun comp-den
postp
postp adverbial phrase of time
predicate

|
object

|
verb

You havent done anything since I saw you.


subj

verb

object
adverbial clause of time
predicate

Sen-i ilk gr-dk-m-den beri sev-i.yor-um.


(se*ni / ilk / gr*d*m*den / be*ri / se*vi*yo*rum )
I have been in love with you since I saw you first.
(Sen-in) stanbuldan ayrl-dk-n-dan beri sen-den bir mektup al-ma-d-m.
(is*tan*bul*dan / ay*rl*d*n*dan / be*ri / sen*den / bir / mek*tup / al*ma*dm )
I havent received a letter from you since you left stanbul.
(Ben) (sen-in) ev-den k-tk-n-dan beri birsey yap-ma-d-m.
(ev*den / k*t*n*dan / be*ri / bir / ey / yap*ma*dm )
I havent done anything since you left home.
Sen-i son gr-dk-m-den beri ne yap-.yor-sun?
(se*ni / son / gr*d*m*den / be*ri / ne / ya*p*yor*sun )
What have you been doing since I saw you last?
Kz-lar-dan baz-lar- snf-a gir-dik-ler-i/n/-den beri gl--p konu-u.yor-lar.
(kz*lar*dan / ba*z*la*r / s*n*fa / gir*dik*le*rin*den / be*ri / g*l*p /
ko*nu*u*yor*lar )
Some of the girls have been chatting and giggling since they came into
the classroom.
Bura-/y/a gel-dik-in-den beri ne kadar oldu? or
Sen bura-/y/a gel-e.li ne kadar ol-du?
(sen / bu*ra*ya / ge*le*li / ne / ka*dar / ol*du)
How long is it (has it been) since you came here?
Biz-im komu-/n/un u aptal kopek-i ben ev-e gel-dik-im-den beri havla-.yor.
(bi*zim / kom*u*nun / u / ap*tal / k*pe*i / ben / e*ve / gel*di*im*den /
be*ri / hav*l*yor )
That stupid dog of our neighbors has been barking since I came home.

345

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Otobs- kar-dk-m-dan beri bura-da bekle-i.yor-um.
(o*to*b*s / ka*r*d*m*dan / be*ri / bu*ra*da / bek*li*yo*rum )
I have been waiting here since I missed the bus.
Yamur bala-dk-/n-dan beri otobs durak-/n/-da bekle-i.yor-um.
(ya*mur / ba*la*d*n*da*dan / be*ri / o*to*bs / du*ra*n*da / bek*li*yo*rum ) I have been waiting at the bus stop since it started rain-ing.
Kpek ben-i gr-dk-n-den beri arka-am-dan gel-i.yor.
(k*pek / be*ni / gr*d*n*den / be*ri / ar*kam*dan / ge*li*yor )
The dog has been following me sice it saw me.

CAUSE OR REASON
As, since or because subordinating conjunctions are used in English
to express cause or reason. In Turkish, in place of as or since, iin
postposition is used. Since all postpositions follow nouns in Turkish, iin
can also follow a noun, a pronoun, an infinitive, or a noun + infinitive
compound. All noun + infinitive and modifier + noun compounds are
syntactic nominal phrases. Follow the simple sentences below:
Ben eve ge gel-di-im + iin (ben-(im) ev-e ge gel-dik-im iin
I came home late + as as I came home late
As the (ben-im) parts in the noun compounds are generally ignored, only the
owned parts of the noun compounds are used as gel-dik-im and ge geldik-im. Since these parts are the owned parts of the noun compounds, they
are also nouns, and so, they can be followed by the postposition iin:
(onlar) (ben-im) okul-a ge gel-dik-im iin ben-i cezalan-dr-d-lar.
subject

noun + infinitive compound


postp
|
postpositional phrase of cause
def obj
predicate

|
verb

Note: (Ben-im) and (onlar) are not generally used. They are put there so that
the noun compounds should be well understood. The personal suffixes [im,
m, m, um, em, am], which mean ben-im, at the ends of the verb compositions are enough to express the possessive pronouns, and the [ler, lar],
which mean onlar, are enough to understand the pronouns.
They
subject

punished me as I came to school late,


verb

object

adverbial clause of cause


predicate

346

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Okul-a ge gel-dik-im iin ben-i cezalandr-d-lar.
(o*ku*la / ge / gel*di*im / i*in / be*ni / ce*za:*lan*dr*d*lar )
They punished me as I came to school late.
Soru-lar g ol-duk-u iin (onlar-n) ok-u-/n/a cevap ver-e.me-di-im.
(so*ru*lar / g / ol*du*u / i*in / o*u*na / ce*vap / ve*re*me*dim )
As the questions were difficult, I couldnt answer most of them.
ok yamur ya-dk- iin stadyum-a zaman-/n/-da var-a.ma-d-lar.
(ok / ya*mur / ya*d* / i*in / s*tad*yu*ma / za*ma:*nn*da / va*ra*ma*d*lar )
They couldnt get to the stadium in time as it was raining heavily.
(Ben-im) gzlk-m- (ben-im) ev-de unut-tuk-um iin retmen-in
tahta-/y/a yaz-dk-lar--/n/ gr-e.me-di-im.
(gz*l**m / ev*de / u*nut*tu*um / i*in / *ret*me*nin / tah*ta*ya /
yaz*dk*la*r*n / g*re*me*dim )
As I had left my glasses at home, I couldnt see what the teacher was
writing on the board.
The two "ben-im" words above are put there to show the compounds clearly. They are not used in current speech, and "retmen-in tahta-ya yaz-dklar- is a noun + infinitive compound.
Saat be ol-duk-u iin al-ma-/y/ brak-sa-ak iyi ol-ur.
(sa*at / be / ol*du*u / i*in~ / a*l*ma*y / b*rak*sak / i*yi / o*lur )
As it is five, we had better stop work-ing. (Work-ing is a nominal gerund.)
The conjunction nk is used in Turkish as because is used in English:
Yava yava yr-.yor-du, nk ar bir sepet ta-.yor-du.
She was walking slowly because she was carrying a heavy basket.
ok al-ma.l-sn, nk yarn snav-a gir-e.cek-sin.
You must study hard because you will have an examination tomorrow.
Yznden, den dolay or nedeniyle complex postpositions can be
used in Turkish as because of preposition is used in English:
iddet-li yamur yz-/n/-den (neden-i/y/-le) ma- ertele-mek zor-u/n/-da
kal-d-lar. (id*det*li / ya*mur / y*zn*den / ma* / er*te*le*mek / zo*run*da / kal*d*lar ) They had to postpone the match because of the heavy
rainfall.

347

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Youn trafik yz-/n/-den (neden-i/y/-le) okul-a ge kal-d-m.
(yo*un / tra*fik / y*zn*den / o*ku*la / ge / kal*dm )
I came to school late because of the heavy traffic.
Otobs grev-i yznden ev-e yr-/y/e.rek git-mek zorunda kal-d-k.
(o*to*bs / gre*vi / y*zn*den / e*ve / y*r*ye*rek / git*mek / zo*run*da /
kal*dk ) We had to walk home because of the bus strike.
Yksek fiyat-lar yznden hi birey satn al-a.ma-d-m.
I couldnt buy anything because of the high prices.
Fatma gzel gz-ler-i nedeni/y/-le ekici-dir.
(fat*ma / g*zel / gz*le*ri / ne*de*niy*le / e*ki*ci*dir )
Fatma is attractive because of her beautiful eyes.

CONTRAST (RAMEN, KARIN)


Noun compounds like (ben-im) al-ma-am-a ramen, (onun) git-me-/s/i/n/e ramen structures are used in Turkish in place of although + sentence in English. Ben-im al-ma-am, sen-in gel-me-en, biz-im konuma-am.z compounds are noun + infinitive compounds, whose second
parts are made of infinitives. The [e, a] allomorphs are the allomorphs that
are attached to nouns, pronouns and noun compounds, which help them
to be used as adverbials in sentences. Ramen, karn or neden-i/y/-le"
are prepositions used after nouns attached either to [e], or [a] allomorphs:
(O) onu (kendi-/s/i-/n/in) al-ma-/s/-/n/a ramen baar-a.ma-d
subj
|
noun + infinitive compound- /n/a
postp
|
def obj

postpositional adverbial phrase of contrast


predicate

verb

Note: The /s/ and /n/ are glides. "Kendisinin" and "o" are put here to help the
learners understand the deleted parts of the compounds. They are not used
in current Turkish because "kendisinin" and "o" can be understood from the
personal allomorphs. The mental production of this sentence is as follows:
(O) ok alt + ramen (kendi-/s/i-/n/in) ok al-ma-/s/-/n/a ramen"
He studied hard + although although he studied hard
He couldnt succeed although he studied hard.
subj

verb

adverbial clause of contrast


predicate

348

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ahmet (kendi-/s/i-/n/in) otomobil-i ol-ma-/s/-/n/a ramen okul-a otobs-le gel-ir.
subject

noun compound - /n/[a]


postp
|
|
|
postpositional phrase of contrast
adverbial adverbial verb
predicate

Although Ahmet has got a car, he comes to school by bus.


Yorgun ol-ma-am-a ramen al-ma-/y/a devam et-me.li-/y/im. (Liaison)
(yor*gun / ol*ma*ma / ra*men / a*l*ma*ya / de*va:*met*me*li*yim )
I must go on work-ing although I am tired.
ki kez oku-ma-am-a ramen ders-i anla-/y/a.ma-d-m.
(i*ki / kez / o*ku*ma*ma / ra*men / der*si / an*la*ya*ma*dm )
I couldnt understand the lesson although I read twice.
iman ol-ma-/s/-/n/a ramen hzl ko-a.bil-i.yor.
(i*man / ol*ma*s*na / ra*men / hz*l / ko*a*bi*li*yor )
Although he is fat, he can run fast.
Ayn otel-de kal-ma-am-z-a ramen birbirimiz-e rastla-ma-d-k.
(ay*n / o*tel*de / kal*ma*m*za / ra*men / bir*bi*ri*mi*ze / rast*la*ma*dk)
Although we were staying in the same hotel, we didnt meet.
On ya-/n/-da ol-ma-/s/-/n/a ramen oku-/y/up yaz-a.ma-.yor.
(on / ya*n*da / ol*ma*s*na / ra*men / o*ku*yup / ya*za*m*yor )
Although he is ten years old, he cant read and write.
Bykanne-em ok yal ol-ma-/s/-/n/a ramen ev i-i-/n/i kendi-/s/i
yap-ar. (b*y*kan*nem / ok / ya*l / ol*ma*s*na / ra*men / e*vi*i*ni /
ken*di*si / ya*par ) (Liaison)
Although my grandmother is very old, she does her housework herself.
Yoksul ol-ma-lar--/n/a ramen mutlu-dur-lar.
(yok*sul / ol*ma*la*r*na / ra*men~/ mut*lu*dur*lar )
Although they are poor, they are happy.
One can use a verb-[DK]-owned personal morpheme + halde structure
as an alternative to the above postpositional phrase of contrast:
ok al-tk-m halde baar-a.ma-d-m.
(ok / a*l*t*m / hal*de / ba*a*ra*ma*dm )
Although I studied hard, I couldnt succeed.
Gr-e.me-dik-i halde piyano al-a.bil-i.yor-du.
(g*re*me*di*i / hal*de / pi*ya*no / a*la*bi*li*yor*du )
Although he wasnt able to see, he could play the piano.

349

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


yi gr-e.me-dik-i halde gzlk tak-mak iste-me-i.yor.
(i*yi / g*re*me*di*i / hal*de~/ gz*lk / tak*mak / is*te*mi*yor )
Although he cant see well, he doesnt want to wear glasses.
Modifier + noun- [e, a] + ramen can be used like in spite of + modifier + noun English prepositional phrase:
(Biz)
subj

iddet-li saanak-a ramen konser-e zaman-n-da yeti-ti-ik.


modifier
noun- a
postp
postp adverbial phrase of contrast

|
adverbial
predicate

|
adverbial

|
verb

We got to the concert on time in spite of the heavy rainfall.


|
subj

|
verb

|
adverbial

|
preposition
modifier
noun
adverbial
prep adverbial phrase of contrast
predicate

Tm glk-ler-e ramen da-n doruk-u-/n/a trman-a.bil-di-ler.


(tm / g*lk*le*re / ra*men / da*n / do*ru*u*na / tr*ma*na*bil*di*ler )
They were able to climb the peak of the mountain in spite of all difficulties.
Tm kt hava art-lar--/n/a ramen pilot uak- baar-/y/la indir-di.
The pilot landed the plane successfully in spite of all the unfavorable
weather conditions.
Kk gz-ler-i-/n/e ramen yakkl-dr.
(k*k / gz*le*ri*ne / ra*men / ya*k*k*l*dr )
He is handsome in spite of his small eyes.
Note: Some speakers and writers tend to use "karn" in place of "ramen"
to avoid this borrowed word: "Kk gzlerine karn (ramen) yakkldr".
[Ken] morpheme can also be used like while to express contrast:
Baz kimse-ler zengin-ken dier baz-lar- yoksul-dur.
(ba:*z / kim*se*ler / zen*gin*ken / di*er / ba:*z*la*r / yok*sul*dur )
While some people are wealthy, some others are poor.
Karnca al-r-ken, austos bcek-i zaman--/n/ ark syle-/y/e.rek
boa harca-ar-d. While the ant was working, the cicada used to waste
time sing-ing.

Baz kimseler ay- tercih et-er-ken, dier bazlar- kahve-/y/i tercih eder.
While some people prefer tea, some others prefer coffee.
Baz renci-ler ren-mek iin istek-li/y/-ken, dier baz-lar- ders-ler-e
kar kaytsz-dr.
While some students are eager to learn, some others are indifferent to
lessons.

350

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


PURPOSE
In order to compose an adverbial phrase of purpose, one should use a simple sentence containing wish mood (dilek kipi) without structurally changing it, and by doing so, the wish simple sentence becomes a nominal
phrase to be used preceding the postposition diye to compose a postpositional phrase of purpose:
eri-ye gir-e-/y/im.
eri-ye gir-e-sin.
eri-ye gir-sin.
eri-ye gir-e-lim.
eri-ye gir-e-sin.iz.
eri-ye gir-sin-ler.

Let me go in.
I wish you to go in
Let him go in.
Let us go in.
I wish you to go in.
Let them go in.

eri-/y/e gir-e-/y/im diye kapy at. He opened the door to let me go in.
simple sentence
postp
|
postp phrase of purpose
object
predicate

eri gir-e.bil-e-/y/im.
eri gir-e.bil-e-sin.
eri gir-e.bil-sin.
eri gir-e.bil-e-lim.
eri gir-e.bil-e-sin.iz.
eri gir-e.bil-sin-ler.

| subj
verb

verb

obj

adv phrs of purpose


predicate

Let me be able to go in.


I wish you to be able to go in.
I wish him to be able to go in.
Let us be able to go in.
I wish you to be able to go in.
I wish you to let them be able to go in.

1. verb - [e.bil, a.bil]-[e-/y/im, e-sin, sin, e-lim, e-sin.iz, sin-ler] + diye


2. verb - [e-/y/im, a-/y/m], [e-sin, a-sn], [sin, sn, sn, sun], [e-sin.iz,
a-sn.z], [sin-ler, sn-lar] + diye
Follow the examples:
(O) (Ben) ieri-/y/e gir-e-bil-e-/y/im diye
subj

kap-/y/ a-t.

simple sentence
postposition
|
adverbial phrase of purpose
def object
predicate

|
verb

He opened the door so that I could go in.


subj

verb

def object

adverbial clause of purpose


predicate

retmen ben-i daha iyi gr-e.bil-sin diye gzlk-ler-i-/n/i tak-t.


(*ret*men / be*ni / da*ha / i*yi / g*re*bil*sin / di*ye / gz*lk*le*ri*ni / tak*t )
The teacher put on her glasses so that she could see me better.

351

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Herkes gr-e.bil-sin diye onu daha byk iz.
(her*kes / g*re*bil*sin / di*ye / o*nu / da*ha / b*yk / iz )
Draw it larger so that everybody can see it.
eri-ye gir-sin diye kenar-a ekil-di-im.
(i*e*ri / gir*sin / di*ye / ke*na*ra / e*kil*dim )
I stepped aside so that she might come in.
Kimse bul-a.ma-sn diye para-/s/-/n/ dikkat-le sakla-d.
(kim*se / bu*la*ma*sn / di*ye / pa*ra*s*n / dik*kat*le / sak*la*d )
He hid his money carefully so that nobody could find it.
(In negatives, [e.me, a.ma] are used in place of [e-bil, a-bil])
Bir szlk al-a.bil-sin diye ona biraz para ver-di-im.
(bir / sz*lk / a*la*bil*sin / di*ye / o*na / bi*raz / pa*ra / ver*dim )
I gave her some money so that she could buy a dictionary.
Ahmet, snav- ge-e.bil-sin diye ok al-.yor.
(ah*met / s*na*v / ge*e*bil*sin / di*ye / ok / a*l**yor )
Ahmet is studying hard so that he can pass the examination.
Erken kalk-a.bil-sin diye o-/n/a bir alar saat satn al-d-m. (Liaison)
(er*ken / kal*ka*bil*sin / di*ye / o*na / bir / a*lar / sa*at / sa*t*nal*dm )
I bought an alarm clock for him so that he could get up early.
The postposition "diye" can also be used after some other simple sentences used as nominal phrases without being structurally changed. Consider the following:
(Ben) (o) gel-e.cek diye bekle-di-im.
subj

subj
verb
|
simple sentence postposition
adverbial phrs of purpose
predicate

|
|
verb

(ge*le*cek / di*ye / bek*le*dim)


I waited hoping that he would come.
Herkes anla-m-tr diye sz-m-e devam et-ti-im. (Liaison)
(her*kes / an*la*m*tr / di*ye / s*z*me / de*va:*met*tim )
I went on talk-ing thinking that everybody must have understood me.

352

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ertesi gn pazar diye ge vakte kadar otur-du-uk.
(er*te*si / gn / pa*zar / di*ye / ge / vak*te / ka*dar / o*tur*duk )
We sat up late knowing that the follow-ing day was Sunday.
Otobs kalabalk diye bin-me-di-im.
(o*to*bs / ka*la*ba*lk / di*ye / bin*me*dim )
Seeing that the bus was crowded, I didn't get on.
Kedi dar-/y/a k-sn diye kap-/y/ a-t-m.
I opened the door to let the cat go out.
(I opened the door so that the cat could go out.)
All the underlined parts of the English sentences above are adverbial
clauses, and the Turkish underlined parts are adverbial phrases.
If the concept of ability is ignored, the [e.bil, a.bil] are omitted, and the second type of the above chain is used following the vowel and consonant
harmony. The underlined parts of the sentences below are simple sentences that are used as nominal phrases:
(O) onu hi yanllk yap-ma-sn diye dikkat-le yaz-d.
subj

|
obj

simple sentence
postposition
|
postpositional phrase of purpose adverbial
predicate

|
verb

(hi / yan*l*lk / yap*ma*sn / di*ye / o*nu / dik*kat*le / yaz*d )


He wrote it carefully so that he shouldnt make a mistake.
Gzel gr-n-sn diye yeni elbise-/s/i-/n/i giy-di.
(g*zel / g*rn*sn / di*ye / ye*ni / el*bi*se*si*ni / giy*di )
She put her new dress on so that she might (should) look beautiful.
Ka-ma-sn diye at-m- bir aa-a bala-d-m.
(ka*ma*sn / di*ye / a*t*m / bir / a*a*ca / ba*la*dm )
I fastened my horse to a tree so that it shouldnt escape.
Hi parmak iz-i brak-ma-sn diye hrsz eldiven tak-m-t.
(hi / par*mak / i*zi / b*rak*ma*sn / di*ye / hr*sz / el*di*ven / tak*m*t )
The thief wore gloves so that he shouldnt leave any fingerprints.
ngilizceem-i uygula-/y/m diye baba-am ben-i ngiltere/y/e gtr-e.cek.
(in*gi*liz*ce*mi / uy*gu*la*ym / di*ye / ba*bam / be*ni / in*gil*te*re*ye /
g*t*re*cek)
My father will take me to London so that I could practice my English.
If the subject of the main clause, and that of the adverbial phrase are the
same, an infinitive + iin postpositional adverbial phrase can be used:

353

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Gzel gr-n-mek iin yeni elbise-/s/i-/n/i giy-di.
(g*zel / g*rn*mek / i* in / ye*ni / el*bi*se*si*ni / giy*di )
She put on her new dress to look beautiful. (To look is adverbial.)
Hrsz parmak iz-i brak-ma-mak iin eldiven tak-m-t.
(hr*sz / par*mak / i*zi / b*rak*ma*mak / i*in / el*di*ven / tak*mi*t )
The thief wore gloves not to leave any fingerprints.
Snav--/n/ ge-mek iin Ahmet ok al-.yor. (Liaison)
(s*na*v*n / ge*me*ki*in / ah*met / ok / a*l**yor )
Ahmet is studying hard to pass his examination.
Kpek-e at-mak iin yer-den bir ta al-d. (Liaison)
(k*pe*e / at*ma*ki*in / yer*den / bir / ta*al*d )
He picked up a stone to throw at the dog.
Islan-ma-mak iin emsiye-em-i al-d-m. (Liaison)
(s*lan*ma*ma*ki*in / em*si*ye*mi / al*dm )
I took my umbrella not to get wet.
ngilizce-/s/i-/n/i ilerlet-mek iin zel ders-ler al-.yor.
She is taking private lessons to improve her English.
Ben-i iyi (iyice) anla-mak iin dikkat-le dinle.
(be*ni / i*yi / an*la*mak / i*in / dik*kat*le / din*le )
Listen to me carefully to understand me well.
Bu kitap- anla-mak iin dikkat-le oku.
(bu / ki*ta*b / an*la*mak / i*in / dik*kat*le / o*ku )
Read carefully to understand this book.
Trke ren-mek iin ok al-ma.l-sn.
(trk*e / *ren*mek / i*in / ok / a*l*ma*l*sn)
You must study hard to learn Turkish.

PLACE
To produce an adverbial concept of place in Turkish, one can use iste-dik-in
yer-e (to the place where you wish), or nere-/y/e iste-er-se-en (where you
wish) expressions.
(Sen) iste-dik-in yer-e git-e.bil-ir-sin. You can go (to the place) where you wish.
subject

modifier noun-e
adverbial

verb

subj

354

verb

prep phrase
modifier
adverbial clause of place

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(Sen) kitap- (sen-in) bul-duk-un
subj

def obj

yer-e koy.

(noun comp) modifier


noun-e
postp adverbial phrase of place

verb

(You) put the book (in the place) where you found it.
subj

verb

def obj

prep phrs
modifier
adverbial clause of place

Nere-/y/e git-er-se-en (git) ngilizce konu-a.bil-en bir-i-/s/i-/n/i bul-a.bilir-sin. (ne*re*ye / gi*der*sen / git / in*gi*liz*ce / ko*nu*a*bi*len / bi*ri*si*ni /
bu*la*bi*lir*sin )
You can find someone who can speak English wherever you go.
Nasrettin Hoca eek-i-/n/i kaybet-tik-i yer-de bul-du ve bu onu ok mutlu etti.
Nasrettin Hoca found his donkey where he had lost it, which made him
very happy.
Been-dik-in (herhangi bir) yer-e otur-a.bil-ir-sin.
(be*en*di*in / ye*re / o*tu*ra*bi*lir*sin )
You can sit wherever you like.
Onu koy-duk-un yer-i hatrla-ma-/y/a al.
(o*nu / koy*du*un / ye*ri / ha*tr*la*ma*ya / a*l)
Try to remember where you put it.

MANNER
To transform a simple English sentence into an adverbial clause of manner,
the conjunction as is put in the beginning of a sentence. In Turkish, gibi
postposition is used after a noun + infinitive compound:
AS
The mental development of an adverbial phrase of manner is as follows:
Ben sana dyle-di-im + gibi ben-im sana dyle-dik-im gibi"
I told you + as "as I told you"
(Sen) onu, (ben-im) sana syle-dik-im gibi yap.
subj

|
def obj

(You) do it
subj

verb obj

noun compound
postp
|
postp adverbial phrase of manner verb
predicate

as I told you (to do).


adverbial clause of manner
predicate

(Ben) (ben-im) konu-tuk-um gibi yaz-ar-m. I write as I talk.


subj

postpositional phrase of manner.


predicate

verb

355

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(Sen) onu (o-/n/un) ol-duk-u gibi brak. Leave it as it is.
subj

|
object

noun compound
postp
|
postpositional phrs of manner verb
predicate

Gel-dik-ler-i gibi git-er-ler. (Mustafa Kemal Atatrk)


(gel*dik*le*ri / gi*bi / gi*der*ler)
They will go as they came.
(Biz) onu, (onun) biz-e sylen-dik-i gibi yap-t-k.
(o*nu / bi*ze / sy*len*di*i / gi*bi / yap*tk )
We did it as we had been told.
The words in brackets above are used to make the meaning understandable
for the learners. They are not necessary in current Turkish. For instance,
instead of saying "(Sen) (ben-im) karde-im-i gr-d-n m? people say
"Karde-im-i gr-d-n m?" because the pronoun Sen, and the personal
allomorph n both mean sen; and the "ben-im" and "im" both mean
"my". As "sen" and "ben-im" words are opinal elements, they may be ignored, and the current sentece becomes "Karde-im-i gr-d-n m?".
Likewise, there are two personal possessive morphemes in all noun compounds such as [im] in ben-im, and [im] in eker-im`, both of which
mean my. Therefore (ben-im) possessive pronoun may be ignored, and
only eker-im word (my sugar) is used instead of ben-im eker-im.
For instance:
"(ben-im) okul-um" (o*kul*um), "(sen-in) gz-ler-in" (gz*le*rin)
"(o-/n/un) anta-/s/" (an*ta*s), "(Biz-im) ev-im.iz" (e*vi*miz)
However, if possessive common nouns are used in the possessive parts,
they cannot be ignored:
"fiyat-lar-n art-ma-/s/", "okul-un n-", "Jack-in aka-/s/", "at-n
tekme-/s/i", Jack-in araba-/s/, sorun-lar-n a-l-ma-/s/I.
As it is seen in the examples above, if possessive pronouns are used in
the possessive parts of the noun compounds, these possessive pronouns
can be ignored. But If common nouns are used in the possessive parts, they
cannot be ignored because only the owned parts of these compounds do not
make sense.
(Ben) gel-e.cek hafta Ankara'ya gidiyor-um
subj
pronoun

subj
personal suffix

356

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


In Turkish, it is impossible to use only the pronoun without using the personal suffix at the end of a sentence. One has to say either Ben gelecek
hafta Ankaraya gidiyor-um, or Gelecek hafta Ankaraya gidiyor-um. It is
incorrect to say *Ben Ankaraya gidiyor, or *Ben Trke bilmiyor.
AS IF (AS THOUGH)
verb-[ [mi, m, m, mu]- (pers) + gibi verb structure is used to
express as if in Turkish. The mental development of "as if" is as follows:
"Sen bir soru sor-a.cak-sn" + gibi "bir soru sor-a.cak-m-(sn) gibi"
"You are going to ask a question" + as if as if you are going to ask a question
(Sen) bir soru sor-a.cak-m-(sn) gibi grn-.yor-sun.
subj

simple sentence
postp
postpositional adverbial phrase of manner
predicate

|
verb

(bir / so*ru / so*ra*cak*m / gi*bi / g*r*n*yor*sun )


You look as if you are going to ask a question.
(It seems that you are going to ask a question.)
Bana kz-m-(sn) (gibi) gr-n-.yor-sun.
(ba*na / kz*m / g*r*n*yor*sun )
You look (sound) as if you are angry with me.
(It seems that you are angry with me.)
Bu kuma pamuk-tan yap-l-m his-/s/i ver-i.yor.
(bu / ku*ma / pa*muk*tan / ya*pl*m / his*si / ve*ri*yor )
This material feels as if it is made of cotton.
Komu-da bir-i-ler-i bir parti ver-i.yor-lar-m gibi ses-ler gel-i.yor.
(kom*u*da / bi*ri*le*ri / bir / par*ti / ve*ri*yor*lar*m / gi*bi / ses*ler /
ge*li*yor )
It sounds as if some people are giving a party next door.
(I hear that the neighbors are giving a party.)
Bir ey yan-.yor-mu gibi bir koku al-.yor-um.
(bi*ey / ya*n*yor*mu / gi*bi / bir / ko*ku / a*l*yo*rum )
I smell as if something is burning. (Something is burning.)
The same mi gibi is also used for the unreal past, but in such sentences, nouns, modifier + noun, or simple sentences used as nominal
phrases take part.

357

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


The mental development of such sentences may be as follows:
(Ben) ocuk-um + gibi (ben) ocuk-mu-um gibi
I am a child + as if as if I were a child
(Sen) (ben) bir ocuk-mu-um gibi ben-im-le konu-ma.
subj

simple sentence
postp
postp adverbial phrase of manner
predicate

|
adverbial

|
verb

Dont talk to me as if I were a child. (I am not a child.)


Koca-/s//y/-m-m gibi bana bar-.yor.
(ko*ca*sy*m*m / gi*bi / ba*na / ba**r*yor )
She shouts at me as if I were her husband. (I am not her husband.)
Hizmeti-/s/i/y/-mi-im gibi bana emir ver-i.yor.
(hiz*met*i*siy*mi*im / gi*bi / ba*na / e*mir / ve*ri*yor )
She orders me round as if I were her servant. (I am not her servant.)
Hi bir ey ol-ma-m gibi al-ma-/y/a devam et-ti. (Liaison)
(hi / bir / ey / ol*ma*m / gi*bi / a*l*ma*ya / de*va:* met*ti )
He went on work-ing as if nothing had happened.
(Something had happened, but he didnt mind.)
ocuk-lar yap-a.cak-lar- bir ey yok-mu gibi bahe-de oyna-u.yor-lar.
(o*cuk*lar / ya*pa*cak*la*r / bir / ey / yok*mu / gi*bi / bah*e*de /
oy*nu*yor*lar )
The children are playing in the garden as if they had nothing to do.
Karm, (ben) bir supermen-mi-im gibi herey-i ben-im yap-ma-am-
iste-i.yor. (ka*rm ~/ bir / s*per*men*mi*im / gi*bi / her*e*yi / be*nim
/yap*ma*m / is*ti*yor )
My wife wants me to do everything as if I were a superman.
(I am not a superman.)
Salak-m-m gibi bana bak-p dur-ma.
(sa*lak*m*m / gi*bi / ba*na / ba*kp / dur*ma )
Dont stare at me as if I were a fool. (I am not a fool.)
Bana (sen-in) kle-en-mi-im gibi davran-ma.
(ba*na / k*len*mi*im / gi*bi / dav*ran*ma )
Dont treat me as if I were your slave. (I am not your slave.)

358

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


RESULT
In place of so or therefore, byle-ce, bu yzden, bu nedenle, bu
sa:ye-de, or bu ekilde adverbs may be used to supply a simple sentence with a result concept:
Sabah-le.yin erken kalk-t-m, ve byle-ce ev dev-im-i bitir-e.bil-di-im.
(sa*bah*le*yin / er*ken / kalk*tm ~/ ve / by*le*ce / e*v*de*vi*mi /
bi*ti*re*bil*dim )
I got up early, and so I was able to finish my homework.
ok a-m, bu yzden sandvi bile ye-/y/e.bil-ir-im.
I am very hungry; therefore, I can eat even three sandwiches.
Yamur ok iddet-li ya-.yor-du, bu neden-le bir yer-e sn-mak
zorunda kal-d-k.
It was raining heavily; therefore, we had to shelter somewhere.
Gne-li bir sabah-t, bu yz-den kr-da yr-/y/-e k-ma-/y/a karar ver-dik.

It was a sunny morning, so we decided to go for a walk in the country.


San-r-m tren tehir-li, bu yz-den bekle-mek zorunda-/y/z.
I think the train is late, so we have to wait.
Elektrik kes-il-di, bu yzden ev dev-im-i yap-a.ma-d-m.
The electricity went off; therefore, I couldnt do my homework.
Ge ol.u.yor, bu yzden ev-e dn-se-ek iyi ol-ur.
It is getting late, so we had better go back home.
Kz karde-in ev dev-i-/n/i yap-.yor, bu yzden televizyon-u kapat-sa-an iyi ol-ur.

Your sister is doing her homework; therefore, you had better turn off the TV.

SO THAT

SUCH THAT

Such result clauses are formed by an o kadar + adjective (adverb)-[time]


+ ki + simple sentence structure in Turkish as it is used in English. Consider the following:
Sorular o kadar g-t
subject

ki sadece birka renci cevap ver-e.bil-di

adverbial subj comp conj


deficient predicate

adv

adjective
subject

noun

|
|
indef object
verb
predicate

The questions were so difficult that only few students were able to answer.
subject

deficient predicate

conj

adv

359

adj
noun
subject

verb subject complement


predicate

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Yk o kadar ar-d ki iki at bile araba-/y/ ek-e.me-di.
(yk / o*ka*dar / a*r*d / ki / i*ki / at / bi*le / a*ra*ba*y / e*ke*me*di )
The load was so heavy that even two horses could not pull the cart.
O kadar hzl konu-ur ki onu anla-/y/a.maz-sn.
(o*ka*dar / hz*l / ko*nu*ur / ki / o*nu / an*l*ya*maz*sn )
She speaks so fast that you cant understand her.
Otobs ofr- o kadar hzl sr-.yor-du ki tm yolcu-lar kork-tu.
(o*to*bs / o*f*r / o*ka*dar / hz*l / s*r*yor*du / ki ~/ tm / yol*cu*lar /
kork*tu )
The bus driver was driving so fast that all the passengers were frightened.
Sokak-lar o kadar kaygan ki kay-p d-e.bil-ir-sin.
(so*kak*lar / o*ka*dar / kay*gan / ki ~/ ka*yp / d*e*bi*lir*sin )
The streets are so slippery that you may slip and fall down.
Oda o kadar karanlk-t ki bir-i-bir-ler-i-/n/i gr-e.me-di-ler.
(o*da / o*ka*dar / ka*ran*lk*t / ki ~/ bi*ri*bir*le*ri*ni / g*re*me*di*ler )
The room was so dark that they couldnt see each other.
If a modifier", such as in an interesting book, is used as a predicate with
the intensifier ok in a simple sentence, such as kitap ok ilgin-ti, this
intensifier changes into o kadar adverbial implying that a main close will
be following the subordinate clause beginning with the ki conjunction:

o kadar + adjective + noun - [time] + ki


ok ilgin bir kitap-t. o kadar ilgin bir kitap-t
O kadar ilgin bir kitap-t ki onu bir gn-de bitir-di-im.
(o*ka*dar / il*in / bir / ki*tap*t / ki ~/ o*nu / bir / gn*de / bi*tir*dim )
It was such an interesting book that I finished it in a day.
Arkadalar-m ok hzl kouyordu. arkada-lar-m o kadar hz-l ko-u.yor-du
Arkada-lar-m o kadar hz-l ko-u.yor-du ki onlar-a yeti-e.me-di-im.
My friends were running so fast that I couldnt catch up with them.
O kadar kalabalk bir otobs-t ki bin-e.me-di-im.
(o / ka*dar / ka*la*ba*lk / bir / o*to*bs*t / ki~ / bi*ne*me*dim )
It was such a crowded bus that I couldnt get on.

360

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


O kadar ok kitap- var-d ki hangi-/s/i-/n/i oku-/y/a.cak--/n/a karar vere.me-i.yor-du.
(o / ka*dar / ok / ki*ta*b / var*d / ki~ / han*gi*si*ni / o*ku*ya*ca**na /
ka*rar / ve*re*mi*yor*du )
He had such a lot of books that he couldnt decide which to read.
O kadar uzun sa-lar- var-d ki herkes onu kz san-.yor-du.
(o / ka*dar / u*zun / sa*la*r / var*d / ki / her*kes / o*nu / kz /
sa*n*yor*du )
He had such long hair that everybody thought he was a girl.
yle (o kadar) g-l bir rzgr var-d ki futbol oyna-/y/a.ma-d-k.
(y*le / g*l / bir / rz*gr / var*d / ki ~/ fut*bol / oy*n*ya*ma*dk )
There was such a strong wind that we couldnt play football.

too + adjective + to + verb and adjective + enough + to+ verb


To form a Turkish chain that can be used in place of the above first pattern,
verb-[mek, mak] + iin + ok + adjective-[time]-[pers] structure is used:
Ben basketbol oyna-mak iin
subj

ok yal-/y/m.

noun
infinitive
postp
|
|
postp adverbial phrs of reason intensifier subj comp
predicate

I am too old to play basketball. (The underlined infinities are adverbial.)


Kz-m araba sr-mek iin ok gen-ti.
(k*zm / a*ra*ba / sr*mek / i*in / ok / gen*ti )
My daughter was too young to drive. (To drive is an adverbial infinitive.)
Olum araba sr-mek iin ok yal ol-duk-um-u syle-.yor.
(o*lum ~ / a*ra*ba / sr*mek / i*in / ok / ya*l / ol*du*u*mu /
sy*l*yor)
My son says that I am too old to drive. (To drive is an adverbial infinitive.)
As an alternative to the sentences above oyna-/y/a.ma-/y/a.cak kadar,
sr-e.me-/y/e.cek kadar expressions may also be used:
Hava dar-/y/a k-a.ma-/y/a.cak kadar souk.
(ha*va / d*a*r / *ka*m*ya*cak / ka*dar / so*uk )
It is too cold to go out. (To go out is an adverbial infinitive.)
Sorular cevap ver-il-e.me-/y/e.cek kadar g.
(so*ru*lar / ce*vap / ve*ri*le*me*ye*cek / ka*dar / g )
The questions are too difficult to answer. (To answer is an adverbial infinitive)

361

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ben-i anla-/y/a.ma-/y/a.cak kadar gen-sin.
(sen ~/ be*ni / an*la*ya*ma*ya*cak / ka*dar / gen*sin )
You are too young to understand me. (To understand is an adverbial infinive.)
Bu araba satn al-n-a.ma-/y/a.cak kadar eski. (Liaison)
(bu / a*ra*ba / sa*t*na*l*na*ma*ya*cak / ka*dar / es*ki )
This car is too old to be bought (to buy).
al-ma-/y/a devam et-e.me-/y/e.cek kadar yorgun-um.
(a*l*ma*ya / de*vam / e*de*me*ye*cek / ka*dar / yor*gu*num )
I am too tired to go on work-ing. (Work-ing is the object of on)
When the verb is positive, verb-[e.cek, a.cak] + kadar + adjective (adverb) + verb-[pers] composition is used in place of adjective + enough +
verb composition of the English language:
Soru-lar, hep-/s/i-/n/e cevap ver-e.cek kadar kolay-d.
(so*ru*lar / hep*si*ne / ce*vap / ve*re*cek / ka*dar / ko*lay*d )
The questions were easy enough to answer all of them.
Herey-i anla-/y/a.cak ya-ta-sn.
(sen / her*e*yi / an*la*ya*cak / ya*ta*sn )
You are old enough to understand everything.
Olum, basketbol oyna-/y/a.bil-e.cek kadar uzun boylu.
(o*lum / bas*ket*bol / oy*na*ya*bi*le*cek / ka*dar / u*zun / boy*lu )
My son is tall enough to play basketball.
Bu cmle-ler-i anla-/y/a.bil-e.cek kadar akll-sn.
(sen~ / bu / cm*le*le*ri / an*la*ya*bi*le*cek / ka*dar / a*kl*l*sn )
You are clever enough to understand these sentences.

DEGREE
COMPARATIVE DEGREE (COMPARISON OF INEQUALITY)
To compare something with another, at least two nominals should exist in a
sentence. These nominals may be nouns, pronouns, infinitives or noun
compounds. To add comparison to a sentence noun / noun - [den, dan,
ten, tan] + daha (az) + adjective (adverb) + verb structure is used.
Follow the example sentences:
(Ben) sen-den (daha) yal-/y/m.
subj

comparative adverbial
predicate

subj comp

I
subj

362

am

old-er

than you.

verb subj comp comparative adverbial


predicate

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(Ben) sen-den (daha) hzl ko-ar-m. I
subj

comparative adverbial
predicate

verb

subj

run
verb

fast-er

than you.

comp adv comp adverbial


predicate

Trke ngilizce-den (daha) karmak-tr.


subject

comparative adverbial subj complement


predicate

Turkish is more complicated than English.


subject

verb

subject complement
comparative adverbial
predicate

Besides nouns and pronouns, noun compounds and infinitives can be compared:
Otobs-le seyahat et-mek uak-la seyahat et-mek-ten ucuz-dur.
infinitive
subject

infinitive-ten =comparative adverbial subject comp


predicate

Travel-ing by bus is cheaper than travel-ing by air.


Ben-im araba-am sen-in araba-an-dan (daha) iyi.
(be*nim / a*ra*bam / se*nin / a*ra*ban*dan / da*ha / i*yi )
My car is better than your car.
Ben-im ta-dk-m sen-in ta-dk-n-dan daha ar-d.
(be*nim / ta**d*m / se*nin / ta**d*n*dan / da*ha / a*r*d )
What I carried was heavier than what you carried (did).
Daha salk-l gr-n-.yor-sun. (Grn is a reflexive verb.)
(da*ha / sa*lk*l / g*r*n*yor*sun )
You look healthier (than you were before). (Healthy is an adjective.)
As the expression in parentheses is already in the minds of both the speaker
and the listener, it is not generally put into words. (deletion)
(Sen) ben-den daha salk-l grn-.yor-sun.
(ben*den / da*ha / sa*lk*l / g*r*n*yor*sun )
You look healthier than I. (Look is a linking verb; healthier is an adjective.)
Bugn daha erken kalk-t-n.
(bu*gn / da*ha / er*ken / kalk*tn )
You got up earlier today. (than before).
Kz karde-in sen-den daha ok al-.yor.
(kz*kar*de*in / sen*den / da*ha / ok / a*l**yor )
Your sister works harder than you. (than you work).

363

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Biz-im rn-ler-im.iz ithl rn-ler-den daha ucuz-dur.
(bi*zim / *rn*le*ri*miz / it*h:l / *rn*ler*den / da*ha / u*cuz*dur )
Our products are cheaper than imported ones.
Bekle-dik-im-den daha abuk ren-i.yor-sun.
(bek*le*di*im*den / da*ha / a*buk / *re*ni*yor*sun )
You are learning faster than I expected.
Grn-dk-n-den akll-sn.
(sen / g*rn*d*n*den / da*ha / a*kl*l*sn )
You are cleverer than you look.
Film-i um-duk-um-dan daha ilgin bul-du-um.
(fil*mi / um*du*um*dan / da*ha / il*gin / bul*dum )
I found the film more interesting than I expected.
Bu marka ayakkab-lar teki-ler-den daha az dayankl-dr.
(bu / mar*ka / a*yak*ka*b*lar / *te*ki*ler*den / da*ha / az / da*ya*nk*l*dr)
This brand of shoes is less durable than those.
Ben-im araba-am sen-in-ki/n/-den daha az konforlu.
(be*nim / a*ra*bam / se*nin*kin*den / da*ha / az / kon*for*lu )
My car is less comfortable than yours.
Kendi-/s/i-/n/i herkes-ten daha akll san-.yor.
(ken*di*si*ni / her*kes*ten / da*ha / a*kl*l / sa*n*yor )
She thinks herself to be cleverer than everybody.
Kz-lar erkek ocuk-lar-dan daha alkan-dr.
(kz*lar / er*kek / o*cuk*lar*dan / da*ha / a*l*kan*dr )
Girls are more hardworking than boys.
Ben-den daha az akll deil-sin.
(sen / ben*den / da*ha / az / a*kl*l / de*il*sin )
You are not less clever then me (I am).
Ucuz rn-ler pahal rn-ler-den daha az dayankl-dr.
(u*cuz / *rn*ler / pa*ha*l / *rn*ler*den / da*ha / az / da*ya*nk*l*dr )
Inexpensive products are less durable than the expensive ones.

SUPERLATIVE DEGREE
The superlative degree of an adjective or an adverb is made by putting the
intensifier adverb en before an adjective or an adverb:

364

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ben-im araba-am ehir-de-ki en ekonomik araba-dr.
(be*nim / a*ra*bam / e*hir*de*ki / en / e*ko*no*mik / a*ra*ba*dr )
My car is the most economical car in town.
Fatma dnya/n/n en gzel kadn--dr.
(fat*ma / dn*ya:*nn / en / g*zel / ka*d*n*dr )
Fatma is the most beautiful woman of the world.
ita dnya-da-ki en hzl hayvan-dr.
(i*ta / dn*ya:*da*ki / en / hz*l / hay*van*dr )
The cheetah is the swiftest animal in the world.
ita en hz-l ko-ar.
(i*ta / en / hz*l / ko*ar )
The cheetah runs the swiftest.
(Ben-im) kar-m hep en iyi-/s/i-/n/i se-er.
(ka*rm / hep / en / i*yi*si*ni / se*er )
My wife always chooses the best.
Jack okul-da-ki en yakkl ocuk-tur.
(jack / o*kul*da*ki / en / ya*k*k*l / o*cuk*tur )
Jack is the most handsome boy in school.
Ocak, Trkiyede yl-n en souk ay--dr.
(o*cak / tr*ki*ye*de / y*ln / en / so*uk / a*y*dr )
January is the coldest month of the year in Turkey.

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EQUALITY


All intensifiers are adverbs that intensify or weaken modifiers or adverbs.
To build up an adjectival or adverbial equality, nominal phrase + nominal
phrase + kadar + adverb (adjective) + verb chain is used. Consider the following sentences:
Kar-m

ok

hzl

subject

intensifier

adverb
predicate

Bir kedi
subject

bir kpek

yz-e.bil-ir. My wife can swim very fast.

kadar

verb

hzl

subject

ko-a.bil-ir.

noun
postp
|
postp phrs of comparison adv
predicate

|
verb

A cat can run as fast as a dog.

365

verb

intens adv
predicate

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Kar-m ben-im (yz-dk-m) kadar hzl yz-e.bil-ir.
subject

noun compound
postp
|
postp phrase of comparison
adverb
predicate

|
verb

My wife can swim as fast as I can (swim).


Jack kz karde-i kadar
subj

noun comp
postp
postp phrs of comparison
predicate

akll-dr.
|
verb

Jack is as clever as her sister.


(Ben) (sen-in) san-dk-n kadar akll deil-im. (san*d*n)
subj

noun compound
postp
postp adv phrs of comparison
predicate

|
verb

I am not so (as) clever as you think.


Bir Jeep kullan-mak normal bir araba kullan-mak kadar ekonomik deil.
Driv-ing a Jeep is not as economical as driv-ing an ordinary car.
Bir masal kitap- oku-mak bir ansiklopedi oku-mak kadar retici deil-dir.
Read-ing a storybook is not as instructive as read-ing an encyclopedia.
(Sen) soru-lar-a el-in-den gel-dik-i kadar dikkat-li cevap ver-me.li-sin.

You must answer the questions as carefully as you can. (gel*di*i)


Araba-an- baba-an kadar dikkat-li sr-me.li-sin.
(a*ra*ba*n / ba*ban / ka*dar / dik*kat*li / sr*me*li*sin )
You must drive your car as carefully as your father does.
O
subj

bir katr kadar (gibi) inat-dr. He is as obstinate as a mule.


noun
postp
|
postp adv phrs of compr subj complement
predicate

Hava dn-k (hava) kadar souk deil.


(ha*va / dn*k / ka*dar / so*uk / de*il )
It is not as cold as it was yesterday.
Kz ocuklar, erkek ocuklar-dan daha fazla anne ve babalarna dkn-dr.

Daughters are more devoted to their parents than sons.

366

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


PARALLEL PROPORTION (KOUT UYUM)
A parallel proportion can be built up using the following sentence structure:
ne + kadar + adverb (adjective) + verb -[ir, r, r, ur, er, ar]-[se, sa][pers] o + kadar + adverb (adjective) + verb
The first parts of these sentences are conditional, and the second parts are
main clauses.
(Sen) ne kadar erken kalk-ar-sa-an, o kadar
subject

intensifier
adverb
verb
adverbial phrase of condition
predicate

iyi (ol-ur)

|
|
intensifier subj complement

Ne kadar erken kalk-ar-sa-an o kadar iyi ol-ur.


(ne*ka*dar / er*ken / kal*kar*san / o / ka*dar / i*yi / o*lur)
The earlier you get up, the better.
nsan-lar ne kadar kolay yksel-ir-ler-se, o kadar kt d-er-ler.
(in*san*lar / ne / ka*dar / ko*lay / yk*se*lir*ler*se / o / ka*dar / k*t /
d*er*ler ) The easier they (the people) rise, the harder they fall.
Ne kadar ok al-r-sa-an, o kadar iyi sonu-lar al-r-sn.
(ne / ka*dar / ok / a*l*r*san ~/o/ ka*dar / i*yi / so*nu*lar / a*lr*sn )
The harder you work, the better results you (will) get.
Ne kadar erken yol-a kar-lar-sa o kadar erken var-r-lar.
(ne / ka*dar / er*ken / yo*la / *kar*lar*sa / o*ka*dar / er*ken / va*rr*lar )
The earlier they leave, the sooner they will arrive.
Telefon-la ne kadar uzun konu-ur-sa-an, o kadar fazla de-mek zorunda kal-r-sn. The longer you talk on the telephone, the more you will
have to pay.
Ne kadar hesap-l ol-ur-sa, o kadar iyi ol-ur.
(ne / ka*dar / he*sap*l / o*lur*sa / o / ka*dar / i*yi / o*lur )
The more economical, the better.
Ne kadar yetki, o kadar sorumlu-luk.
(ne / ka*dar / yet*ki / o / ka*dar / so*rum*lu*luk )
The more authority, the more responsibility.
Ne kadar az yer-se-en, o kadar iyi.
(ne / ka*dar / az / yer*sen / o / ka*dar / i*yi )
The less you eat, the better.

367

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


WISH
WISH + WOULD
The expression above is used when the speaker wishes something to happen, or when he is complaining about the present situation. I wish is generally translated into Turkish as keke = I wish, which may sometimes be
misleading when it is used with would. In Turkish, this sort of expression is
called dilek kipi, which means, wish mood". The structure of this expression is as follows:
verb-([me, ma])-[se, sa]-[pers] or verb-[e.bil, a.bil]-[se,sa]-[pers]
Compare and consider the following sentences:
u adam eki grlt-/s/-/n/ bir durdur-sa!
(u / a*dam / e*ki / g*rl*t*s*n / bir / dur*dur*sa~)
I wish that man would stop hammer-ing.
Biri-/s/i u televizyon-un ses-i-/n/i bir ks-sa!
(bi*ri*si / u / te*le*viz*yo*nun / se*si*ni / bir / ks*sa~)
I wish someone would turn down that TV.
Biri-/s/i u telefon-a cevap ver-se!
(bi*ri*si / u / te*le*fo*na / ce*vap / ver*se~)
I wish someone would answer this telephone call.
Bir-i -/n/iz bana yardm et-se! Nasl ol-ur?
(bi*ri*niz / ba*na / yar*dm / et*se~ / nasl / o*lur)
I wish one of you would help me.
u sigara-/y/ bir brak-a.bil-se-em!
(u / si*ga*ra*y / bir / b*ra*ka*bil*sem~)
I wish I could stop smok-ing.
Araba-/y/ bu kadar hzl sr-me-se-en; ol-maz m?
(a*ra*ba*y / bu / ka*dar / hz*l / sr*me*sen / ol*maz / m )
I wish you wouldnt drive the car so fast. Wouldnt you?
nsanlar keke piknik-e git-in.ce etraf-a p at-ma-sa-lar.
(in*san*lar / ke*ke / pik*ni*e / gi*din*ce / et*ra:*fa / p / at*ma*sa*lar )
I wish people wouldnt throw litter all around when they go for a picnic.
nallah uak ge kal-maz!
(in*al*lah / u*ak / ge / kal*maz)
I wish (hope) the plane wouldnt be late!

368

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


WISH + PAST SUBJUNCTIVE
People use wish and past tense in English when they regret something at
present. In place of wish, Turkish people use keke and verb [se/y/-di],
[sa/y/-d]-[pers] verb chain. This chain is also used when somebody is sorry
about a past fact or event:
Keke daha gen ol-sa-/y/d-m.
(ke*ke / da*ha / gen / ol*say*dm )
I wish I were younger. (But I am not young.)
Keke sen-in yer-in-de ol-sa/y/-d-m.
(ke*ke / se*nin / ye*rin*de / ol*say*dm )
I wish I were you.
Keke herey o kadar kolay ol-sa/y/-d.
(ke*ke / her*ey / o*ka*dar / ko*lay / ol*say*d )
I wish everything were (was) so easy. (They arent so easy.)
Keke btn gn hava gne-li ol-sa/y/-d.
(ke*ke / b*tn / gn / ha*va / g*ne*li / ol*say*d )
I wish it were sunny all day long. (Unfortunately, it isnt.)
Jack daha yakkl ol-ma-/y/ arzu et-er-di.
(jack / da*ha / ya*k*k*l / ol*ma*y / ar*zu / e*der*di )
Jack wishes he were (was) more handsome. (But he isnt.)
pek mas-mavi gz-ler-i ol-ma-/s/-/n/ arzu et-er-di.
(i*pek / mas*ma:*vi / gz*le*ri / ol*ma*s*n / ar*zu / e*der*di )
pek wishes she had deep blue eyes.
Herkes zengin ol-ma-/y/ arzu et-er. (e*der)
Everybody wishes they were wealthy. (But they aren't.)
Keke kar-m bu kadar inat ol-ma-sa.
(ke*ke / ka*rm / bu / ka*dar / i*nat* / ol*ma*sa )
I wish my wife werent (wasnt) so obstinate. (But she is.)
Keke sana yardm et-e.bil-se/y/-di-im.
(ke*ke / sa*na / yar*dm / e*de*bil*sey*dim )
I wish I could help you. (Unfortunately I cant.)

369

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Keke yarn okul-a git-mek zorunda ol-ma-sa/y/-d-m.
(ke*ke / ya*rn / o*ku*la / git*mek / zo*run*da / ol*ma*say*dm )
I wish I wouldnt have to go to school tomorrow. (But I will have to go.)
Keke bir spor araba-am ol-sa/y/-d.
(ke*ke / bir / spor / a*ra*bam / ol*say*d )
I wish I had a sports car. (But I dont have.)
Daha byk bir ev-im ol-ma-/s/-/n/ arzu et-er-di-im.
(da*ha / b*yk / bir / e*vim / ol*ma*s*n / ar*zu / e*der*dim )
I wished I had a larger house.
Yabanc bir dil ren-mek keke daha kolay ol-sa/y/-d.
(ya*ban*c / bir / dil / *ren*mek / ke*ke / da*ha / ko*lay / ol*say*d )
I wish learn-ing a second language were (was) easier.
Keke retmen-ler daha dost davran-l ol-sa-lar-d.
(ke*ke / *ret*men*ler / da*ha / dost / dav*ra*n*l / ol*sa*lar*d )
I wish teachers were more friendly.

WISH + PAST PERFECT OR PERFECT MODAL


In Turkish, the present, the future, and the past wish concepts are all reflected into sentences by using the previous verb chain. However, when somebody is sorry about a past fact or event, The Past Perfect Tense or a Perfect
Modal is used in English:
Keke geen pazar konser-e git-se/y/-di-im.
(ke*ke / ge*en / pa*zar / kon*se*re / git*sey*dim )
I wish I had gone to the concert last Sunday. (I wished, but I couldnt.)
Keke dn soru-lar-a daha dikkatli cevap ver-se/y/-di-im.
(ke*ke / dn / so*ru*la*ra / da*ha / dik*kat*li / ce*vap / ver*sey*dim )
I wish I had answered the questions more carefully.
(I regret to say that I didnt answer the questions carefully.)
Keke o spor arabay satn al-a-bil-se/y/-di-im. (Liaison)
(ke*ke / o / spor / a*ra*ba*y / sa*t*na*la*bil*sey*dim )
I wish I could have bought that sports car.
Keke dn ma- kazan-a.bil-se/y/-di-ik.
(ke*ke / dn / ma* / ka*za*na*bil*sey*dik )
I wish we could have won the game yesterday.

370

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Keke onu geen hafta bitir-e.bil-se/y/-di-im.
(ke*ke / o*nu / ge*en / haf*ta / bi*ti*re*bil*sey*dim )
I wish I could have finished it last week.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
There are two parts in a conditional sentence: if clause and the main
clause. In an if clause, the supposition is either real or unreal. These
real and unreal suppositions in Turkish are also classified according to their
times:
1 (a): present real supposition. 1(b): present unreal supposition. 2 (a):
past real supposition. 2 (b): past unreal supposition.
1 (a): If the supposition is real at present, verb-[ir, r, r, ur, er, ar][se, sa]-[pers] verb composition is used in the condition part, and The
Simple Present (Geni Zaman) is used in the result part of a conditional
sentence.
1 (b): If the supposition is unreal at present, verb-[se,sa]-[pers]
verb structure is used in the condition part, and used to (Geni Zamann
Hikyesi) is used in the result part of a conditional sentence.
2 (a): If the supposition is real in the past, verb-[di/y/, d/y/, d/y/,
du/y/, ti/y/, t/y/, t/y/, tu/y/]-[se, sa]-[pers] is used in the condition part,
and verb-[mi, m, m, mu]-[tir, tr, tr, tur] verb composition is used
in the result part of a conditional sentence.
2 (b): If the supposition is unreal in the past, verb-[se/y/, sa/y/]-[di, d][pers] verb structure is used in the condition part, and used to (imdiki
Zamann Hikyesi) is used in the result part of a conditional sentence.

1 (a): PRESENT REAL SUPPOSITION


In the if parts, and in the result parts of conditional sentences in Turkish,
there may be two personal concepts. One of them is in the beginning as a
pronoun, and the other one in the end as a personal allomorph such as:
(Sen) al-r-sa-an, and (sen) baar-r-sn
In the example sentences, the pronouns are generally omitted because the
personal allomorphs at the ends of both the condition parts and the main
clause parts are enough to express these pronouns. The personal allo-

371

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


morphs attached to the condition parts are written in blue, the personal allomorphs attached to the main clause parts are also written in blue.
(Sen) al-r-sa-an / (sen) baar-r-sn.
This conditional sentence is like the English sentence If you work, you succeed. In the first part, sen means you, the [sa] allomorph means if. The
[ir] allomorph is The Simple Present allomorph, and the [an] allomorph also
means sen. In the result part of this conditional sentence, as in the condition part, there are two you concepts: you and [sn], which mean the
same thing. Therefore, the personal pronouns in the beginnings of the two
parts of a conditional sentence may be ignored unless they are intentionally
stressed.
(Sen) al-r-sa-an (sen) baar-r-sn.
(a*l*r*san / ba*a*rr*sn ) If you work, you succeed.
The same rule is applied to all conditional sentences in Turkish. Clauses
like English clauses are used only in conditional sentences in Turkish.
Consider the following:
Ben al-r-sa-am ben baar-r-m. (a*l*r*sam / ba*a*r*rm )
Sen al-r-sa-an sen baar-r-sn. (a*l*r*san / ba*a*rr*sn )
O al-r-sa o baar-r. (a*l*r*sa / ba*a*rr )
Ahmet al-r-sa Ahmet baar-r. (ah*met / a*l*r*sa / ba*a*rr )
Biz al-r-sa-ak biz baar-r-z. (a*l*r*sak / ba*a*r*rz )
Siz al-r-sa-an.z siz baar-r-sn.z. (a*l*r*sa*nz / ba*a*rr*s*nz )
Onlar al-r-lar-sa onlar baar-r-lar. (a*l*r*lar*sa / ba*a*rr*lar )
However, the English equivalents of the conditional sentences above are as
follows:
I will succeed if I work.
You will succeed if you work.
He will succeed if he works, etc.
Follow the examplas:
(Biz) yamur ya-ar-sa (biz) ev-de
subj

adverb clause of cond

otur-ur-uz.

subj adverbial verb-personal subj


predicate

(ya*mur / ya*ar*sa ~ / ev*de / o*tu*ru*ruz )


If it rains, we will stay at home. We will stay at home if it rains.

372

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


al-r-sa-an snav- ge-er-sin.
(a*l*r*san ~ / s*na*v / ge*er*sin )
If you study, you will pass the exam.
ok al-r-sa-an baar-a-bil-ir-sin.
(ok / a*l*r*san ~ / ba*a*ra*bi*lir*sin )
If you work hard, you can succeed.
Onu dr-r-se-en kr-l-r. (Krl-r means o krlr)
(o*nu / d**rr*sen ~ / k*r*lr )
If you drop it, it will break.
Onu tekrar yap-ar-sa-an tokat- yer-sin.
(o*nu / tek*rar / ya*par*san ~ / to*ka*d / yer*sin )
If you do that again, I will slap you.
Bulak-lar- yka-ar-sa-an sana ev dev-i/n/-de yardm et-er-im.
(bu*la*k*la*r / y*kar*san ~/ sa*na / ev / *de*vin*de / yar*dm / e*de*rim)
If you wash the dishes, I will help you with your homework.
Dikkat-li sr-er-se-en kaza yap-maz-sn.
(dik*kat*li / s*rer*sen~ / ka*za: / yap*maz*sn )
If you drive carefully, you wont have an accident.
Hazr-sa-an dar-/y/a k-a-bil-ir-iz.
(ha*zr*san~ / d*a*r / *ka*bi*li*riz )
We can go out if you are ready.
Seyret-me-i.yor-sa-an televizyon-u kapat.
(sey*ret*mi*yor*san ~/ te*le*viz*yo*nu / ka*pat )
Turn it off if you are not watching television.
Gel-ir-ler-se memnun ol-ur-uz.
(ge*lir*ler*se ~/ mem*nun / o*lu*ruz )
We will be happy if they come.
(In the third person plural [se] and [ler] allomorphs change places.)
Bu dme-/y/e bas-ar-sa-an asansr aa-/y/a gel-ir.
(bu / d*me*ye / ba*sar*san ~ / a*san*sr / a*a* / ge*lir )
If you press this button, the elevator will come down.

373

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


retmen bana bak-ar-sa onun bana bir soru sor-a.cak--/n/ tahmin et-er-im.
(*ret*men / ba*na / ba*kar*sa~ / o*nun / ba*na / bir / so*ru / so*ra*ca**n / tah*min / e*de*rim )
If the teacher looks at me, I can guess that he is going to ask me a question.

Sokak-lar slak-sa dn gece yamur ya-m-tr.


(so*kak*lar / s*lak*sa ~/ dn / ge*ce / ya*mur / ya*m*tr )
If the streets are wet, it must have rained last night.
(Im sure it rained last night becase the streets are wet.)
(Sen) (kendin-i) yorgun hisset-i.yor-sa-an, dn gece ge yat-m-sn-dr.

(yor*gun / his*se*di*yor*san~ / dn / ge*ce / ge / yat*m*sn*dr )


If you feel tired, you must have gone to bed late last night.
(I am sure you went to bed late, that is why you are tired now.)
Biraz ngilizce bil-i.yor-sa-an, bu cmle-ler-i anla-m-sn-dr.
(bi*raz / in*gi*liz*ce / bi*li*yor*san ~/ bu / cm*le*le*ri / an*la*m*sn*dr )
If you know some English, you must have understood these sentences.
In English, there are some conditional sentences whose both parts are
simple Present Tense. These sentences are formed in Turkish as follows:
(Sen) buz-u st-r-sa-an (buz) su-/y/a dn-r.
(bu*zu / *s*tr*san / su*ya / d*n*r )
If you heat ice, it turns to water.
A-sa-ak birsey yer-iz.
(a*sak / bir*sey / ye*riz )
If we are hungry, we eat something.
Yourul-ur-sa-ak dinlen-ir-iz.
(yo*ru*lur*sak / din*le*ni*riz )
If we get tired, we rest.

1 (b): PRESENT UNREAL (CONTRARY TO FACT) SUPPOSITION


In the present unreal supposition, the verb-[se, sa]-[pers] verb chain is
used in the condition part, and "used to" (imdiki zaman'n hikyesi) is used
in the second part of a conditional sentence:

374

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ev-de ol-sa-am kap-/y/ a-ar-d - m.
adv clause of cond def object
verb
|
predicate

subject

(ev*de / ol*sam / ka*p*y / a*ar*dm )


If I were at home, I would open the door.
Cevap- bil-se-em sana syle-er-di-im.
(ce*va:*b / bil*sem /sa*na / sy*ler*dim )
If I knew the answer, I would tell you. (I don't know the answer.)
Sen-in yer-in-de ol-sa-am byle davran-maz-d-m.
(se*nin / ye*rin*de / ol*sam / by*le / dav*ran*maz*dm )
If I were you, I wouldnt behave like that. (Advice)
Yap-a.cak bir sr i-im ol-ma-sa sen-in-le dar-/y/a k-ar-d-m.
(ya*pa*cak / bir*s*r / i*im / ol*ma*sa / se*nin*le / d*a*r / *kar*dm)
If I didnt have a lot of things to do, I would go out with you.
(Sorry, I have a lot of things to do.)
Baba-an-n yer-i/n/-de ol-sa-am, (ben) (sen-in) araba kullan-ma-an-a izin
ver-mez-di-im. (ba*ba*nn / ye*rin*de / ol*sam / a*ra*ba / kul*lan*ma*na /
i*zin / ver*mez*dim) If I were your father, I wouldnt let you drive.
The present unreal suppositions can also be used to express future disappointment:
Yarn tatil ol-sa piknik-e git-er-di-ik.
(ya*rn / ta:*til / ol*sa / pik*ni*e / gi*der*dik )
If tomorrow were a holiday, we would go for a picnic.

2 (a): PAST REAL SUPPOSITION


In the past real supposition, the if clause is supposed to be true and the
main clause is based on this true supposition. The structure of this type if
clause is verb-[di/y/, d/y/, d/y/, du/y/, ti/y/, t/y/, t/y/, tu/y/]-[se, sa][pers]. The main clause is in The Simple Past form:
(Sen) Parise git-ti/y/-se-en (sen) Eyfel Kulesi/n/i gr-d - n.
adverb clause of condition

definite object

verb

subject

predicate

If we want to add certainty to the result part of the conditional sentence


above, ve use verb-[m]-[pers]-[tr, tur] verb composition:

375

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Parise git-ti/y/-se, Eyfel Kulesi/n/i gr-m-tr. (The third person he)
(pa*ri*se / git*tiy*se / ey*fel / ku*le*si*ni / gr*m*tr )
If he went to Paris, he must have seen the Eiffel Tower.
(I think he went to Paris, and certainly he saw The Eiffel Tower.)
Note: If no personal allomorphs are used in the condition or the result
parts of the conditional sentences, they are the third person singular.
Yeter-in.ce ok al-t/y/-sa, baar-m-tr.
(ye*te*rin*ce / a*l*ty*sa / ba*ar*m*tr )
If he worked hard enough, he must have succeeded.
(I believe he worked hard enough, and consequently he succeeded.)
Syle-dik-ler-i doru idi/y/-se, cezalandr-l-m ol.a.maz-lar.
(sy*le*dik*le*ri / do*ru / i*diy*se / ce*za:*lan*d*rl*m / o*la*maz*lar )
If what they said was true, they cant have been punished.
Kafes-i ak brak-t/y/-sa-an, ku u-up git-mi-tir.
(ka*fe*si / a*k / b*rak*ty*san / ku / u*up / git*mi*tir )
If you left the cage open, the bird must have flown away.
-i-/n/i bitir-di/y/-se ev-e git-mi-tir. (Third person singular he)
(i*i*ni / bi*tir*diy*se / e*ve / git*mi*tir )
If he finished his work, he must have gone home.
Araba-/s/ var-sa Bodrum-a git-mi-tir.
(a*ra*ba*s / var*sa / bod*du*ma / git*mi*tir )
If he had a car, he must have gone to Bodrum.

2 (b): PAST UNREAL (CONTRARY TO FACT) SUPPOSITION


To form an unreal past supposition, verb-[se/y/-di, sa/y/-d]-[pers] verb
chain is used in the if part of a conditional sentence, and the (imdiki
Zaman'n Hikyesi) used to is used in the second part of it. Compare the
following:
al-sa/y/-d-n snav- ge-er-di - in
adv clause of cond
def object
predicate

verb

|
subject

If you had studied, you wold have passed the examnation.


(You did not study, so you did not pass the examination.)

376

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Yarn tatil ol-sa sinema-/y/a git-er-di-ik.
(ya*rn / ta:*til / ol*sa / si*ne*ma*ya / gi*der*dik )
If tomorrow were a holiday, we would go to the cinema. (Unreal)
Bugn tatil ol-sa sinema-/y/a git-er-di-ik.
(bu*gn / ta:*til /ol*sa / si*ne*ma*ya / gi*der*dik )
If today were a holiday, we would go to the cinema. (Unreal)
Dn tatil ol-sa/y/-d sinema-/y/a git-er-di-ik.
(dn / ta:*til / ol*say*d~ / si*ne*ma*ya / gi*der*dik ) (Unreal)
If yesterday had been a holiday, we would have gone to the cinema.
(Yesterday was not a holiday, so we didnt go.)
Dn onu gr-se/y/-di-im, onun-la konu-ur-du-um.
(dn / o*nu / gr*sey*dim / o*nun*la / ko*nu*ur*dum )
If I had seen him yesterday, I would have talked to him.
(I didnt see him, so I didnt talk to him.)
Kafes-i ak brak-ma-sa/y/-d-n, ku u-up git-mez-di.
(ka*fe*si / a*k / b*rak*ma*say*dn / ku / u*up / git*mez*di )
If you hadnt left the cage open, the bird wouldnt have flown away.
(You left the cage open, so the bird flew away.)
Birka tane daha problem z-se/y/-di-im, daha iyi bir not al-r-d-m.
(bir*ka / ta:*ne / da*ha / prob*lem / z*sey*dim / da*ha / i*yi / bir / not /
a*lr*dm )
If I had solved a few more problems, I would have got a better grade.
(I couldnt solve some more problems, and so I couldnt get a better grade.)
abucak dur-ma-sa/y/-d-m, adam fena halde yara-lan-a.bil-ir-di.
(a*bu*cak / dur*ma*say*dm / a*dam / fe*na: / hal*de / ya*ra*la*na*bi*lir*di )
If I hadnt stopped suddenly, the man might have been badly injured.
Biz-im kaleci daha dikkat-li oyna-sa/y/-d, ma- kaybet-mez-di-ik.
(bi*zim / ka*le*ci / da*ha / dik*kat*li / oy*na*say*d ~ / ma* /
kay*bet*mez*dik )
If our goalkeeper had played more carefully, we wouldnt have lost the
match. (I regret to say that we lost it.)
O araba o kadar pahal ol-ma-sa/y/-d, onu (satn) al-r-d-m.
(o / a*ra*ba / o / ka*dar / pa*ha*l / ol*ma*say*d / o*nu / a*lr*dm )
If that car hadnt been so expensive, I would have bought it.

377

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


svirede o kadar ok saanak-a yakalan-ma-sa/y/-d-k, muhteem
manzara-/n/n zevk--/n/e var-r-d-k.
(is*vi*re*de / o / ka*dar / ok / sa*a*na*a / ya*ka*lan*ma*say*dk /
muh*te*em / man*za*ra*nn / zev*k*ne / va*rr*dk )
If we hadnt had so many thunderstorms in Switzerland, we would have
enjoyed the wonderful scenery.
ste-se/y/-di gel-ir-di.
(is*te*sey*di / ge*lir*di )
If he had wanted, he would have come.
Sometimes the if part of a conditional sentence may begin with an unreal
past supposition, but the main clause ends with an unreal present tense:
Dn bitir-se/y/-di-in, bugn onlar- postala-/y/a-bil-ir-di-ik.
(dn / bi*tir*sey*din / bu*gn / on*la*r / pos*ta*la*ya*bi*lir*dik )
If you had finished yesterday, we could post them today.

ORDERS AND REQUESTS


The speech intention of a speaker is decided and shaped in his mind just
before he begins speaking or writing something, and as he considers the
feelings of the hearer, he chooses the most suitable sentences and intonation patterns to produce in his speech. The intonation of a speaker generally reflects his feelings and intentions much more than the words that he uses
in his speech. Therefore, even a politest request sentence pattern may turn
into a strict order if someones intonation is not soft and tentative enough to
persuade the hearer without injuring his or her feelings.
PLAIN ORDERS AND REQUESTS
The numbers below start from the strictest order and go onto the softest and
kindest request:
1.
Kap-/y/ a. (ka*p*y / a ) Open the door.
Televizyon-u kapat. (te*le*viz*yo*nu / ka*pat ) Turn the TV off.
Syle-dik-im-i yap. (sy*le*di*i*mi / yap ) Do what I tell you.
(Ben-im) bilgisayar-m-a dokun-ma.
(bil*gi*sa*ya*r*ma / do*kun*ma )
Dont touch my computer.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ev-e ge gel-me.
(e*ve / ge / gel*me )
Dont come home late.
Klp-im-i kr-ma.
(kl*bi*mi / kr*ma )
Dont break my heart.
2.
Lutfen kap-/y/ a.
(lut*fen / ka*p*/y/ / a )
Open the door, please.
Lutfen televizyon-u kapat. Please turn the TV off.
Lutfen ben-i dinle. Listen to me, please.
Lutfen syle-dik-im-i dinle.
(lut*fen / sy*le*di*i*mi / din*le )
Listen to what I tell you, please.

POLITE REQUESTS
3.
Kap-/y/ a, ol-ur mu?
(ka*p*y / a / o*lur / mu )
Open the door, will you?
Televizyon-u kapat, ol-ur mu?
(te*le*viz*yo*nu / ka*pat / o*lur / mu )
Turn the TV off, will you?
Syle-dik-im-i yap, ol-ur mu?
(sy*le*di*i*mi / yap / o*lur / mu )
Do what I tell you, will you?
Ev-e ge gel-me, ol-ur mu ?
(e*ve / ge / gel*me / o*lur / mu )
Dont come home late, will you?
4.
Lutfen kap-/y/ a-ar m-sn?
(lut*fen / ka*p*y / a*ar / m*sn )
Will (would) you open the door, please?

379

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Lutfen bana yardm et-er mi-sin?
(lut*fen / ba*na / yar*dm / e*der / mi*sin )
Will (would) you help me, please?
Lutfen radyo-/y/u ks-ar m-sn?
(lut*fen / rad*yo*yu / k*sar / m*sn )
Will (would) you turn down the radio, please?
Lutfen bana bir fincan kahve yap-ar m-sn?
(lut*fen / ba*na / bir / fin*can / kah*ve / ya*par / m*sn )
Will (would) you please make me a cup of coffee?
5.
Televizyon-u kapat-ma-am-n siz-ce bir saknca-/s/ var m?
(te*le*viz*yo*nu / ka*pat*ma*mn / siz*ce / bir / sa*kn*ca*s / var / m )
Do (would) you mind my turn-ing the TV off?
Bir saat sonra gel-me-em-in siz-ce bir saknca-/s/ var m?
(bir / sa*at / son*ra / gel*me*min / siz*ce / bir / sa*kn*ca*s / var / m )
Would you mind if I came two hours later? (Somewhat formal)
Siz-i bir saat sonra ara-sa-am, ol-ur mu?
(si*zi / bir / sa*at / son*ra / a*ra*sam / o*lur*mu )
Would you mind if I called you two hours later? (Somewhat formal)
6. (More friendly)
Hadi bana bir fincan kahve yap-.ver, ol-ur mu? (Hadi is an interjection.)
(ha*di / ba*na / bir / fin*can / kah*ve / ya*p*ver / o*lur mu )
Just make me a cup of coffee, will you?
u televizyon-u kapat-.ver, ol-ur mu?
(u / te*le*viz*yo*nu / ka*pa*t*ver / o*lur mu )
Just turn off the TV, will you?
Ben-im-le bir fincan kahve i-i.ver, ol-ur mu?
(be*nim*le / bir / fin*can / kah*ve / i*i*ver / o*lur mu )
Just have a cup of coffee with me, will you?

POLITE REFUSALS
To accept an offer or a request is easy. You can just say Evet, memnuniyet-le (e*vet / mem*nu:*ni*yet*le) (Yes, with pleasure); Bayl-rm (ba*y*l*rm ) (Yes, Id love to), or Elbet-te (el*bet*te) (Certainly).

380

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


When you have to refuse a request or an offer, however, you have to be
politer than ever in order not to offend the person who asks for permission:
Televizyon-u a-a.bil-ir mi-/y/im? Can I turn on the TV?
A-ma-sa-an iyi ol-ur; nk bir i mektup-u zeri/n/-de odaklan-ma/y/a al-.yor-um. (a*ma*san / i*yi / o*lur / n*k / bir / i / mek*tu*bu
/ *ze*rin*de / o*dak*lan*ma*ya / a*l**yo*rum )
Youd better not because I am trying to concentrate on a business letter.
Oda-an.z- imdi temizle-/y/e.bil-ir mi-/y/im? Can I clean your room now?
Temizle-me-se-en (yapmasan) iyi ol-ur, nk bu oda-da yap-a.cak bir
sr i-im var. I would rather you didnt because I have got a lot of
things to do in this room.
ste-er-se-en ma-a git-e.li-im. Let us go to the match, if you wish.
Kork-ar-m git-e.me-em; ev dev-im-i bitir-mek zorunda-/y/m.
I am afraid I cant because I have to finish my homework.

OFFERS
To make an offer in Turkish verb-[e.li, a.l]-[pers] verb composition is
used:
Konser-e git-e.li-im.
(kon*se*re / gi*de*lim )
Let us go to the concert.
Televizyon seyret-e.li-im.
(te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*de*lim )
Let us watch television.
If someone wishes, he can put question tags after the above expressions:
Konser-e git-e.li-im mi, ne der-sin?
(kon*se*re / gi*de*lim / mi / ne / der*sin)
Let us go to the concert, shall we? Shall we go to the concert?
verb-[me-/y/e, ma-/y/a] + ne der-sin? verb chain can also be used as an
alternative to the above expression. The [me, ma] allomorphs are the infinitive allomorphs:
Konser-e git-me-/y/e ne der-sin?
(kon*se*re / git*me*ye / ne / der* sin )
What (how) about go-ing to the concert?

381

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ev-de otur-up al-ma-/y/a ne der-sin?
(ev*de / o*tu*rup / a*l*ma*ya / ne / der*sin )
What (how) about stay-ing at home and study-ing?
Futbol ma--/n/a git-me-/y/e ne der-sin?
(fut*bol / ma**na / git*me*ye / ne / der*sin)
How (what) about go-ing to the football match?
Kr-da gez-me-/y/e ne der-sin?
(kr*da / gez*me*ye / ne / der*sin)
How about walk-ing about the country?

verb-[ip, p, p, up] (Adverbial)


When two actions are carried out one after the other, the first verb stem is
suffixed with one of the [ip, p, p, up] allomorphs before the final verb
composition is used in all tenses:
(Ben) otur-up dn-d - m.
subj

adverbial
verb
predicate

subj

(o*tu*rup / d*n*dm )
I sat down and thought.
Bekle-/y/ip gr-e.cek-iz.
(bek*le*yip / g*re*ce*iz )
We will wait and see.
al-p baar-a.bil-ir-sin.
(a*l*p / ba*a*ra*bi*lir*sin )
You can work and succeed.
ocuk-lar bahe-de ko-up oyna-u.yor-lar-d.
(o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / ko*up / oy*nu*yor*lar*d )
The children were running and playing in the garden.
Hayalet-i gr-p bayl-d.
(ha*ya:*le*ti / g*rp / ba*yl*d )
She saw the ghost, and fainted.

QUESTION TAGS: (DEL M?)


Deil mi? is used in Turkish in place of all question tags of the English
language:

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Pop mzik sev-i.yor-sun, deil mi?
(pop / m*zik / se*vi*yor*sun / de*il / mi )
You like pop music, dont you?
Pop mzik sev-me-i.yor-sun, deil mi?
(pop / m*zik / sev*mi*yor*sun / de*il / mi )
You dont like pop music, do you?
Daha karar ver-me-di-in, deil mi?
(da*ha / ka*rar / ver*me*din / de*il / mi )
You havent decided yet, have you?
Yorgun-sun, deil mi?
(yor*gun*sun / de*il / mi )
You are tired, arent you?
Konser-den memnun ol-du-un, deil mi?
(kon*ser*den / mem*nun / ol*dun / de*il / mi )
You enjoyed the concert, didnt you?
Sigara i-me-i.yor-sun, deil mi?
(si*ga*ra / i*mi*yor*sun / de*il / mi )
You dont smoke, do you?
Yarn Ankara/y/a git-i.yor-sun, deil mi?
(ya*rn / an*ka*ra*ya / gi*di*yor*sun / de*il / mi )
You are going to Ankara tomorrow, arent you?
Trke bil-i.yor-sun, deil mi?
(trk*e / bi*li*yor*sun / de*il / mi )
You know Turkish, dont you?
aka yap-.yor-sun, deil mi?
(a*ka / ya*p*yor*sun / de*il / mi )
You are joking, arent you?
Emin-/s/in, deil mi?
(e*min*sin / de*il / mi )
You are sure, aren't you?
renci-sin, deil mi?
(*ren*ci*sin / de*il / mi)
You are a student, aren't you?

383

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


(SO DO I) (NEITHER DO I) BEN DE, O DA, ANNEM DE
In response to a positive or a negative statement, a listener may answer in
agreement or disagreement using the adverbs so or neither followed by
an inverted sentence type in English. In Turkish, however, there is only one
response pattern to use under such situations such as Ben de, O da,
Ahmet de, Annem de, etc. Consider and compare the following sentences:
"Ben pop mzik sev-i.yor-um." "Ben de."
(ben / pop / m*zik / se*vi*yo*rum ) (ben / de )
"I like pop music." "So do I." (I do, too.) (Me too.)
Ben pop mzik sev-me-i.yor-um." Ben de."
(ben / pop / m*zik / sev*mi*yo*rum ) (ben / de )
"I dont like pop music." "Neither do I." (I dont, either.)
"Anne-em yemek yap-ma-/y/ sev-me-i.yor." Ben-im anne-em de."
"Mother doesnt like cook-ing." "Neither does my mother."
"ok yorgun-um." "Ben de."
"I am very tired." "So am I." ( I am, too.)
"Baba-am bir jeep satn al-d." "Ben-im baba-am da."
"My father has bought a jeep." "So has my father."
"(Sen) deli-sin." "Sen de."
"You are crazy." "So are you." (You are, too.)
"Fatma gzel deil." "Kz karde-i de."
"Fatma isnt beautiful." "Neither is her sister."
"Yarn sabah erken kalk-mak zorunda-/y/m." "Ben de."
"I have to get up early tomorrow morning." "So do I."
"Muz-lar ok pahal." "Elma-lar da."
"Bananas are very expensive." "So are the apples.
"Ben-im baba-am kel." "Ben-im baba-am da."
"My father is bald." "So is my father."
"Ben yalan-dan nefret et-er-im." "Ben de."
"I hate ly-ing." "So do I."

384

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


CONJUNCTIONS AND TRANSITIONAL PHRASES
Conjunctions are the words that join sentences, clauses or words. There are
two kinds of conjunctions in English: Coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. The coordinating conjunctions are words like
"and", "but", "or", "for" or "yet". The subordinating conjunctions, however, are
the words that are used preceding simple sentences to form syntactic adverbs (adverb clauses) in English; such as, "although", "until", "before", "after", "while", "when", etc., all of which have been explained in the previous
chapters.
Transitional words and phrases, however, link sentences and paragraphs
by carrying over a thought coherently from one sentence or paragraph to
another. They are generally adverbials, adverbial phrases or conjunctions.
Some of the most frequently used Turkish coordinating conjunctions and
transitional adverbials and phrases are as follows:

akas: in plain words, in short, frankly speaking


Bann ardn ve evde bir sr yapacak ii olduunu sylyor.
Akas, bizimle gezmeye gitmek istemiyor.
She says she has a headache and has so many things to do at home.
In plain words, she does not want to go for a walk with us.

aksi takdirde, (yoksa): otherwise


u televizyonu kapat. Aksi takdirde (aksi halde) (yoksa), ne yapacam
biliyorsun.
Turn the TV off; otherwise (if not) you know what Ill do.

aksine, bilakis: on the contrary


Ben televizyonda futbol seyretmeyi seviyorum. Aksine, lum ma seyretmekten nefret ediyor.
I like watching football on television. On the contrary, my son hates watching
football matches.

ama: but, yet, still, really, truly


Aklldr ama biraz tembeldir. She is clever, but rather lazy.

ancak: but, however, yet


ok gzel bir kz, ancak baarl deil.
She is a beautiful girl; yet she is not successful.

385

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Jack Marye ak. Ancak, Mary Jacke ak deil.
Jack is in love with Mary. However, Mary is not in love with him.

aslnda : in fact
Mary ev iini kendisinin yaptn syyor. Ama aslnda, iin ounu
kocas yapyor.
Mary says that she does the housework herself. In fact, her husband does
most of the housework.

ayn biimde : likewise


teki sorulara ayn ekilde (biimde) cevap verebilirsin.
You can answer the other questions likewise.

baka bir deyile: in other words


bilhassa: in particular, particularly, specifically, above all
bir yandan: on the one hand
bu amala: for this purpose
bu dorultuda: accordingly
retmen rencilere sessiz olmalarn syledi, ve onlar da bu dorultuda davrandlar.
The teacher told the students to be quiet, and the students acted accordingly.

bu durumda, yleyse: in that case


Sabahleyin sana ev devinde yardm etmemi istiyorsun. yleyse yarn
sabah daha erken kalk.
You want me to help you with your homework in the morning. In that case,
get up earlier tomorrow morning.

bu srada, bu arada: meanwhile


Sen mutfakta yemek yapmaya devam et. Bu arada ben de oturma odasnda biraz kestireyim.
You go on cooking in the kitchen. Meanwhile let me have a nap in the sitting
room.

bunun iin: because of this, for this reason, therefore


Onun ok kez yalan syledigini duydum. Bunun iin ona artk inanmyorum. I have heard him tell lies so many times; for this reason, I dont believe him anymore

386

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


bunun yerine : instead
Adam bana cevap vermedi. Bunun yerine salakmm gibi yzme bakt
durdu.
The man did not answer; instead, he stared at me as if I were a fool.

bu yzden: therefore, for that reason, so, that is why


Hindistana hi gitmedim; bu yzden sana akl veremem.
I have never been to India; therefore, I cannot advise you.
Yrye kmak iin sokaa ktmda yamur yamaya balad. Bu
yzden, ben de sinemaya gitmeye karar verdim.
When I left home to go for a walk, it began to rain, so I decided to go to the
cinema.

bu artlar altnda: under these circumstances (conditions)


Bu artlar altnda artk sizinle alamam.
I can't work with you any more under these conditions.

nk : because
Televizyonu kapatsan iyi olur, nk iime devam edemiyorum.
You had better turn off the TV because I cant go on with my work.

-den bak : except for


Snf, iki istekli renciden baka (iki renciyi saymazsak) botu.
The classroom was empty except for two eager students.

dier (baka) bir deyile: in other words, to put it differently


Evde yemek yapacak kimse yok. Baka bir deyile, ben yemek yapmak
zorunda kalacaim.
There is nobody to cook at home. In other words, I will have to cook.

doal olarak: naturally


Bu blgedeki baz gller kurudu. Bu yizden, doal olarak baz kular lkenin deiik yrelerine g edecekler.
Some lakes dried up in this area. Some birds naturally will migrate to different parts of the country.

-e nazaran : in comparison to (with), compared to (with)


Erkek ocuklar kzlar-a (kz*la*ra) nazaran matematik-te daha iyidirler.
Boys are better at mathematics compared to girls.

387

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


en nihayet : after all
esasen: in fact, as a matter of fact
fakat: but, yet, however
Btn yl alt fakat bir araba satn almak iin yeterince para biriktiremedi.
He worked hard all the year long, but he could not save enough money to
buy a car.

farzet ki, diyelim ki : supposing


Diyelim ki isizim, benimle evlenir miydin?
Supposing I was unemployed, would you marry me?

garip belki ama : strange to say, strangely enough


Garip belki ama peri onu kurbaaya dntrd.
Strange to say, the fairy changed him into a frog.

genel anlamda : generally speaking


genel hatlar (izgileri) ile : in general terms
genellikle: as a rule, on the whole, generally
gsterildii gibi: as has been indicated, as has been noted
halbuki, oysa, ne var ki : whereas, but, however
Ben oturup kitap okumay severim; oysa eim seyahat etmeyi yeler.
I like sitting and reading books; whereas, my wife prefers traveling.

hari: excluding, except for, apart from


hatta, stelik : even, moreover, besides, even more, furthermore
Kzm be yl nce evlendi; hatta (stelik) iki olu bile var.
My daughter got married five years ago; besides, she has two sons.

hem hem (de): both . and


Hem kadnlar hem erkekler ailelerini geindirmek iin almaldr.
Both men and women must work to support their families.
Hem Ahmet hem Mehmet ayn brada alyorlar.
Both Ahmet and Mehmet work in the same office.

388

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Her ey gz nne alnd takdirde : all things considered
ile (le, la): and
Ahmetle Mehmet ayn brada alyorlar.
Ahmet and Mehmet work in the same office.

ilk nce : to begin with, first of all


kh kh : sometimes sometimes
Kh gleriz, kh alarz ackl kaderimize.
Sometimes we laugh, sometimes we cry for our miserable faith.

ki: that
Korkarm (ki) pastan kedi yedi.
Im afraid (that) the cat has eaten up your cake.
nanrm (ki) haklsn.
I believe (that) you are right.

ksaca : in short, in brief, briefly


madem (ki): since, seeing that, considering that, as
Madem (ki) ok altn, snav geebilirsin.
Seeing that you have studied hard, you can pass the exam.

meer: it seems that, apparently, to my surprise


Meer evliymi.
It seemed that he was married.

mesel, rnein: for example, for instance


Baz hayvanlar insanlara sadktr; rnein, kpeklerle kediler.
Some animals are loyal to human beings; for example cats and dogs.

ne... ne (de): neither . nor


Ne sen, ne ben ince anlyoruz
Neither you nor I understand Chinese.
Mutfakta ne domates ne soan var.
There are neither tomatoes nor onions in the kitchen.
Onu ne grdm, ne de onunla konutum.
I have neither seen nor talked to him.

389

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


neyse: anyway, in any case, at any rate
Neyse, biz almaya devam edelim.
Anyway, lets go on working.

o kadar ki: so + adj (adv) + that


Bu gnlerde fiyatlar o kadar yksek ki, kimse bir ey satn almak istemiyor. Nowadays the prices are so high that nobody wants to buy anything.

olsun olsun: whether or


Zengin olsun fakir olsun herkes kanuna uymak zorundadr.
Whether rich or poor everybody has to obey laws.

oysa: but, yet, however, whereas


Hereyden bktn sylyorsun. Oysa, ben inanyorum ki sen btn
glklerin stesinden gelebilirsin.
You say you are tired of everything, but I believe, you can overcome all difficulties.

rnein: for example, for instance


te yandan: on the other hand
yle bile olsa : even so
yleyse: in that case, if so, then
Uykulu hissettiini sylyorsun. yleyse, git bir fincan kahve i.
You say you are feeling sleepy. If so, go and have a cup of coffee.

zellikle, bilhassa: in particular, particularly


zetliyecek olursak: to sum up
sanki: as if
Habire bana emir verip duruyor; sanki benim patronum!
He is always ordering me around as if he were my boss.

sonra: then
Eve geldi, sonra mutfaa dald ve yemek hazrlamaya balad.
She came home, then hurried into the kitchen, and started preparing dinner.

sonu olarak: as a result, as a consequence

390

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


sonuta: in conclusion
stelik : furthermore in addition, what is more, even, besides
En kolay problemleri bile zemiyor; stelik kendini bir dh sanyor.
He cant solve even the simplest problems, besides he thinks he is a genius.

phesiz ki: undoubtedly


tam aksine: in contrast
tam tersine: on the contrary
tm bunlara ramen: for all that
tmyle: on the whole
velhasl: after all, in conclusion
ve saire: etc.
veya: or
ya ya (da): either or
Ya beni dinle, ya da snf terket.
Either listen to me, or leave the classroom.

yalnz: but, however, only


Seni affediyorum. Yalnz, bana bir daha yalan sylemeyeceine sz
ver.
I will forgive you now, but promise me you will not tell any lies any more.

yani: that is why, I mean, in other words, that is to say


Hastaym gibi rol yapyor; yani, okula gitmek istemiyor.
He pretends as if he were ill; that is to say, he does not want to go to school.

yeter ki: provided that, providing


Sana bir bisiklet alacam; yeter ki sen snavlarn ge.
I will buy a bicycle for you, provided that you pass your examinations.

yoksa: otherwise, or else, if not, or


Ko, yoksa otobs karacaz.
Run, or else we will miss the bus.

zaten: anyway, in any case

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


INTENSIFIERS
Intensifiers are the words that are used before adjectives or adverbs to
strengthen or weaken their meanings. Besides these words, there are
some prefixes, which are the only ones in Turkish that are attached to adjectives, nouns, and adverbs to strengthen their meanings:
St ok scak.
(st / ok / s*cak )
The milk is very hot.
Sorular biraz g-t.
(so*ru*lar / bi*raz / g*t )
The questions were rather difficult.
Tamamen hakl-sn.
(sen / ta*ma:*men / hak*l*sn )
You are quite right.
Baz kelebekler son derece gzel-dir.
(ba:*z / ke*le*bek*ler / son / de*re*ce / g*zel*dir )
Some butterflies are extremely beautiful.
renciler sorular-a ok dikkatli cevap verdi-ler.
(*ren*ci*ler / so*ru*la*ra / ok / dik*kat*li / ce*vap / ver*di*ler )
The students answered the questions very carefully.
Ev olduka iyi.
(ev / ol*duk*a / i*yi )
The house is pretty good.
Cevaplar-n hepsi tamamen yanl.
(ce*vap*la*rn / hep*si / ta*ma:*men / yan*l )
All the answers are completely wrong.
Bura-da sigara i-mek kesinlikle yasak-tr.
(bu*ra*da / si*ga*ra / i*mek / ke*sin*lik*le / ya*sak*tr )
Smok-ing here is strictly forbidden.
O ciddi bir ekilde hasta.
(o / cid*di: / bir / e*kil*de / has*ta )
He is seriously ill.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


yi bir i bul-mak onun iin yaamsal derecede nemli/y/-di.
(i*yi / bir / i / bul*mak ~/ o*nun / i*in / ya*am*sal / de*re*ce*de / *nem*liy*di )
To find a good job was vitally important for him.
Yabanc bir dil ren-mek fevkalde zor-dur.
(ya*ban*c / bir / dil / *ren*mek~ / fev*ka*l:*de / zor*dur )
Learn-ing a foreign language is extremely difficult.
Araba-/s/ yepyeni/y/-di.
(a*ra*ba*s / yep*ye*niy*di )
His car was brand new.
Hava buz gibi souk-tu.
(ha*va / buz / gi*bi / so*uk*tu )
It was icy cold.
ok fena ba-m ar-.yor-du.
(ok / fe*na: / ba*m / a*r*yor*du )
I had an awful headache.
Uyan-dk-m-da her yer gnlk gnelik-ti.
(u*yan*d*m*da / her / yer / gn*lk / g*ne*lik*ti )
When I woke up, it was broad daylight.
Annem bana gcr gcr bir elli dolar ver-di.
(an*nem / ba*na / g*cr / g*cr / bir / el*li / do*lar / ver*di )
Mother gave me a crisp new fifty-dollar bill.
Sorular srpriz bir ekilde kolay-d.
(so*ru*lar / srp*riz / bir / e*kil*de / ko*lay*d )
The questions were surprisingly easy.
O beni olduka dzenli ziyaret eder.
(be*ni / ol*duk*a / d*zen*li / zi*ya:*ret / e*der )
He visits me quite regularly.
Konser gerekten iyi/y/-di.
(kon*ser / ger*ek*ten / i*yiy*di )
The concert was really good.
Baz diller dierleriyle karlatrldnda nispeten daha karmak-tr.
Some languages are relatively complicated when compared with others.
Bugn biraz yorgun-um.
(bu / gn / bi*raz / yor*gu*num )
I am a little tired today.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Tamamen hakl-sn.
(ta*ma:*men / hak*l*sn )
You are absolutely (quite) right.
Fena halde yorgun-um.
(fe*na: / hal*de / yor*gu*num )
I am awfully tired.
Bizim sorular-m.z sizin sorular-n.z-dan ok daha g-t.
(bi*zim / so*ru*la*r*mz / si*zin / so*ru*la*r*nz*dan / ok / da*ha / g*t )
Our questions were far more difficult than yours.
Bugn gerekten yorgun-um.
(bu*gn / ger*ek*ten / yor*gu*num )
I am really tired today.
Sana deli gibi ak-m.
(sa*na / de*li / gi*bi / a:**m )
I am madly in love with you.
K-n bu da-a trman-mak fevkalde tehlikeli-dir.
(k*n / bu / da*a / tr*man*mak / fev*ka*l:*de / teh*li*ke*li*dir)
Climb-ing this mountain in winter is extremely dangerous.
Olduka az renci snav- ge-ti.
(ol*duk*a / az / *ren*ci / s*na*v / ge*ti )
Quite a few students passed the exam.
Zerre kadar ilgilen-me-i.yor-um.
(zer*re / ka*dar / il*gi*len*mi*yo*rum )
I am not interested in the least.
Araba ter-temiz-di.
(a*ra*ba / ter*te*miz*di )
The car was spotlessly clean.
Dosdoru yr.
(dos*do*ru / y*r )
Walk straight ahead.
Yal adam-n bembeyaz sakal- var-d.
(ya*l / a*da*mn / bem*be*yaz / sa*ka*l / var*d )
The old man had snow white beard.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Marynin masmavi gzler-i var.
(me*ri*nin / mas*ma*vi / gz*le*ri / var )
Mary has deep blue eyes.
Ev tamtakr-d.
(ev / tam*ta*kr*d )
The house was absolutely empty.
Onun ev-i-/n/de smscak bir oda-/s/ var-d.
(o*nun / e*vin*de / sm*s*cak / bir / o*da*s / var*d )
She had a cozy room in her house.
Sorun apak.
(so*run / a*pa*k )
The problem is obvious. (Beyond dispute, clear)
Sebzeler taptaze/y/-di.
(seb*ze*ler / tap*ta*zey*di )
The vegetables were as fresh as daisies.
Korku-dan kaskat kesil-di-ler.
(kor*ku*dan / kas*ka*t / ke*sil*di*ler )
They became rigid with fear.
Iklar sn-n.ce her yer kapkaranlk ol-du.
(*k*lar / s*nn*ce / her*yer / kap*ka*ran*lk / ol*du )
Everywhere became pitch dark when the lights went off.
Sen beni hie say-.yor-sun.
(sen / be*ni / hi*e / sa*y*yor*sun )
You simply ignore me.
Bunlar apayr kavram-lar.
(bun*lar / a*pay*r / kav*ram*lar )
These are quite different concepts.
Oda karmakark-t.
(o*da / kar*ma*ka*r*k*t )
The room was in a mess.
Kuraklk-ta tarlalar kupkuru/y/-du.
(ku*rak*lk*ta / tar*la*lar / kup*ku*ruy*du )
During the draft (draught) the fields were as dry as a bone.

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Onlar-n ama- besbelli/y/-di.
(on*la*rn / a*ma*c / bes*bel*liy*di )
Their aim was obvious.
Kk kz yapayalnz-d.
(k*k / kz / ya*pa*yal*nz*d )
The little girl was all alone.
Senin gzel vazo-un parampara ol-du.
(se*nin / g*zel / va*zon / pa*ram*par*a / ol*du )
Your beautiful vase has been broken to pieces.
Otobs tklm tklm dolu/y/-du.
(o*to*bs / tk*lm / tk*lm / do*luy*du )
The bus was overcrowded.
Gzler-i masmavi/y/-di.
(gz*le*ri / mas*ma*viy*di )
Her eyes were deep blue.

ROOTS, STEMS AND VERB FRAMES


The definition of the words above used in grammar books is not clear
enough for the language learners. Therefore, they are explained as follows:
The stem is the base of a word without all the inflectional suffixes. However, the root is the base of a word whose both derivational and inflectional suffixes are removed. Both roots and stems are bases.
The following words are verb roots:
ek, yakla, baar, kok, k, kayna, del, atla, u, iz, sev, gel, sr, ol...
The following words are noun stems: (verb root+dervatonal suffix = noun stem):
yakla-m, baar-, kok-u, kayna-ak, del-ik, belle-ek, u-ak, sev-gi, al-g.
"el", "ba", "yel", "ba", "denge", "avu", "leke", "ya", "su" are noun
roots.
el-le, ba-la, yel-le, ba-la, denge-le, avu-la, leke-le, ya-la, su-la are all
noun root-derivational suffix. Therefore, they are verb stems.

396

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Rule 1: All verb roots are bases. They can be suffixed by both derivational
and inflexional allomorphs:
yakla-m (approach) (verb root+derivational) = stem (noun)
yakla-t-k (verb root+inflectional+subject allomorph) = verb composition
When we attach a derivational allomorph to a verb root, we create a stem.
So, a verb root and a derivational allomorph together is called a verb
stem.
However, when we attach an inflectional allomorph or allomorphs to a
verb root or to a verb stem we create a verb composition.
Rule 2: All noun roots are bases. They can be suffixed both by derivational and inflectional allomorphs:
ev-li (married) (noun root+derivational) = stem
ev-i, ev-im (noun root+inflectional) ev-e, ev-de, ev-den (noun root+inflectional = adverbial)

Denge-le-/y/e.me-i.yor-um: "denge" is a noun root, "le" is a derivational


allomorph, "denge-le" is a verb stem. "e.me", "i.yor" and "um" are the inflectional allomorphs following the verb stem "denge-le". As the roots and
stems are the basic elements of words, the term "stem" is sometimes used
both for the "root" and "stem" in this book to avoid ambiguity.
When we attach transitive, causative, passive, reflexive, or reciprocal
inflectional allomorphs to verb roots or stems, we create verb frames, which
are used before the other inflectional allomorphs:
Bala-an-.yor-uz: "Ba-la" is a verb stem. "Ba" is a noun root, "la" is a
derivtional suffix; "an" is a passive making inflectional allomorph, ".yor" is a
time allomorph, and "uz" is a subjet allomorph. "Ba-lan-.yor-uz." (We are
being connected) is both a verb composition, a word, and a sentence.

MORPHEMIC AND ORAL SEQUENCES


In the following example sentences, the morphemes and their allomorphs
are separated by hyphens (-) to show the sequencing of the free morphemes
and bound allomorphs. The words in a sentence are separated by slashes (/).
The first sentences below show the morphemic sequence of a sentence

397

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


which is composed without being composed by the oral sequencing of the
Turkish harmonic system. The second sentences between parentheses ( )
show the same sentences composed by the oral sequence.
The vowels that are double underlined (e) show the vowels that are dropped
by the oral system. The single underlined consonants (m) are the consonants that detach from their syllables and attach to the following vowels.
The /n/, /s/, /y/ and // are glides (semi vowels) showed between slashes
(/y/), which help the voice pass from one vowel to the following one harmoniously. These glides do not carry meaning.
When two identical vowels following each other happen to be pronounced,
these two vowels generally combine and verbalize as single vowels. For
instance: a-a becomes a, e-e becomes e, u-u becomes u, -
becomes .
Please compare the sentences below:
(Ben) ev-e git-i.yor-um. (Morphemic sequence)
(ben / e*ve / gi*di*yo*rum ) (Oral sequence)
Baba-am ben-i okul-a gtr-e.cek. (Morphemic sequence)
(ba*bam / be*ni / o*ku*la / g*t*re*cek ) (Oral sequence)
Ders-im-i ok al-ma.l/y/-m-m. (Morphemic sequence))
(der*si*mi / ok / a*l*ma*ly*m*m ) (Oral sequence)
Sen-i ok zle-.yor-um. (Morphemic sequence)
(se*ni / ok / z*l*yo*rum ) (Oral sequence)
Ev-in kap-/s/-/n/ kilitle-/y/e.me-di-im. (Morphemic sequence)
(e*vin / ka*p*s*/n/ / ki*lit*le*/y/e*me*dim ) (Oral sequence)
Oda-/y/ temizle-me-i.yor-lar. (Morphemic sequence)
(o*da*y / te*miz*le*mi*yor*lar ) (Oral sequence)
Hrsz-n ne yn-e ka-tk--/n/ gr-d-n m? (Morphemic sequence)
(hr*s*zn / ne / y*ne / ka*t**n / gr*dn / m ) (Oral sequence)
Mart-lar-n u-u-u hep-im.iz-i byle-di. (Morphemic sequence)
(mar*t*la*rn / u*u*u / he*pi*mi*zi / b*y*le*di ) (Oral sequence)

398

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Ko-ar-sa-an otobs-e yeti-e.bil-ir-sin. (Morphemic sequence)
(ko*ar*san / o*to*b*se / ye*ti*e*bi*lir*sin ) (Oral sequence)
Gr--e.bil-ir-iz. (Morphemic sequence)
(g*r*e*bi*li*riz ) (Oral sequence)
Sz-m- dinle-se/y/-di-in snav- kazan-r-d-n. (Morphemic sequence)
(s*z*m / din*le*sey*din / s*na*v / ka*za*nr*dn ) (Oral sequence)
Vazo kr-l-sa/y/-d anne-em zl-r-d. (Morphemic sequence)
(va*zo / k*rl*say*d / an*nem / *z*lr*d ) (Oral sequence)
Ka-ar-sa-an kpek sen-i kovala-ar. (Morphemic sequence)
(ka*ar*san / k*pek / se*ni / ko*va*lar ) (Oral sequence)
Anla-/y/a.ma-.yor-lar-m. (Morphemic sequence)
(an*la*ya*m*yor*lar*m ) (Oral sequence)
Araba-/n/n sat-l-dk--/n/ bil-me-i.yor-du-um. (Morphemic sequence)
(a*ra*ba*nn / sa*tl*d**n / bil*mi*yor*dum ) (Oral sequence)
Proje-/y/i bitir-e.bil-e.cek mi-sin-iz? (Morphemic sequence)
(pro*je*yi / bi*ti*re*bi*le*cek / mi*si*niz ) (Oral sequence)
Karar-n- ver-di-in mi? (Morphemic sequence)
(ka*ra:*r*n / ver*din / mi ) (Oral sequence)
Toplant-/y/a gel-e.me-i.yor-lar-m. (Morphemic sequence)
(top*lan*t*ya / ge*le*mi*yor*lar *m ) (Oral sequence)
-i-/n/i bitir-dik-i-/n/i syle-.yor. (Morphemic sequence)
(i*i*/n/i / bi*tir*di*i*/n/i / sy*l*yor ) (Oral squence)
San-in kim-e gl-dk-n- anla-d-m. (Morphemic sequence)
(se*nin / ki*me / gl*d**n / an*la*dm ) (Oral sequence)

399

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

adj
adv
cond
comp
compr
cond
conj
D
def obj
Indef obj
inf
intens
intr
NP
obj
pers
phrs
pred
prep
pron
postp
sent
subj
synt
tran
V
Vc
Vi
VP
Vt
Vv
()
(*)
(:)
(-)
(u)
(r)

adjective
adverb or adverbial
conditional
Compound or complement
comparative
conditional
conjunction
determiner
definite object
indefinite object
infinitive
intensifier
intransitive
Nominal Phrase (subject or object)
object
personal allomorph
phrase
predicate
preposition(al) (English )
pronoun
postposition(al) (Turkish)
sentence
subject
syntactic
transitive
verb root ,stem, frame, or verb composition
a verb that ends with a consonant
intransitive verb
Verbal Phrase (predicate)
transitive verb
a verb that ends with a vowel
Transforming symbol
Asterisks are used to separate syllables.
A colon is used to show a long vowel: (te*da:*vi:)
Hyphens are used to separate morphemes.
Double underlined vowels show the dropped
vowels.
Single underlined consonants detach from their
syllables and attach the following vowels.

400

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


REFERENCES
Allen Harold B.,
Applied English Linguistics, 1958
Allen J.B.P and Buren Paul Van, Chomsky:
Selected Readings, 1971
Aydn zgr
kinci Dil Olarak Trke retiminde Trke Dilbilgisi
Betimlemelerinin Grnm
Bakan zcan,
Lengistik Metodu, 1967
Beach, Emmon,
An Introduction to Transformational Grammars.
Holt, Rinchart and Winston, Inc.
Bloomfield Leonard,
Language, 1933
Bolinger Dwight,
Aspects of Language 1981
Harper and Row, Publishers, New York
Bruce L. Liles,
An introductory Transformational Grammar
Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1971
Chomsky Noam,
Language and Mind, 2006
Chomsky Noam,
Syntactic Structures, 1957
Chomsky Noam,
Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, 1969
Chomsky Noam and Halle Morris,
The Sound Pattern of English 1968
Ediskun Haydar,
Yeni Trk Dilbilgisi, 1996
Ergin Muharrem,
Trk Dil Bilgisi, 1972
Fries Carl Carpenter,
The Structure of English, 1952
Gatenby, Hornby and Wakefield;
The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, 1952

401

ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR


Gencan Tahir Nejat,
Dilbilgisi, Kanaat Yaynlar, stanbul
Geoffrey Lewish, Turkish Grammar, 2004
Gknel Yksel,
English Workbook,
Ahmet Sait Matbaas stanbul 1976
Gknel Yksel,
Modern Trke Dilbilgisi, 1974
Esen Kitabevi, Kemeralt No. P. 30 ZMR
Gknel Yksel,
retici Dnml Dilbilgisi ve Trke Szdizimi
1976, Trk Dili XXXIII / 295
Gksel Asl, Celia Kerslake,
Turkish: A Comprehensive Grammar, 2005
Hengirmen Mehmet,
Trke Dilbilgisi, 2005
Hornby A.S.,
A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English 1954
Oxford Unversty Press
Liles Robert B.,
An introductory Transformational Grammar, 1971
Max Black, Frederick A. Praeger
Pinker Steven
The Language Instinct, 1994.
Pinker Steven
How the Mind Works, 1997
Pinker Steven,
Words and Rules, The Ingredients of Language, 2006
R. A. Close,
A Reference Grammar for Students of English. Longman 1982
Sezer Ayhan,
retimsel-Dnml Dilbilgisinin Trkeye Uygulanmas zerine Bir
Gzlem
Thomas Owen,
Transformational Grammar and the Teacher of English, 1974
Tureng Szlk, www.tureng.com

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ENGLISH TURKISH GRAMMAR

404