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Composite Construction

Introduction to composite
construction of buildings

General
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Steel and concrete


These two materials complete one
another:

Concrete is efficient in compression and steel in


tension

Concrete encasement restrain steel against


buckling

Protection against corrosion and fire

Steel bring ductility into the structure

General
3

Aspects for using composite


structures:

Architectural

Economical

Functionality

Service and Flexibility

Assembly

Aspects for using composite


structures
Architectural:

Longer spans

Thinner slabs

More slender column

More generous opportunities for


design

Aspects for using composite


structures
Economical:

Reduction of height reduces the total of


the building --> saving area of cladding

Longer spans with the same height


--> column free rooms

Additional storeys with the same


total height of building

Quicker time of erection:


Saving costs, earlier completion of the building
Lower financing costs
Ready for use earlier thus increasing
rental income

Aspects for using composite


structures

Functionality:

Fire protection by using principles of reinforced


concrete in which the concrete protects the steel

Aspects for using composite


structures

Service and building flexibility:

Adaptable structures
Modification during the life of the building
Modify services without violating the privacy of
other occupants

Accommodation of service facilities


in the ceiling
within a false floor
in a coffer box running along the walls

Aspects for using composite


structures
Assembly:

Working platforms of steel decking

Permanent shuttering

Reinforcement of profiled steel sheetings


Speed and simplicity of construction

Quality controlled products ensure greater accuracy

Construction methods
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Traditionally two counteracting methods of
construction could be observed both connected with
special advantages but also disadvantages worth
mentioning.
Conventional concrete
Construction in steel
construction method
+ freedom of form and
shapes
+ easy to handle

+ high ratio between bearing


capacity and weight
+ prefabrication

+ thermal resistance

+ high accuracy

- time-consuming shuttering

- low fire resistance

- sensitive on tensile forces

- need of higher educated


personal

Construction methods

Composite Construction

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comparing these two methods a combination of both


presents the most economic way
+ higher bearing capacity
+ higher stiffness
+ plastic redistribution

Construction elements
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composite slab

composite column

composite beam
floor = beam + slab

Construction elements
Composite slabs

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Reinforced concrete slab

in-situ concrete on shuttering

partially prefabricated slabs

fully prefabricated slabs

Construction elements
Slabs

Pre-stressed concrete slabs

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Construction elements
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Slabs

Profile steel sheeting


Interlock between steel and concrete

frictional

mechanical

end anchorage

Construction elements
Beams

Conventional and innovative


composite beams

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Construction elements
Beams

Types of shear connectors

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Construction elements
Columns

Examples of composite columns

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Construction elements
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Joints

Example of vertical shear transfer


between beam and column
bracket for the lower flange
reinforcement

weld seam

removed after concreting

contact piece
bracket with shear connectors

shot-fired nails

Examples
Millennium Tower (Vienna - Austria)

55 storeys
Total height 202 m
Total ground floor 38000 m2
Capital expenditure about 145 million Euro
Time of erection: 8 months

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Examples
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Millennium Tower (Vienna - Austria)

33,05 m

42,342,3
m m

Concrete slab

Concrete core

Composite Slim floor beams


Composite columns

Composite frame

Examples
Millennium Tower (Vienna - Austria)

Total time of erection: 8 month


max. speed 2 to 2.5 storeys per week!

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Examples
Citibank Duisburg (Duisburg - Germany)

15 storeys
Total height 72 m
Total ground floor 14500 m2

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Examples
Parking deck DEZ (Innsbruck - Austria)

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4 storeys
Ground dimensions 60 x 30 m
Max. span length 10.58 m with
26 cm slim floor slab (= l/40)

Examples
Parking deck DEZ (Innsbruck - Austria)

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Erection of composite columns over 2 storeys


Assembly of prefabricated concrete slabs

Examples
Parking deck DEZ (Innsbruck - Austria)

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Cross section of the slim-floor beam and slab


-200 mm concrete slab
-60 mm prefabricated concrete elements
-steel beam: web 165/20 mm
flange 245/40 mm
-headed studs: 22 mm

Concluding summary
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Composite construction is popular


for buildings because of following
aspects:

Economy

Architecture

Functionality

Service and building flexibility

Assembly