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# Experiment 5

1. Write the net ionic reaction for the precipitation of Ca(OH)2 and give the Ksp expression
of the reaction.
Ca(OH)2(s) Ca2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)
Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]

2. What is the working equation for the determination of the [Ca2+] in the saturated solution
of Ca(OH)2?
[Ca2+] = [OH-]
2

3. Write the Ksp of Ca(OH)2 in terms of its (a) molar solubility s, (b) [OH-], and (c) [Ca2+].

Ca(OH)2(s)

Ca2+(aq)

+ 2OH-(aq)

+x

+2x

+x

+2x

## (a) Molar solubility

Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]
(x)(2x)2 = 4s3
s=x

(b) [OH-]
4([OH-])3
(2)3

(c) [Ca2+]
4[Ca2+]3

4. Discuss the effects of common ions and increasing ionic strength on the solubility of the
Ca(OH)2 precipitate. Do they coincide with the theoretical effects? Explain.
Theoretically, the presence of a common ion decreases the solubility, while increasing the
ionic strength increases the solubility. In the experiment the addition of the common ion did
decrease the solubility of Ca(OH)2 but the observed effect of the ionic strength did not have a
distinct trend.

5. What are the possible sources of error and their effect on the calculated parameter?
Rationalize.
Not following proper titration techniques may cause error in calculations. Tilted or
misaligned burette can cause higher volume of HCl to be recorded, which leads to a lower molarity
being calculated. Not looking at the lower meniscus will also lead to a higher record of the volume
of HCl, and resulting in lower calculation of the molarity.