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SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

SF016 : Physics Semester 1


PHYSICAL TERMINOLOGY

Chapter 1 : Physical quantities and measurements.

Chapter 2 : Kinematics of linear motion.

Kuantiti fizik dan pengukuran

1.

Physical quantity : Kuantiti fizik


= A quantity that can be measured or
derived from other quantities.

Kinematik gerakan linear

1.

Suatu kuantiti yang boleh diukur atau diterbitkan


daripada kuantiti-kuantiti yang lain.

Perubahan posisi di antara dua kedudukan.

2.
2.

Basic quantity : Kuantiti asas


= A quantity which cannot be derived from
any other quantities.
Suatu kuantiti yan tidak boleh diterbitkan daripada
sebarang kuantiti yang lain.

3.

4.

3.

Average velocity : Halaju purata(unit: ms-1)


= The displacement divided by the time
interval during which the displacement
occurred @ Total (resultant) displacement
divided by total time taken by a body.
Sesaran dibahagikan oleh sela masa semasa sesaran
berlaku @ jumlah (paduan) sesaran dibahagikan
kepada jumlah masa diambil oleh suatu jasad.

4.

Instantaneous velocity : Halaju seketika


(unit: ms-1)

= The limit of the average velocity as the


time interval becomes infinitesimally short.

Scalar quantity : Kuantiti skalar


= A quantity which has only magnitude.

Had halaju purata ketika sela masa menjadi amat


pendek.

Suatu kuantiti yang hanya mempunyai magnitud


(nilai).

5.
5.

Velocity, v : Halaju (unit: ms-1)


= The rate of displacement of a body.
Kadar sesaran suatu jasad.

Derived quantity : Kuantiti terbitan


= A quantity which is derived from the
combination of several basic quantities by
multiplication, division, differentiation or
integration.
Suatu kuantiti yang diterbitkan daripada gabungan
beberapa kuantiti asas melalui pendaraban,
pembahagian, pembezaan atau pengkamiran.

Displacement, s : Sesaran (unit: m)


= The change of position between two
points.

Uniform velocity : Halaju seragam / malar


(unit: ms-1)

Vector quantity : Kuantiti vektor


= A quantity which has magnitude and
direction.

= Velocity with constant in magnitude.


Halaju dengan magnitud yang malar sepanjang masa.

Suatu kuantiti yang mempunyai magnitud dan arah.

6.
6.

Scalar product : Hasil darab skalar


= Multiplication of a vector by the same or
other vector, as a result of which produces
a scalar.
Hasil darab satu vektor dengan vektor yang sama atau
vektor yang lain dan menghasilkan satu kuantiti skalar.

7.

Vector product : Hasil darab vektor


= Multiplication of a vector by other vector,
as a result of which produces a new vector.
Hasil darab satu vektor dengan vektor yang lain dan
menghasilkan satu kuantiti vektor yang baru.

Acceleration, a : Pecutan (unit: ms-2)


= The rate of change of velocity of a body.
Kadar perubahan halaju suatu jasad.

7.

Average acceleration : Pecutan purata


(unit: ms-2)

= The change of velocity divided by the time


interval during which the change occurred
@ Total (resultant) velocity divided by total
time taken by a body.
Perubahan halaju dibahagikan oleh sela masa semasa
perubahan berlaku @ jumlah (paduan) halaju
dibahagikan kepada jumlah masa diambil oleh suatu
jasad.

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

8.

Suatu agensi yang cenderung untuk mengubah


momentum suatu jasad @ suatu kuantiti yang
menyebabkan perubahan gerakan atau rupabentuk
suatu jasad.

Instantaneous acceleration : Pecutan seketika


(unit: ms-2)

= The limit of the average acceleration as


the time interval goes to zero.
Had pecutan purata ketika sela masa menjadi amat
pendek.

9.

2.

Uniform acceleration : Pecutan seragam / malar

Suatu sifat jasad yang menentang sebarang perubahan


pergerakannya.

(unit: ms-2)

= Acceleration with constant in magnitude


(velocity increases/decreases uniformly).
Pecutan dengan magnitud yang malar sepanjang masa
(halaju bertambah/ berkurang secara seragam).

3.

Momentum & impuls

Momentum, p : Momentum (unit: kgms-1)


= The product of mass and velocity of an
object.

4.

Hasil darab jisim dan halaju suatu jasad.

2.

In a closed system, the total momentum is


conserved.
Bagi suatu sistem tertutup, jumlah momentum jasadjasad di dalamnya adalah terabadi.

4.

5.

Collision : Perlanggaran
= An interaction between two or more
bodies which occurs in a relatively small
region of space and in a relatively short
time.
Suatu interaksi di antara dua atau lebih jasad yang
berlaku di dalam ruang yang secara relatifnya kecil dan
dalam sela masa yang secara relatifnya pendek.

Chapter 5 : Work, Energy & Power


Kerja, tenaga & kuasa

1.

Perubahan momentum suatu jasad (hasil darab suatu


daya dan masa bilamana ia berlaku).

Daya-daya

Force, F : Daya (unit: kgms-2 @ N)


= The agency that tends to change the
momentum of a massive body @ a quantity
which causes changes of motion or shape of
an object).

Work, W : Kerja (unit: kgm2s-2 @ J)


= The scalar product of force and
displacement (the product of the
component of force which is parallel to
displacement of the object, times the
magnitude of the displacement)
Hasil darab skalar di antara daya dan sesaran (hasil
darab komponen daya yang selari dengan sesaran satu
objek, dengan magnitud sesaran itu).

Chapter 4 : Forces.

1.

rd

Newtons 3 law : Hukum Newton ketiga


If one body exerts a force on another,
there is an equal and opposite force called
reaction, exerted on the first body by the
second.
Jika suatu jasad mengenakan daya ke atas jasad yang
lain, terdapat satu daya yang senilai tetapi berlawanan
arah dipanggil daya tindakbalas akan dikenakan ke
atas jasad pertama oleh jasad kedua.

-1

Impulse, J : Impuls (unit: kgms )


= The change of momentum of an object
(the product of a force and the time for
which it acts).

nd

Newtons 2 law : Hukum Newton kedua


The rate of change of momentum of a
moving body is proportional to and in the
same direction as the force acting on it.
Kadar perubahan momentum suatu jasad yang
bergerak terus dan dalam arah yang sama dengan
daya yang dikenakan ke atasnya.

Principle of conservation of momentum :


Prinsip keabadian momentum

3.

st

Newtons 1 law : Hukum Newton pertama


A body continues in a state of rest or
uniform motion in a straight line unless it is
acted upon by external forces.
Suatu jasad akan kekal dalam keadaan pegun atau
kekal bergerak malar dalam satu garis lurus kecuali
ianya dikenakan daya luaran.

Chapter 3 : Momentum & Impulse.

1.

Inertia : Inersia
= The property of matter that causes it to
resist any change in its motion.

2.

Potential energy, U : Tenaga keupayaan


(unit: kgm2s-2 @ J)

= The energy stored in an object (or system)


due to its position from a reference point.

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

Tenaga yang tersimpan di dalam satu objek (atau


sistem) disebabkan kedudukannya dari satu titik
rujukan.

3.

2.

Masa yang diambil oleh satu objek untuk membuat 1


pusingan lengkap.

Kinetic energy, K : Tenaga kinetic


2 -2

(unit: kgm s @ J)

= The energy possessed by a moving object


(or a system).

1.

= The acceleration in a circular motion of an


object due to the change of the direction of
velocity.

Principle of conservation of energy :

Pecutan di dalam gerakan membulat satu objek


disebabkan perubahan arah halajunya.

Prinsip keabadian tenaga

In a closed system, the total energy of the


system is conserved.

2.

Di dalam satu sistem tertutup, jumlah tenaga sistem


itu adalah terabadi.

5.

Work-energy theorem : Teorem kerja-tenaga


The total work done on a body by all forces
on it, equals the change in a particular type
of energy (such as kinetic energy or
potential energy)
Jumlah kerja yang dilakukan ke atas satu jasad oleh
kesemua daya-daya ke atasnya, adalah bersamaan
dengan perubahan dalam sesuatu jenis tenaga
tertentu (seperti tenaga kinetic atau tenaga
keupayaan).

6.

= The resultant force necessary to cause an


object to move in a circle.
Daya paduan yang diperlukan untuk menyebabkan
satu objek bergerak di dalam satu bulatan.

Chapter 7 : Gravitation
Kegravitian

1.

Two objects of masses m and M attract


each other with forces directly proportional
to the product of their masses and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance
between their centre of gravity.

= The ratio of total work done to the total


time it takes to complete the work.

Dua objek berjisim m dan M akan menarik antara satu


sama lain dengan daya-daya yang berkadar terus
dengan hasil darab jisim-jisim mereka dan berkadar
songsang dengan kuasa dua jarak di antara pusat
graviti kedua-duanya.

Nisbah jumlah kerja dilakukan terhadap jumlah masa


yang diambil untuk melengkapkan kerja tersebut.

Instantaneouspower, P : Kuasa seketika


(unit: kgm2s-1 @ W)

2.

Chapter 6 : Circular Motion


Gerakan membulat

1.

= The gravitational force that experienced


by a unit mass placed in a gravitational
field.

Mechanical efficiency, : Kecekapan sawat


= The ratio of output work done to the
input energy supplied into a system.
Nisbah kerja output yang dilakukan terhadap tenaga
input yang dibekalkan ke dalam satu sistem.

Frequensi, f : Frekuensi @ kekerapan

Gravitational field strength, g :


Kekuatan medan graviti (unit: ms-2)

Had kuasa purata ketika sela masa menjadi amat


pendek.

8.

Newtons law of gravitation :


Hukum kegravitian Newton

Average power, Pave : Kuasa purata

= The limit of the average power as the time


interval goes to zero.

Centripetal force, Fc : Daya memusat


(unit: kgms-2 @ N)

(unit: kgm2s-3 @ W)

7.

Centripetal acceleration, ac : Pecutan memusat


(unit: ms-2)

Tenaga yang dipunyai oleh objek (atau sistem) yang


bergerak.

4.

Period, T : Tempoh (unit: s)


= The time it takes for an object to make 1
complete revolution.

Daya graviti yang dialami oleh satu unit jisim yang


diletakkan di dalam medan graviti.

3.

Gravitational potential, V : Keupayan graviti


(unit: Nkg-1)

= The work done by the external force to


overcome the gravitational force to move a
unit mass of a body from a point to infinity.
Kerja yang dilakukan oleh daya luaran untuk
mengatasi daya graviti untuk menggerakkan satu unit
jisim satu jasad dari satu titik ke infiniti.

(unit: s-1 @ Hz)

= The number of revolutions made in a unit


of time.
Bilangan pusingan dibuat dalam seunit masa.
SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

Chapter 8 : Rotational of rigid body

7.

1.

= The resistance of a body to a change its


rotational motion.

Angular displacement, : Sesaran sudut

Rintangan suatu jasad untuk mengubah pergerakan


putarannya.

(unit: rad)

= The angle through which a point has been


rotated about a specific axis.
Sudut yang dilalui oleh satu titik yang diputarkan di
sekitar satu paksi tertentu.

2.

8.

Angular momentum, L : Momentum sudut


(unit: kgm2rads-1)

= The product of the angular velocity of a


body and its moment of inertia about the
axis of rotation.

Average angular velocity, ave :


Halaju sudut purata (unit: rads-1)

= The angular displacement divided by the


time interval during which the displacement
occurred.
Sesaran sudut dibahagikan oleh sela masa semasa
sesaran itu berlaku.

Moment of inertia, I : Momen inersia


(unit: kgm2)

Putaran jasad tegar

Hasil darab halaju sudut satu jasad dengan momen


inersia di sekitar paksi putarannya.

Chapter 9 : Simple harmonic motion


Gerakan harmonik ringkas

3.

Instantaneous angular velocity, :


Halaju sudut purata (unit: rads-1)

3.

= The limit of the average angular velocity


as the time interval becomes infinitesimally
short.

Gerakan harmonik ringkas

= A form of periodic motion in which a point


(or body) oscillates along a line about a
central point in such a way that it ranges an
equal distance on either side of the central
point, accelerates towards the central point
and always proportional to its distance.

Had halaju sudut purata ketika sela masa menjadi


amat pendek.

4.

Average angular acceleration, ave :


Pecutan sudut purata (unit: rads-2)

Satu bentuk gerakan berkala yang mana satu titik


(atau jasad) berayun di sepanjang satu garis di sekitar
satu titik pusat dengan julat jarak yang sama pada
kedua-dua bahagian titik pusat tersebut, memecut
mengarah titik pusat dan sentiasa berkadar langsung
dengan magnitud jaraknya.

= The change of angular velocity divided by


the time interval during which the change
occurred @ Total (resultant) angular
velocity divided by total time taken by a
body.
Perubahan halaju sudut dibahagikan oleh sela masa
semasa perubahan berlaku @ jumlah (paduan) halaju
sudut dibahagikan kepada jumlah masa diambil oleh
suatu jasad.

5.

Simple harmonic motion :

4.

Amplitude, A : Amplitud (unit: m)


= The maximum displacement of the body
from the fixed central point.
Sesaran maksimum suatu jasad dari titik pusat yang
tetap.

Instantaneous angular acceleration, :


Halaju sudut purata (unit: rads-2)

= The limit of the average angular


acceleration as the time interval goes to
zero.

5.

(unit: s-1 @ Hz)

= The number of complete oscillation in 1


second.

Had pecutan sudut purata ketika sela masa menjadi


amat pendek.

6.

Torque, : Tork (unit: kgm2s-2 @ Nm)


= The vector product of a force and its
perpendicular distance from a point about
which it causes rotation.

Frequensi, f : Frekuensi @ kekerapan

Bilangan ayunan lengkap dalam 1 saat.

6.

Period, T : Tempoh (unit: s)


= Time taken for 1 complete oscillation.
Masa yang diambil untuk membuat 1 ayunan lengkap.

Hasil darab vektor satu daya dengan jarak menegak


dari satu titik yang menyebabkannya berputar.

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

Chapter 10 : Mechanical waves.

Chapter 11 : Sound wave.

Gelombang-gelombang mekanik

1.

Progressive wave : gelombang maju


= A wave that moves continuously in a
medium or without any medium.

Gelombang bunyi (akustik)

1.

Sejenis gelombang yang bergerak secara berterusan di


dalam satu medium atau tanpa sebarang medium.

2.

Wavelength, : Jarak gelombang (unit: m)


= The distance between successive points of
equal phase in the wave.

Tenaga yang dipindahkan per unit masa merentasi


satu unit luas yang serenjang dengan arah
perambatan gelombang.

2.

Jarak di antara 2 titik berturutan yang mempunyai fasa


yang sama di dalam gelombang.

3.

Wave number, k : Nombor gelombang


= The number of cycles of a wave in unit
length.

4.

Transverse wave : Gelombang melintang


= A wave which is propagated by the
vibration of the particles which are
perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
Sejenis gelombang yang merambat disebabkan
getaran zarah-zarah yang serenjang dengan arah
perambatan gelombang tersebut.

5.

Longitudinal wave : Gelombang membujur


= A wave which is propagated by the
vibration of the parallel which are
perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
Sejenis gelombang yang merambat disebabkan
getaran zarah-zarah yang selari dengan arah
perambatan gelombang tersebut.

6.

Principle of superposition : Prinsip superposisi


When 2 waves meet, the resultant
disturbance (displacement) at the point of
meeting is the algebraic sum of the
disturbance that could be cancelled by each
wave individually if alone in the medium at
that time.
Apabila 2 gelombang bertemu, gangguan (sesaran)
paduan pada tempat pertemuan adalah hasil tambah
algebra gangguan-gangguan tersebut.

7.

Stationary (standing) wave : gelombang pegun


= A wave that remain stationary which
produced by superposition between 2
coherent waves which travel in the
opposite direction.
Sejenis gelombang yang kekal pegun yang terhasil dari
superposisi di antara 2 gelombang koheren yang
bergerak pada arah yang berlawanan.

Beat : Rentak
= A wave that produced by superposition of
2 waves travel in the same direction but
have a small difference in frequency.
Sejenis gelombang yang terhasil oleh superposisi 2
gelombang yang bergerak dalam arah yang sama
tetapi mempunyai berbezaan frekuensi yang kecil.

(unit: radm-1)

Bilangan kitaran satu gelombang di dalam unit


panjang.

Sound intensity, I : Keamatan bunyi (unit: Wm-2)


= The energy transported per unit time
across a unit area which is perpendicular to
the direction of wave propagation.

3.

Fundamental frequency, Frekuensi asas


(unit: Hz)

= The lowest of the natural frequencies of


the vibrating system.
Frekuensi asli terrendah bagi satu sistem yang
bergetar.

4.

Overtone frequency, Frekuensi lampau


(unit: Hz)

= Frequencies which are multiple of


fundamental frequency of a vibrating
system.
Frekuensi-frekuensi gandaan frekuensi asas bagi satu
sistem yang bergetar.

5.

Doppler effect : Kesan Doppler


= The change in the frequency of the sound
when there is a relative motion between
the source of sound and the observer.
Perubahan frekuensi bunyi apabila terdapat gerakan
relatif di antara sumber bunyi dan pemerhati.

Chapter 12 : Elastic properties of matter.


Ciri-ciri kekenyalan bahan

1.

Stress, : Tegasan (unit: Nm-2)


= The distorting force acting on a unit crosssection area of an object.
Daya herotan yang bertindak ke atas satu unit luas
keratan rentas suatu jasad.

2.

Strain, : Terikan (unit: -)


= The extension (elongation) per unit
original length of an object when there is a
distorting force applied on it.

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

Pemanjangan per unit panjang asal satu objek bila


satu daya herotan dikenakan ke atasnya.

3.

2.

Young modulus, Y : Modulus Young (unit: Nm-2)


= The ratio between longitudinal stress and
strain of an elastic linear object.
Nisbah tegasan membujur dan terikan satu jasad
kenyal lurus.

Charles law : Hukum Charle


At constant pressure, the volume of a gas
is directly proportional to its temperature
Pada tekanan malar, isipadu satu gas adalah berkadar
terus dengan suhunya.

3.

Pressures law : Hukum Tekanan


At constant volume, the pressure of a gas
is directly proportional to its temperature
Pada isipadu malar, tekanan satu gas adalah berkadar
terus dengan suhunya.

Chapter 13 : Heat.
Haba

4.
1.

2.

Tanggapan-tanggapan teori kinetic gas

Sejenis tenaga yang dipindahkan disebabkan


perbezaan suhu di antara 2 jasad.

The volume of gas molecules is


negligible compared with the volume of
the container.

-2

The attractive force between the gas


molecules is negligible.
Daya tarikan di antara molekul gas adalah
diabaikan.

Coefficient of linear expansion, :

Isipadu molekul gasadalah diabaikan berbanding


isipadu bekas.

Pekali pengembangan linear (unit: oC-1 @ K-1)

= The ratio of the change of length per unit


original length per unit difference of
temperature.

Gas molecules are like perfectly elastic


sphere and collisions between molecules
and with the wall of the container
perfectly elastic.

Nisbah perubahan panjang per unit panjang asal per


unit perubahan suhu.

3.

Molekul gas adalah seumpama sfera kenyal


sempurna dan perlanggaran di antara molekulmolekul dan dengan dinding bekas adalah kenyal
sempurna.

Coefficient of area expansion, :


Pekali pengembangan luas (unit: oC-1 @ K-1)

= The ratio of the change of area per unit


original area per unit difference of
temperature.

The time during a collision is very short


compared the time between 2
successive collisions.

Nisbah perubahan luas per unit luas asal per unit


perubahan suhu.

4.

The assumptions of kinetic theory of gases:

Heat, Q : Haba (unit: J @ kgm s )


= An energy which is transferred due to
difference in temperature between 2
bodies.
2

Masa pada ketika perlanggaran adalah terlalu


singkat berbanding masa di antara 2 perlanggaran
berturutan.

Coefficient of volume expansion, :


Pekali pengembangan isipadu (unit: oC-1 @ K-1)

= The ratio of the change of volume per unit


original volume per unit difference of
temperature.

5.

Degree of freedom, f : Darjah kebebasan


= The number of independent ways by
which a molecule can take up energy.
Bilangan laluan bebas yang mana molekul boleh
menyimpan tenaga.

Nisbah perubahan isipadu per unit isipadu asal per unit


perubahan suhu.

6.

Principle of equipartition of energy :


Prinsip pemetakan sama tenaga

Chapter 14 : Kinetic theory of gases.


Teori kinetic gas

1.

Boyles law : Hukum Boyle


At constant temperature, the pressure of a
gas is inversely proportional to its volume
Pada suhu malar, tekanan satu gas adalah berkadar
songsang dengan isipadunya.

When a certain amount of energy is


supplied to a system, each of the possible
degree of freedom will receive an equal
share of the total energy supplied.
Apabila satu amaun tenaga dibekalkan kepada satu
sistem, setiap darjah kebebasan akan menerima
agihan yang sama daripada jumlah tenaga yang
dibekalkan.

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

Chapter 15 : Thermodynamics.

4.

Termodinamik

1.

Thermodynamics : Isoterma
= The study of the laws governing the
conversion of heat energy from one form to
another.

Satu proses termodinamik yang berlaku pada isipadu


tetap.

5.

Satu bidang kajian tentang hukum-hukum yang


mengawal penukaran tenaga haba dari satu bentuk ke
bentuk tenaga yang lain.

2.

Isovolumetric (isochoric) : Isokorik


= A thermodynamics process that occurs at
constant volume.

Isobaric : Isobarik
= A thermodynamics process that occurs at
constant pressure.
Satu proses termodinamik yang berlaku pada tekanan
tetap.

First law of thermodynamics :


Hukum termodinamik pertama

The total energy in a closed system is


constant (the heat is distributed into the
change of internal energy and the energy to
do work.

6.

Adiabatic : Adiabatik
= A thermodynamics process that occurs at
constant heat.
Satu proses termodinamik yang berlaku pada haba
tetap.

Jumlah tenaga di dalam sistem tertutup adalah malar


(tenaga haba diagihkan kepada perubahan tenaga
dalam dan tenaga untuk melakukan kerja).

3.

Isothermal : Isoterma
= A thermodynamics process that occurs at
constant temperature.
Satu proses termodinamik yang berlaku pada suhu
tetap.

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

SF016 : Physics Semester 1


PHYSICAL FORMULAE
Chapter 1 : Physical quantities and measurements.

5.

Scalar (dot) product : Hasil darab skalar

Kuantiti fizik dan pengukuran

1.

A B = (AxBx) + (AyBy) + (AzBz)


A B = AB cosAB

Resolved vector : Leraian vektor

AB = Angle between vector A and vector B.

A = Ax + Ay or A = Axi + Ayj
where Ax = A cos
Ay = A sin

Sudut di antara vektor A dan vektor B.

6.

A = Vector quantity A.
Kuantiti vektor.

Vector (cross) product : Hasil darab vektor


AXB =

i j k
Ax Ay Az
Bx By Bz
= (AyBz ByAz)i - (AxBz - BxAz)j
+ (AxBy - BxAy)i
A X B = AB sinAB

Ax = Resolved vector into x-axis (directed to


+x axis).
Leraian vektor pada paksi-x.

Ax = Magnitude of resolved vector into xaxis.


Magnitud (nilai) leraian vektor pada paksi-x.

Ay = Resolved vector into y-axis (directed to


+y axis).
Leraian vektor pada paksi-y

Ay = Magnitude of resolved vector into yaxis.


Magnitud (nilai) leraian vektor pada paksi-x

= Resolved angle (angle between vector A

Chapter 2 : Kinematics of Linear Motion.


Kinematiks Gerakan Garis Lurus

1.

and x-axis.

Linear motion : Gerakan linear


v = u + at
2
2
v = u + 2as
2
s = ut + at

Sudut leraian (sudut di antara vektor A dan


paksi-x).

i = Vector unit of x-axis (magnitude of 1 and


directed to +x axis).

v = final velocity (velocity at final position).

Unit vektor.paksi-x.

Halaju akhir (halaju pada kududukan akhir)

j = Vector unit of y-axis (magnitude of 1


and directed to +x axis).

(unit: ms-1)

u = initial velocity (velocity at initial


position).

Unit vektor.paksi-y.

Halaju awal (halaju pada kedudukan awal).

2.

(unit: ms-1)

Resultant vector: Vektor paduan


A=

Ax2 + Ay2

and

= tan-1

a = uniform acceleration. Pecutan malar.

(unit: ms-2)

t = time interval from initial to final


position.

A = Magntitude of resultant vector A.

Sela masa dari kedudukan awal ke akhir.


(unit: s)

Magnitud (nilai) vektor paduan.

3.

s = displacement (shortest distance


between initial and final position).

Vector additional (3D) : Vektor hasil tambah

Sesaran (jarak terdekat di antara kedudukan awal


dan akhir).
(unit: m)

A + B = (Ax + Bx)i + (Ay + By)j + (Az + Bz)k


4.

Vector subtraction (3D) : Vektor hasil tolak


A - B = A + (-B)
= (Ax - Bx)i + (Ay - By)j + (Az - Bz)k

2.

Free fall motion : Gerakan jatuh bebas


v = u - gt
2
2
v = u 2gs
2
s = ut - gt
g = acceleration due to gravity.
Pecutan disebabkan graviti.(unit: ms-2)

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

3.

Projectile motion : Gerakan luncuran


vx = u x
sx = ux t

2.

Persamaan berkait prinsip keabadian momentum


linear

vy = uy - gt
2
2
vy = uy 2gsy
2
sy = uyt - gt

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2

vx = final velocity in x-component.

m1 = mass of colliding body.

Halaju akhir dalam kompenen-x.

Jisim jasad yang melanggar.(unit: kg)

vy = final velocity in y-component.

m2 = mass of collided body.

Halaju akhir dalam kompenen-y.

Jisim jasad yang dilanggar.(unit: kg)

ux = initial velocity in x-component.

u1 = initial velocity of colliding body just


before collision.

Halaju awal dalam kompenen-x.

uy = initial velocity in y-component.

Halaju awal jasad yang melanggar sejurus

Halaju awal dalam kompenen-y.

sebelum perlanggaran. (unit: ms-1)

sx = displacement in x-component.

u2 = initial velocity of collided body just


before collision.

Sesaran dalam kompenen-x.

sy = displacement in y-component.

Halaju awal jasad yang dilanggar sejurus

Sesaran dalam kompenen-y.

vx = v cosv
ux = u cos u
sx = s cos s

Equation according to the principle of


conservation of linear momentum :

sebelum perlanggaran. (unit: ms-1)

v1 = final velocity of colliding body right


after before collision.

vy = v sin v
uy = u sin u
sy = s sin s

Halaju awal jasad yang melanggar sejurus


sebelum perlanggaran. (unit: ms-1)

v2 = final velocity of collided body right after


collision.

v = resolved angle between vector v and xaxis.

Halaju awal jasad yang dilanggar sejurus

Sudut leraian di antara vektor v dan paksi-x.

sebelum perlanggaran. (unit: ms-1)

u = resolved angle between vector u and xaxis.


Sudut leraian di antara vektor u dan paksi-x.

3.

Impulse : Impuls

s = resolved angle between vector s and xJ1 = m1(v1 - u1)


J2 = m2 (v2 u2)

axis.
Sudut leraian di antara vektor s dan paksi-x.

J1 = impulse of colliding body.


Impuls jasad yang melanggar. (unit: kgms-1)

Chapter 3 : Momentum and Impulse.

J2 = impulse of collided body.

Momentum dan Impuls

1.

Impuls jasad yang dilanggar. (unit: kgms-1)

Momentum : Momentum
4.

Impulsive force: Daya impulsif

p = mv
p = momentum of a moving object.

F1 = J1
t

F2 = J2
t

Momentum objek yang bergerak.


(unit: kgms-1)

m = mass of the object.


Jisim jasad tersebut.
(unit: kg)

v = velocity of the object.


Halaju objek tersebut.
(unit: ms-1)

F1 = impulse force of colliding body (acting


force).
Daya impulsif jasad yang melanggar. (unit: N)

F2 = impulse force of collided body (reaction


force).
Daya impulsif jasad yang dilanggar. (unit: N)

t = contact time between the bodies.


Masa kontek di antara kedua-dua jasad. (unit: s)

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

10

Chapter 4 : Forces.

5.

Daya-daya

1.

Kinetic frictional force :


Daya geseran kinetik

st

Formula according to Newtons 1 law


(system in equilibrium) : Formula berkaitan

fk = k R

hukum Newton pertama (sistem dalam keseimbangan)

k = coefficient of kinetic friction.

FT = 0

R = normal force acting on the body.

Pekali geseran kinetik. (unit: -)

where v = 0 or constant.

Pecutan disebabkan graviti. (unit: N)

FT = resultant force of the system.


Daya paduan. (unit: kgms-2)

Chapter 5 : Work, Energy & Power.


2.

Kerja, tenaga & kuasa

nd

Formula according to Newtons 2 law


(accelerating system) : Formula berkaitan hukum
Newton kedua (sistem memecut)

1.

Work : Kerja
W = Fs cosFs

FT = vdm + mdv
dt
dt

W = single (individual) work.


Kerja individu. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

m = mass of acted body.

F = single (individual) force.

Jisim jasad yang dikenakan daya-daya.


(unit: kg)

Daya individu. (unit: N @ kgms-2)

v = velocity of acted body.

s = displacement travelled by the object.

Halaju jasad yang dikenakan daya-daya.

Sesaran dilalui oleh objek. (unit: m)

(unit: ms-1)

Fs = angle between vector F and vector s.


Sudut di antara vektor F dan s. (unit: o)

FT = ma
WT = FT s cosFs or

WT = W1 + W 2 +

m = constant mass of acted body.


Jisim malar jasad yang dikenakan daya-daya.
(unit: kg)

WT = total (the sum of) work.


Jumlah (hasil tambah) kerja. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

FT = resultant force.
3.

Daya paduan. (unit: N @ kgms-2)

Weight : Berat

W1, W2 = individual works.


Kerja-kerja individu. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

W = mg
m = mass of a body.
Jisim jasad yang dikenakan daya-daya. (unit: kg)

g = acceleration due to gravity.


Pecutan disebabkan graviti. (unit: ms-2)

2.

Kinetic energy : Tenaga kinetik


2

K =mv

K = kinetic energy.
4.

Maximum static frictional force :

Tenaga kinetik. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

Daya geseran statik maksimum

m = mass of an object.

fs(max) = s R

v = velocity of the object.

s = coefficient of static friction.

Jisim satu jasad. (unit: kg)


Halaju jasad tersebut. (unit: ms-1)

Pekali geseran statik. (unit: -)

R = normal force acting on the body.


Pecutan disebabkan graviti. (unit: N)

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

11

3.

Gravitational potential energy :

7.

Power : Kuasa

Tenaga keupayaan graviti

U = mgh

Pave = W
t

U = gravitational potential energy.

Pave = average power.

Tenaga keupayaan graviti. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

Kuasa purata.(unit: W @ kgm2s-3)

m = mass of an object.

W = total work done by an object.

Jisim satu jasad. (unit: kg)

Jumlah kerja dilakukan oleh satu objek.

g = acceleration due to graviti.

(unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

Pecutan graviti terhadap jasad. (unit: ms-2)

t = time taken to do work.

h = position of the object from reference a


level.

Masa diambil untuk membuat kerja.


(unit: s)

Posisi objek dari satu aras rujukan. (unit: m)

4.

Pinst = dW
dt

Elastic potential energy :


Tenaga keupayaan kenyal

Pinst = Fv cosFv

or

Pinst = instantaneous power.


Kuasa seketika purata.(unit: W @ kgm2s-3)

U = kx

W = total work done by an object.

Jumlah kerja dilakukan oleh satu objek.

U = elastic potential energy.

(unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

Tenaga keupayaan kenyal. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

t = time taken to do work.

k = spring constant of a spring.

Masa diambil untuk membuat kerja.


(unit: s)

Pemalar spring satu spring. (unit: Jm-2 @ kgs-2)

x = displacement from the origin.

F = Force acted on the object.

Sesaran dari asalan (unit: m)

Daya dikenakan ke atas objek.


(unit: N @ kgms-2)

5.

v = Velocity of the object.

Formula according to the principle of


conservation of energy :

Halaju objek.(unit: ms-1)

Fv = Angle between F and v.

Formula berkenaan prinsip keabadian tenaga

Sudut antara F dan v.(unit: o)

(UT + KT)before = (UT + KT)after


8.

Mechanical efficiency : Kecekapan mekanik

UT = total potential energy.


Jumlah tenaga keupayaan. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

KT = total kinetic energy.


Jumlah tenaga kinetik. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

= Poutput x 100%
Pinput

or

= Woutput x 100%
Einput

= percentage of mechanical efficiency.


6.

Formula according to the work-energy


theorem :

Peratus kecekapan mekanik.(unit: -)

Poutput = input power (supplied).


Kuasa input (dibekalkan).(unit: W)

Formula berkenaan teorem kerja-tenaga

Poutput = output power (performed).

W = Kafter Kbefore

Eoutput = input energy (supplied).

Kuasa output (digunakan).(unit: W)

or

W = Uafter Ubefore

Tenaga input (dibekalkan).(unit: J)

W = work performe by an object.


Kerja dilakukan oleh satu objek.

Woutput = output work (performed).


Kerja output (digunakan).(unit: J)

(unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

K = kinetic energy.
Tenaga kinetik. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

U = potential energy.
Tenaga keupayaan. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

12

Chapter 6 : Circular Motion.

Chapter 7 : Gravitation.

Gerakan membulat

1.

Kegravitian

Uniform velocity : Halaju malar

1.

Gravitational force : Daya graviti

v = 2r
T

F = GMm
2
r

v = uniform velocity of circular motion.

F = gravitational force.
Daya graviti. (unit: N @ kgms-2)

Halaju malar gerakan membulat. (unit: ms-1)

G = universal gravitational constant.

r = radius of the circle.

Pemalar graviti semesta.

Jejari bulatan. (unit: m)

T = period (time for 1 complete circle).

= 6.67 x10-11 Nm2kg-2

Tempoh (masa untuk 1 bulatan lengkap).


(unit: s)

M = mass of the 1 body.

st

Jisim jasad pertama. (unit: kg)


nd

m = mass of the 2 body.


2.

Jisim jasad kedua. (unit: kg)

Centripetal acceleration : Pecutan memusat


ac = v
r

r = distance between the centre of both


bodies.

Jarak di antara pusat kedua-dua jasad. (unit: m)

ac = centripetal acceleration.

2.

3.

g = GM
2
r

Centripetal force : Pecutan memusat


Fc = mv
r

Gravitational field strength :


Kekuatan medan graviti

Pecutan memusat. (unit: ms )


-2

g = gravitational field strength


(acceleration).
Kekuatan medan graviti (pecutan).
(unit: Nkg-1 @ ms-2)

ac = centripetal acceleration.

M = mass of the body which produces field.

Pecutan memusat. (unit: ms-2)

4.

Jisim jasad yang menghasilkan medan. (unit: kg)

r = distance between the centre of the body


and the referred point.

Horizontally circular motion :

Jarak di antara pusat jasad dengan titik rujukan.


(unit: m)

Gerakan membulat mendatar.

Fx = Fc

and

Fy = 0

Fx = total force in x-component.


Jumlah daya pada komponen-x. (unit: N)

Fy = total force in y-component.


Jumlah daya pada komponen-y. (unit: N)

5.

Vertically circular motion :


Gerakan membulat menegak.

Fx = 0

and

Fy = Fc

Fx = total force in x-component.


Jumlah daya pada komponen-x. (unit: N)

3.

Gravitational potential : Keupayaan graviti


V = - GM
r
V = gravitational potential in a gravitational
field.
Keupayaan graviti di dalam medan graviti.
(unit: Jkg-1 @ m2s-2)

r = distance between the centre of the body


and the referred point.
Jarak di antara pusat jasad dengan titik rujukan.
(unit: m)

Fy = total force in y-component.


Jumlah daya pada komponen-y. (unit: N)

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

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4.

Orbital velocity : Halaju orbit

2.

Equations for rotational kinematics :


Persamaan-persamaan bagi kinematiks putaran.

v =

GM
r

= o + t
2 = o2 + 2
= ot + t2

v = velocity to orbit around the planet.


Halaju untuk mengorbit mengelilingi planet.

t = time interval from initial to final


position.

(unit: ms-1)

r = distance between the centre of the


planet to the orbit.

Sela masa dari kedudukan awal ke akhir.


(unit: s)

Jarak di antara pusat planet dengan orbit.


(unit: m)

3.

Torque :
Tork (agen memutar).

Chapter 8 : Rotational Motion of Rigid Body.

= r F sinrF

Gerakan putaran satu jasad tegar

1.

= torque to rotate a body.

Relationships between parameter in


rotational and linear motions :

Tork untuk memutarkan jasad.


(unit: Nm @ kgm2s-2)

Hubungan di antara parameter-parameters dalam


gerakan putaran dan linear.

r = moment arm (distance between axis of


rotation and the point where the force is
acted on the body).

s = r
v = r
a = r
2
ac = r

Lengan momen (jarak di antara paksi putaran dan


titik di mana daya dikenakan ke atas jasad).
(unit: m)

F = force acted on the body.


Daya yang dikenakan ke atas jasad. (unit: N)

s = perimeter travelled by a point which is


rotating about an axis of rotation.
Ukurlilit dilalui oleh satu titik yang berputar di
sekitar satu paksi putaran.
(unit: m)

4.

Conditions for equilibrium of rigid body :


Syarat-syarat keseimbangan jasad tegar.

r = distance between the axis of rotation


and the referred rotating point.

Fx = Fy = 0

and clockwise =anticlockwise

Jarak di antara paksi putaran dan titik rujukan


yang berputar. (unit: m)

= angle covered by the point during


rotation.

Gerakan harmonik mudah

Sudut yang dilalui oleh titik rujukan tersebut


semasa putaran. (unit: rad where 2 rad 360o)

v = velocity of of rotating point.


Halaju titik yang berputar. (unit: ms )
-1

= angular velocity of of rotating point.


Halaju sudut titik yang berputar. (unit: rads-1)
a = acceleration of rotating point.
Pecutan titik yang berputar. (unit: ms-2)

= angular acceleration of of rotating


point.
Pecutan sudut titik yang berputar. (unit: rads-2)

ac = centripetal acceleration of rotating


point.
Pecutan memusat titik yang berputar.
(unit: ms )
-2

Chapter 9 : Simple Harmonic Motion.

1.

Displacement of SHM : Sesaran GHM


y = A sin( t + )
y = displacement of a body from the central
fixed point.
Sesaran satu jasad dari titik pusat tetap. (unit: m)

A = amplitude (maximum displacement


from the central fixed point).
Amplitud (sesaran maksimum dari titik pusat
tetap. (unit: m)

(t + ) = phase.
fasa. (unit: rad)

= angular velocity.
Halaju sudut. (unit: rads-1)

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

14

U = m y

2 2

t = time (associated with y).

..respect to displacement

Masa (bersekutu dengan y). (unit: s)

= phase angle
6.

Sudut fasa. (unit: rad)

Total Energy of SHM : Jum. tenaga GHM


E = m A

2 2

2.

Velocity of SHM : Halaju GHM


v = A cos( t)

E = total energy (combination of kinetic and


potential energy) of a body which
undergone SHM.

..respect to time

v = velocity of a body which undergone


SHM.

Jumlah tenaga (gabungan tenaga kinetic dan


keupayaan) satu jasad yang melakukan GHM.
(unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

Halaju satu jasad yang melakukan GHM.


(unit: ms )
-1

v = + A 2 y 2 ..respect to
displacement

7.

Period of SHM : Tempoh GHM


T = 2

3.

Acceleration of SHM : Pecutan GHM

m
k

. spring oscillation

T = period of spring oscillation.

a = - A sin( t) ..respect to time


2

Tempoh ayunan spring. (unit: s)

m = mass attached on the spring.


a = acceleration of a body which undergone
SHM.

Jisim disangkutkan pada spring. (unit: kg)

k = spring constant.
Pemalar spring. (unit: Nm-1 @ kgs-2)

Pecutan satu jasad yang melakukan GHM.


(unit: ms )
-2

a=- y
2

T = 2

..respect to displacement

l
g

. simple pendulum

T = period of pendulum oscillation.


4.

Kinetic Energy of SHM : Tenaga kinetik GHM

Tempoh ayunan bandul. (unit: s)

l = length of thread.
K = mA cos ( t)
2

Panjang benang. (unit: m)

..respect to time

g = acceleration due to graviti.


Pecutan graviti. (unit: ms-2)

K = kinetic energy of a body which


undergone SHM.
Tenaga kinetik satu jasad yang melakukan GHM.
(unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

Chapter 10 : Mechanical Waves.

m = mass of the body.

Gelombang mekanik

Jisim jasad tersebut. (unit: kg)

K = m (A - y )
2

5.

..respect to
displacement

Potential Energy of SHM : Ten. keupayaan GHM


U = mA sin ( t)
2

..respect to time

U = potential energy of a body which


undergone SHM.
Tenaga keupayaan satu jasad yang melakukan
GHM. (unit: J @ kgm s )
2

-2

1.

Displacement of Wave : Sesaran gelombang


y = A sin( t + kx)
y = displacement of the vibration by the
particle from the fixed point.
Sesaran satu zarah dari titik pusat tetap. (unit: m)

A = amplitude (maximum displacement) of


the vibration by the particle from the
fixed point.
Amplitud (sesaran maksimum zarah dari titik
pusat tetap. (unit: m)

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

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= angular velocity.

P = constant power of sound produced by


the source.

Halaju sudut. (unit: rads-1)

= 2f

or =

Kuasa bunyi malar yang hasilkan oleh sumber.


(unit: W @ kgm2s-3 )

2
T

r = distance between the observer and the


source.
Jarak di antara pemerhati dan sumber. (unit: m)

k = wave number.
Nombor gelombang. (unit: radm-1)

2.

2
k=

x = wave displacement.

Beat frequency : Frekuensi rentak.


fr = | f2 - f1 |

Sesaran gelombang. (unit: m)

fr = beat frequency (the difference between


two progressive waves frequency).

t = time taken by the wave to propagate


from the source.

Frekuensi rentak (perbezaan frekuensi 2


gelombang maju). (unit: Hz)

Masa diambil untuk gelombang merambat dari


sumber. (unit: s)

st

f1 = frequency of the 1 progressive wave.


Frekuensi gelombang maju pertama). (unit: Hz)
nd

2.

f2 = frequency of the 2 progressive wave.

Velocity of Wave : Halaju gelombang

Frekuensi gelombang maju kedua). (unit: Hz)

v = f
3.

Velocity of sound in a stretched string :


Halaju bunyi dalam tali teregang.

v = velocity of progressive wave.


Halaju gelombang maju. (unit: ms )
-1

v=
3.

Stationary Wave : Gelombang pegun


v = velocity of sound propagated in string.

Y = (2A sin t) coskx

Halaju bunyi yang merambat di dalam tali.


(unit: ms-1)

Y = displacement of the vibration by the


particle from the fixed point.

T = tension of the string.


Ketegangan tali tersebut. (unit: N @ kgms-2)

Sesaran satu zarah dari titik pusat tetap. (unit: m)

=m

A = amplitude (maximum displacement) of


the vibration by the particle of each
progressive wave from the fixed point.

l
= mass per unit length of the string.
Jisim per unit panjang tali tersebut. (unit: kgm-1)

Amplitud (sesaran maksimum) zarah setiap


gelombang maju dari titik pusat tetap. (unit: m)

4.

Frequency of sound in a stretched string :


Frekuensi bunyi dalam tali teregang.

Chapter 11 : Sound Wave.


Gelombang bunyi

1.

Intensity of sound : Keamatan bunyi.


I=

P
4 r 2

fo =

1 T
2l

..fundamental frequency

fo = fundamental frequency (lowest pitch).


Frekuensi asas (nada terendah). (unit: Hz)

l = length of the string.


Panjang tali. (unit: m)

I = intensity of sound heard by an observer


at distance r from the source.

fn = (n+1)fo

th

.. n overtone frequency

Keamatan bunyi yang didengar oleh seorang


pemerhati pada jarak r dari sumber. (unit: Wm-2)

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

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5.

Frequency of sound in an open end tube :

Chapter 12 : Elastic properties of matter

Frekuensi bunyi dalam satu tiub hujung terbuka.

fo =

v
2l

..fundamental frequency

Sifat-sifat kenyal bahan.

1.

Stress : Tegasan.

fo = fundamental frequency (lowest pitch).

F
A

Frekuensi asas (nada terendah). (unit: Hz)

= stress.

v = velocity of sound in air column.


Halaju bunyi dalam turus udara. (unit: ms-1)

Tegasan. (unit: Nm-2)

l = length of the air column.

F = force acted normally on an area of a


body.

Panjang turus udara tersebut. (unit: m)

6.

Daya yang dikenakan secara menegak ke atas satu


luas satu jasad (unit: N)

th

fn = (n+1)fo

.. n overtone frequency

A = cross sectional area of the body which is


acted by the force.

Frequency of sound in a closed end tube :

Luas keratan rentas jasad tersebut yang dikenakan


oleh daya. (unit: m-2)

Frekuensi bunyi dalam satu tiub hujung tertutup.

fo =

v
4l

..fundamental frequency

2.

fo = fundamental frequency (lowest pitch).

Strain : Terikan.

Frekuensi asas (nada terendah). (unit: Hz)

v = velocity of sound in air column.


Halaju bunyi dalam turus udara. (unit: ms-1)

= strain.

l = length of the air column.

Terikan. (unit: -)

Panjang turus udara tersebut. (unit: m)

7.

l = elongation produced by the body due


to stress.

th

fn = (2n+1)fo

.. n overtone frequency

Pemanjangan yang dihasilkan oleh jasad


disebabkan terikan. (unit: m)

l = original length of the body.

Doppler effect :

Panjang asal jasad.(unit: m)

Kesan Doppler.

v m vp
fa =
v vs

l
lo

3.

Youngs modulus : Modulus Young.

Y=
fa = apparent frequency (frequency heard
by an observer).

Y = Youngs modulus (constant).

Frekuensi ketara (frekuensi yang didengar oleh


pemerhati). (unit: Hz)

fo = actual frequency (frequency produced


by the source).
Frekuensi sebenar (frekuensi yang dihasilkan oleh
sumber). (unit: Hz)

v = velocity of sound (in air).

Modulus Young (pemalar). (unit: Nm-2)

4.

Strain energy : Tenaga terikan.


U = F l

Halaju bunyi (dalam udara). (unit: ms-1)

vp = velocity of the observer.


Halaju pemerhati tersebut. (unit: ms-1)

U = Strain energy.
Tenaga terikan. (unit: J @ kgm2m-2)

vs = velocity of the source.


Halaju sumber bunyi. (unit: ms-1)

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Chapter 13 : Heat.

4.

Haba

1.

Volumetric thermal expansion :


Pengembangan haba isipadu.

Rate of heat transfer : Kadar pemindahan haba.

V = VoT

Q
kAT
=t
x

V = the change of volume.


Perubahan isipadu.(unit: m3)

= coefficient of volume expension.


Pekali pengembangan isipadu.(unit: oC-1 @ K-1)

Q = amount of heat transferred.

Ao = original volume.

Amaun haba yang dipindahkan.(unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

Isipadu asal.(unit: m3)

t = time for heat transferring process.

T = temperature difference.

Masa proses pemindahan haba.(unit: s)

Perubahan suhu.(unit: oC @ K)

k = thermal conductivity of a material.


Kekonduksian terma satu material.(unit: Wm-1K-1)

A = cross sectional area where the heat


absorbed in/out by the material.

5.

Luas keratan rentas di mana haba diserap masuk/


keluar oleh material tersebut.(unit: m2)

Relationship between the coefficients of


expansions : Hubungan di antara pekali-pekali
pengembangan.

T = Tfinal Tinitial
= temperature difference between two
ends of the material.

= 2
= 3

Perbezaan suhu di antara 2 hujung


material.(unit: oC @ K)

x = the length of the material.

Chapter 14 : Kinetic theory of gasses

Panjang material.(unit: m)

2.

Teori kinetik gas.

Linear thermal expansion : Pengembangan


haba linear.

1.

Ideal gas equation : Persamaan gas unggul.


pV = (nR)T

l = loT

..1 condition.

p = pressure of gas.
Tekanan gas. (unit: Pa @ Nm-2)

l = elongation.

V = volume of gas.

Pemanjangan.(unit: m)

Isipadu gas. (unit: m-2)

= coefficient of linear expension.


o -1

-1

Pekali pengembangan linear.(unit: C @ K )

lo = original length.
Panjang asal.(unit: m)

T = temperature difference.
Perubahan suhu.(unit: oC @ K)

n=N=m
NA M
= number of mole.
Bilangan mol. (unit: -)

N = number of gas molecules.


Bilangan molekul gas. (unit: -)

NA = avogadro number.
3.

Area thermal expansion : Pengembangan haba

Nombor avogadro. (NA = 6.02 x1023 mol-1)

luas.

m = mass of a gas molecule

A = AoT

M = molart mass of the gas.

Jisim satu molekul gas. (unit: kg)


Jisim molar gas tersebut. (unit: kgmol-1)

A = the change of area.


2

Perubahan luas.(unit: m )

= coefficient of area expension.


Pekali pengembangan luas.(unit: oC-1 @ K-1)

-1

-1

R = molar gas constant = 8.31 J mol K


Pekali molar gas. (R = 8.31 Jmol K )
-1

-1

T = temperature of gas.
Suhu gas. (unit: K)

Ao = original area.
Luas asal.(unit: m2)

T = temperature difference.
Perubahan suhu.(unit: oC @ K)

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18

p i V i p f Vf
=
Ti
Tf

M = molar mass of gas.

..2 different conditions.

pi = pressure of gas at initial condition.


Tekanan gas pada keadaan awal.

Jirim molar gas. (unit : kgmol-1)

4.

Translational kinetic energy : Tenaga kinetik


translasi.

(unit: Pa @ Nm )
-2

pf = pressure of gas at final condition.

3
2

KTr = N kT

Tekanan gas pada keadaan akhir.


(unit: Pa @ Nm )
-2

Vi = volume of gas at initial condition.

or

KTr =

3
nRT
2

Ktr = translational kinetik energy of gas


molecules.

Isipadu gas pada keadaan awal.


(unit: m3)

Vf = volume of gas at final condition.

Tenaga kinetik translasi molekul gas. (unit: J)

Isipadu gas pada keadaan akhirl.


(unit: m3)

N = number of gas molecules.


Bilangan molekul gas. (unit: -)

Ti = temperature of gas at initial condition.

n = number of gas mole.

Suhu gas pada keadaan awal.


(unit: K)

Bilangan mol gas. (unit: -)

Tf = temperature of gas at final condition.


Suhu gas pada keadaan akhir.
(unit: K)

2.

5.

1
2

1 Nm
2

<v >
3 V

or

U = f NkT

Gas pressure : Tekanan gas.


p=

Internal energy : Tenaga dalam.

p=

or

1
2

U = f nRT

U = internal energy of gas.

1
<v2 >
3

Tenaga dalam gas. (unit: J)

f = degree of freedom of the gas.


Darjah kebebasan gas tersebut.
(f = 3 (monoatomic), f = 5 (diatomic),
f = 6 (polyatomic)).

p = pressure of gas.
Tekanan gas. (unit: Pa @ Nm-2)

N = number of gas molecules.


Bilangan molekul gas. (unit: -)

m = mass of a gas molecule.

Chapter 15 : Thermodynamics

Jisim satu molekul gas. (unit: kg)

Termodinamik.

V = volume of gas.
3

Isipadu gas. (unit: m )


2

<v > = mean square speed of gas molecules.


Purata laju kuasa dua molekul gas. (unit: m2s-2)

= density of gas.

Ketumpatan gas. (unit: kgm-3)

3.

3kT
m

or

vrms =

st

Equation according to the 1 law of


thermodynamics : Persamaan berkaitan hukum
termodinamik pertama.

Q = U + W
Q = heat energy absorbed by/released from
the gas.

R.M.S. speed : Laju p.m.k.d.


vrms =

1.

3RT
M

Tenaga haba yang diserap oleh/ dibebaskan dari


gas. (unit: J)

U = the change (increase/ decrease) of


internal energy of the gas.

vrms = root mean square speed of gas


molecules.
Punca min kuasa dua laju molekul gas.
(unit: ms )
-1

Perubahan (penambahan/pengurangan) tenaga


dalam gas. (unit: J)

W = work done by/ upon the gas.


Kerja dilakukan oleh/ ke atas gas. (unit: J)

k = Boltzman constant.
Pemalar Boltzman. (k = 1.38 x 10-23 JK-1)

m = mass of a gas molecule.


Jisim satu molekul gas. (unit : kg)

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2.

Thermodynamics works : Kerja-kerja


termodinamik.

V2
or

V1

W = nRT ln

p1
p2

W = nRT ln

.. in isothermal process

V2 = final volume of gas.

Isipadu akhir gas. (unit: m3)

V1 = initial volume of gas.

Isipadu awal gas. (unit: m3)

p2 = final pressure of gas.


Tekanan akhir gas. (unit: Pa)

p1 = initial pressure of gas.


Tekanan awal gas. (unit: Pa)

W = p(V2 V1)

.. in isobaric process

W=0

.. in isochoric process

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