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Edition 1

back2basicedition1@zahidihashimkmj2012

SF016 : Physics Semester 1

PHYSICAL TERMINOLOGY

1.

Physical quantity : Kuantiti fizik

= A quantity that can be measured or
derived from other quantities.

1.

2.
2.

Basic quantity : Kuantiti asas

= A quantity which cannot be derived from
any other quantities.
Suatu kuantiti yan tidak boleh diterbitkan daripada
sebarang kuantiti yang lain.

3.

4.

3.

Average velocity : Halaju purata(unit: ms-1)

= The displacement divided by the time
interval during which the displacement
occurred @ Total (resultant) displacement
divided by total time taken by a body.
Sesaran dibahagikan oleh sela masa semasa sesaran
berlaku @ jumlah (paduan) sesaran dibahagikan

4.

(unit: ms-1)

= The limit of the average velocity as the

time interval becomes infinitesimally short.

Scalar quantity : Kuantiti skalar

= A quantity which has only magnitude.

pendek.

(nilai).

5.
5.

Velocity, v : Halaju (unit: ms-1)

= The rate of displacement of a body.

Derived quantity : Kuantiti terbitan

= A quantity which is derived from the
combination of several basic quantities by
multiplication, division, differentiation or
integration.
Suatu kuantiti yang diterbitkan daripada gabungan
beberapa kuantiti asas melalui pendaraban,
pembahagian, pembezaan atau pengkamiran.

Displacement, s : Sesaran (unit: m)

= The change of position between two
points.

(unit: ms-1)

Vector quantity : Kuantiti vektor

= A quantity which has magnitude and
direction.

= Velocity with constant in magnitude.

Halaju dengan magnitud yang malar sepanjang masa.

6.
6.

Scalar product : Hasil darab skalar

= Multiplication of a vector by the same or
other vector, as a result of which produces
a scalar.
Hasil darab satu vektor dengan vektor yang sama atau
vektor yang lain dan menghasilkan satu kuantiti skalar.

7.

Vector product : Hasil darab vektor

= Multiplication of a vector by other vector,
as a result of which produces a new vector.
Hasil darab satu vektor dengan vektor yang lain dan
menghasilkan satu kuantiti vektor yang baru.

Acceleration, a : Pecutan (unit: ms-2)

= The rate of change of velocity of a body.

7.

(unit: ms-2)

= The change of velocity divided by the time

interval during which the change occurred
@ Total (resultant) velocity divided by total
time taken by a body.
Perubahan halaju dibahagikan oleh sela masa semasa
perubahan berlaku @ jumlah (paduan) halaju
dibahagikan kepada jumlah masa diambil oleh suatu

8.

Suatu agensi yang cenderung untuk mengubah

momentum suatu jasad @ suatu kuantiti yang
menyebabkan perubahan gerakan atau rupabentuk

(unit: ms-2)

= The limit of the average acceleration as

the time interval goes to zero.
pendek.

9.

2.

pergerakannya.

(unit: ms-2)

= Acceleration with constant in magnitude

(velocity increases/decreases uniformly).
Pecutan dengan magnitud yang malar sepanjang masa
(halaju bertambah/ berkurang secara seragam).

3.

Momentum, p : Momentum (unit: kgms-1)

= The product of mass and velocity of an
object.

4.

2.

In a closed system, the total momentum is

conserved.

4.

5.

Collision : Perlanggaran
= An interaction between two or more
bodies which occurs in a relatively small
region of space and in a relatively short
time.
Suatu interaksi di antara dua atau lebih jasad yang
berlaku di dalam ruang yang secara relatifnya kecil dan
dalam sela masa yang secara relatifnya pendek.

Chapter 5 : Work, Energy & Power

Kerja, tenaga & kuasa

1.

Perubahan momentum suatu jasad (hasil darab suatu

daya dan masa bilamana ia berlaku).

Daya-daya

Force, F : Daya (unit: kgms-2 @ N)

= The agency that tends to change the
momentum of a massive body @ a quantity
which causes changes of motion or shape of
an object).

Work, W : Kerja (unit: kgm2s-2 @ J)

= The scalar product of force and
displacement (the product of the
component of force which is parallel to
displacement of the object, times the
magnitude of the displacement)
Hasil darab skalar di antara daya dan sesaran (hasil
darab komponen daya yang selari dengan sesaran satu
objek, dengan magnitud sesaran itu).

Chapter 4 : Forces.

1.

rd

Newtons 3 law : Hukum Newton ketiga

If one body exerts a force on another,
there is an equal and opposite force called
reaction, exerted on the first body by the
second.
lain, terdapat satu daya yang senilai tetapi berlawanan
arah dipanggil daya tindakbalas akan dikenakan ke

-1

Impulse, J : Impuls (unit: kgms )

= The change of momentum of an object
(the product of a force and the time for
which it acts).

nd

Newtons 2 law : Hukum Newton kedua

The rate of change of momentum of a
moving body is proportional to and in the
same direction as the force acting on it.
bergerak terus dan dalam arah yang sama dengan
daya yang dikenakan ke atasnya.

3.

st

Newtons 1 law : Hukum Newton pertama

A body continues in a state of rest or
uniform motion in a straight line unless it is
acted upon by external forces.
kekal bergerak malar dalam satu garis lurus kecuali
ianya dikenakan daya luaran.

Chapter 3 : Momentum & Impulse.

1.

Inertia : Inersia
= The property of matter that causes it to
resist any change in its motion.

2.

Potential energy, U : Tenaga keupayaan

(unit: kgm2s-2 @ J)

= The energy stored in an object (or system)

due to its position from a reference point.

Tenaga yang tersimpan di dalam satu objek (atau

sistem) disebabkan kedudukannya dari satu titik
rujukan.

3.

2.

Masa yang diambil oleh satu objek untuk membuat 1

pusingan lengkap.

Kinetic energy, K : Tenaga kinetic

2 -2

(unit: kgm s @ J)

(or a system).

1.

= The acceleration in a circular motion of an

object due to the change of the direction of
velocity.

Pecutan di dalam gerakan membulat satu objek

disebabkan perubahan arah halajunya.

In a closed system, the total energy of the

system is conserved.

2.

5.

Work-energy theorem : Teorem kerja-tenaga

The total work done on a body by all forces
on it, equals the change in a particular type
of energy (such as kinetic energy or
potential energy)
Jumlah kerja yang dilakukan ke atas satu jasad oleh
kesemua daya-daya ke atasnya, adalah bersamaan
dengan perubahan dalam sesuatu jenis tenaga
tertentu (seperti tenaga kinetic atau tenaga
keupayaan).

6.

= The resultant force necessary to cause an

object to move in a circle.
Daya paduan yang diperlukan untuk menyebabkan
satu objek bergerak di dalam satu bulatan.

Chapter 7 : Gravitation
Kegravitian

1.

Two objects of masses m and M attract

each other with forces directly proportional
to the product of their masses and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance
between their centre of gravity.

= The ratio of total work done to the total

time it takes to complete the work.

Dua objek berjisim m dan M akan menarik antara satu

sama lain dengan daya-daya yang berkadar terus
dengan hasil darab jisim-jisim mereka dan berkadar
songsang dengan kuasa dua jarak di antara pusat
graviti kedua-duanya.

Nisbah jumlah kerja dilakukan terhadap jumlah masa

yang diambil untuk melengkapkan kerja tersebut.

Instantaneouspower, P : Kuasa seketika

(unit: kgm2s-1 @ W)

2.

Gerakan membulat

1.

= The gravitational force that experienced

by a unit mass placed in a gravitational
field.

Mechanical efficiency, : Kecekapan sawat

= The ratio of output work done to the
input energy supplied into a system.
Nisbah kerja output yang dilakukan terhadap tenaga
input yang dibekalkan ke dalam satu sistem.

Gravitational field strength, g :

Kekuatan medan graviti (unit: ms-2)

pendek.

8.

Newtons law of gravitation :

Hukum kegravitian Newton

= The limit of the average power as the time

interval goes to zero.

Centripetal force, Fc : Daya memusat

(unit: kgms-2 @ N)

(unit: kgm2s-3 @ W)

7.

(unit: ms-2)

bergerak.

4.

Period, T : Tempoh (unit: s)

= The time it takes for an object to make 1
complete revolution.

Daya graviti yang dialami oleh satu unit jisim yang

diletakkan di dalam medan graviti.

3.

(unit: Nkg-1)

= The work done by the external force to

overcome the gravitational force to move a
unit mass of a body from a point to infinity.
Kerja yang dilakukan oleh daya luaran untuk
mengatasi daya graviti untuk menggerakkan satu unit
jisim satu jasad dari satu titik ke infiniti.

= The number of revolutions made in a unit

of time.
Bilangan pusingan dibuat dalam seunit masa.
SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

7.

1.

= The resistance of a body to a change its

rotational motion.

putarannya.

= The angle through which a point has been

Sudut yang dilalui oleh satu titik yang diputarkan di
sekitar satu paksi tertentu.

2.

8.

= The product of the angular velocity of a

body and its moment of inertia about the
axis of rotation.

= The angular displacement divided by the

time interval during which the displacement
occurred.
Sesaran sudut dibahagikan oleh sela masa semasa
sesaran itu berlaku.

(unit: kgm2)

Hasil darab halaju sudut satu jasad dengan momen

inersia di sekitar paksi putarannya.

Chapter 9 : Simple harmonic motion

Gerakan harmonik ringkas

3.

3.

= The limit of the average angular velocity

as the time interval becomes infinitesimally
short.

= A form of periodic motion in which a point

(or body) oscillates along a line about a
central point in such a way that it ranges an
equal distance on either side of the central
point, accelerates towards the central point
and always proportional to its distance.

amat pendek.

4.

Satu bentuk gerakan berkala yang mana satu titik

(atau jasad) berayun di sepanjang satu garis di sekitar
satu titik pusat dengan julat jarak yang sama pada
kedua-dua bahagian titik pusat tersebut, memecut
mengarah titik pusat dan sentiasa berkadar langsung
dengan magnitud jaraknya.

= The change of angular velocity divided by

the time interval during which the change
occurred @ Total (resultant) angular
velocity divided by total time taken by a
body.
Perubahan halaju sudut dibahagikan oleh sela masa
semasa perubahan berlaku @ jumlah (paduan) halaju
sudut dibahagikan kepada jumlah masa diambil oleh

5.

4.

Amplitude, A : Amplitud (unit: m)

= The maximum displacement of the body
from the fixed central point.
Sesaran maksimum suatu jasad dari titik pusat yang
tetap.

= The limit of the average angular

acceleration as the time interval goes to
zero.

5.

second.

amat pendek.

6.

Torque, : Tork (unit: kgm2s-2 @ Nm)

= The vector product of a force and its
perpendicular distance from a point about
which it causes rotation.

6.

Period, T : Tempoh (unit: s)

= Time taken for 1 complete oscillation.
Masa yang diambil untuk membuat 1 ayunan lengkap.

Hasil darab vektor satu daya dengan jarak menegak

dari satu titik yang menyebabkannya berputar.

Chapter 11 : Sound wave.

Gelombang-gelombang mekanik

1.

Progressive wave : gelombang maju

= A wave that moves continuously in a
medium or without any medium.

1.

Sejenis gelombang yang bergerak secara berterusan di

dalam satu medium atau tanpa sebarang medium.

2.

Wavelength, : Jarak gelombang (unit: m)

= The distance between successive points of
equal phase in the wave.

Tenaga yang dipindahkan per unit masa merentasi

satu unit luas yang serenjang dengan arah
perambatan gelombang.

2.

Jarak di antara 2 titik berturutan yang mempunyai fasa

yang sama di dalam gelombang.

3.

Wave number, k : Nombor gelombang

= The number of cycles of a wave in unit
length.

4.

Transverse wave : Gelombang melintang

= A wave which is propagated by the
vibration of the particles which are
perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
Sejenis gelombang yang merambat disebabkan
getaran zarah-zarah yang serenjang dengan arah
perambatan gelombang tersebut.

5.

Longitudinal wave : Gelombang membujur

= A wave which is propagated by the
vibration of the parallel which are
perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
Sejenis gelombang yang merambat disebabkan
getaran zarah-zarah yang selari dengan arah
perambatan gelombang tersebut.

6.

Principle of superposition : Prinsip superposisi

When 2 waves meet, the resultant
disturbance (displacement) at the point of
meeting is the algebraic sum of the
disturbance that could be cancelled by each
wave individually if alone in the medium at
that time.
Apabila 2 gelombang bertemu, gangguan (sesaran)
algebra gangguan-gangguan tersebut.

7.

Stationary (standing) wave : gelombang pegun

= A wave that remain stationary which
produced by superposition between 2
coherent waves which travel in the
opposite direction.
Sejenis gelombang yang kekal pegun yang terhasil dari
superposisi di antara 2 gelombang koheren yang

Beat : Rentak
= A wave that produced by superposition of
2 waves travel in the same direction but
have a small difference in frequency.
Sejenis gelombang yang terhasil oleh superposisi 2
gelombang yang bergerak dalam arah yang sama
tetapi mempunyai berbezaan frekuensi yang kecil.

panjang.

Sound intensity, I : Keamatan bunyi (unit: Wm-2)

= The energy transported per unit time
across a unit area which is perpendicular to
the direction of wave propagation.

3.

(unit: Hz)

= The lowest of the natural frequencies of

the vibrating system.
Frekuensi asli terrendah bagi satu sistem yang
bergetar.

4.

(unit: Hz)

= Frequencies which are multiple of

fundamental frequency of a vibrating
system.
Frekuensi-frekuensi gandaan frekuensi asas bagi satu
sistem yang bergetar.

5.

Doppler effect : Kesan Doppler

= The change in the frequency of the sound
when there is a relative motion between
the source of sound and the observer.
Perubahan frekuensi bunyi apabila terdapat gerakan
relatif di antara sumber bunyi dan pemerhati.

Chapter 12 : Elastic properties of matter.

Ciri-ciri kekenyalan bahan

1.

Stress, : Tegasan (unit: Nm-2)

= The distorting force acting on a unit crosssection area of an object.
Daya herotan yang bertindak ke atas satu unit luas

2.

Strain, : Terikan (unit: -)

= The extension (elongation) per unit
original length of an object when there is a
distorting force applied on it.

Pemanjangan per unit panjang asal satu objek bila

satu daya herotan dikenakan ke atasnya.

3.

2.

Young modulus, Y : Modulus Young (unit: Nm-2)

= The ratio between longitudinal stress and
strain of an elastic linear object.
Nisbah tegasan membujur dan terikan satu jasad
kenyal lurus.

Charles law : Hukum Charle

At constant pressure, the volume of a gas
is directly proportional to its temperature
terus dengan suhunya.

3.

Pressures law : Hukum Tekanan

At constant volume, the pressure of a gas
is directly proportional to its temperature
terus dengan suhunya.

Chapter 13 : Heat.
Haba

4.
1.

2.

Sejenis tenaga yang dipindahkan disebabkan

perbezaan suhu di antara 2 jasad.

The volume of gas molecules is

negligible compared with the volume of
the container.

-2

The attractive force between the gas

molecules is negligible.
Daya tarikan di antara molekul gas adalah
diabaikan.

= The ratio of the change of length per unit

original length per unit difference of
temperature.

Gas molecules are like perfectly elastic

sphere and collisions between molecules
and with the wall of the container
perfectly elastic.

Nisbah perubahan panjang per unit panjang asal per

unit perubahan suhu.

3.

Molekul gas adalah seumpama sfera kenyal

sempurna dan perlanggaran di antara molekulmolekul dan dengan dinding bekas adalah kenyal
sempurna.

Coefficient of area expansion, :

Pekali pengembangan luas (unit: oC-1 @ K-1)

= The ratio of the change of area per unit

original area per unit difference of
temperature.

The time during a collision is very short

compared the time between 2
successive collisions.

perubahan suhu.

4.

Heat, Q : Haba (unit: J @ kgm s )

= An energy which is transferred due to
difference in temperature between 2
bodies.
2

singkat berbanding masa di antara 2 perlanggaran
berturutan.

Coefficient of volume expansion, :

Pekali pengembangan isipadu (unit: oC-1 @ K-1)

= The ratio of the change of volume per unit

original volume per unit difference of
temperature.

5.

Degree of freedom, f : Darjah kebebasan

= The number of independent ways by
which a molecule can take up energy.
Bilangan laluan bebas yang mana molekul boleh
menyimpan tenaga.

perubahan suhu.

6.

Principle of equipartition of energy :

Prinsip pemetakan sama tenaga

Chapter 14 : Kinetic theory of gases.

Teori kinetic gas

1.

Boyles law : Hukum Boyle

At constant temperature, the pressure of a
gas is inversely proportional to its volume

When a certain amount of energy is

supplied to a system, each of the possible
degree of freedom will receive an equal
share of the total energy supplied.
Apabila satu amaun tenaga dibekalkan kepada satu
sistem, setiap darjah kebebasan akan menerima
agihan yang sama daripada jumlah tenaga yang
dibekalkan.

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

Chapter 15 : Thermodynamics.

4.

Termodinamik

1.

Thermodynamics : Isoterma
= The study of the laws governing the
conversion of heat energy from one form to
another.

tetap.

5.

Satu bidang kajian tentang hukum-hukum yang

mengawal penukaran tenaga haba dari satu bentuk ke
bentuk tenaga yang lain.

2.

Isovolumetric (isochoric) : Isokorik

= A thermodynamics process that occurs at
constant volume.

Isobaric : Isobarik
= A thermodynamics process that occurs at
constant pressure.
Satu proses termodinamik yang berlaku pada tekanan
tetap.

First law of thermodynamics :

Hukum termodinamik pertama

The total energy in a closed system is

constant (the heat is distributed into the
change of internal energy and the energy to
do work.

6.

= A thermodynamics process that occurs at
constant heat.
Satu proses termodinamik yang berlaku pada haba
tetap.

Jumlah tenaga di dalam sistem tertutup adalah malar

(tenaga haba diagihkan kepada perubahan tenaga
dalam dan tenaga untuk melakukan kerja).

3.

Isothermal : Isoterma
= A thermodynamics process that occurs at
constant temperature.
Satu proses termodinamik yang berlaku pada suhu
tetap.

SF016 : Physics Semester 1

PHYSICAL FORMULAE
Chapter 1 : Physical quantities and measurements.

5.

1.

A B = AB cosAB

AB = Angle between vector A and vector B.

A = Ax + Ay or A = Axi + Ayj
where Ax = A cos
Ay = A sin

Sudut di antara vektor A dan vektor B.

6.

A = Vector quantity A.
Kuantiti vektor.

Vector (cross) product : Hasil darab vektor

AXB =

i j k
Ax Ay Az
Bx By Bz
= (AyBz ByAz)i - (AxBz - BxAz)j
+ (AxBy - BxAy)i
A X B = AB sinAB

+x axis).

Ax = Magnitude of resolved vector into xaxis.

Magnitud (nilai) leraian vektor pada paksi-x.

+y axis).

Ay = Magnitude of resolved vector into yaxis.

Magnitud (nilai) leraian vektor pada paksi-x

Chapter 2 : Kinematics of Linear Motion.

Kinematiks Gerakan Garis Lurus

1.

and x-axis.

v = u + at
2
2
v = u + 2as
2
s = ut + at

paksi-x).

i = Vector unit of x-axis (magnitude of 1 and

directed to +x axis).

v = final velocity (velocity at final position).

Unit vektor.paksi-x.

j = Vector unit of y-axis (magnitude of 1

and directed to +x axis).

(unit: ms-1)

u = initial velocity (velocity at initial

position).

Unit vektor.paksi-y.

2.

(unit: ms-1)

A=

Ax2 + Ay2

and

= tan-1

(unit: ms-2)

position.

(unit: s)

3.

s = displacement (shortest distance

between initial and final position).

dan akhir).
(unit: m)

4.

Vector subtraction (3D) : Vektor hasil tolak

A - B = A + (-B)
= (Ax - Bx)i + (Ay - By)j + (Az - Bz)k

2.

Free fall motion : Gerakan jatuh bebas

v = u - gt
2
2
v = u 2gs
2
s = ut - gt
g = acceleration due to gravity.
Pecutan disebabkan graviti.(unit: ms-2)

3.

vx = u x
sx = ux t

2.

linear

vy = uy - gt
2
2
vy = uy 2gsy
2
sy = uyt - gt

u1 = initial velocity of colliding body just

before collision.

sebelum perlanggaran. (unit: ms-1)

sx = displacement in x-component.

u2 = initial velocity of collided body just

before collision.

Sesaran dalam kompenen-x.

sy = displacement in y-component.

vx = v cosv
ux = u cos u
sx = s cos s

Equation according to the principle of

conservation of linear momentum :

v1 = final velocity of colliding body right

after before collision.

vy = v sin v
uy = u sin u
sy = s sin s

Halaju awal jasad yang melanggar sejurus

sebelum perlanggaran. (unit: ms-1)

collision.

u = resolved angle between vector u and xaxis.

Sudut leraian di antara vektor u dan paksi-x.

3.

Impulse : Impuls

s = resolved angle between vector s and xJ1 = m1(v1 - u1)

J2 = m2 (v2 u2)

axis.
Sudut leraian di antara vektor s dan paksi-x.

J1 = impulse of colliding body.

Impuls jasad yang melanggar. (unit: kgms-1)

1.

Impuls jasad yang dilanggar. (unit: kgms-1)

Momentum : Momentum
4.

Impulsive force: Daya impulsif

p = mv
p = momentum of a moving object.

F1 = J1
t

F2 = J2
t

(unit: kgms-1)

(unit: kg)

v = velocity of the object.

Halaju objek tersebut.
(unit: ms-1)

F1 = impulse force of colliding body (acting

force).
Daya impulsif jasad yang melanggar. (unit: N)

F2 = impulse force of collided body (reaction

force).
Daya impulsif jasad yang dilanggar. (unit: N)

t = contact time between the bodies.

Masa kontek di antara kedua-dua jasad. (unit: s)

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

10

Chapter 4 : Forces.

5.

Daya-daya

1.

Kinetic frictional force :

Daya geseran kinetik

st

Formula according to Newtons 1 law

(system in equilibrium) : Formula berkaitan

fk = k R

FT = 0

Pekali geseran kinetik. (unit: -)

where v = 0 or constant.

2.

nd

Formula according to Newtons 2 law

(accelerating system) : Formula berkaitan hukum
Newton kedua (sistem memecut)

1.

Work : Kerja
W = Fs cosFs

FT = vdm + mdv
dt
dt

W = single (individual) work.

Kerja individu. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

(unit: kg)

(unit: ms-1)

Fs = angle between vector F and vector s.

Sudut di antara vektor F dan s. (unit: o)

FT = ma
WT = FT s cosFs or

WT = W1 + W 2 +

m = constant mass of acted body.

Jisim malar jasad yang dikenakan daya-daya.
(unit: kg)

WT = total (the sum of) work.

Jumlah (hasil tambah) kerja. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

FT = resultant force.
3.

Weight : Berat

W1, W2 = individual works.

Kerja-kerja individu. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

W = mg
m = mass of a body.
Jisim jasad yang dikenakan daya-daya. (unit: kg)

g = acceleration due to gravity.

Pecutan disebabkan graviti. (unit: ms-2)

2.

Kinetic energy : Tenaga kinetik

2

K =mv

K = kinetic energy.
4.

Daya geseran statik maksimum

m = mass of an object.

fs(max) = s R

R = normal force acting on the body.

Pecutan disebabkan graviti. (unit: N)

11

3.

7.

Power : Kuasa

U = mgh

Pave = W
t

Kuasa purata.(unit: W @ kgm2s-3)

m = mass of an object.

g = acceleration due to graviti.

(unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

level.

(unit: s)

4.

Pinst = dW
dt

Elastic potential energy :

Tenaga keupayaan kenyal

Pinst = Fv cosFv

or

Pinst = instantaneous power.

Kuasa seketika purata.(unit: W @ kgm2s-3)

U = kx

U = elastic potential energy.

(unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

(unit: s)

Daya dikenakan ke atas objek.

(unit: N @ kgms-2)

5.

Formula according to the principle of

conservation of energy :

8.

UT = total potential energy.

Jumlah tenaga keupayaan. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

KT = total kinetic energy.

Jumlah tenaga kinetik. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

= Poutput x 100%
Pinput

or

= Woutput x 100%
Einput

6.

theorem :

Poutput = input power (supplied).

Kuasa input (dibekalkan).(unit: W)

Poutput = output power (performed).

W = Kafter Kbefore

Kuasa output (digunakan).(unit: W)

or

W = Uafter Ubefore

W = work performe by an object.

Kerja dilakukan oleh satu objek.

Woutput = output work (performed).

Kerja output (digunakan).(unit: J)

(unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

K = kinetic energy.
Tenaga kinetik. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

U = potential energy.
Tenaga keupayaan. (unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

12

Chapter 6 : Circular Motion.

Chapter 7 : Gravitation.

Gerakan membulat

1.

Kegravitian

1.

v = 2r
T

F = GMm
2
r

v = uniform velocity of circular motion.

F = gravitational force.
Daya graviti. (unit: N @ kgms-2)

(unit: s)

st

nd

2.

ac = v
r

bodies.

Jarak di antara pusat kedua-dua jasad. (unit: m)

ac = centripetal acceleration.

2.

3.

g = GM
2
r

Fc = mv
r

Gravitational field strength :

Kekuatan medan graviti

-2

g = gravitational field strength

(acceleration).
Kekuatan medan graviti (pecutan).
(unit: Nkg-1 @ ms-2)

ac = centripetal acceleration.

4.

r = distance between the centre of the body

and the referred point.

(unit: m)

Fx = Fc

and

Fy = 0

Fx = total force in x-component.

Jumlah daya pada komponen-x. (unit: N)

Fy = total force in y-component.

Jumlah daya pada komponen-y. (unit: N)

5.

Vertically circular motion :

Gerakan membulat menegak.

Fx = 0

and

Fy = Fc

Fx = total force in x-component.

Jumlah daya pada komponen-x. (unit: N)

3.

Gravitational potential : Keupayaan graviti

V = - GM
r
V = gravitational potential in a gravitational
field.
Keupayaan graviti di dalam medan graviti.
(unit: Jkg-1 @ m2s-2)

r = distance between the centre of the body

and the referred point.
Jarak di antara pusat jasad dengan titik rujukan.
(unit: m)

Fy = total force in y-component.

Jumlah daya pada komponen-y. (unit: N)

13

4.

2.

Equations for rotational kinematics :

Persamaan-persamaan bagi kinematiks putaran.

v =

GM
r

= o + t
2 = o2 + 2
= ot + t2

v = velocity to orbit around the planet.

Halaju untuk mengorbit mengelilingi planet.

position.

(unit: ms-1)

r = distance between the centre of the

planet to the orbit.

(unit: s)

Jarak di antara pusat planet dengan orbit.

(unit: m)

3.

Torque :
Tork (agen memutar).

= r F sinrF

1.

Relationships between parameter in

rotational and linear motions :

(unit: Nm @ kgm2s-2)

Hubungan di antara parameter-parameters dalam

gerakan putaran dan linear.

r = moment arm (distance between axis of

rotation and the point where the force is
acted on the body).

s = r
v = r
a = r
2
ac = r

Lengan momen (jarak di antara paksi putaran dan

titik di mana daya dikenakan ke atas jasad).
(unit: m)

F = force acted on the body.

Daya yang dikenakan ke atas jasad. (unit: N)

s = perimeter travelled by a point which is

rotating about an axis of rotation.
Ukurlilit dilalui oleh satu titik yang berputar di
sekitar satu paksi putaran.
(unit: m)

4.

r = distance between the axis of rotation

and the referred rotating point.

Fx = Fy = 0

Jarak di antara paksi putaran dan titik rujukan

yang berputar. (unit: m)

rotation.

v = velocity of of rotating point.

Halaju titik yang berputar. (unit: ms )
-1

= angular velocity of of rotating point.

Halaju sudut titik yang berputar. (unit: rads-1)
a = acceleration of rotating point.
Pecutan titik yang berputar. (unit: ms-2)

= angular acceleration of of rotating

point.
Pecutan sudut titik yang berputar. (unit: rads-2)

ac = centripetal acceleration of rotating

point.
Pecutan memusat titik yang berputar.
(unit: ms )
-2

1.

Displacement of SHM : Sesaran GHM

y = A sin( t + )
y = displacement of a body from the central
fixed point.
Sesaran satu jasad dari titik pusat tetap. (unit: m)

A = amplitude (maximum displacement

from the central fixed point).
Amplitud (sesaran maksimum dari titik pusat
tetap. (unit: m)

(t + ) = phase.

= angular velocity.

14

U = m y

2 2

t = time (associated with y).

..respect to displacement

= phase angle
6.

E = m A

2 2

2.

v = A cos( t)

E = total energy (combination of kinetic and

potential energy) of a body which
undergone SHM.

..respect to time

SHM.

Jumlah tenaga (gabungan tenaga kinetic dan

keupayaan) satu jasad yang melakukan GHM.
(unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

Halaju satu jasad yang melakukan GHM.

(unit: ms )
-1

v = + A 2 y 2 ..respect to
displacement

7.

T = 2

3.

Acceleration of SHM : Pecutan GHM

m
k

. spring oscillation

2

m = mass attached on the spring.

a = acceleration of a body which undergone
SHM.

Jisim disangkutkan pada spring. (unit: kg)

k = spring constant.
Pemalar spring. (unit: Nm-1 @ kgs-2)

Pecutan satu jasad yang melakukan GHM.

(unit: ms )
-2

a=- y
2

T = 2

..respect to displacement

l
g

. simple pendulum

4.

K = mA cos ( t)
2

Panjang benang. (unit: m)

..respect to time

g = acceleration due to graviti.

Pecutan graviti. (unit: ms-2)

K = kinetic energy of a body which

undergone SHM.
Tenaga kinetik satu jasad yang melakukan GHM.
(unit: J @ kgm2s-2)

m = mass of the body.

Gelombang mekanik

K = m (A - y )
2

5.

..respect to
displacement

Potential Energy of SHM : Ten. keupayaan GHM

U = mA sin ( t)
2

..respect to time

U = potential energy of a body which

undergone SHM.
Tenaga keupayaan satu jasad yang melakukan
GHM. (unit: J @ kgm s )
2

-2

1.

Displacement of Wave : Sesaran gelombang

y = A sin( t + kx)
y = displacement of the vibration by the
particle from the fixed point.
Sesaran satu zarah dari titik pusat tetap. (unit: m)

A = amplitude (maximum displacement) of

the vibration by the particle from the
fixed point.
Amplitud (sesaran maksimum zarah dari titik
pusat tetap. (unit: m)

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

15

= angular velocity.

the source.

= 2f

or =

Kuasa bunyi malar yang hasilkan oleh sumber.

(unit: W @ kgm2s-3 )

2
T

r = distance between the observer and the

source.
Jarak di antara pemerhati dan sumber. (unit: m)

k = wave number.

2.

2
k=

x = wave displacement.

fr = | f2 - f1 |

fr = beat frequency (the difference between

two progressive waves frequency).

from the source.

Frekuensi rentak (perbezaan frekuensi 2

gelombang maju). (unit: Hz)

Masa diambil untuk gelombang merambat dari

sumber. (unit: s)

st

f1 = frequency of the 1 progressive wave.

Frekuensi gelombang maju pertama). (unit: Hz)
nd

2.

v = f
3.

Velocity of sound in a stretched string :

Halaju bunyi dalam tali teregang.

v = velocity of progressive wave.

Halaju gelombang maju. (unit: ms )
-1

v=
3.

Stationary Wave : Gelombang pegun

v = velocity of sound propagated in string.

(unit: ms-1)

Y = displacement of the vibration by the

particle from the fixed point.

T = tension of the string.

Ketegangan tali tersebut. (unit: N @ kgms-2)

=m

A = amplitude (maximum displacement) of

the vibration by the particle of each
progressive wave from the fixed point.

l
= mass per unit length of the string.
Jisim per unit panjang tali tersebut. (unit: kgm-1)

Amplitud (sesaran maksimum) zarah setiap

gelombang maju dari titik pusat tetap. (unit: m)

4.

Frequency of sound in a stretched string :

Frekuensi bunyi dalam tali teregang.

Gelombang bunyi

1.

Intensity of sound : Keamatan bunyi.

I=

P
4 r 2

fo =

1 T
2l

..fundamental frequency

fo = fundamental frequency (lowest pitch).

Frekuensi asas (nada terendah). (unit: Hz)

l = length of the string.

Panjang tali. (unit: m)

I = intensity of sound heard by an observer

at distance r from the source.

fn = (n+1)fo

th

.. n overtone frequency

Keamatan bunyi yang didengar oleh seorang

pemerhati pada jarak r dari sumber. (unit: Wm-2)

16

5.

Frekuensi bunyi dalam satu tiub hujung terbuka.

fo =

v
2l

..fundamental frequency

Sifat-sifat kenyal bahan.

1.

Stress : Tegasan.

F
A

= stress.

v = velocity of sound in air column.

Halaju bunyi dalam turus udara. (unit: ms-1)

body.

6.

Daya yang dikenakan secara menegak ke atas satu

th

fn = (n+1)fo

.. n overtone frequency

A = cross sectional area of the body which is

acted by the force.

Luas keratan rentas jasad tersebut yang dikenakan

oleh daya. (unit: m-2)

Frekuensi bunyi dalam satu tiub hujung tertutup.

fo =

v
4l

..fundamental frequency

2.

fo = fundamental frequency (lowest pitch).

Strain : Terikan.

v = velocity of sound in air column.

Halaju bunyi dalam turus udara. (unit: ms-1)

= strain.

l = length of the air column.

Terikan. (unit: -)

7.

l = elongation produced by the body due

to stress.

th

fn = (2n+1)fo

.. n overtone frequency

disebabkan terikan. (unit: m)

Doppler effect :

Kesan Doppler.

v m vp
fa =
v vs

l
lo

3.

Youngs modulus : Modulus Young.

Y=
fa = apparent frequency (frequency heard
by an observer).

Frekuensi ketara (frekuensi yang didengar oleh

pemerhati). (unit: Hz)

fo = actual frequency (frequency produced

by the source).
Frekuensi sebenar (frekuensi yang dihasilkan oleh
sumber). (unit: Hz)

4.

U = F l

vp = velocity of the observer.

Halaju pemerhati tersebut. (unit: ms-1)

U = Strain energy.
Tenaga terikan. (unit: J @ kgm2m-2)

vs = velocity of the source.

Halaju sumber bunyi. (unit: ms-1)

SF016 Physics | Back2Basic 1

17

Chapter 13 : Heat.

4.

Haba

1.

V = VoT

Q
kAT
=t
x

= coefficient of volume expension.

Pekali pengembangan isipadu.(unit: oC-1 @ K-1)

Q = amount of heat transferred.

Ao = original volume.

t = time for heat transferring process.

T = temperature difference.

Masa proses pemindahan haba.(unit: s)

Perubahan suhu.(unit: oC @ K)

k = thermal conductivity of a material.

Kekonduksian terma satu material.(unit: Wm-1K-1)

A = cross sectional area where the heat

absorbed in/out by the material.

5.

Luas keratan rentas di mana haba diserap masuk/

keluar oleh material tersebut.(unit: m2)

Relationship between the coefficients of

expansions : Hubungan di antara pekali-pekali
pengembangan.

T = Tfinal Tinitial
= temperature difference between two
ends of the material.

= 2
= 3

Perbezaan suhu di antara 2 hujung

material.(unit: oC @ K)

Chapter 14 : Kinetic theory of gasses

Panjang material.(unit: m)

2.

haba linear.

1.

Ideal gas equation : Persamaan gas unggul.

pV = (nR)T

l = loT

..1 condition.

p = pressure of gas.
Tekanan gas. (unit: Pa @ Nm-2)

l = elongation.

V = volume of gas.

Pemanjangan.(unit: m)

o -1

-1

Pekali pengembangan linear.(unit: C @ K )

lo = original length.
Panjang asal.(unit: m)

T = temperature difference.
Perubahan suhu.(unit: oC @ K)

n=N=m
NA M
= number of mole.
Bilangan mol. (unit: -)

N = number of gas molecules.

Bilangan molekul gas. (unit: -)

3.

luas.

A = AoT

Jisim satu molekul gas. (unit: kg)

Jisim molar gas tersebut. (unit: kgmol-1)

A = the change of area.

2

Perubahan luas.(unit: m )

= coefficient of area expension.

Pekali pengembangan luas.(unit: oC-1 @ K-1)

-1

-1

R = molar gas constant = 8.31 J mol K

Pekali molar gas. (R = 8.31 Jmol K )
-1

-1

T = temperature of gas.
Suhu gas. (unit: K)

Ao = original area.
Luas asal.(unit: m2)

T = temperature difference.
Perubahan suhu.(unit: oC @ K)

18

p i V i p f Vf
=
Ti
Tf

4.

translasi.

(unit: Pa @ Nm )
-2

3
2

KTr = N kT

(unit: Pa @ Nm )
-2

or

KTr =

3
nRT
2

molecules.

(unit: m3)

(unit: m3)

N = number of gas molecules.

Bilangan molekul gas. (unit: -)

(unit: K)

(unit: K)

2.

5.

1
2

1 Nm
2

<v >
3 V

or

U = f NkT

p=

p=

or

1
2

U = f nRT

1
<v2 >
3

f = degree of freedom of the gas.

Darjah kebebasan gas tersebut.
(f = 3 (monoatomic), f = 5 (diatomic),
f = 6 (polyatomic)).

p = pressure of gas.
Tekanan gas. (unit: Pa @ Nm-2)

N = number of gas molecules.

Bilangan molekul gas. (unit: -)

m = mass of a gas molecule.

Chapter 15 : Thermodynamics

Jisim satu molekul gas. (unit: kg)

Termodinamik.

V = volume of gas.
3

2

<v > = mean square speed of gas molecules.

Purata laju kuasa dua molekul gas. (unit: m2s-2)

= density of gas.

3.

3kT
m

or

vrms =

st

Equation according to the 1 law of

thermodynamics : Persamaan berkaitan hukum
termodinamik pertama.

Q = U + W
Q = heat energy absorbed by/released from
the gas.

vrms =

1.

3RT
M

gas. (unit: J)

U = the change (increase/ decrease) of

internal energy of the gas.

vrms = root mean square speed of gas

molecules.
Punca min kuasa dua laju molekul gas.
(unit: ms )
-1

Perubahan (penambahan/pengurangan) tenaga

dalam gas. (unit: J)

W = work done by/ upon the gas.

Kerja dilakukan oleh/ ke atas gas. (unit: J)

k = Boltzman constant.
Pemalar Boltzman. (k = 1.38 x 10-23 JK-1)

m = mass of a gas molecule.

Jisim satu molekul gas. (unit : kg)

19

2.

Thermodynamics works : Kerja-kerja

termodinamik.

V2
or

V1

W = nRT ln

p1
p2

W = nRT ln

.. in isothermal process

p2 = final pressure of gas.

Tekanan akhir gas. (unit: Pa)

p1 = initial pressure of gas.

Tekanan awal gas. (unit: Pa)

W = p(V2 V1)

.. in isobaric process

W=0

.. in isochoric process

20