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Running head: DATA ANALYSIS

TigerLight Quantitative Data Analysis


Communications 318:
Public Relations Research and Measurement
Brigham Young University
Prepared for TigerLight by:
Madilyn Grimm
Nicholas Henderson
Natalie Castillo
Stacey Harkey

Data Analysis
National Survey Results
Motivations and Demographics
To understand how basic demographics like age, race, gender and location influence we
ran a bivariate chi square test. The demographic variables were independent variables and the
question about motivations was the dependent results demonstrated a difference in the
motivation but not between any demographics. The test results between location and motivations
had similar results. 67.3 % of suburbanites, 55.6 % of urbanites and 61.6 % of those living in
rural areas chose peace of mind as the main motivation for buying pepper spray for themselves.
When it comes to buying pepper spray for someone else 71.5 % of the suburbanites, 59.5 % of
the urbanites and 64.3 % of those living in rural areas said their main motivation was peace of
mind. X2(12, N=416) =23.01, p<.05 [buying for someone else] & X2(12, N=413) =50.61, p<.001

DATA ANALYSIS

[Buying for themselves].


The majority of every demographic chose peace of mind as the main motivation to buy
pepper spray for themselves or someone else.
Gender and Fashion
To analyze the relationship between gender and how fashionable they consider pepper
spray we ran an independent sample t-Test. Results showed that there was a significant
difference between men and women. Men were slightly closer to feeling neutral (M=3.87,
SD=1.77) and women were more inclined to somewhat disagree (M=3.44, SD=1.91), t(417)=2.2,
p<.05. Men, rating closer to neutral, reflected that they did not care if it was fashionable or not.
While women rated closer to somewhat disagree with the statement I would use pepper spray if
it were more fashionable. This means that women will not solely use pepper spray if it is
fashionable, they will still use it for protection even if its not stylish. Men do not care.
Perceptions of Pepper Spray
To analyze the relationship between pepper spray preferences and gender we ran a series
of independent sample t-Tests with gender as the independent variable and six different questions
about pepper spray measured on a scale from one (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) with
pepper spray as the dependent variable.
There was a significant difference between men and women and whether or not pepper
spray made them feel safe. Men (M=4.91, SD=2) somewhat agreed with the statement while
women (M=5.77, SD=1.67) agreed with the statement, t(208.67)=-4.19, p<.05.
There was a significant difference between men and women and how confident they are
in their ability to use pepper spray without harming themselves. Men (M=5.52, SD=1.16) agreed
with the statement while women (M=5.38, SD=1.47) somewhat agreed with the statement with
less confidence, t(302.16)=-1.06, p<.05.
There was no significant difference between men and women and if they would use
pepper spray to protect themselves. The majority of both genders agreed with the statement
t(417)=-4.063, p>.05.
There was not a significant difference between men and women and their confidence in

DATA ANALYSIS

the ability of other people to use pepper spray without harming themselves. The majority of both
genders somewhat agreed with the statement, t(415)=-.06, p>.05.
There was a significant difference between men and women and if they thought having
pepper spray would help someone they care about stay safe. Men (M=5.446, SD=1.03)
somewhat agreed with the statement while women(M=5.53, SD=1.3) agreed with the statement
t(301.43)=-.62, P<.01.
There was not a significant difference between men and women and whether or not they
would buy a non-lethal weapon for a loved one if they were trained. Men(M=5.36, SD=1.18) and
women(M=5.58, SD=1.42) agreed with the statement t(415)=-1.48, P>.05.
Men and women feel safer with pepper spray and about knowing a loved one has pepper
spray and both genders would use it to protect themselves. Women feel less confident using
pepper spray.
Training
We ran a one-way ANOVA test to determine if there is a relationship in gender and
whether or not men or women were more likely to purchase a non-lethal self defense weapon for
a loved one if they were trained to use it. Gender is a categorical measurement and training is an
interval measurement on a scale of 1 to 7. Males (M = 5.36, SD = 1.18) and females (M = 5.58,
SD = 1.42) returned no significance in relationship to gender and training, F(1, 415) = 2.21, p > .
05.
We ran a one-way ANOVA test to determine if there is a relationship between age and
being trained to use a self-defense weapon. Age is a ratio measurement and training is an interval
measurement on a scale of 1 to 7. There was no difference between ages 18-34, (M = 5.57, SD =
1.19), ages 35-54, (M = 5.66, SD = 1.24) and ages 55+ (M = 5.42, SD = 1.11) and perceptions of
training, F(59, 350) = 1.14, p > .05.
We ran a one-way ANOVA test to determine if there is a relationship between gender and
a persons confidence in using pepper spray without harming themselves. Gender is a categorical
measurement and confidence is measured on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly

DATA ANALYSIS

agree). Males (M = 5.52, SD = 1.16) and females (M = 5.38, SD = 1.47) returned no significance
in relationship to gender and confidence, F(1, 417) = .94, p > .05.
Overall, there are no relationships between gender or age and whether or not an
individual felt more comfortable giving pepper spray if the recipient was trained to use it. There
was also no relationship between gender and confidence in using pepper spray.
Pepper Spray for Women/Men
We ran a one-way ANOVA test to determine if there is a relationship between pepper
spray and its perceptions of being for men or for women. Women (M = 4.54, SD = 1.73) are
perceived as being the gender who pepper spray is for F(1, 416) = 9.12, p < .005. Men (M =
3.99, SD = 1.71) are not perceived as the gender pepper spray is for, F(1,416) = 9.12, p < .005.
We ran a bivariate chi-square test to determine if there are pepper spray use concerns in
relation to age and gender. Ages 18-34, (2.58%), ages 35-54, (1.92%) and ages 55+, (0.92%)
shows that there is no significant difference in age and concerns about using pepper spray.
x2(236, N = 412) = 257.22, p > .05. Men (30.5%) have fewer concerns about pepper spray than
women (69.5%), x2(4, N = 419) = 17.02, p < .005.
There is a definite perception that pepper spray is perceived as being for women more so
than men. The analysis also determined that there is a relationship between being young and
having fewer concerns operating a pepper spray device; however, there is no significant
difference in gender and confidence operating a pepper spray device.