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LAPORAN KERJA PRAKTEK

DI PT. SEMEN PADANG


EFISIENSI PANAS PADA KILN
UNIT INDARUNG IV

Dibuat Untuk Memenuhi Sebagian Dari Syarat Syarat Yang Diperlukan


Pada Kurikulum Jurusan Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas
Sriwijaya

Disusun Oleh :
Ira Yuli Nutriani

(03121003004)

Hilda Hayati

(03121003016)

JURUSAN TEKNIK KIMIA FAKULTAS TEKNIK


UNIVERSITAS SRIWIJAYA
2015

Laporan Kerja Praktek


PT Semen Padang
25 Mei 2015 24 Juli 2015
Lembar Pengesahan
Laporan Kerja Praktek
Departemen Produksi IV
PT. SEMEN PADANG

Efisiensi Panas pada Kiln


Unit Indarung IV
Dibuat Untuk Memenuhi Sebagian Dari Syarat Syarat Yang Diperlukan
Pada Kurikulum Jurusan Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas
Sriwijaya
Diperiksa dan Disetujui
PT. Semen Padang,

Juli 2015

Pembimbing Khusus

Pembimbing Lapangan

Hendrio Harmel, S.T, M.T


NIP : 8009028

Alfein Rahmad, S.T


NIP :

1
IRA YULI NUTRIANI
HILDA HAYATI

(03121003004)
(03121003016)

Laporan Kerja Praktek


PT Semen Padang
25 Mei 2015 24 Juli 2015
KATA PENGANTAR
Alhamdulillah, segala puji dan syukur kepada Allah SWT yang telah
memberi rahmat, karunia, lindungan, dan bimbingan-Nya sehingga penulis dapat
menyelesaikan Laporan Kerja Praktek.
Kerja Praktek (KP) merupakan salah satu mata kuliah yang wajib diikuti
oleh mahasiswa. Dalam pelaksanaan kerja praktek, mahasiswa diharapkan mampu
menyusun laporan tugas khusus kerja praktek sesuai dengan yang diebankan
kepada mahasiswa. Selama penyusunan Laporan Kerja Praktek ini, penulis
banyak menerima bantuan dan dorongan dari berbagai pihak. Oleh karena itu,
pada kesempatan ini penulis mengucapkan terima kasih sebesar-besarnya kepada:
1) Ibu Dr. Ir. Hj. Tri Kurnia Dewi, M.Sc selaku dosen Pembimbing Kerja Praktek.
2) PT. Semen Padang yang telah memberikan kesempatan kerja praktek kepada
penulis sehingga laporan ini dapat disusun dengan baik.
3) Bapak Hendrio Harmel selaku pembimbing khusus dan Bang Alfein Rahmad
selaku pembimbing lapangan yang telah memberikan arahan dan bimbingan
selama penyusunan laporan ini.
4) Semua pihak terkhusus karyawan Biro Produksi IV yang telah memberikan
banyak bantuan selama pelaksanaan kerja praktek.
5) Kedua orang tua atas segala doa dan dukungan serta motivasinya.
Penulis meyakini bahwa laporan ini jauh dari kesempurnaan dan semoga
laporan ini dapat memberikan masukan bagi yang membaca.
Padang,

Juli 2015

Penulis

DAFTAR ISI
2
IRA YULI NUTRIANI
HILDA HAYATI

(03121003004)
(03121003016)

Laporan Kerja Praktek


PT Semen Padang
25 Mei 2015 24 Juli 2015
HALAMAN JUDUL........................................................................................
i
LEMBAR PENGESAHAN..............................................................................
i
KATA PENGANTAR.......................................................................................
ii
DAFTAR ISI.....................................................................................................
iii
DAFTAR GAMBAR........................................................................................
vii
BAB I

PENDAHULUAN.............................................................................

1
1.1 Latar Belakang......................................................................................
............................................................................................................1
1.2 Tujuan Kerja Praktek............................................................................
............................................................................................................2
1.3 Waktu Pelaksanaan Kerja Praktek........................................................
............................................................................................................3
BAB II GAMBARAN UMUM PERUSAHAAN...........................................
4
2.1 Sejarah PT. Semen Padang........................................................
.................................................................................................4
2.2 Lokasi Pabrik............................................................................
.................................................................................................5
2.3 Visi dan Misi PT. Semen Padang..............................................
.................................................................................................6
2.3.1 Visi................................................................................
....................................................................................6
2.3.2 Misi...............................................................................
2.3.3

....................................................................................7
Budaya Perusahaan ......................................................
....................................................................................7

3
IRA YULI NUTRIANI
HILDA HAYATI

(03121003004)
(03121003016)

Laporan Kerja Praktek


PT Semen Padang
25 Mei 2015 24 Juli 2015
2.3.4

Perkembangan aktivitas usaha PT. Semen Padang.......

....................................................................................7
2.4 Struktur Organisasi PT. Semen Padang.....................................
.................................................................................................9
2.4.1 Struktur Organisasi Departemen Produksi V................
..................................................................................10
BAB III TINJAUAN PUSTAKA.....................................................................
11
3.1 Pengertian dan Sejarah Ditemukan Semen...............................
...............................................................................................11
3.1.1 Sejarah Ditemukan Semen............................................
3.1.2

...................................................................................11
Pengertian Semen.........................................................

..................................................................................12
3.2 Jenis-jenis Semen......................................................................
...............................................................................................13
3.3 Bahan Baku Pembuatan Semen................................................
...............................................................................................17
3.4 Sifat Fisika dan Sifat Kimia Bahan Baku dan Produk..............
...............................................................................................18
3.4.1 Bahan Baku Utama.......................................................
..................................................................................18
3.4.2 Bahan Aditif..................................................................
..................................................................................21
3.4.2.1 Gypsum.............................................................
......................................................................21
3.4.2.2 Pozzolan............................................................
......................................................................22
3.4.2.3 Fly Ash..............................................................
3.4.3

......................................................................22
Sifat Fisika dan Kimia Semen......................................
..................................................................................23
3.4.3.1 Setting dan Hardening......................................
......................................................................23

4
IRA YULI NUTRIANI
HILDA HAYATI

(03121003004)
(03121003016)

Laporan Kerja Praktek


PT Semen Padang
25 Mei 2015 24 Juli 2015
3.4.3.2 Panas Hiderasi..................................................
......................................................................23
3.4.3.3 Penyusutan........................................................
......................................................................23
3.4.3.4 Kelembaban......................................................
......................................................................24
3.4.3.5 Spesific Gravity.................................................
......................................................................24
3.4.3.6 False Set ( Pengikatan Semu )..........................
......................................................................24
3.5 Dampak Positif dan Negatif Industri Semen.............................
...............................................................................................25
3.5.1 Dampak Positif ............................................................
3.5.2

..................................................................................25
Dampak Negatif............................................................

..................................................................................25
BAB IV DESKRIPSI PROSES........................................................................
27
4.1 Flowchart Secara Umum..........................................................
...............................................................................................27
4.2 Pengadaan Bahan Baku.............................................................
...............................................................................................27
4.2.1 Penambangan Batu Kapur............................................
4.2.2

..................................................................................27
Penambangan Batu Silika.............................................

..................................................................................29
4.2.3 Penambangan Tanah Liat..............................................
4.2.4

..................................................................................29
Pengadaan Pasir Besi....................................................

4.2.5

..................................................................................30
Pengadaan Gypsum.......................................................

..................................................................................30
4.2.6 Pengadaan Bahan Bakar...............................................
..................................................................................30

5
IRA YULI NUTRIANI
HILDA HAYATI

(03121003004)
(03121003016)

Laporan Kerja Praktek


PT Semen Padang
25 Mei 2015 24 Juli 2015
4.3 Tahap Penarikan Bahan Baku...................................................
...............................................................................................31
4.3.1 Metode Stacking dan Reclaining..................................
..................................................................................31
4.3.2 Penarikan Bahan Baku..................................................
..................................................................................33
4.4 Tahap Penggilingan dan Pengeringan di Raw Mill...................
...............................................................................................36
4.4.1 Pengumpulan Bahan Baku............................................
..................................................................................36
4.4.2 Penggilingan dan Pengeringan Bahan Baku.................
..................................................................................36
4.4.2.1 Grinding............................................................
......................................................................37
4.4.2.2 Drying...............................................................
......................................................................37
4.4.2.3 Classifiying.......................................................
......................................................................38
4.4.2.4 Transporting.....................................................
......................................................................38
4.5 Raw Meal Blending...................................................................
...............................................................................................38
4.6 Proses Pemanasan, Pembakaran, dan Pendinginan (Unit Kiln)
...............................................................................................39
4.6.1 Refractory ( Tahan Panas )............................................
..................................................................................44
4.6.1.1 Refractory Pada Rotary Kiln.............................
4.6.2

......................................................................45
Waste Heat Recovery Power Generation (WHRPG) di
Indarung V....................................................................

..................................................................................46
4.7 Proses di Cement Mill...............................................................
...............................................................................................46
4.8 Spek Alat Utama.......................................................................
...............................................................................................50
6
IRA YULI NUTRIANI
HILDA HAYATI

(03121003004)
(03121003016)

Laporan Kerja Praktek


PT Semen Padang
25 Mei 2015 24 Juli 2015
4.8.1

Raw Mill........................................................................

4.8.2

..................................................................................50
Coal Mill.......................................................................

..................................................................................51
4.8.3 Kiln...............................................................................
..................................................................................51
4.8.4 Cooler...........................................................................
4.8.5

..................................................................................52
Cement Mill..................................................................

..................................................................................52
4.9 Alat Pendukung Operasi...........................................................
...............................................................................................53
4.9.1 Cyclone.........................................................................
4.9.2

..................................................................................53
Hooper..........................................................................

..................................................................................54
4.9.3 Alat Transpor................................................................
4.9.4

..................................................................................54
Electrostatic Precipitator..............................................

..................................................................................57
4.9.5 Stack..............................................................................
..................................................................................58
4.9.6 Ducting.........................................................................
..................................................................................58
BAB V TUGAS KHUSUS
ANALISA PENGGUNAAN ENERGI PADA ROTARY KILN ....
......................................................................................................59
5.1 Judul Tugas Khusus...................................................................
...............................................................................................59
5.2 Waktu dan Pelaksanaan Tugas Khusus.....................................
...............................................................................................59
5.3 Objek Tugas Khusus.................................................................
...............................................................................................59
5.4 Perhitungan Massa Udara Panas Menuju GCT.........................
...............................................................................................59
7
IRA YULI NUTRIANI
HILDA HAYATI

(03121003004)
(03121003016)

Laporan Kerja Praktek


PT Semen Padang
25 Mei 2015 24 Juli 2015
5.5 Tujuan Tugas Khusus................................................................
...............................................................................................61
5.6 Metode Pelaksanaan Tugas Khusus..........................................
...............................................................................................61
5.7 Spesifikasi Peralatan Rotary KIln.............................................
...............................................................................................61
5.8 Faktor-faktor Komposisi Kiln Feed..........................................
...............................................................................................64
5.9 Analisa Perhitungan Rotary Kiln..............................................
...............................................................................................66
5.9.1 Perhitungan Neraca Massa.................................................
5.9.2

........................................................................................66
Perhitungan Neraca Panas..................................................

........................................................................................87
BAB VI Pembahasan........................................................................................
95
6.1 Pembahasan................................................................................
......................................................................................................95
6.2 Kesimpulan................................................................................
......................................................................................................96
6.3 Saran...........................................................................................
......................................................................................................96
Daftar Pustaka...................................................................................................
97

8
IRA YULI NUTRIANI
HILDA HAYATI

(03121003004)
(03121003016)

Laporan Kerja Praktek


PT Semen Padang
25 Mei 2015 24 Juli 2015

DAFTAR GAMBAR
Gambar 2.1 Pabrik PT. Semen Padang diambil dengan foto udara................
5
Gambar 4.1 Flowchart proses pembuatan semen .........................................
27
Gambar 4.2 Belt Conveyor ............................................................................
28
Gambar 4.3 Alat bor di penambangan batu kapur .........................................
29
Gambar 4.4 Chevron Stacking .......................................................................
31
Gambar 4.5 Winrow Stacking ........................................................................
32
Gambar 4.6 Conical Shell Stacking ...............................................................
32

9
IRA YULI NUTRIANI
HILDA HAYATI

(03121003004)
(03121003016)

Laporan Kerja Praktek


PT Semen Padang
25 Mei 2015 24 Juli 2015
Gambar 4.7 Side Reclaimer ...........................................................................
33
Gambar 4.8 Bridge Scrapper .........................................................................
34
Gambar 4.9 Bucket Chain Excavator ............................................................
35
Gambar 4.10 Vertical Raw Mill .....................................................................
37
Gambar 4.11 CF Silo (Control Flow Silo) ....................................................
39
Gambar 4.12 Vertical Preheater 4 Stage ........................................................
41
Gambar 4.13 Rotary Kiln ..............................................................................
43
Gambar 4.14 Grate Cooler ............................................................................
44
Gambar 4.15 Tube Mill pada unit Cement Mill ............................................
47
Gambar 4.16 Cement Silo .............................................................................
49
Gambar 4.17 Cyclone ....................................................................................
53
Gambar 4.18 Hopper .....................................................................................
54
10
IRA YULI NUTRIANI
HILDA HAYATI

(03121003004)
(03121003016)

Laporan Kerja Praktek


PT Semen Padang
25 Mei 2015 24 Juli 2015
Gambar 4.19 Belt Conveyor ..........................................................................
55
Gambar 4.20 Apron Conveyor ......................................................................
55
Gambar 4.21 Bucket Elevator .......................................................................
56
Gambar 4.22 Screw Conveyor ......................................................................
56
Gambar 4.23 Fluxo Side ................................................................................
57
Gambar 4.24 Electrostatic Precipitator .........................................................
58
Gambar 4.25 Cerobong Asap (Stack) ............................................................
58
Gambar 4.26 Ducting ....................................................................................
58

11
IRA YULI NUTRIANI
HILDA HAYATI

(03121003004)
(03121003016)

Laporan Kerja Praktek


PT Semen Padang
25 Mei 2015 24 Juli 2015

DAFTAR TABEL
Tabel 2.1 Kapasitas produksi PT. Semen Padang...........................................
8
Tabel 3.1 Proporsi Bahan Baku Semen .........................................................
18
Tabel 4.1 Pemasangan Batu Tahan Api Sesuai Zona .....................................
45
Tabel 5.1 Neraca Massa Gas Conditioning Tower ........................................
65

12
IRA YULI NUTRIANI
HILDA HAYATI

(03121003004)
(03121003016)