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GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE

THOOTHUKUDI- 628 008


PROJECT REPORT
ON
FABRICATION OF SOLAR POWER HACKSAW MACHINE

Under the Guidance of


Thiru.B.RAMESHKUMAR, B.E, MBA,
Submitted by
S.NO

REG.NO

NAME

12200839

K.THANGARAJ

12200840

L.THIRUMANI

12200841

M.VADIVELAN

12247104

S.ANANTH

12247105

S.BALASIVA

12247106

M.DURAI MURUGAN

Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of


Diploma In Mechanical Engineering of
State Board of Technical Education, Tamilnadu.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ACADAMIC YEAR 2013-2014

GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE


THOOTHUKUDI -628 008

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project entitled
FABRICATION OF SOLAR POWER HACKSAW MACHINE is a
Bonafide record work submitted by selvan. _______________________________
RegNo. ________________________ in the sixth semester Diploma in
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING course during the year 2013 2014.

Guide
Thiru.B.RAMESH KUMAR, B.E, MBA

Head of the Department


Thiru.P.Muthurasu, M.E,MIE,

Submitted for Board Practical Examination held on_______ ____________

OBJECTIVES
The prolonged convention of covering the vast syllabus
with in the short of time resulted in lack of technical knowledge and unaware of
modern mechanics and versatile applications. So in order to revise this situation
and have to clear knowledge about modern mechanics and machine tools project
work has been undertaken.
The project resulted in acquiring well defined knowledge
about the modern machine tools and equipments, Mechanism and their versatility.
The Project work includes the Physical and mental co-operation of each individual.
It evolves out the concept of group activity. It further
promotes co-operation, co-ordination and ability of individual.
That is a way applying the above concepts, we have carry
out our project is fabrication of solar power hack saw machine.
We ourselves planned organized and executed to bring
our project as successful one.

CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
PREFACE
SYNOPSIS
INTRODUCTION
COMPONENTS
CONSTRUCTION
SPECIFICATIONS
DRAWINGS
DESIGN CONSIDERATION
WORKING PRINCIPLE
BILL OF MATERIALS
COST ANALYSIS
APPLICATIONS
ADVANTAGES
CONCLUSION
PHOTOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The successful completion of this project is
only due to the joint work of us but also it includes the
unforgettable guidance given by our staff members of
department of mechanical Engineering.
We convey our deepest gratitude towards
Er. V.SUBBARAJ, M.E, B.Tech., Ed. Our beloved principal
for providing the opportunity to do this project work and
offering the the encouragement for successful completion, which
increase our optimism.
We express our sincere thanks to our Head
of Mechanical Engineering Department Er. P.MUTHURASU,
ME,MIE., for providing all facilities in time and for this
encouragement throughout the project.
We express heartfelt gratitude to our guide
Er. B. RAMESH KUMAR, B.E, MBA., who has given
suggestions and valuable guidance towards our project which
made a successful one.
Finally , we pay out hearty thanks to all the
staffs of our department and other who helped either directly or
indirectly for the successful completion of this project.

PREFACE
We thank our director of Technical

Education who has

introduced the subject project work in the curriculum of final semester in


mechanical engineering .this subject has helped us to improve our practical
knowledge. We have gained much practical skill by doing this project which will
be very use full our future It has given confidence to every one of us for starting a
small scale industry of our own.

INTRODUCTION
Nowadays almost all the manufacturing process is being
atomized in order to deliver the products at a faster rate.
Our aim is to design a hacksaw machine which is
actuated by a solar power. Today electric power is a main need for all the
machinery works. We decided to reduce the electric power and gain the power
from renewable energy. The project is on the design consideration of a solar power
hack saw machine for cutting of metal to different size and length with the aid of a
hacksaw and a coolant. It is a cutting machine with teeth on its blade used specially
for cutting metals driven by 1 hp and 1400 rpm dc motor. The various component
of the machine were designed and constructed. The work was designed to archive a
substantial part of its objective. Test was carried out on the machine using different
metals. For loaded the test 10 mm flat bar of cross section area 2mm by 10 mm
was clamped on the vice of the machine. it took the machine 75 seconds to cut the
flat bar with a new hacksaw blade. the cut was observed to a neat and straight .
Cooling system, emergency stop switch and automatic stop motion device were
incorporated in the design.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED
Hacksaw Flame
Crank Shaft
Bearing
Belt
Pulley
Shaft
Solar Panel
Connecting Rod
Motor
Battery

HACKSAW

A hacksaw is a fine-tooth hand saw


with a blade held under tension in a frame, used for cutting materials such as metal
or plastics. Hand-held hacksaws consist of a metal arch with a handle, usually a
pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. A screw or other
mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. The blade can be mounted
with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on
either the push or pull stroke. On the push stroke, the arch will flex slightly,
decreasing the tension on the blade, often resulting in an increased tendency of the
blade to buckle and crack. Cutting on the pull stroke increases the blade tension
and will result in greater control of the cut and longer blade life.
BASE
The base of the saw usually contains a coolant reservoir and a
pump for conveying the coolant to the work. The reservoir contains baffles which

cause the chips to settle to the bottom of the tank. A table which supports the vise
and the metal being sawed is located on top of the base and is usually referred to as
part of the base.
VISE
The vise is adjustable so that various sizes and shapes of metal
may be held. On some machines the vise may be swiveled so that stock may be
sawed at an angle. The size of a power hacksaw is determined by the largest piece
of metal that can be held in the vise and sawed
FRAME
The frame of the saw supports and carries the hacksaw blade.
The machine is designed so that the saw blade contacts the work only on the
cutting stroke. This action prevents unnecessary wear on the saw blade. The
cutting stroke is on the draw or back stroke.
SPEED-CHANGE MECHANISM
The shift lever allows the number of strokes per minute to be
changed so that a variety of metals may be sawed at the proper speeds. Some saws
have a diagram showing the number of strokes per minute when the shift lever is in

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Keep hands away from the saw blade of the hack sawing
machine when in operation. Ensure the power supply is disconnected prior to
removal or installation of saw blades.
HACKSAW BLADES
Hacksaw blades differ from hand hacksaw blades in that
they are generally heavier, made in longer sizes, and have fewer teeth per inch.
Hacksaw blades are discarded when they become dull; sharpening is not practical.
Materials commonly used in manufacturing power hacksaw blades are high-speed
tungsten steel and high-speed molybdenum steel. On some blades only the teeth
are hardened, leaving the body of the blade flexible. Other blades are hardened
throughout. The set is the amount of bend given the teeth. The set makes it possible
for a saw to cut a kerf or slot wider than the thickness of the band back (gage), thus
providing side clearance

COOLANTS
Most sawing machines used in military operations are dry
cutting machines; that is, they are not intended for use with liquid coolants.
However, some power hacksaws are equipped with a coolant attachment. Soluble
oil products, when mixed with water to form emulsions, are used for these
machines. This type of coolant has proven very satisfactory for sawing where
cooling is an important factor. Most manufacturers of water oil emulsion coolants
add a rust inhibitor to the solution to prevent rusting caused by the water in the
coolant.

CRANK MECHANISM

A crank is an arm attached at right angles


to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is imparted to or received from
the shaft. It is used to convert circular motion into reciprocating motion, or viceversa. The arm may be a bent portion of the shaft, or a separate arm or disk
attached to it. Attached to the end of the crank by a pivot is a rod, usually called a

connecting rod. The end of the rod attached to the crank moves in a circular
motion, while the other end is usually constrained to move in a linear sliding
motion. The term often refers to a human-powered crank which is used to
manually turn an axle, as in a bicycle crank set or a brace and bit drill. In this case
a person's arm or leg serves as the connecting rod, applying reciprocating force to
the crank. There is usually a bar perpendicular to the other end of the arm, often
with a freely rotatable handle or pedal attached.

BEARING

A bearing is a machine element that constrains


relative motion and reduces friction between moving parts to only the desired
motion. The design of the bearing may, for example, provide for free linear
movement of the moving part or for free rotation around a fixed axis; or, it may
prevent a motion by controlling the vectors of normal forces that bear on the
moving parts. Many bearings also facilitate the desired motion as much as
possible, such as by minimizing friction. Bearings are classified broadly according
to the type of operation, the motions allowed, or to the directions of the loads
applied to the parts.

BELT

A belt is a loop of flexible material


used to mechanically link two or more rotating shafts, most often parallel. Belts
may be used as a source of motion, to transmit power efficiently, or to track
relative movement. Belts are looped over pulleys and may have a twist between the
pulleys, and the shafts need not be parallel. In a two pulley system, the belt can
either drive the pulleys normally in one direction (the same if on parallel shafts), or
the belt may be crossed, so that the direction of the driven shaft is reversed (the
opposite direction to the driver if on parallel shafts). As a source of motion, a
conveyor belt is one application where the belt is adapted to continuously carry a
load between two points.

PULLEY

A pulley is a wheel on an axle that is


designed to support movement and change of direction of a cable or belt along its
circumference. Pulleys are used in a variety of ways to lift loads, apply forces, and
to transmit power. In nautical contexts, the assembly of wheel, axle, and
supporting shell is referred to as a "block."
A pulley is also called a sheave or drums and may have a groove between two
flanges around its circumference. The drive element of a pulley system can be a
rope, cable, belt, or chain that runs over the pulley inside the groove.

SHAFT

A mechanical shaft is a long cylindrical rod that rotates


in order to transmit power. A mechanical shaft is used to transmit mechanical
power from a motor to an area of application. Examples of mechanical shafts are
drive shafts, propeller shafts and colt shafts.
A drive shaft is a tubular piece
of pipe, usually made of metal. The shaft extends from the back of the
transmission to the real axle and is considered part of the drive train.

SOLAR PANEL

Solar power is the most popular form of alternative


energy in North America. Solar power can be used to; heat water and pools, cook,
and light homes and buildings Solar power is electricity that is gotten from
sunlight either directly using photovoltaics (PV) or indirectly by using

concentrated solar power (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use mirrors or
lenses to focus a large percentage of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaic
converts light into electric current by using the photoelectric effect.
Solar power is energy from the sun that is converted into
thermal or electrical energy. Solar power needs no fuel and produces no
waste.Solar power is power that we get from the sun. Since the sun emits so much
energy and power, we are able to sustain ourselves from this energy. Solar energy
is free, it's available anywhere on earth and it will never run out.

CONNECTING ROD

The small end attaches to the piston pin,


gudgeon pin or wrist pin, which is currently most often press fit into the connecting
rod but can swivel in the piston, a "floating wrist pin" design. The big end connects
to the bearing journal on the crank throw, in most engines running on replaceable
bearing shells accessible via the connecting rod bolts which hold the bearing "cap"
onto the big end. Typically there is a pinhole bored through the bearing and the big
end of the connecting rod so that pressurized lubricating motor oil squirts out onto
the thrust side of the cylinder wall to lubricate the travel of the pistons and piston
rings. Most small two-stroke engines and some single cylinder four-stroke engines
avoid the need for a pumped lubrication system by using a rolling-element bearing
instead, however this requires the crankshaft to be pressed apart and then back
together in order to replace a connecting rod

ELECTRIC MOTOR

This DC or direct current motor works on the principal, when a


current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a torque and
has a tendency to move. This is known as motoring action. If the direction
of electric current in the wire is reversed, the direction of rotation also reverses.
When magnetic field and electric field interact they produce a mechanical force,
and based on that the working principle of dc motor established.

The direction of rotation of a this motor is given by Flemings left hand rule, which
states that if the index finger, middle finger and thumb of your left hand are
extended mutually perpendicular to each other and if the index finger represents
the direction of magnetic field, middle finger indicates the direction of electric
current, then the thumb represents the direction in which force is experienced by
the shaft of the dc DC motors consist of one set of coils, called armature winding,
inside another set of coils or a set of permanent magnets, called the stator.
Applying a voltage to the coils produces a torque in the armature, resulting in
motion.

STATOR
The stator is the stationary outside part of a motor.
The stator of a permanent magnet dc motor is composed of two or more
permanent magnet pole pieces.
The magnetic field can alternatively be created by an electromagnet. In this
case, a DC coil (field
winding) is wound around a magnetic material that forms part of the stator.
ROTOR
The rotor is the inner part which rotates.
The rotor is composed of windings (called armature windings) which are
connected to the external
circuit through a mechanical commutator.
Both stator and rotor are made of ferromagnetic materials. The two are
separated by air-gap.

WINDING
A winding is made up of series or parallel connection of coils.
Armature winding - The winding through which the voltage is applied or
induced.
Field winding - The winding through which a current is passed to produce
flux (for the electromagnet)
Windings are usually made of copper.

BATTERY

Even though most car, motorcycle and tractor batteries are sold as "12-volt"
batteries, the nominal voltage of a fully charged battery is closer to 12.6 volts. The
electrochemical reaction between the lead plates and the battery electrolyte is what
produces the voltage differential between the positive and negative terminals on a
battery. Over time, the lead plates within the battery will become covered with lead
sulfate crystals. These crystals inhibit the electrochemical reaction between the
lead plates and the electrolyte, causing a drop in battery voltage.
TYPES OF BATTERIES
The rechargeable battery used in ICE cars is a single 12 V leadacid battery. The two main types of batteries used in the battery packs in HEVs
today are nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. The name of the battery
corresponds to the electrolyte used and the material of the electrodes. Each type of
battery has different chemical reactions within its cells. The batteries also differ in
their amount and type of harm to humans, the environment, and society.

LEAD-ACID BATTERIES
The battery used in every internal combustion engine (ICE)
car on the road is a 12 V lead-acid battery. This single battery is responsible for
powering the alternator, or the engine starter. It also supplies power to the
accessories that the car may have, such as the air conditioning, radio, power
windows and locks, etc.

SPECIFICATION
BEARING
Outer Diameter = 40mm
Inner Diameter = 15mm
Thickness

= 15mm

CRANK SHAFT
Length

= 180mm

Diameter

= 15mm

Sliding Post

= 300mm

Crank Shaft

= 240mm

ELECTRIC MOTOR
Type

= AC/DC

Horse Power

= 1/12

Voltage

= 210/220V

Current

= 0.32A

Speed

= 6000RPM

SOLAR PANEL
Photo voltaic cell 12V/ 450MA
BATTERY
Alkaline Battery 12V / 80A
CRANK PIN
Length
Diameter

= 60mm
= 13mm

CRANK DISK
Diameter

= 160mm

PULLEY :
LARGE PULLEY
Outer Diameter

= 80mm

Inner Diameter

= (80-12.5) = 67.5mm

SMALL PULLEY
Outer Diameter

= 35mm

Inner Diameter

= (35-15) = 20mm

Sliding Bush = 63mm


HACKSAW
Hacksaw movement = 150mm
VICE
Capacity

= 30 mm

TABLE
Length

= 900 mm

Breath

= 450 mm

Thickness

= 18 mm

Height

= 900 mm

CONNECTING ROD
Length

= 280 mm

Outer Diameter

= 22 mm

Inner Diameter

= 10 mm

WORKING PRINCIPLE
Our Aim of our project is to run this
machine with both AC as well as DC power. First of all we gain the energy from
solar power. This gained energy is stored in the battery. Then we actuate the motor
with the help of this battery power. This project is worked under by the crank
mechanism. The crank mechanism converts the rotary motion into the
reciprocating motion. The machine has the prime mover at the bottom of the
machine The pulley is attached to the body at the top and the end of the side
portion The pulley is connected with the disc type plate The pulley and the disc has
separate connection with the one small metal rod through the bearing .The motor
and pulley is connected with one V-type belt .The clamp is fixed with the disc. The
clamp is fixed with the shaft at one end this shaft is act as reciprocating motion
through the crank .The hack saw connected to the shaft at the end. If the motor is
turned on the pulley is getting rotating motion that rotation motion is convert into
the reciprocating motion by the disc under the crank mechanism.

Power Hacksawing
The power hacksaw machine is designed primarily for
straight-line sawing. A typical sawing operation is outlined below:
Select a hacksaw blade of the proper length for the machine and proper pitch for
the material to be cut. Install the hacksaw blade with the teeth pointing downward
and toward the motor end of the hacksawing machine. Check the alignment of the
vise and hacksaw blade and mount the workpiece in the vise. Make sure the vise
holds the workpiece securely. Check the stroke of the hacksawing machine and
adjust if necessary. After adjusting the stroke, move the hacksaw blade and sawing
machine frame through one cycle (draw stroke and return stroke) by hand to check
the blade clearance at each end of the workpiece. Readjust the position of the vise
if necessary. Position the hacksaw blade about 1/4 inch above the workpiece and
set the feed control to its lightest feed setting. Set the desired speed of the
hacksawing machine.Start the machine and let the blade feed lightly into the
workpiece for about 1/4 inch. Readjust the feed to whatever the material will stand
for normal cutting. Permit the hacksaw blade to cut completely through workpiece.
The blade frame will trip a switch on sawing machine bed to stop the sawing
machine.
Power hacksaws are used to cut large sizes of metals such as
steel. Cutting diameters of more than 10/15mm is very hard work with a normal

hand held hacksaw. Therefore power hacksaws have been developed to carry out
the difficult and time consuming work.

The heavy arm moves backwards and forwards, cutting on the backwards stroke.

The metal to be cut is held in a machine vice


which is an integral part of the base. Turning the handle
tightens or loosens the vice. The vice is very powerful and
locks the metal in position.

When cutting is taking place, the metal and


especially the blade heats up quickly. Coolant should be fed
onto the blade, cooling it down and lubricating it as it cuts
through the metal. Without the use of coolant the blade will
over heat and break. This can be dangerous as the blade can
break with powerful force, shattering.

When the metal is placed and fixed in the vice,


the blade is lowered onto its top surface. The diagram below shows
the arm being lowered with the adjusting handle.

Blades

of

power

hacksaws are graded according to the material they are


made from and the number of teeth per inch. Top quality
blades are manufactured from High Speed Steel. although
there

are

cheaper

alternatives

such

as

carbon

steel

blades.

In general the number of teeth per inch (TPI) range from 14 to 24. The more teeth
per inch - the smoother the cut.

Power hacksaws have electric motors that power the blade


through a pulley system. Some have ratchet systems. The pulley system shown
below shows how rotary power is transferred from the motor and changed to
reciprocating

motion,

allow

the

blade

to

cut

through

the

material.

Most power hacksaws have two pulley wheels. If the belt is


placed on the smaller pulley wheel the speed of cut will be fast. Changing the belt
so that it runs round the larger pulley wheel will reduce the speed.

DRAWING

BILL OF MATERIALS
Sl.No

COMPONENTS

MATERIAL

QUANTITY

Stand Material

Steel

Ply Wood

Wood

Hacksaw

Steel

Belt

Rubber

Small Pulley

Steel

Large Pulley

Steel

Bolts & Nuts

Mild Steel

Shaft

Mild steel

Slider

Mild Steel

10

connecting Rod

Mild steel

COST ANALYSIS

SL. NO

DESCRIPTION

MATERIAL

COST

Motor

1/12 HP, 0.32 A

800

Battery

7A , 12V

700

Connecting Rod

Mild Steel

60

Solar Panel

12V , 450MA

450

Pulleys

Mild Steel

240

Ply Wood

Wood

200

Total

2450

Material Cost

2450

Over head cost

150

Prime Cost

(Material cost + Over head cost)

2450+150 = 2600

Labor Cost

2200

Total Cost

Prime Cost + Labor Cost

2600 + 2200 = 4800

APPLICATIONS
Mainly use for tool rooms
Educational Institutes
Small Scale Industries
Workshops
Rolling mills etc.

ADVANTAGES
It is portable
Less maintenance
Simple in construction than mechanical hacksaw
High Torque Output
Smoother Operation
Fewer Moving Parts

CONCLUSION
We can say our project can be a success considering
the changes we had to make
The project work facilities the students in knowing
the difficulties in the practical field and also it shows the way of solving these
difficulties it also gives us a confidence for standing on our own legs by
employment after finishing studies
This idea in view we have completed the project
with the existing facility the project with the existing facility. Through it offered to
be difficult and in its initial stage. We could overcome all the difficulties.
Situations may easy in the latter stage to complete
the project within

the prescribed short period of the course. We have provided

that we could accomplish the project work to the satisfaction of all.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

TEXT BOOK :
A text book of Manufacturing Technology , author R.K.Rajput
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing 3rd Edition, author - Mikell P. Groover

WEBSITE :
http://www.technologystudent.com
http://www.google.com
http://www.wikipedia.com