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BAHAN AJAR

BAHASA INGGRIS

Oleh:

RIDWAN, M.Pd.

UNIVERSITAS BORNEO TARAKAN


2014

DAFTAR ISI

A. PARTS OF SPEECH ................................................................................................

1. Noun ..................................................................................................................

2. Verb ...................................................................................................................

3. Adjective ............................................................................................................

4. Adverb ...............................................................................................................

5. Preposition .........................................................................................................

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6. Conjunction .......................................................................................................

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7. Pronoun ..............................................................................................................

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8. Interjection .........................................................................................................

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9. SENTENCE PATTERNS IN ENGLISH ................................................................

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10. TENSES ..................................................................................................................

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11. MAKING QUESTIONS .........................................................................................

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12. EXERCISES: TRANSLATION ..............................................................................

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13. EXERCISES: READING COMPREHENSION .....................................................

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PARTS OF SPEECH
1. NOUN
Noun artinya Kata Benda. Kelompok noun ini banyak sekali macamnya, dan beberapa
dari mereka mempunyai cara yang khusus dalam membuatnya menjadi plural (jamak).
Beberapa dari mereka bahkan tidak mempunyai bentuk tunggal (singular), dan
beberapa yang lainnya tidak mempunyai bentuk jamak (plural).
PEMBAGIAN KATA BENDA
Menurut Jenisnya, kata benda terbagi menjadi 5 (lima) bagian:
1. Common noun (benda biasa)
Umumnya hanya ditulis dengan menggunakan huruf kecil dan biasanya memakai
article (a, an, the).
Contoh: book, pen, cup, glass, plate, spoon, boy, girl, man, knife, lamp, picture,
chair, etc. (etcetera)
2. Material noun (benda alami)
Benda-benda jenis ini adalah benda-benda yang terjadi secara alamiah.
Contoh: gold, silver, bronze, water, oil, air, sand, stone, rock, iron, gas, coal, etc.
3. Proper noun (nama sesuatu yang khusus)
Umumnya proper noun ditulis dengan huruf besar.
Contoh: nama orang, nama hari, nama bulan, nama kota, nama pulau, nama negeri,
nama tempat, nama bahasa, nama kewarganegaraan, etc.
4. Abstract noun (benda abstrak)
Selain dari benda yang betul-betul tidak berbentuk, misalnya: waktu, bayangan,
udara, etc; benda abstrak juga dibentuk dari kata kerja dan kata sifat yang biasanya
ditambahkan suffix (akhiran): -ness, -ion, -ment, -ance, -ity, -ship, -ism, -ing, etc.
Contoh: play, breath, laugh, love, joke, order, demand, supply, excuse, praise,
debate, death, happiness, heroism, friendship, ownership, reality, idea, etc.
5. Collective noun (benda kolektif)
Benda kolektif adalah nama sekumpulan benda yang hanya disebutkan nama
kumpulannya saja, sehingga terkesan hanya sebagai satu benda saja.
Contoh: team, group, crew, troop, bunch, squadron, class, bundle, regiment,
company, party, army, congregation, congress, committee, division, department,
air-force, housing complex, relation, family, pile, file, crowd, etc.
Pembagian noun menurut gendernya (jenis kelamin):
Masculine (jantan)
Man
Father
Nephew

Feminine (betina)
Woman
Mother
Niece

Noun yang gendernya umum (common gender)


Contoh: baby, bird, child, cousin, etc.

Noun yang tidak berjiwa (neuter gender)


Neuter noun adalah semua benda yang tidak berjiwa, sehingga tidak memiliki sifat
jantan ataupun betina. Jadi seluruh jenis pepohonan, peralatan, pakaian, benda alami,
dsb adalah benda neuter gender.
Contoh: rose, hammer, scissors, compass, hacksaw, comb, etc.
Kata benda juga bisa dibagi menjadi 2 bagian:
1. Uncountable noun (benda yang tidak dapat dihitung)
Kata benda yang tidak dapat dihitung terdiri atas:
Bidang studi: mathematics, economics, physics, sociology, biology, chemistry
Bahasa: English, Indonesian, Arabic, German
Cabang olahraga: chess, hockey, badminton
Aktivitas makan: breakfast, lunch, dinner
Zat cair, gas, dan zat padat dengan ukuran yang sangat kecil atau lembut: rice,
sand, sugar, soap, flour, pepper, smoke, air, ice, ink
Bahan tambang: gold, silver, copper, bronze, nickel, iron
beberapa kata benda yang berakhiran s atau ing: news, advertising, money,
homework
2. Countable noun (benda yang dapat dihitung)
Contoh: bird, tree, broom, table, picture, etc.
Compound noun (kata benda majemuk)
Kata benda bisa terdiri dari dua kata atau lebih. Biasanya terdiri dari dua bagian: bagian
pertama menunjuk pada what type/what purpose (jenis, fungsi, kegunaan, pekerjaan,
dll) seperti police, boy, water, dining. Bagian kedua menunjuk pada what atau who
seperti man, friend, tank.
Contoh:
Policeman
water tank
bedroom
Boyfriend
dining-table
motorcycle
What type/what
purpose
police
boy
water
dining
bed

What or who
man
friend
tank
table
room

PERATURAN MEMBUAT PLURAL NOUN (BENDA JAMAK)


1. Umumnya singular noun (benda tunggal) hanya ditambah dengan huruf -s untuk
membuatnya menjadi plural (jamak). Contoh:
Book books = two, (a) few, some, many, (a) lot of + books
Flower flowers
Bag bags
House houses
2. Jika kata benda itu berakhiran dengan huruf desis, yaitu: huruf /s/, /ch/, /sh/, /x/,
maka ditambahkan dengan -es
Glass glasses
Match matches
Watch watches
Dish dishes
Box boxes
3. Jika kata benda itu berakhiran dengan huruf y yang sebelumnya adalah huruf
hidup (vokal + y), maka hanya ditambah dengan huruf s saja.
Boy boys
Way - ways
4. Jika kata benda itu berakhiran dengan huruf y yang didahului oleh huruf mati
(konsonan + y), maka rubah dulu huruf y menjadi huruf i" lalu ditambah dengan
huruf es.
Baby babies
City cities
Lady ladies
Puppy puppies
5. Jika kata benda itu berakhiran dengan huruf f atau fe, maka baik f atau fe
diganti dengan huruf v lalu ditambah dengan es.
Shelf shelves
Loaf loaves
Wife wives
Knife knives
6. Ada banyak juga kata benda yang berakhiran dengan f dan fe yang hanya
ditambah huruf s untuk pluralnya.
Chief chiefs
Safe safes
Cliff cliffs
7. Jika kata benda itu berakhiran dengan huruf o maka bentuk jamaknya kadangkadang ditambah dengan huruf s saja, tetapi ada juga yang ditambah es
Zoo zoos
Bamboo bamboos
Piano pianos
Tomato tomatoes
Volcano volcanoes
Cargo cargoes
8. Ada kata benda yang bentuk jamak dan bentuk tunggalnya sama.
Sheep sheep
Deer deer
Fish fish
Iron iron
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9. Ada juga kata benda yang tidak mempunyai bentuk tunggal


Trousers
Shorts
Scissors
10. Ada juga kata benda yang bentuk jamaknya tidak beraturan.
Child children
Man men
Woman women
Person people
Tooth teeth
Foot feet
Mouse mice
Goose geese
Louse lice
Ox oxen
11. Ada juga kata benda yang jika dijamakkan (dijadikan plural) artinya berubah
Manner (cara) manners (adat sopan santun)
Wood (kayu) - woods (hutan)
Customs (adat)- customs (duane)
Pain (sakit) - pains (kesedihan)
Quarter (seperempat) quarters (kamar tempat tidur)
Short (pendek) - shorts (celana pendek)
2. VERB
Verb adalah kata yang menggambarkan tindakan atau keadaan.
Secara garis besar, kata kerja dibagi menjadi 2 golongan: regular (beraturan) dan
irregular (tak beraturan) dan masing-masing golongan mempunyai 4 (empat) bentuk
kata kerja:
1) Verb-1 (present simple)
2) Verb-2 (past simple)
3) Verb-3 (past participle)
4) Verb-4 (present participle / -ing form)
Berikut penjelasannya:
a. Regular verb: untuk Verb-2 dan verb-3 ditambahkan ed
Bagaimana cara mengucapkannya?:
Open opened opened opening
Claim claimed
Hope hoped
Allow allowed
Explain - explained
---- /d/ ---apabila bunyi terakhir pada kt kerja selain /t/, /d/
Expect expected
Divide divided
---- /id/ ---apabila bunyi terakhir pada kt kerja= /t/, /d/
Study studied = apabila huruf sebelum y : konsonan, y mjd i
Play played = apabila huruf sebelum y : vokal, tdk ada perubahan
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b. Irregular verb: tidak mempunyai aturan tertentu untuk membentuk kata kerja
bentuk kedua dan ketiga
Go went gone going
Stand stood stood - standing
Swim swam swum - swimming
Penambahan s/es pada verb:
Aturannya sama dengan aturan yang berlaku pada kata benda (noun).
Penggunaan:
Pada bentuk waktu: SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE untuk subject: SHE, HE, IT (third
singular person: orang ketiga tunggal)
3. ADJECTIVE
Kata sifat adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menerangkan kata benda (noun) atau kata
ganti (pronoun). Adjective tidak bersifat invariable, artinya tidak tergantung pada
gender atau jumlah orang/benda yang diterangkan. Diletakkan sebelum kata benda
yang diterangkannya. Perhatikan contoh kalimat berikut:
a. I have a ball
- I have a big ball
- I have a big strong ball
- I have a big strong white ball
- I have a big strong white foot ball
b. She has a desk.
- She has a small desk.
- She has a small strong desk.
- She has a small strong wooden desk.
- She has a small strong wooden pink desk.
- She has a small strong wooden pink study desk.
Form (Bentuk)
Dilihat dari bentuknya, adjective bisa dibagi 2 (dua):
1. Genuine adjective (kata sifat asli)
Alone
cheap
kind
Big
good
lazy
Busy
clever
diligent
2. Derivative adjective (kata sifat turunan)
a. Berasal dari kata benda
health
healthy
wind
windy
mud
muddy
success
successful
b. Berasal dari kata kerja
help
helpful
use
useful
attract
attractive
die
died

Antonym
Terdiri atas:
a. Genuine antonyms
absent
x
present
alone
x
together
big
x
small
b. Antonyms with prefixes (awalan)
- With prefix IL
legal
x
illegal
logic
x
illogical
literate
x
illiterate
- With prefix IM
possible x
impossible
perfect
x
imperfect
polite
x
impolite
- With prefix IN
adequate x
inadequate
complete x
incomplete
correct
x
incorrect
- With prefix UN
able
x
unable
aware
x
unaware
certain
x
uncertain
POSITIONS IN SENTENCES (POSISI DALAM KALIMAT)
Jenis adjective dipandang dari sudut letaknya di dalam kalimat, maka adjective hanya
terbagi atas 2 jenis, yaitu:
1. Epithet adjective (adjective yang menyatu dengan bendanya)
round ball
cold ice
2. Predicative adjective (adjective yang diletakkan setelah TO BE)
Ball is round.
Ice is cold.
Order of epithet adjectives in noun phrase (urutan kata sifat dalam frase kata
benda)
Epithet adjective terdiri atas beberapa jenis (lihat table dibawah ini). Beberapa jenis
epithet adjective ini bisa digunakan secara bersamaan untuk menerangkan kata benda.

Jika kata benda diikuti oleh beberapa epithet adjective, maka adjective tersebut disusun
dengan urutan:
1. Determiners
: all, both, half
2. a. articles
: a, an, the
b. possessive
: my, your, his, her, our, their, its
c. demonstrative : that, these, this, those
d. determiners : another, any, each, either, enough, every, neither, no, some,
what, which

3. Cardinal number: one, two, three; dan determiners: many, much, some, few, little,
lot of, several
4. Determiners
: fewer, fewest, least, less, more, most
5. Descriptive adjectives:
a. Kualitas, meliputi:
- Mutu
: good, bad, excellent, superior,
- Kondisi : good, bad, excellent, broken, fragile
- Karakter : good, bad, naughty, cunning, kind-hearted.
- Tekstur : soft, hard, rough, smooth
b. Ukuran, meliputi:
- potongan : cm, km, bottle, minutes, time, long, short, big
- bentuk : round, oval, triangle, square
- Temperature: hot, warm, cold, cool, chilly, boiling
- Rasa
: sweet, bitter, sour, salty, hot, spicy
c. Usia
: young, old, new, modern, antique
d. Warna
: white, blue, dark red, light green, yellow
e. Asal
: Indonesian, Australian, England, Japan, Tarakan
f. Bahan
: cotton, velvet, wood, iron, steel, bronze, gold
g. Peruntukan : study, waiting, foot, kitchen
Contoh:
- All students
- Both children
- Half an hour
- A dictionary
- All my books
- This book
- All those books
- Another day
- Every night
- This black horse
- Twelve roses
- The three chairs
- The other three chairs
- The fewest mistakes
- Two more children
- My new tie
- A large egg cartoon
- A beautiful Chinese vase

Tiga Tingkatan Kata Sifat dalam Bahasa Inggris


Di dalam bahasa Inggris, ada 3 tingkatan kata sifat, yaitu positive degree
(tingkatan biasa/sama), comparative degree (tingkatan lebih), dan superlative degree
(tingkatan paling).
a. Positive degree
Digunakan untuk menyatakan kata sifat sebagaimana apa adanya atau dalam
perbandingan yang sama. Bentuk ini biasanya digunakan dengan memakai as
sebelum dan sesudah kata sifat.
Contoh:
You are clever.
You are as clever as your father.
Krisdayanti is as beautiful as her older sister.
b. Comparative degree
Digunakan untuk menyatakan kata sifat yang ukurannya melebihi positive degree.
Bentuk ini biasanya digunakan dengan menambahkan akhiran er pada kata sifat
yang mempunyai satu suku kata, atau menambahkan kata more pada kata sifat yang
bersuku kata lebih dari satu, yang berarti lebih dan kata than yang berarti daripada.
Contoh:
You are faster than your father.
The weather in Jakarta is hotter than the weather in Bandung.
Mary is more beautiful than Tuti.
c. Superlative degree
Digunakan untuk menyatakan kata sifat yang ukurannya paling tinggi daripada
positive degree dan comparative degree. Bentuk ini digunakan dengan memakai the
dan menambahkan huruf -st atau est pada kata sifat yang mempunyai satu suku
kata, atau memakai kata most pada kata sifat yang bersuku kata lebih dari satu.
Contoh:
You are the fastest man in this office.
The weather in Jakarta is the hottest in Java.
Marry is the most beautiful girl at my school.
Aturan dalam Comparison (Perbandingan)
1. Satu suku kata yang berakhiran dengan 2 huruf mati atau berakhiran dengan 1
huruf mati yang didahului 2 huruf hidup. Contoh:
Hard harder
hardest
Deep deeper
deepest
Quick quicker
quickest
2. Satu suku kata yang berakhiran dengan 1 huruf mati dan didahului dengan 1 huruf
hidup. Contoh:
big
bigger
biggest
fat
fatter
fattest
thin thinner
thinnest
3. Satu suku kata yang berakhiran dengan huruf e
brave braver
bravest
larger larger
largest
4. Satu atau dua suku kata yang berakhiran dengan huruf y yang didahului oleh
huruf mati. Contoh:
busy busier
busiest
dry
drier
driest
easy easier
easiest

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5. Satu atau dua suku kata yang berakhiran y yang didahului oleh huruf hidup.
Contoh:
coy
coyer
coyest
grey greyer
greyest
6. Dua suku kata yang berakhiran huruf er, le, some, ow
clever

cleverer

cleverest
handsome

handsomer

handsomest
noble

nobler

noblest
narrow

narrower

narrowest
7. Dua suku kata atau lebih, biasanya ditambahkan more dan most. Contoh:
famous

more famous

most famous
beautiful

more beautiful

most beautiful
important

more important

most important
8. Pengecualian
bad

worse

worst
evil

worse

worst
ill

worse

worst
good

better

best
little

less

least
much

more

most
far

further

furthest
4. ADVERB
Adverb adalah kata keterangan yang menerangkan tentang semua jenis kata (kecuali
kata benda atau pronoun (kata ganti) karena keterangan benda adalah adjective). Jadi
adverb dapat menerangkan verb, adjective, adverb (jenisnya sendiri), preposition, dan
conjuction.
Dalam pengertian yang menyeluruh, adverb adalah kata yang menjelaskan tentang
cara, tempat, waktu, dan bagaimana suatu peristiwa atau keadaan terjadi.
Contoh:
- You must speak loudly to him.
- We must work honestly.
- They wait quietly in the class.
- She is very diligent.
- Duran often comes late to school.
Jenis-jenis adverb:
1. Adverb of manner
Adalah kata keterangan yang menjelaskan bagaimana cara suatu pekerjaan atau
peristiwa terjadi. Pada umumnya, adverb of manner dibentuk dengan memberi
akhiran ly pada kata sifat (adjectives).
Contoh: active actively easy easily normal normally
Penempatan adverb of manner dalam kalimat:
- Sesudah kata kerja
John walked slowly.
- Sebelum kata kerja (jika kata kerja diikuti keterangan lain)
John slowly walked down the street.
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2. Adverb of place
Adalah kata keterangan yang menunjukkan tempat terjadinya peristiwa dalam suatu
kalimat. Contoh: at the office, behind you, every where, in the class, in front of me.
Penempatan adverb of place dalam kalimat:
- Sesudah kata kerja
Marry is studying in the classroom.
- Sesudah objek
I put my pen on the table.
- Sesudah adverb of manner
Mira played piano beautifully on the stage.
3. Adverb of time
Adalah kata keterangan yang menunjukkan waktu terjadinya suatu peristiwa.
Contoh: ago, at 10 oclock, just now, last Sunday, this afternoon, today, yesterday,
next week, dll.
Penempatan adverb of time dalam kalimat:
- Pada awal kalimat
Today the student will get the exam.
- Pada akhir kalimat
John met his teacher yesterday.
4. Adverb of frequency
Adalah kata keterangan yang menunjukkan sering atau jarangnya suatu peristiwa
terjadi. Contoh: always, often, usually, sometimes, seldom, rarely, ever, never.

Penempatan adverb of frequency dalam kalimat:


- Sesudah to be
My mother is always angry with me.
- Sebelum kata kerja
Frankly speaking, I seldom do sport.
- Sesudah kata kerja
Do you practice English continuously?
- Sesudah auxiliary verb
I have never been to Bali.
5. Adverb of degree
Adalah kata keterangan yang menunjukkan tingkatan atau berapa jauh suatu
pekerjaan dilakukan atau suatu peristiwa terjadi. Contoh: absolutely, already,
clearly (cukup jelas), certainly, enough, may be, only, probably, nearly, quite,
really, very
Penempatan adverb of degree dalam kalimat:
- Sesudah to be
I am absolutely sure that John is healthy.
- Sebelum kata kerja
I really saw the robbery.
- Sebelum adjective atau adverb
The story is fairly good.
He behaved very badly.
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Kata keterangan only menerangkan kata yang terletak disisinya


John only gave a ring to Mary.
John gave a ring to Mary only.
6. Interrogative adverb
Adalah kata keterangan yang membentuk pertanyaan di dalam suatu kalimat.
Contoh: how, what, when, where, why, which, who, whom, whose
Umumnya digunakan di awal kalimat: How do you go to the office?
7. Relative adverb
Adalah kata keterangan yang berfungsi sebagai penghubung antara induk kalimat
dan anak kalimat di dalam kalimat majemuk. Contoh: when, where, why, how, who
Umumnya digunakan di antara induk kalimat dan anak kalimat:
I dont know when John went to Bali.
Do you know why he is angry with me?
I forget where I put my pen.
I know the man who is standing over there.
8. Inversion
Adalah kata keterangan yang berfungsi untuk memberi pengertian negative pada
suatu kalimat.
Penempatan inversion dalam kalimat:
- Pada awal kalimat diikuti oleh kata kerja dan subjek.
Only by studying hard, will you be a clever student.
Hanya dengan belajar keras, anda akan menjadi pelajar yang pandai.
Nowhere, will you get such cheap car as you get here.
Di mana pun tidak akan anda dapatkan mobil murah seperti yang anda
dapatkan di sini.
- Pada awal anak kalimat pada kalimat majemuk
I dont speak English, and neither does Amir.
Saya tidak bicara bahasa Inggris, dan demikian pula Amir.
5. PREPOSITION (Kata depan)
Kata depan merupakan kata yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan antara kata benda,
atau kata ganti dengan kata-kata lain yang ada di dalam kalimat. Kata depan ini sangat
sering dipakai di dalam percakapan sehari-hari. Oleh Karena itu, pemahaman dan
pemakaian kata depan ini sangat perlu dipelajari.
Kata depan yang sering digunakan, jumlahnya cukup banyak. Untuk pahamilah contohcontoh preposisi di bawah ini dengan benar.
- About= kira-kira; tentang
A : How far is Tarakan to Long Bawan?
B : It is about 50 minutes by a small airplane.
X : What topics are we going to discuss?
Y : We are going to discuss about preposition.
- Above= di sebelah atas (tidak menyentuh benda di bawahnya); lebih dari
- Across= menyeberang; di seberang
- After= sesudah (terkait dengan waktu); sesudah (terkait dengan kata kerja)
- Against= menentang/berlawanan dengan; sebagai ganti
- Along= sepanjang
- Among= di antara (untuk banyak orang); satu di antara
The red chair is among the white chairs.
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At= di (untuk menunjukkan tempat); pada (untuk menunjukkan waktu); ke arah;


menunjukkan alamat yang memakai nomor; menunjukkan bidang kemampuan
I am waiting for you at home.
I waited for you at home at 7 oclock.
The girl always looks at me.
I live at Jl. Pasar Baru No. 33.
Budi is good at speaking English.
Before= sebelum melakukan pekerjaan, sebelum waktu tertentu; di depan
I always pray before studying.
Behind= di belakang; mendukung; tersembunyi
Ali stands behind me.
Below= di bawah (lebih dari ); di bawah
Beside= di samping
Besides= selain
Between= di antara (waktu); di antara (dua benda)
What did you do between 7 oclock to 8 oclock this morning?
My house is between supermarket and hospital.
Beyond= melebihi
By= oleh; melalui; dengan memakai; dengan melakukan sesuatu;
sebelum/menjelang (waktu)
I go to school by motorcycle.
Down= turun
During= selama
Except= kecuali
For= selama; digunakan untuk; ke arah; untuk mendapatkan; seharga; atas nama
From= dari
In= menunjukkan nama tempat; selama; menunjukkan bulan; menunjukkan tahun;
menunjukkan musim; menunjukkan bidang pekerjaan; memakai
Into= ke dalam
Of= dari; kepunyaan
Off= kurang dari; mematikan (didahului oleh kata kerja)
On= di atas (permukaan suatu benda); menunjukkan hari; menunjukkan bulan;
menunjukkan tanggal; tentang
Over= di atas (tidak menyentuh benda di bawahnya); menyeberang; selesai;
tentang; terlalu banyak/lama
Since= sejak; sesudah
She has taught English since 2004.
To= ke (untuk menunjukkan arah); hingga/sampai
Toward= ke arah; untuk
Under= di bawah; dalam kuasa/pemerintahan; kurang dari
With= di pihak; menggunakan; bersama
Without= tanpa
I can do it without you.
I cant live without you.
Etcetera (dan lain-lain)

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6. CONJUNCTION (Kata Penghubung/sambung)


Conjunction adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan ide yang dinyatakan
dalam clause dengan ide yang dinyatakan pada bagian akhir kalimat.
Contoh:
We can to the library, or we can go to the park.
I went out because the sun was shining.
Jenis-jenis conjunction:
And, but, or, nor, yet, both and , either or, neither nor., if
then, rather than, whether or, because, until, as, although, for, if,
since, than, unless, whereas, while, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, however,
therefore, otherwise, thus, then, furthermore, besides, etc
7. PRONOUN (Kata ganti)
SUBJECT

OBJECT

I
WE
YOU
THEY
SHE
HE
IT

Me
Us
You
Them
Her
Him
It

POSSESSION
ADJECTIVE
NOUN
My (noun)
Mine
Our
Ours
Your
Yours
Their
Theirs
Her
Hers
His
His
Its
Its

8. INTERJECTION (Kata seru)


Hore!, ah!, ooh!, hi, thanks God!
How pity you are!
How beautiful you are!
How nice you are!
How hot this classroom is!
What a beautiful day it is!
What a day!
How beautiful it is!
How beautiful!

15

REFLEXIVE
Myself
Ourselves
Yourself/selves
Themselves
Herself
Himself
Itself

SENTENCE PATTERNS IN ENGLISH


Dalam bahasa Inggris setiap kalimat setidaknya terdiri dari subject dan verb. Verb
(kata kerja) adalah kata atau frase yang menyatakan eksistensi atau tindakan. Ada dua jenis
verb, yaitu main verb dan auxiliary verb. Auxiliary verb ini sering disebut juga helping
verb (kata kerja bantu) karena digunakan bersama main verb (kata kerja utama) untuk
membentuk kalimat. Perhatikan contoh kalimat berikut:
No.

Subject

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Betty
Her father
She
She
She
Her sister

Auxiliary
Verbs
is
will
has

Main Verbs

Complement

is
smokes
celebrated
studying
take
worked

beautiful
her birthday yesterday
at SMAN 1
English course
at factory for three years

Dari contoh kalimat di atas kita bisa menarik 2 (dua) kesimpulan penting:
1) Setiap kalimat harus mempunyai main verb,
2) Kalimat dalam bhs Inggris ada yang menggunakan auxiliary verb (4, 5, 6); ada juga
yang tanpa auxiliary verb (1, 2, 3).
Jadi dalam bhs Inggris ada dua jenis kalimat, yaitu:
1) Kalimat dengan auxiliary verb
2) Kalimat tanpa auxiliary verb
AUXILIARY VERBS
Ada 4 (empat) jenis auxiliary verb yang secara garis besar bisa dibagi menjadi
bentuk present (sekarang) dan past (lampau).
BENTUK
1. TO BE :

PRESENT
am
Is
Are

PAST
was
was
were

untuk subjek I
untuk subjek: SHE, HE, IT
untuk subjek: WE, YOU, THEY

I am hungry now. (tobe + adj.)


Siti is hungry now.
We are hungry
Ardi is an army/ a navy/an airforce (tobe + noun)
Ardi was an army Ardi dulunya seorang tentara
We are in the classroom (tobe + adverb)
I am helping my friends to do the homework. (tobe + Verb+ing)
We are studying English.
Kami sedang belajar bahasa Inggris

16

2. TO DO:

do
does

untuk subjek: I, WE, YOU, THEY


untuk subjek: SHE, HE, IT

did
did

My brother helps my father to cut the grasses once a week.


My brother doesnt help my father to cut the grasses once a week.
Does my brother help your father to cut the grasses once a week?
What does my brother help your father?
I helped my father to cut grasses yesterday.
I didnt help my father to cut grasses yesterday.
Did you help your father to cut grasses yesterday?
What did you help your father yesterday?
3. TO HAVE:

have
has
have been
has been

had untuk subjek: I, WE, YOU, THEY


had untuk subjek: SHE, HE, IT
had been untuk subjek: I, WE, YOU, THEY
had been
untuk subjek: SHE, HE, IT

I have lived here for a long time.


She has lived here since 2000.
4. MODALS:

will
shall
can
must/
have to/
has to
May

would
should
could
had to

untuk SEMUA subjek


untuk subjek I dan WE
untuk SEMUA subjek
untuk SEMUA subjek

might

untuk SEMUA subjek

Keterangan:
- Be adalah bentuk dasar dari TO BE dan been adalah bentuk III dari TO BE. Kedua
auxiliary verb ini tidak bisa berdiri sendiri, akan tetapi mengikuti auxiliary verb
lainnya.
- Be mengikuti MODALS: will be, must be, may be, can be
- Been mengikuti TO HAVE: has been, have been, had been

17

TENSES

Tenses merupakan bentuk-bentuk kata kerja yang disesuaikan dengan waktu


terjadinya di dalam suatu kalimat. English tenses terdiri atas 16 macam. Karena jumlahnya
cukup banyak seringkali timbul kesulitan untuk mempelajari tenses tersebut. Tetapi apabila
kita mencermati 16 tenses tersebut, maka persoalannya tidak sesulit yang dibayangkan.
Langkah-langkah praktis untuk menghafal nama dan rumus tenses tersebut adalah sebagai
berikut:
- 16 tenses tersebut bisa dibagi menjadi dua, yaitu bentuk present dan bentuk past.
Dengan kata lain, ada 8 tenses bentuk present dan 8 tenses bentuk past.
- Dari 8 tenses; bentuk present, masing-masing memiliki tenses dasar, begitu juga
dengan bentuk past (tinggal diganti kata present), yaitu:
1. Present tense (simple present tense)
2. Present future tense
3. Present perfect tense
4. Present continuous tense
Sedangkan tenses 5 8 bersifat modifikasi dari tenses 2, 3, dan 4.
5. Present future perfect tense (tense 2 + 3)
6. Present future continuous tense (tense 2 + 4)
7. Present perfect continuous tense (tense 3 + 4)
8. Present future perfect continuous tense (tense 2 + 3 + 4)
Untuk lebih jelasnya, perhatikan tabel tenses berikut:
NOMINAL SENTENCE
Yaitu kalimat yang predikatnya bukan kata kerja, tetapi bisa berupa kata benda,
kata keterangan, kata sifat atau lainnya.
Contoh:
1. Saya sibuk sekarang. I am busy right now.
2. Roni terlambat kemarin. Roni was late yerterday.
3. Ia akan menjadi seorang guru. He will be a teacher.
4. Mereka di dalam kelas selama 3 jam. They are in the classroom for 3 hours.
Jika kalimat di atas kita terjemahkan ke dalam bhs Inggris, maka susunannya akan
menjadi:
No.

Subject

1.
2.
3.
4.

I
Roni
He
They

Auxiliary
Verbs
will
have

Main Verbs

Complement

am
was
be
been

busy now
late yesterday
a teacher next year
in the classroom for three
hours

Jadi definisi Kalimat Nominal dalam bhs Inggris adalah kalimat di mana to be (am, is, are,
was, were, be, been) bukan sebagai auxiliary verb, tetapi menjadi main verb (kata kerja
utama).

18

VERBAL SENTENCE
Verbal berasal dari kata verb. Jadi kalimat verbal adalah kalimat yang predikatnya
berupa kata kerja biasa. Kalimat verbal ada yang menggunakan auxiliary verb; ada yang
tanpa auxiliary verb.
Contoh:
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Subject
Betty
She
She
She
His father
Her mother

Auxiliary
Verbs
Is
will
has

Main Verbs

Complement

gets up
celebrated
studying
take
smokes
worked

at six every morning


her birthday party yesterday
at SMAN 1
English course
at factory for three years

Dari contoh di atas kita bisa menyimpulkan:


1. Kalimat 1, 2, dan 5 tidak mempunyai auxiliary verb
2. Kalimat 3, 4, dan 6 mempunyai auxiliary verb
3. Kalimat verbal tidak mesti membutuhkan complement.

19

QUESTIONS
A. Yes/No Questions
Yaitu kalimat yang bisa dijawab dengan YA atau TIDAK. Cara membuatnya adalah
dengan meletakkan auxiliary verb di depan subyek. Jika kalimatnya belum ada
auxiliary verb, maka gunakan DO, DOES, atau DID; HAVE, HAS, atau HAD; WILL,
CAN, MAY, MUST, etc. Jenis pertanyaan ini bisa dibagi menjadi dua:
1. Positive question
Contoh: I always have breakfast.
Do you always have breakfast? Yes, I do atau No, I dont
2. Negative question
Contoh: I sometimes feel tired.
Dont you sometimes feel tired?
Yes, I do atau No, I dont
B. Information questions/Wh- Questions
Jenis kalimat Tanya ini dibuat dengan menggunakan kata Tanya (question words) dan
tidak bisa dijawab dengan YA atau TIDAK. Ada 9 jenis question words yang diawali
dengan wh- (ada 8) dan h- (ada 1):
1. What (apa) something, action, idea (sesuatu, tindakan, ide)
Penggunaannya bisa diikuti oleh kata benda atau berdiri sendiri.
- What is this?
- What are you doing?
- What do you think about me?
- What time will you come here?
- What day do you teach English?
- What date is it today?
2. Who (siapa (yang melakukan)) someone/somebody
- Who came to her house last night?
- Who will go to Tarakan tomorrow?
- Who has eaten my cake on this table?
3. Whom (siapa (yang dikenai tindakan)) someone/somebody
- With whom (dengan siapa) do you come here?
- To whom (kepada siapa) do you give my love letter?
4. Whose (siapa (yang punya)) possession (kepunyaan)
Penggunaannya diikuti oleh kata benda.
- Whose book (buku siapa) is this?
- Whose students (murid siapa) are you?
5. When (kapan) time (waktu)
- When will you come here?
- When were you born?
6. Where (dimana) place (tempat)
- Where do you put my clothes/glasses/book?
- Where were you born?
7. Why (mengapa) reason (alasan)
- Why do you come late?
- Why do love me?
8. Which (yang mana) choice (pilihan)
Penggunaannya diikuti oleh kata benda.

20

- Which cakes do you like to eat?


- Which one do you like, the blue or the black one?
9. How (bagaimana) condition/situation, manner, quantity, frequency, dll (kondisi,
cara, kuantitas, keseringan)
- How much (berapa (banyak benda yg tak dapat dihitung)
How much did you buy your mobile phone?
How much money do you have?
- How many (berapa (banyak benda yg dapat dihitung)
How many motorcycles do you have?
- How many times (berapa kali)
How many times do you go to your field-rice in a week?
- How long (berapa lama/panjang)
How long is the wood?
- How far (berapa jauh)
How far is your house to the school?
- How tall (berapa tinggi)
How tall is she?
How tall are you?
- How often (berapa sering)
- How big (berapa besar)
How big is your house?
I have a beautiful house. How big is yours (your house)?
Ada dua jenis question words:
1. Menanyakan subyek
Cara membuatnya adalah mengganti subjek kalimat positif dengan who (bila
subjeknya orang) dan what (bila subjeknya bukan orang). Sedangkan susunan
kalimat sesudahnya sama sekali tidak berubah. Jawaban singkatnya menggunakan
rumus:
S + Auxiliary verb.
My mother prepares breakfast every day.
Untuk menanyakan siapa yang menyiapkan makan pagi setiap hari, kita
tinggal mengganti subjek kalimat (my mother) dengan who (susunan
kalimat sesudahnya tidak berubah).
Who prepares breakfast every day?
Jawabannya: My mother.
__> Class finished at two p.m. yesterday.
.> What finished at two p.m. yesterday?
Jawabannya: Class
2. Menanyakan selain subyek
Adapun pola kalimatnya: Question words + Auxiliary verbs + S + V + O/C?
They study English every Thursday.
She studies English every Thursday.
They are studying English now.
They have studied English.
They studied English on Thursday last week.
Untuk menanyakan apa yang mereka pelajari setiap hari Kamis, maka kita
ganti kata English dengan kata Tanya yang sesuai, yaitu WHAT. Dengan
menggunakan pola di atas maka kalimatnya menjadi:

21

What do they study every Thursday?


What does she study every Thursday?
What are they studying now?
What have they studied?
What did they study on Thursday last week?
Jawabannya: English.
Untuk menanyakan kapan mereka belajar bahasa Inggris, maka gunakan
WHEN.
When do they study English?
Where do they study English every Thursday?
Why do they study English every Thursday?
How do they study English every Thursday?
With whom do they study English every Thursday?
Who study English every Thursday?
Who can speak English?
Who taught you?
What will she do tonight?

22

EXERCISES

Translate the following sentences into Indonesian or into English!


1. Apel manis:
2. Apel merah:
3. Burung cantik:
4. Anak laki-laki pintar:
5. Mobil baru:
6. Cincin emas:
7. Cincin emas mahal:
8. The sunny day:
9. The beautiful flower:
10. The heavy rain:
11. Sweet orange:
12. Sour lemon:
13. The empty glass:
14. Sharp knife:
15. Dia (lk) sedang bermain sepak bola:
16. Agus senang:
17. Mereka bosan:
18. Mereka bosan belajar:
19. Ani terlambat:
20. Ani datang terlambat kemarin:
21. Ani akan datang tepat waktu ke sekolah:
22. Guru bahasa Inggris marah kepada saya:
23. Dia (pr) baik (hati):
24. Kami telah tinggal di KTT sejak tahun 2000:
25. Kami juga menginap beberapa malam di sana:
26. The teacher is lazy to school:
27. He always kicks and slaps the students:
28. The students parents are angry to him:
29. So, the teacher is fire:
30. But the other teachers support him:
31. Seorang guru bahasa Inggris yang baik:
32. Beberapa cincin emas yang mahal dan cantik:
33. A rich generous man:
34. An Indonesian map:
35. Guru itu tinggi:
36. Anak saya bisa pintar:
37. Lampu Osram terang:
38. Lampu Osram lebih terang dari pada lampu Philips:
39. Lampu Osram paling terang:
Kule sangat suka membaca. Setiap akhir pekan dia pergi ke perpustakaan. Perpustakaan
tidak terlalu jauh dari rumahnya, sehingga dia bisa pergi ke sana dengan jalan kaki. Dia
punya kartu perpustakaan. Dia bisa meminjam buku dengan kartunya.
Artinya:

23

Make sentences using the following words (by combining the words and adding the object
of the sentences by yourself), where each sentence has its statement/declarative, negative,
and questions/interrogative: yes/no question and wh-question! Your sentence structure will
vary depending on the time marker (adverb) you use.

My father
Our boss
I
They
She

give
finish
read

take
help

For example:
(+) She is reading the newspaper right now.
(-) She is not reading the newspaper right now.
(?) - Is she reading the newspaper right now?
- What is she reading right now?
+ My father reads newspaper every day.
- My father does not read newspaper every day.
? Does my father read newspaper every day?
What does my father read every day?
When does my father read newspaper?

24

always
every morning
just/already
next week
right now

READING TEXTS

Polly likes reading very much. Every weekend she goes to the library. The
library is not far away from her home, so she can go there on foot. She has got
library cards. She can borrow books with these cards.
Write YES or NO
1. Polly goes to the library every Saturday.
2. The library is near to Pollys home.
3. Polly has no library cards.

(_____)
(_____)
(_____)

Answer the questions!


1. What does Polly do every weekend?
2. How does Polly go to the library?
3. Does she like reading?
4. Who likes reading?
5. Where does Polly read books?
6. What does Polly use to borrow books?

AN AFTERNOON IN THE PARK


Sharon is walking in the street. Its (it is) lovely day. She goes into the
park. She sits down. Now Sharon is looking at the people. There are many
adults and children.
Some young people are sitting on the grass. They are playing music.
They have guitars. There is a lake in the park. Sharon sees a boy with a small
boat. He puts the boat in the water.
Then Sharon looks across the lake. There are people on the other side.
Suddenly Sharon sees Ellen. Ellen is her best friend. But Ellen doesnt see
Sharon.
Sharon stands up. She calls Ellen. Ellen! Ellen! But Ellen cant hear
her. She is too far away. She can hear the music, but she cant hear Sharon.
Answer the following questions based on the text above!
1. Where does Sharon go?
2. What is Sharon looking at?
3. What is the weather like?
4. What musical instruments can she hear?
5. What does the boy put in the lake?
6. What is the name of Sharons friend?
7. What can Ellen hear?
8. Is Sharon walking in the street?
9. Where is Sharon walking?
10. What is Sharon doing?
11. Does Sharon see a boy with a small boat?
12. What does Sharon see?
25

LUNCH TIME
Its twelve oclock on Monday. Chris is in the street. He is hungry.
What can he do? He can go home and have lunch. But he hasnt got any food
at home. He can go to the supermarket. But that takes a long time. Chris is in
a hurry.
He sees a restaurant. But, perhaps its too expensive. He hasnt got
much money. But he has got a credit card!
He stops in front of the restaurant. He looks at the menu. It looks very
good. There is steak on the menu. He loves steak. And he wants to order a
large glass of orange juice.
This restaurant is perfect. He tries to go inside. But he cant open the
door. Whats that sign on the door? He puts on his glasses to read it. Closed
on Mondays.
Make some questions and answer them based on the text! The questions must
be consisted of YES/NO QUESTIONS and INFORMATIONAL QUESTIONS
(wh-questions).
Buatlah beberapa pertanyaan berdasarkan teks dan jawab pertanyaan itu.
Pertanyaan harus meliputi PERTANYAAN YA/TIDAK dan
PERTANYAAN INFORMASI (menggunakan kata tanya WH-).

26

THE NORTH WIND AND THE SUN


One day, the North Wind and the Sun were arguing. They were trying to decide
which one of them was stronger.
When a traveler came along wrapped up in his overcoat, they agreed that the one
who could make the traveler take off his coat would be declared the strongest of the two.
The North Wind began. He blew as hard as he could, but the harder he blew, the
tighter the traveler wrapped his coat around himself. Finally, the North Wind gave up.
Then the Sun began to shine with intense heat and, right away, the traveler took off
his coat.
The North Wind had to concede; the Sun was stronger than he.
Source: Unknown

Questions
True or False
_____ 1. The moral of this story is, "right isn't always right!"
_____ 2. The traveler was unaware of the dispute between the North Wind and the Sun.
_____ 3. When the Sun began to shine, the traveler waited a while before removing his
coat.
_____ 4. The North Wind and the Sun were arguing about which one of them was smarter.
Answer these Questions
1. How many characters take part in this tale? Who are they?
_____________________________________________
2. Who is stronger?
_____________________________________________
3. Why do you think so?
_____________________________________________
4. Why did the wind give up trying?
_____________________________________________
5. Was the traveler wearing a raincoat?
_____________________________________________
Make Questions
1. Yes, they were arguing.
_____________________________________________
2. An overcoat.
_____________________________________________
3. Because the harder he blew, the tighter the traveler wrapped his coat around him.
_____________________________________________
4. No, the North Wind gave up.
_____________________________________________
5. The Sun is stronger than the North Wind.
_____________________________________________
27

THE BLIND MAN AND THE SUN


Once upon a time, there lived a blind man who had never seen the sun. He asked a
friend to tell him what it was like. "Its like a brass plate," his friend said. The blind man
struck a brass plate with a stick and listened to the sound. Every time he heard a similar
sound, he thought it was the sun.
His friend explained that "The sun is like a candle." The blind man felt a candle
with his hand. He believed it was the same shape as the sun.
Then his friend told him that the sun is like a great ball of fire. Later that winter,
whenever the blind man sat in front of a fire, he thought it was the sun.
The sun is really quite different from all these things; but the blind man did not
know this because he could not see it.
In the same way, the truth is often hard to see. If you cannot see it when it is right in
front of you, then you are just like the blind man.
From: Favourite Stories from Asia
by: Leon Comber p. 2
Questions
True or False
_____ 1. The blind man's friend is a good teacher.
_____ 2. The truth is like the sun.
_____ 3. The blind man's friend compared the sun to three things.
_____ 4. The blind man never did figure out what the sun was like.
_____ 5. It is cold in winter.
Answer these Questions
1. What did the blind man's friend compare the sun to?
_____________________________________________
2. Which one of these things do you think is most similar to the sun?
_____________________________________________
3. What would you compare the sun to? Why?
_____________________________________________
4. Why is the truth like the sun?
_____________________________________________
Make Questions
1. A brass plate, a candle, and a ball of fire.
_____________________________________________
2. No, he never did understand.
_____________________________________________
3. The Truth.
_____________________________________________
4. Like a blind man.
_____________________________________________
28

THE OLD MAN AND HIS SONS


Once there lived an old man who had many sons. They were always quarrelling
with one another and this made him very sad. He longed to see them live peacefully so he
thought up a clever plan to show them their folly.
He brought home a small bundle of sticks and sent for his sons. He asked his
youngest son to try to break the bundle. He could not. Then he asked the rest to try. One by
one, each of them tried, but failed.
Then the old man undid the bundle and asked his sons to try again. They broke the
sticks at once. Now came the time to teach them their lesson. "My sons," he said, "learn a
lesson from these sticks. You could not break them as long as they were bound together,
but the moment they were separated from one another, they were broken into pieces. In the
same way, you will come to no harm as long as you remain united. But you will all perish
if you are divided."
Source: Unknown
Questions
True or False
____ 1. The lesson the old man wished to teach his sons was: "Together we stand, divided
we fall.
____ 2. After the youngest son tried to break the bundle, the others tried all at the same time
____ 3. The word "folly' is opposite in meaning to "wisdom".
____ 4. After his sons had tried to break the bundle and failed, the old man broke the
sticks himself.
____ 5. The boys learned a good lesson.
Answer These Questions
1. Why wasn't the old man happy?
_____________________________________________
2. How did he wish to see his sons to live peacefully?
_____________________________________________
3. What did he bring home? Why?
_____________________________________________
4. How many sons did he have?
_____________________________________________
5. a) Do they ever fight (quarrel) with each other?
_____________________________________________
b) How did their parents react?
_____________________________________________
Make Questions
1. No, they couldn't.
_____________________________________________
2. A small bundle of sticks.
_____________________________________________
3. To teach them a lesson.
_____________________________________________
4. Because they were always quarrelling.
_____________________________________________
5. One by one.
_____________________________________________
29

THE PROUD LION


One day, a rat walked past a lion sleeping in a deep forest. Just then, the lion woke
up and saw the rat. He caught it with his paw.
"What a tasty meal!" he said. "Mr. Lion, King of the Forest," cried the rat, "please
have a pity on me. I'm too small to make a good meal for you. If you let me go, I'll always
be grateful to you. Perhaps one day I shall be able to repay you for your kindness." The
lion laughed, "How can you ever repay me?"
But since he was not feeling very hungry, he let the rat go.
The next day, the rat heard a loud noise in the forest. He ran to see what it was. It
was the lion. He had fallen into a hole in the ground and was caught in a rope net.
The lion looked up and saw the rat. Mr. Rat, he called out, "Mr. Rat, please jump
down and help me." The rat jumped down into the hole and started to bite through the net.
The lion was soon able to climb out of the hole.
"Mr. Lion," said the rat, "yesterday you were very proud. You thought I was small
and helpless. Today, I was able to save your life. I hope you will never forget that,
although you are big and strong, even someone as small as I can help you."
From: Favorite Stories from Asia
by: Leon Comber p. 9
Questions
True or False
____ 1. The hole into which the lion fell was probably dug by a man.
____ 2. The lion ate the rat.
____ 3. The rat saved the lion's life.
____ 4. The lion learned a valuable lesson.
____ 5. The moral of the story is: "Bigger is not always better!
Answer These Questions
1. What did the lion say when he caught the rat?
_____________________________________________
2. Did the lion let the rat go because he took a pity on him or simply because he wasn't
hungry?
_____________________________________________
3. Did the rat keep his promise to the lion?
_____________________________________________
4. What was the lion caught in?
_____________________________________________
5. What did the lion fall into?
_____________________________________________
Make Questions
1. In a deep forest.
_____________________________________________
2. With his paw.
_____________________________________________
3. A hole.
_____________________________________________
4. By biting through the net.
_____________________________________________
5. Mr. Rat, please jump down and help me.
30

YOU CANNOT PLEASE EVERYONE


A man and his son were leading a buffalo to the market. Someone seeing them pass
by called out to the man, "Why don't you ride?" The man then sat on the buffalo while his
son walked alongside.
Soon they passed an old woman who called out to the man, "Why are you so lazy?
You are a big strong man. Why don't you walk and let your son ride instead?"
The man got down from the buffalo and told his son to ride.
Just before they reached the town, an old man working in the fields called out to
them, "It's not right for a boy to ride while his father walks."
The man then sat on the buffalo behind his son. They had not gone very far when
someone else called out to them, "Why are you so cruel? How can a buffalo carry two
persons?"
Both the man and his son jumped off the buffalo. They cut a branch of a tree and
tied the buffalo's feet to it. They carried the branch between them.
When they entered the town, some children called out laughingly to them, "How
can you carry a buffalo? The buffalo should carry you." The buffalo was frightened by the
noise. It was able to set itself free and it ran away as fast as it could. The man and his son
never saw the buffalo again.
As they were walking home, the man said to his son, "We've learned a good lesson
today. You can never hope to please everyone no matter how hard you try!"
Questions
True or False
____1. In the end, they lost the buffalo.
____2. The buffalo was afraid of loud noises.
____3. The children were amused by the sight of two men carrying a buffalo.
____4. The man cared very much what others thought of him.
____5. There are only two people mentioned in this story.
Answer These Questions
1. Why did the man get on the buffalo?
_____________________________________________
2. Why did he get off?
_____________________________________________
3. Why did somebody say he was cruel?
_____________________________________________
4. Who said, "Its not right for a boy to ride while his father walks?"
_____________________________________________
5. What frightened the buffalo?
_____________________________________________
Make Questions
1. To the market.
_____________________________________________
2. No, they never got there.
_____________________________________________
3. As fast as it could.
_____________________________________________
31

BOB HIGH AND DICKY LOW


Once there lived a very tall man. His name was Bob High. Bob was taller than his
father and his older brothers. He was the tallest man in his village.
One day, while he was walking with some of his friends, he saw a very short man.
Though the man looked old, he was no taller than a boy of 9.
He was unusually and exceptionally short. He was the shortest man Bob and his
friends had ever seen. Though he was short, he was very intelligent. His name was Dicky
Low. Dicky was shorter than any of his friends but more intelligent than all of them. He
was known in his village as the most intelligent and quick-witted man and, of course, the
shortest.
After they greeted each other, Bob, said: "I don't think you can reach the tip of my
nose with your fingers, you're so short, Dicky Low. But if you can, I'll give you $ 20
Dicky thought for a while then said, "Certainly, I can. I'm positively and absolutely
sure. Its no problem at all. I have to admit that I'm short and I'm not denying that fact, but
my hands are longer than yours. If you can touch my toes with your hands I'll give you this
10 dollar bill right away.
The tall man burst into laughter and stooped slowly to touch the short man's toes.
At that moment, Dicky grabbed Bob's nose and said calmly, "I may be short but I know
how to use my brain better than you. Please, give me the money you promised."
After receiving the money, Dicky Low walked off in the direction of the village
market. Amazed and dumb-founded, Bob and his friends watched him go.
Source: Unknown
Questions
True or False
____ 1. Bob had one older brother.
____ 2. Bob made a bet with Dicky.
____ 3. Dicky was shorter than most of Bob's friends.
____ 4. Bob lost his $ 20.
____ 5. Bob is commonly used as a nickname for Robert.
____ 6. Dick or Dicky is used as a nickname for Richard.
Answer These Questions
1. Did Bob touch Dicks toes? _____________________________________________
2. Did Dicky grab Bob's nose? _____________________________________________
3. How much money did Bob lose? _____________________________________________
4. Who was Bob walking with? _____________________________________________
5. When did Dicky grab Bob's nose? _____________________________________________
Make Questions
1. They were amazed and dumb-founded.
_____________________________________________
2. The most intelligent, the most quick-witted and, of course, the shortest man in town
_____________________________________________
3. No taller than a boy .
_____________________________________________
4. The moment he bent over to touch Dickys toes.
_____________________________________________
5. With his finger
_____________________________________________
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