Anda di halaman 1dari 108

An exam

oriented guide
on Indian Art
and Culture

Specially designed for CSAT and IAS mains

Puppet forms
Painting Styles
Dance forms
Theater forms
Indian Architecture


Puppet Forms
of India

Puppet Forms of India

A form of theatre or performance involving manipulation
of puppets.
The process of animating inanimate performing objects.
Used both as entertainment in performance and
ceremonially in rituals and celebrations such as carnivals.
Originating in India 4000 years ago, where the main
character in Sanskrit plays was known as Sutradhara, the
holder of strings.
Stories mainly from puranic literature, local myths and
String Puppet

Shadow Puppet

Glove Puppet

Rod Puppet

Puppet Forms of India

1. String PuPPets

Jointed body and limbs that allow movement.

Made of wood, or wire, or cloth stuffed with
cotton, rags or saw dust and are usually small.
Manipulated by operating the control as well as
by loosening or pulling the relevant string
Regional variations:
Andhra Pradesh (Koyya Bommalata),
Assam (Putala Nach),
Karnataka (Sutrada Gombeyata),
Maharashtra (Kalasutri Bahulya),
Rajasthan (Kathputli),
Orissa (Gopalila),
Tamil Nadu (Bommalatam) and
West Bengal (Tarer or Sutor Putul).

Puppet Forms of India

1. String PuPPets

Kathputli, Rajasthan
Carved from a single piece of wood,
Large dolls that are colorfully dressed.
Costumes and headgears are designed in the medieval
Rajasthani style
Uses highly dramatized version of the regional music.
Oval faces, large eyes, arched eyebrows and large lips.
Wear long trailing skirts and do not have legs.
Manipulated with strings attached to puppeteers
Kundhei, Orissa
Made of light wood,
Have no legs but wear long flowing skirts.
Have more joints and are, therefore, more versatile,
articulate and easy to manipulate.
Music of Odissi dance.
Puppeteers hold a wooden prop, triangular in shape, to
which strings are attached.

Puppet Forms of India

1. String PuPPets

Gombeyatta, Karnataka
Styled and designed like the characters of
Yakshagana, have joints at the legs,
shoulders, elbows, hips and knees.
Music is dramatic; blends folk and
classical elements
Manipulated by five to seven strings tied
to a prop.
Bommalattam, Tamil Nadu
Techniques of both rod and string puppets.
Made of wood
Strings are tied to an iron ring which the
puppeteer wears like a crown on his head
Are the largest, heaviest and the most articulate
of all. (A puppet may be as big as 4.5 feet)
manipulated by rods (because heavy)

Puppet Forms of India

2. Shadow puppet

Flat figures cut out of leather, treated to make it translucent.

Pressed against the screen with a strong source of light behind it.
The manipulation between the light and the screen make
silhouettes or colourful shadows, as the case may be, for the
viewers who sit in front of the screen.
Prevalent in Orissa. Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,
Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

Puppet Forms of India

2. Shadow puppet

Togalu Gombeyatta, Karnataka

Small in size.
Regional music used.
The puppets differ in size according to their
social status, for instance, large size for kings
and religious characters and smaller size for
common people or servants.
Tholu Bommalata, Andhra Pradesh
Large in size and have jointed waist,
shoulders, elbows and knees.
The classical music of the region
Coloured on both sides. Hence, throw
coloured shadows on the screen.

Puppet Forms of India

2. Shadow puppet

Ravanachhaya, Orissa
Small in size and are in one
piece with no joints.
Made of deer skin and are
conceived in bold dramatic
Not coloured, hence throw
opaque shadows on the screen.
Apart from human and animal
characters, many props such as
trees, mountains, chariots, etc.
are also used

Puppet Forms of India

3. Glove puppet

The head is made of either papier mache,

cloth or wood, with two hands emerging
from just below the neck.
The rest of the figure consists of a long
flowing skirt.
The movements are controlled by the
human hand the first finger inserted in the
head and the middle finger and the thumb
are the two arms of the puppet.
Popular in Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, West
Bengal and Kerala.
Dialogues play an important role here


Puppet Forms of India

3. Glove puppet

Pavakoothu, Kerala
The height varies from one foot to two feet.
The head and the arms are carved of wood
and joined together with thick cloth, cut and
stitched into a small bag
The musical instruments used during the
performance are Chenda, Chengiloa,
Ilathalam and Shankha
The face are decorated with paints, small
and thin pieces of gilded tin, the feathers of
the peacock.
Has resemblance with that of kathakali
The manipulator puts his hand into the bag
and moves the hands and head of the


Puppet Forms of India

4. Rod puppet

Extension of glove-puppets, but often much larger and supported and

manipulated by rods from below.
Found mostly in West Bengal and Orissa.


Puppet Forms of India

4. Rod puppet

Putul Nautch, West Bengal

Costumed like the actors of Jatra, a traditional
Carved from wood and follow the various
artistic styles of a particular region.
Used to be of human size, but existing puppets
vary from 3 to 4 feet in height
Music of Jatra theatre (drum, harmonium and
Puppeteers themselves sing and deliver the
stylized prose dialogues along with a group of
Manipulated by a bamboo-made hub tied firmly
to the waist of the puppeteer on which the rod
holding the puppet is placed.
Puppeteers move and dance imparting
movements to puppets.

Puppet Forms of India

4. Rod puppet

Rod puppets, Orissa

Much smaller in size, sbout twelve to eighteen inches.
Hands are tied to strings instead of rods. (because they are
The music blends folk tunes with classical Odissi tunes
Most of the dialogues are sung.
The Orissa rod-puppeteers squat on the ground behind a
screen and manipulate.
Yampuri, Bihar
In one piece and have no joints.
Describes Yampuri (the house of Death).
The show begins with appearance of the death-god Yama
and his messenger, followed by their record-keeper
Chitragupta. One by one, the people (supposedly after
death) are marched in front of Yama to receive their doles
of punishment.
The narrative is meant primarily to put the fear of heaven
and hell in people for their current deeds


Painting Styles in

Painting styles in India

Paintings are basically two types:
Murals: large scale paintings generally
attached to the floor of palaces and caves.
Miniatures: small scale which are done
on mainly cloth or paper
Can be categorized into seven special
Rajasthani painting
Madhubani painting
Tanjore painting
Mughal painting
Benhal style of art
Patta chitra
Warli art


Painting styles in India

Also known as Mithila painting.
Originated in Madhubani village in Bihar.
According to mythology, this tradition commenced
when Janakraj, father of rani sita asked his painters to
paint the moments of marriage ceremony of Sita with
Lord Rama
Traditionally done by Madhubanis women on mud
walls, later started on cloth, canvas and handmade
Also depict other Hindu devotional stories.
Natural objects like moon, sun, tulsi etc is also found
as theme.
No empty space is left, gaps are filled by different
geometrical motifs, floral, animals, and bird pictures.
Are of three kinds : Brahmin style, Tatoo style and
Kshatriya style.
Done with twigs, brushes, fingers, matchsticks, and nib
pens using natural dyes and colors.
Eye-catching geometrical patters.


Painting styles in India

Originated form Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu around 16th
Widely popular as home dcor item.
A unique art-form where precious stones and gold foils
were used.
Initially used to depict Hindu Gods and Goddesses in
Figures are large and the faces are round and divine.
Lace or thread is also used to decorate the jewellery.
A mixture called "muk" is prepared using chalk powder
and African gum in a ratio of 2:1 and applied in places
around the stones and other areas to give an embossed
Most of the paintings would depict the Child Krishna and
his various pranks, paintings of other deities were also
Changing with time - for example, the figures are no
longer round.
Presiding deities of various famous temples are also being
depicted in the paintings.

Painting styles in India

Developed and flourished during the 18th century in the royal courts of Rajasthan.
The most important themes are from the life of Lord Krishna, the Great epics of Ramayana and the Mahabharata,
landscapes and human beings.
Also used on the walls of palaces, interior chambers of the forts, havelis and the like.
Schools of Rajput Painting:
Bikaner School has more Mughal elements than other. Also
reflect marked influence of Deccan paintings. Influenced by
the surroundings, have their own unique style the hills and
valleys, deserts, places and forts, gardens, court scenes,
religious processions.
Bundi-Kota Kalam School started originating in Bundi
around the late 16th century and reflected heavy Mughal
Jaipur School, because of its architectural charm, pleasant
combination of colors and specially laid out plan, is called the
Pink City of India. Jaipur and surrounding regions of Alwar
and Tonk are famous for the Jaipur style paintings

Painting styles in India

Exclusive combination of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles.
Evolved as well as developed during the rule of Mughal Emperors in
India, between 16th to 19th century.
Themes like battles, court scenes, receptions, legendary stories,
hunting scenes, wildlife, portraits, etc. are used.
Developed when Humayun returned to India from exile, and brought
great Persian artists; Abd-us-samad and Mir-Sayyid Ali.
Most famous example of the Mughal style of art is the Tutinama
Painting; `Tales of a Parrot`, which is presently in the Cleveland
Museum of Art.
Under Akbar it experienced growth on a large-scale. Since Akbar was
interested in tales, the paintings were based on Ramayana,
Mahabharata and Persian epics.
Under Jahangir it saw more and more refinement in brushwork, along
with the use of much lighter and subdued colors. The main themes of
the Mughal paintings revolved around the events from Jahangir's own
life, along with portraits, birds, flowers, animals, etc.
One of the most popular examples of Mughal paintings of this time
include the pictorial illustrations of the Jehangir-nama, the biography
of Emperor Jahangir.


Painting styles in India

Bengal Style
of art
Flourished during the British Raj in the early 20th century.
Was associated with Indian nationalism, but also promoted by many
British arts administrators.
Started in reaction reacting against the academic art styles previously
promoted in India, by Indian artists such as Raja Ravi Varma and in
British art schools.
Due to influence of Indian spiritual ideas in the West, the British art
teacher Ernest Binfield Havell encouraged students to imitate Mughal
This led to a strike by students and complaints from the local press,
including from nationalists who considered it to be a retrogressive
Havell was supported by the artist Abanindranath Tagore.
Tagore's best-known painting, Bharat Mata (Mother India), depicted a
young woman, portrayed with four arms in the manner of Hindu
deities, holding objects symbolic of India's national aspirations

Painting styles in India

Traditional painting of Orissa, India.
Based on Hindu Mythology and inspired by Jagannath and Vaishnava cult.
Natural colours are used in fully old traditional way by Chitrakaras that is Oriya
Is painted on canvas (Patta). Carefully done craftsmanship, rich colors, unique
designs & creative motifs, & simple themes, which are chiefly mythological in
origin on canvas.
Paintings on the cave walls of Khandagiri and Udayagiri, Konark temple, and
many other temples in Orissa.


Painting styles in India

Warli arti
Warli is the name of a tribe, which
resides in Thane district of Maharashtra
on the northern outskirts of Mumbai and
extends up to the Gujarat border.
This art was eventually discovered in the
early seventies, and became popular for
its unique simplicity and fervor for life.
Helical shapes of men and women and
concentric circular designs in Warli
Paintings are symbols of the circle of life.
The harmony and balance portrayed is
thought to mean the harmony and
balance of the universe of discourse.

Painting styles in India

Done by using kalam (pen).
Has two subtypes:
Mausalipatnam style paintings focus on the Islamic aesthetics and the ripe
fruits is used to color the paintings.
Srikalahasti style draes paintings on the hindu mythology and the color is
drawn from raw fruits.


Painting styles in India

Developed and flourished during 17th-19th centuries stretching from Jammu to
Almora and Garhwal, in the sub-Himalayan India, through Himachal Pradesh,
and each creating stark variations within the genre, ranging from bold intense
Basohli Painting, originating from Basohli in Jammu and Kashmir, to the delicate
and lyrical Kangra paintings, which became synonymous to the style before other
schools of paintings developed, which reached its pinnacle with paintings of Radha
and Krishna, inspired by Jayadev's Gita Govinda.
Gave birth to a new idiom in Indian painting, and grew out of the Mughal
Though this was patronized mostly by the Rajput kings who ruled many parts of
the region.


Dance forms in India

Classical Dance - Folk Dance - Tribal Dance


Dance forms in India

Dance is a form of art, where the body is used
as a medium of communication.
The dance heritage of India is at least 5000
years old.
The wall paintings of Ajanta and Ellora, the
sculptures of Khajuraho stand ample evidence
for popularity of Indian dances from ancient
Nataraja, the dancing Lord Shiva, is the
supreme manifestation of Indian dance.


Classical Dance in India

o Bharatnatyam - Tamil Nadu
o Kathak - Uttar Pradesh
o Kathakali Kerala
o Kuchipudi- Andhra Pradesh
o Manipuri Manipur
o Mohiniattam Kerala
o Odissi Orissa
o Sattriya - Assam

Classical Dance in India

Bhava (expression), Raga (music), Tala
(rhythm) and Natya (classical theater).
It originates in South India.
It consists of multiple items:
Nritta pure dance movements
Abhinaya dramatic art of storytelling
Nritya combination of nritta & abhinaya
Performed on Carnatic music.
Costume are made of silk saris with gold
embroidery and has a lot of pleats.
Necklace, Bangles and head ornaments are
used as jewelry.
Bells mounted on woven pads are worn on
the feet

Classical Dance in India

Name is derived from Katha (story) and
Katthaka (who tells stories).
It originates from North India.
There are three main gharanas or schools:
Dance progresses from slow to fast pieces. Has
Footwork & spins and includes abhinayaexpression
Performed on Hindusthani music provided by
Tabla, Sitar, Santoor
Costume includes
Ghungroos or bells on the ankles
Female- lehenga choli or chudidaar kameez
Male- bare chest and dhoti or kurta churidar

Classical Dance in India

It originates from Kerala state.
Attractive make-up of characters and elaborate costumes are
Performance is a combination of five elements:
Natyam (expression),
Nritham (dance),
Nrithyam (enactment),
Geetham (vocal) and
Vadyam (instruments)
Carnatic music is used with Manipravalam as language of
Elaborate makeup is used:
Green face color- noble characters (Pacha)
Green with red streaks- characters with evil streaks
Red face color- excessively evil characters
Women have yellow face color
Costumes are elaborate and differ according to character.


Classical Dance in India

It originates from Andhra Pradesh.
It shares many common elements with
In Tarangam (a unique kuchipudi dance)dancer dances on plate with diyas in the
hands and vessel of water on the head.
Carnatic music is used.
Costumes are similar to Bharatanatyam.
Costume also include Katcham (long
fold) at the back of the costume.
Female characters wear ornaments and

Classical Dance in India

It originates from Manipur state.
Few features in its performance are:
Movements are subtle and aim at devotion
and grace
Rounded movements without jerks and
sharp lines
Dancers feet never strike the ground hard
Music is provided by a singer, Pung (drum),
cymbals and flute.
Costume includes:
Female- dress called patloi and lehenga
called kumin. Transparent odni is worn on
the head and covers the face.
Male- usually saffron dress depicting Lord
Dancers do not wear ankle bells in this dance


Classical Dance in India

Its name is derived from:
Mohini- temptress and
Attam- dance
Its a graceful dance performed only by
It has influences from Bharatanatyam
and Kathakali
Music includes Vocal (called chollu),
Veena, flute, Maddalam & Idakka.
It is characterized by realistic makeup
and simple dressing.
Costume includes white or cream sari
with gold border and is profusely
Mainly gold ornaments are used as


Classical Dance in India

It originates from Orissa.
Consists of three schools:
Main feautres of performance are:
Tribhangi- independent movement of head, chest and
Chauka- basic square stance
Odissi music is used.
Costume feautres Sari- beautiful cloth wrapped around
body in traditional style in bright shades of orange, purple,
red or green.
Jewelry includes:
Tikka (forehead ornament)
Allaka (headpiece where tikka hangs)
Ear covers in intricate shapes with jumkis (bell shaped
earrings) hanging from them
Two sets of bangles (thin bracelets) worn on upper arm
& wrist.


Classical Dance in India

It originated in Assam state.
mythological stories and is performed
by both men and women.
It is recognized as one of the classical
dance forms of India in 2000.
Devotional songs called borgeets are
Instruments used are khols (drums),
taals (cymbals) and flute.
Costume are made of pat (type of
Ornaments are based on traditional
Assamese designs.

Folk Dance
Indian culture includes a treasure of a variety of folk dances.
The diversity in culture and tradition is reflected in the variety of
Indian folk dances.


Folk Dance in India

Padayani (Kerala)
One of the most colourful and enchanting dances of Southern Kerala.
Associated with the festival of certain temples.
These temples are formed in the districts of Alleppey, Quilon, Pathanamthitta and
Kottayam districts.
The main kolams (huge masks) presented in Padayani are Kali, Kalan , Yakshi
(fairy), Pakshi (bird), etc.
The literal meaning of Padayani is military formations or rows of army.
The performers consist of dancers, singers and instrumentalists.


Folk Dance in India

Kaikottikali, Kerala

Also known as Thiruvathirakali

Dance performed by women, in order to attain everlasting marital bliss, on Thiruvathira
day in the Malayalam month of Dhanu (December- January).
The sinuous movements executed by a group of dancers around a nilavilakku, embody
'lasya' or the amorous charm and grace of the feminine.
The dance follows a circular, pirouetting pattern accompanied by clapping of the hands
and singing.


Folk Dance in India

Karakattam, Tamil Nadu
One of the most essential
parts of a ritual, dedicated to
Mariamma, the goddess of
health and rain.
It is performed by men,
wherein they balance pots
filled with uncooked rice,
surrounded by a tall conical
bamboo frame covered with
Drums and long pipes form
accompanying the dance.
Karakattam is popular in
villages during temple festivals.

Folk Dance in India

Kummi, Tamil Nadu
Kummi means to dance
while clapping hands to a
rhythm, accompanied by
songs in popular tunes.
Women form a circle and
Kaanum Pongal festivals
for ten consecutive days.


Folk Dance in India

Yakshgana, Karnataka
Yakshgana is a folk theatre form
of Karnataka and it is an ancient
The original form of Yakshgana
involves the use of recitative
modes of poetry, melodies of
music, rhythm and dance
techniques, colourful costumes
and graceful make up.


Folk Dance in India

Chhau, West Bengal
Originated from the Purulia distrct .
Mostly performed in the open space
or ground field during the night.
It is a mask dance performed only by
the male dancers.
The masks are made up from the
clay and paper.
It is mythological, as it is mainly
based on various episodes of the
epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
As the singer complete the invocation
song, a host of drummers and
musicians start beating the Dhol and
the Dhamsa.

Folk Dance in India

Dalkhai, Orissa
The 'Dalkhai' is a dance performed by women of the tribes
from the Sambalpur district of Orissa.
It is quite a virile dance rendered during the time of
The men generally play the musical instruments and the
drummers often join the dance.


Folk Dance in India

Namagen, Himachal Pradesh
The autumnal hue is celebrated in September by a dance
performance called Namagen.
The most striking dance amongst these is the Gaddis.
The costumes are largely woollen and richly studded ornaments
of silver are worn by women.


Folk Dance in India

Bhangra, Punjab
One of the most popular dances of
Performed during Baisakhi usually by
the men in Punjab.
It includes tricks and acrobatic feats.
The songs include recitation of
meaningless 'bolis', words, such as hoay,
The drummer usually in the centre of
the circle, is surrounded by men dressed
in lungis and turbans.
The dance performed by the women
folk of Punjab is called the 'Gidha'.
In the Gidha, at a time a woman or a pair
of women dance while the others clap in
rhythm. The dance is performed in the
festival of Teeyan to welcome the rains.

Folk Dance in India

Ghoomer Dance
Famous and a community dance of women in Rajasthan.
It is performed on various auspicious occasions like fairs & festivals.
It is called as `Ghoomer`, from the `ghoomna` of Ghaghra i.e. the
flowing of Ghaghra, a long skirt of the Rajasthani women.
Women from any age group, may it be the young or old can
participate in Ghoomer dance.
While dancing, the dancers move in a circular direction with
clockwise and anti-clockwise steps.


Folk Dance in India

Bihu, Assam
The Bihu dance is performed in the Bihu festival,
celebrated for the arrival of spring in the Assamese New
The dance is performed in an open space during daytime.


Folk Dance in India

Burra Katha Dance, Andhra Pradesh
Burra' is a special instrument used by two performers who dance
encourage the main story teller by exclamation and questions.
Demands oratory as well as dancing skills on the part of the performers.
Three people to enact the story telling.
Main artiste is dressed in a colourful attire with a garland round his neck
and a tambura slung across his shoulder, the other two artistes dressed
similarly question the narration to alert a sleepy audience.
The two accompanying artistes have a drum and hand taal.
The theme of the story could be anything that has happened or is


Folk Dance in India

Garba Dance, Gujrat
This dance form has connection
with Shakti-Puja.
It is played in a circular form
performed by ladies on the nine
nights of Navaratri festival, Sharad
Purnima, Vasant Panchami, Holi
The word Garba is derived from
the word `Garbha Deep` (a lamp
inside a perforated earthen pot).
In this folk dance, the women place
the pot known as Garba with the
lamp on their heads and move in
circular direction, singing and clap
at the same time.

Folk Dance in India

Dandia-Ras, Gujrat
Also known as the `stick` dance.
This dance is also a feature of most
welcomed festival, Navratri.
The Ras is simple and is generally
performed by a group of young
people who move in typical style in
measured steps around a circle,
accompanied by a singing chorus and
a host of musical instruments like the
dhol, cymbals, zanz and shehnai.

Folk Dance in India

Cheraw (Bamboo) Dance, Mizoram
The most popular and colourful dance of the Mizos.
Long pair of horizontal bamboo staves are tapped open and
close in rhythmic beats by people sitting face to face on the
Because bamboos are used for the dance, people sometimes
call it the BAMBOO DANCE.


Tribal Dance in India

Performed by tribal people/adivasi, who possess a culture, distinct from the
pan Indian population.
Completely different from Indian folk dances.
Each tribe possesses its own distinguishable dance traditions interwoven with
the life of the people who dance it.


Tribal Dance in India

Kaadar Nritham

Only women take part.

Primitive dance of Kaadar tribes of the forest of Kochi area.
The performers arrange themselves in a semicircle. They hold the tip of their
cloths in their hands to the level of the waist and wave it to various rhythms of the
It is a very simple but elegant tribal dance in slow steps.

A highly heroic group dance.

Almost the whole community of men, women and children participate.
Very common with the tribal called Irular of Attappadi in Palakkad district.
The dance brings out the fight of the people against the wild bears which often
attack their tribal hamlets.
Dancers move out in rhythmic steps, with vociferous shouts and war cries and
keep time to the beatings of the primitive drums

Tribal Dance in India

Kaanikkar Nritham
Group dance of the kanikkar tribes from Tamil Nadu.
Performed as a ritual offering.
The steps of the dancers perfectly synchronize with the waving of the hands and
beating of drums.
Paravalli Kali
Mixed dance of the aboriginals of dense forest of Travancore area.
Both men and women participate.
They dance holding arms together, or shoulder to shoulder, linked in a backlock
The men and women change their positions which amazing speed.
The entire group of dancer sings songs and move swift rhythm in a circle.
The linked arms swing to the rhythm in a fascinating wavelike movement.


Tribal Dance in India

Man Kali
It is mainly of two kinds
The Ramayana episode in which Sita is being enchanted by Maricha in the guise of a
golden deer is enacted in graceful movements.
One man takes the role of a deer while another that of a hunter. The deer hopes about
and jumps around. The hunter follows in close steps and his movements and gestures
suggest drawing the bow, aiming it, hurling the spear, brandishing some wooden log, etc.
The whole dance is performed to the rhythm of wild percussion instruments

Paniyar Kali

Performed by tribal in hilly forests of Wayand district.

Highly masculine and only men participate.
Around eight or ten dancers stand in a circle with hands linked together.
They have around with rhythmic flexions of the body and while moving stamp the ground
in perfect rhythm to the loud beat of the primitive percussion instruments called Karu,
Para, Udukku, etc.
As the dance gathers momentum the circle is swiftly expanded and contracted and the
dancers utter peculiar cries which gradually run up to a high pitch.


Tribal Dance in India

Boys jump one above the other in succession, imitating the leaps of the frog.

Dance of the tribal shepherds.
Both men and women participate.
One of the shepherds sing. This is repeated in chorus by all the rest.
As the singing is going in, one of them imitate the special sounds of shepherds
driving their sheep.
Someone of the group crying successively to imitate the wild animals that try to
attack the sheep and also the thief who tries to robe them while the other members
of the group very adeptly bring out the terror on the faces of the lamps and their
mournful walings.


Theatre forms in


Theatre forms in India

At least 5000 years old tradition in India.
According to legend the very first play was performed on
heaven when the gods, having defeated the demons, were
enacting their victory.
Hindu theorists conceived of plays in two types of production:
Lokadharmi (realistic), which involved the reproduction of
human behavior on the stage and the natural presentation of
Natyadharmi (conventional), which is the presentation of a
play through the use of stylized gestures and symbolism and
was considered more artistic than realistic.
Indian theatre can be divided into three distinctive kinds: the
Classical or the Sanskrit theatre, the Traditional or the Folk
theatre and the Modern theatre.

Theatre forms in India

Bhand Pather, Kashmir

Unique combination of dance, music and acting.

Biting satire, wit and parody characterize the form.
Music is provided with surnai, nagaara and dhol.
The actors are mainly from the farming community and the
impact of their way of living, ideals and sensitivity in the
drama is discernible.
Sometimes masks are also used in the performance

Nautanki, Uttar Pradesh

Important centres are Kanpur, Lucknow and Haathras.

The meters used in the verses are: Doha, Chaubola,
Chhappai, Behar-e-tabeel.
Initially only men acted in Nautanki but nowadays, women
have also started taking part in the performances.
Among those remembered with reverence is Gulab Bai of

Theatre forms in India

Swang, Haryana and Western UP
Musical folk-drama evolved in 18th century.
Has stories in verse sung in various mode (classical, semi-classsical, folk). However
gradually prose has been included in it too enacted as dialogues.
The softness of emotions, accomplishment of rasa alongwith the development of character
can be seen in this theatre form.
Two important styles of Swang are from Rohtak and Haathras. In the style belonging to
Rohtak, the language used is Haryanvi (Bangru) and in Haathras, it is Brajbhasha.
Initially cast was all male but women have started participating.
Swang means impersonation. The Nautanki of UP, Khyal of Rajasthan are in this tradition


Theatre forms in India

Naqal, Punjab
Continues the Swang tradition.
Naqal translates as mimicry or imitation and the naqalchi is the mimic. Relies
heavily on improvisation by the naqalchi.
Centuries-old village tradition, very popular at weddings.
Solo performance of group of 2-3 dressed in rustic clothes.
Perform a series of skits, in a small space, each lasting 10 mins or so. Made up of
quick repartee, gentle satire.
Subject-matter is purely social, like hilarious situations from the everyday. This form
is purely secular.


Theatre forms in India

Bhavai, Gujrat
Traditionally performed during Navratri before the
shrine of Amba Mata or before a lamp symbolizing the
Important centres are Kutch and Kathiawar.
Instruments used in Bhavai are: bhungal, tabla, flute,
pakhaawaj, rabaab, sarangi, manjeera, etc.
In Bhavai, there is a rare synthesis of devotional and
romantic sentiments.
Rasleela, Uttar Pradesh
Based exclusively on legends of Lord Krishna
Believed that Nand Das wrote the initial plays based
on the life of Krishna.
The dialogues in prose combined beautifully with
songs and scenes from Krishna's pranks.


Theatre forms in India


Born and nurtured in Bengal

Performed at fairs in honour of gods, or religious rituals and
Krishna Jatra became popular due to Chaitanya's influence.
Later, however, worldly love stories too, found a place in Jatra.
The earlier form of Jatra has been musical. Dialogues were
added at later stage.
The actors themselves describe the change of scene, the place of
action, etc
Nachya, Chhattisgarh, Vidarbha

Influenced by Ganda musicians and entertainment

form Gammat
Select a situations from life of agricultural community and
improvise. No written text is followed.
Treatment is humourous and satirical
Play begins with invocation of Ganesh and Saraswati.
In one form of nachya, the Jokkad Pari, the performers dance
with flaming torches.

Theatre forms in India

Maach, Madhya Pradesh

The term Maach is used for the stage itself as also

for the play.
Songs are given prominence in between the
Dialogues are called bol and rhyme in narration is
Tunes of this theatre form are known as ranga.
Tamaasha, Maharashtra

It has evolved from the folk forms such as

Gondhal, Jagran and Kirtan.
The female actress is the chief exponent of dance
movements in the play, (unlike other theatreforms). She is known as Murki.
Classical music, footwork at lightning-speed, and
vivid gestures make it possible to portray all the
emotions through dance

Theatre forms in India

Bhaona, Assam

Cultural glimpses of Assam, Bengal

Orissa, Mathura and Brindavan can
also be seen.
Bhaona is a presentation of Ankia
The Sutradhaar, or narrator begins
the story, first in Sanskrit and then
in either Brajboli or Assamese.
Ankiya naat are one-act plays
interspersed with Sanskrit verses.
They were composed for common
people in simple language. A close
link with Sanskrit theater can be

Theatre forms in India

Dashaavtar, Konkan & Goa

The performers personify the ten incarnations of

Lord Vishnu-the god of preservation and creativity.
The ten incarnations are Matsya (fish), Kurma
(tortoise), Varaha (boar), Narsimha (lion-man),
Vaman (dwarf), Parashuram, Rama, Krishna (or
Balram), Buddha and Kalki.
Apart from stylized make-up, the Dashavatar
performers wear masks of wood and papier mach.
Krishnattam, Kerala

Came into existence in the mid17th century A.D. in

Krishnattam is dance-drama presenting the story of
Krishna in a cycle of eight plays performed for eight
consecutive days. The plays are Avataram,
Swayamvaram, Bana Yudham, Vivida Vadham, and

Theatre forms in India

Mudiyettu, Kerala

Celebrated in the month of Vrischikam (November-December).

Usually performed only in the Kali temples of Kerala, as an oblation to the
It depicts the triumph of goddess Bhadrakali over the asura Darika.
The seven characters in Mudiyettu-Shiva, Narada, Darika, Danavendra,
Bhadrakali, Kooli and Koimbidar (Nandikeshvara) are all heavily made-up.
In 2010, Mudiyettu was included in the UNESCO Intagible Cultural Heritage


Theatre forms in India

Theyyam, Kerala

Word 'Theyyam' is derived from

'Daivam' meaning God. Hence it is
called God's dance.
Theyyam is performed by various castes
to appease and worship spirits of
ancestors, folk-heores, deities of diseases
Distinguishing features is the colourful
costume and awe-inspiring headgears
(mudi) nearly 5 to 6 feet high made of
arecanut splices, bamboos, leaf sheaths
of arecanut and wooden planks and
dyed into different strong colours using
turmeric, wax and arac.
Face is always painted in an orange basecolour.


Theatre forms in India

Koodiyaattam / Kutiyattam, Kerala

Based on Sanskrit theatre traditions.

Characters of this theatre form are: Chakyaar
(actor), Naambiyaar (instrumentalists) and
Naangyaar (those taking on women's roles).
The Sutradhar (narrator) and the Vidushak
(jesters) are the protagonists.
Vidushak alone delivers the dialogues.
Emphasis on hand gestures and eye
movements makes this dance and theatre
form unique.
Koodiyaattam was included in the UNESCO
Intagible Cultural Heritage List as
a Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible
Heritage of Humanity.

Theatre forms in India

Yakshagaana, Karnataka

Based on mythological stories and Puranas

Most popular episodes are from the Mahabharata
i.e. Draupadi swayamvar, Subhadra vivah,
Abhimanyu vadh, Karna-Arjun yuddh and from
Ramayana i.e. Raajyaabhishek, Lav-kush Yuddh,
Baali-Sugreeva yuddha and Panchavati.

A storytelling technique used in villages of Andra

Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The troupe
consists of one main performer and two coperformers.
It is a narrative entertainment that consists of
prayers, solo drama, dance, songs, poems and
The topic will be either a Hindu mythological story
or a contemporary social problem.
Harikatha, also known as Katha Kalakshepa, is a
variant which narrates tales of Lord Krishna, other
Gods and saints.


Theatre forms in India

Therukoothu, Tamil Nadu

Literally means "street play". It is mostly performed at

the time of annual temple festivals of Mariamman
(Rain goddess) to achieve rich harvest.
There is a cycle of eight plays based on the life of
RAMMAN, Uttarakhand

Combining theatre, music, historical reconstructions,

and traditional oral and written tales, the Ramman is a
multiform cultural event
Celebrated every year in Baisakh month (april) in the
courtyard of the temple of Bhumiyal Devta situated in
Chamoli district, Uttarakhand.
Mask dance performed exclusively by the Bhandaris
(Ksatriya caste).
Included in the UNESCO Representative list of
Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

Theatre forms in India


Chattisgarh and in the neighboring tribal areas of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.
Musical narration of tales from the Mahabharata with one lead narrator-singer, enacting and
singing with an ektara.
No use of stage props or settings, it mainly relies on mimicry and rousing theatrical
movements. Sometimes the singer-narrator breaks into an impromptu dance, at the
completion of an episode or to celebrate a victory with the story being retold.
During a performance, as the story builds, the tambura becomes a prop, sometimes it
becomes to personify a gada, mace of Arjun, or at times his bow or a chariot, while others it
becomes the hair of queen Draupadi or Dushshasan thus helping the narrator-singer play all
the characters of story.
Teejan Bai is most renowned singer to this style.


Theatre forms in India

Khyal, Rajasthan

Derived from khel (play), khyal probably took shape as a musical

dance-drama in the early eighteenth century.
Based on mythological, historical, or popular romantic tales,
emphasizing qualities of heroism, self-sacrifice, and nobility.
Types of khyal are identified by the kind of stage used or the musical
variations selected. In the Turra Kilangi khyal is performed on an
elaborately decorated stage, while the Kuchamani khyal is simpler in
presentation but has specific music and dance steps.
Highly improvisatory in nature, with loosely structured plots and witty
dialogue, khayal requires an intimate audienceactor relationship.
Its primary attraction is its soulful singing, accompanied by
the nakkara and dholak (both percussion), sarangi (bowed instrument),
and sometimes shehnai (wind instrument).
Prompters with a copy of the dramatic text are always on the stage. This
is a convention that Khyal shares with Maach of MP where they are
known as pustakji.
[Note: Not to be confused with 'Khayal' - a type of hindustani classsical
vocal rendition].


Theatre forms in India

Bhagat, Uttar Pradesh
Mainly in Agra and Mathura.
Considered as a parent form of Nautanki and is 400 yrs old.
Initially consisted of dramatized devotionaal singing by devotees of the Vaishnava
sect. Later tales of romance, valour and kings added.
Religious rituals at the beginning and end provide a frame for the performance.
At the beginning an actor playing Ganesh dances on the stage, who is then
worshipped by the other actors.
Language of the bhagat is a mix of Hindi, Urdu, Braj.
Veedhi Natakam, Andhra Pradesh
Presented during the religious festivals in praise of 'Bhagavan'. Thus the
performances were called 'Bhagavathams'.
Veedhi in Telugu means street; an open place. So Veedhi Natakam is any
dramatic performance presented in a street.

Theatre forms in India

Songs and the art of singing have an important role to play.
There is a classical element in these theatre forms too, which takes on regional, local and folk
There are certain conventions of presentations depending upon and changing according to the
form and size of the stage or the platform and other available situations.
There is no such thing as episodes. There is always continuity in its theme, structure and
There is direct and intimate communication between the actors and the audience.
Characters keep changing their place on the stage to be more impressive and to give the
situation a greater significance. This technique also reduces the chance of boredom through
repetition and stillness.
Dialogue delivery is usually carried out in a high pitch. This helps the actors in reaching out to
a larger audience. The artists always add something or the other to the original dialogue on
their own. The changes brought through improvisations, make the spectators ecstatic and help
in building a rapport with the audience


Music of India


Music of India
Includes multiple varieties of folk, popular, pop,
classical music and R&B.
India's classical music tradition, including Carnatic
and Hindustani music, has a history spanning
millennia and developed over several eras.
It remains fundamental to the lives of Indians today
as sources of spiritual inspiration, cultural expression
and pure entertainment.


Classical Music in India

Hindustani (North Indian) Music
Continuity back to Vedic times (6,000 BC)
Codified in a large number of ancient and
medieval music treatises
Developed independently of folk music, albeit
occasionally importing folk or regional elements,
metamorphosing them suitably
Raga based, mostly improvised
Capable of intense expression in very slow speeds
Vast range of ornaments, particularly during slow
Subtle use of microtones in slow passages
Steady, long-held notes, mostly approached and/or
quitted by little ornamental phrases
Gradual building up of tempo from very slow to
very fast
Convention of time and season
Clear enunciation of rhythmic cycle by percussion
accompanist (in dominant present day forms like
Khayal, Sadra, Thumri, Bhajan etc.)
True to Hindu traditions: so-called Persian
influences fully integrated within its essential and
ancient grammatical format

Carnatic (South Indian) Music

Of more recent origin
Codified in medieval texts written by musicologists,
the influential ones among whom studied in North
India and thereafter returned to South India to
fashion Carnatic music out of the prevalent
regional musical forms to be found in South India
Composition based, mostly fixed
A fairly quick tempo from the start, so lacks the
intensity, introspection, microtones and several
ornaments found in Hindustani music
Notes are not held for long and are mostly quitted
by a characteristic oscillation using indeterminate
Constant and fairly fast tempo throughout
No convention of time or season
Percussion accompanist does not enunciate
rhythmic cycle clearly, so a second percussionist
and/or a timekeeper showing and/or clapping out
beats (in which the audience joins) is necessary
Contrary to advocated argument, has Muslim


Music of India
Uttarakhandi folk music

On subjects related to nature.

Primarily related to the various festivals, religious traditions, folk stories and simple life
of the people of Uttarakhand.
Musical instruments include the dhol, damoun, turri, ransingha, dholki, daur, thali,
bhankora and masakbhaja. Tabla and harmonium are also used, but to a lesser extent.
The main languages are Kumaoni and Garhwali.

Lavani comes from the word Lavanya which means beauty.

Originated in the arid region of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. It has in fact
become a necessary part of the Maharashtrian folk dance performances.
Traditionally, the songs are sung by female artistes, but male artistes may occasionally
sing Lavanis.
The dance format associated with Lavani is known as Tamasha.
Lavani is a combination of traditional song and dance, which particularly performed to
the enchanting beats of 'Dholak', a drum-like instrument.
Women wears nine-yard saris. They sings in a quick tempo.


Music of India

Rajasthan has a very diverse cultural collection of musician castes, including Langas, Sapera,
Bhopa, Jogi and Manganiyar (lit. the ones who ask/beg).
Rajasthan Diary quotes it as a soulful, full-throated music with Harmonious diversity.
The haunting melody of Rajasthan evokes from a variety of delightfully primitive looking
The stringed variety include the Sarangi, Rawanhattha, Kamayacha, Morsing and Ektara.
Percussion instruments come in all shapes and sizes from the huge Nagaras and Dhols to the tiny
The Daf and Chang are a big favourite of Holi (the festival of colours) revellers. Flutes and
bagpipers come in local flavours such as Shehnai, Poongi, Algoza, Tarpi, Been and Bankia.

Eg: Apni Azadi Ko Hum Hargis Mita Sakte Nahin, ajadee hoyni tor, Kadam kadam badhaye jaa,
Vande Mataram etc.
Generally sung in chorus carrying some social message.
The songs are usually about Freedom, community strength, patriotism.
Due to the British occupation in India, a lot of protest songs about anti-imperialism/pro-socialism

Indian Architecture

Indian Architecture
Third millennium BC.
On indus river bank.
Walled cities for security.
Rectangular grid pattern of layout with roads
cutting at right angles.
Burnt mud-bricks as building material.
Evidence of big building which perhaps were
public buildings, administrative or business
centres, pillared halls and courtyards.
No evidence of temples.
Public buildings include granaries to store
Great Bath - public bathing place shows the
importance of ritualistic bathing and
cleanliness in this culture. It is still functional
and there is no leakage or cracks in the
Most of the houses had private wells and
Dominant citadal - treated as evidence of
some kind of political authority ruling over
the cities.
Evidence also of fortifications with gateways
enclosing the walled cities which shows that
there may have been a fear of being attacked.

Indian Architecture
The Mauryan Period
Ashoka, first Mauryan to "think in stone".
Mostly indigenous in origin, some exotic forms show the
influence of Greek, Persian and Egyptian cultures.
Beginning of the Buddhist School of architecture in India.
Ashokan pillars were lofty free standing monolithic columns
erected on sacred sites. Originally there were about thirty
pillars but now only ten are in existence, of which only two
with lion capitals stand in situ in good condition at Kolhua
and Laurya Nandangarh respectively.
Sarnath pillar - finest pieces of sculpture of the Ashokan
The Chinese traveller Fa-hien was so impressed by Ashokas
palace near Patna that he stated that "it was made by spirits"
and that its carvings are so elegantly executed "which no
human hands of this world could accomplish".
Its existence was pointed out during the excavations at
Kumrahar, near Patna, where its ashes have been found
preserved for several thousand years.
Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador of Selucas Nikator who
visited the Mauryan court described Chandragupta Mauryas
palace as an excellent architectural achievement

Indian Architecture
hemispherical in shape with a low base.
symbolized the cosmic mountain.
inscription by the ivory carvers of Vidisha on the southern
gateway throws light on the transference of building material
from perishable wood and ivory to the more durable stone.

built in 2nd or 1st century BC was probably like the one at
but in later centuries it was transformed from a Hinayana
shrine to a Mahayana shrine.

further development of stupas at Sanchi and Bharhut.
the base, dome and the hemisphere dome are sculpted.
stupas of Nagarjunakonda in Krishna valley were very large.
Maha Chaitya of Nagarjunakonda has a base in the form
of Swastika, which is a sun symbol.


Indian Architecture
The Gandhara School Of Art (50 B.C. TO 500 A.D.):
From Punjab to the borders of Afghanistan was an important
centre of Mahayana Buddhism up to the 5th century A.D.
Imbibed all kinds of foreign influences like Persian, Greek,
Roman, Saka and Kushan.
Origin can be traced to the Greek rulers of Bactria and
Northwest India.
During the reign of Kanishka that the art received great
Also known as the Graeco- Buddhist School of Art since
Greek techniques of Art were applied to Buddhist subjects.
Most important contribution- evolution of beautiful images of
the Buddha and Bodhisattavas, which were executed in black
stone and modelled on identical characters of GraecoRoman pantheon.
Gandhara artist had the hand of a Greek but the heart of an
Most characteristic trait - depiction of Lord Buddha in the
standing or seated positions.
Seated Buddha is always shown cross-legged in the traditional
Indian way.
Typical feature - rich carving, elaborate ornamentation and
complex symbolism.
Tallest rock-cut statue of Lord Buddha - Bamiyan
(Afghanistan) - 3-4 century AD.

Indian Architecture
The Mathura School Of Art( 50 B.C. - 500 A.D.):

At the holy city of Mathura between 1-3 A.D.

Established tradition of transforming Buddhist symbols
into human form.
Buddhas first image can be traced to Kanishkas reign
(about 78 A.D.).
Earliest sculptures of Buddha were made keeping the
yaksha prototype in mind.
Strongly built - right hand raised in protection and left
hand on the waist.
The figures do not have moustaches and beards as in the
Gandhara Art.
Seated figures are in the padmasana posture.
Not only produced beautiful images of the Buddha but
also of the Jain Tirthankaras and gods and goddesses of
the Hindu pantheon.
Although of indigenous origin, but greatly influenced by
the Gandhara School of Art.
Guptas adopted, further improvised & perfected
Mathura School of Art.
Observed at - Sarnath, Sravasti and even as far as Rajgir
in Bihar.

Indian Architecture
The Amravati school of art(200 b.C. 200 a.D.):
On the banks of the Krishna River in
modern Andhra Pradesh.
Largest Buddhist stupa of South
Construction began in 200 B.C. and
was completed in 200 A.D.
withstand the ravages of time
Its ruins are preserved in the London

Indian Architecture
India's Hindu temple architecture is developed from the creativity of Sthapathis and Shilpis, both of whom
belong to the larger community of craftsmen and artisans called Vishwakarma (caste).
A small Hindu temple consists of an inner sanctum, the garbha graha or womb-chamber, in which the idol or
deity is housed, often called circumambulation, a congregation hall, and sometimes an antechamber and
porch. The garbhagriha is crowned by a tower-like shikara.
All the Hindu temples in India follows the architecture defined in Shilpa Shastras.
However, there are artistic variations in terms of construction of shikara depending on regional culture





Indian Architecture
History of Temple Architecture
Representation of the macrocosm (the universe) as well as the microcosm
(the inner space).
The Ashtadhyayi of Panini, the great grammarian of the 5th century BCE
speaks of images that were used in Hindu temple worship. The ordinary
images were called pratikriti and the images for worship were called archa.
Patanjali, the 2nd-century BCE author of the Mahabhashya commentary on
the Ashtadhyayi, tells us more about the images.
Deity images for sale were called Shivaka etc., but an archa of Shiva was
just called Shiva. Patanjali mentions Shiva and Skanda deities.
There is also mention of the worship of Vasudeva (Krishna).
Some images could be moved and some were immoveable.
Panini also says that an archa was not to be sold and that there were
people (priests) who obtained their livelihood by taking care of it.
Panini and Patanjali mention temples which were called prasadas.
The earlier Shatapatha Brahmana of the period of the Vedas, informs us of
an image in the shape of Purusha which was placed within the altar.
The Vedic books describe the plan of the temple to be square. This plan is
divided into 64 or 81 smaller squares, where each of these represent a
specific divinity.


Indian Architecture

Nagara architecture
Nagara temples have two distinct features :
In plan, the temple is a square with a number of graduated projections in
the middle of each side giving a cruciform shape with a number of reentrant angles on each side.
In elevation, a Sikhara, i.e., tower gradually inclines inwards in a convex
The projections in the plan are also carried upwards to the top of the Sikhara
and, thus, there is strong emphasis on vertical lines in elevation.
Style is widely distributed over a greater part of India, exhibiting distinct
varieties and ramifications in lines of evolution and elaboration according to
each locality.
An example of Nagara architecture is the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple.
(detailed image on next page).


Indian Architecture
Dravidian architecture
Four following parts, differing only according to the age in which they were executed:
The principal part, the temple itself, is called the Vimana (or Vimanam). It is always square in plan and
surmounted by a pyramidal roof of one or more stories; it contains the cell where the image of the god or
his emblem is placed.
The porches or Mandapas (or Mantapams), which always cover and precede the door leading to the cell.
Gate-pyramids, Gopurams, which are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround
the more notable temples.
Pillared halls or Chaultrisproperly Chawadis -- used for various purposes, and which are the invariable
accompaniments of these temples.
Contains temple tanks or wells for water (used for sacred purposes or the convenience of the priests), dwellings
for all grades of the priesthood are attached to it, and other buildings for state or convenience.

Structure of a typical
Drvaidan viman



Indian Architecture

Badami Chalukya architecture

Originated during 450 CE in Aihole and perfected in Pattadakal and Badami.
Between 500 and 757 CE, Badami Chalukyas established the foundations of cave
temple architecture, on the banks of the Malaprabha River. Those styles mainly
include Aihole, Pattadakal and Badami.
Built out of sandstone cut into enormous blocks from the outcrops in the chains of
the Kaladgi hills.
At Badami, Chalukyas carved some of the finest cave temples. Mahakuta, the large
trees under which the shrine nestles.
In Aihole, known as the "Cradle of Indian architecture," there are over 150 temples
scattered around the village.
Pattadakal is a (World Heritage Site), where one finds the Virupaksha temple; it is
the biggest temple, having carved scenes from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
Other temples at Pattadakal are Mallikarjuna, Kashivishwanatha, Galaganatha and

Indian Architecture


Indian Architecture
Gadag Architecture style

Also called Western Chalukya architecture.

Flourished for 150 years (1050 to 1200 CE); in this period, about 50 temples were built.
Some examples are the Saraswati temple in the Trikuteshwara temple complex at Gadag, the
Doddabasappa Temple at Dambal, the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, and the Amriteshwara
temple at Annigeri. which is marked by ornate pillars with intricate sculpture.
This style originated during the period of the Kalyani Chalukyas (also known as Western Chalukya)
Someswara I.


Indian Architecture
Kalinga architecture style
The design which flourished in eastern Indian state of Odisha and
Northern Andhra Pradesh are called Kalinga style of architecture.
The style consists of three distinct type of temples namely Rekha
Deula, Pidha Deula and Khakhara Deula.
Deula means "temple" in the local language. The former two are
associated with Vishnu, Surya and Shiva temple while the third is
mainly with Chamunda and Durga temples.
The Rekha deula and Khakhara deula houses the sanctum
sanctorum while the Pidha Deula constitutes outer dancing and
offering halls.



Indian Architecture
Mru-Gurjara temple architecture
Originated somewhere in 6th century in and around areas of Rajasthan.
Shows the deep understanding of structures and refined skills of Rajasthani craftmen of bygone
Has two prominent styles: Maha-Maru and Maru-Gurjara.
Scholars believe that Mru-Gurjara temple architecture is entirely Western Indian architecture
and is quite different from the North Indian temple architecture.
This further shows the cultural and ethnic separation of Rajasthanis from north Indian culture.
There is a connecting link between Mru-Gurjara architecture and Hoysala temple architecture.
In both of these styles architecture is treated sculpturally.


Indian Architecture

Located near village of Ajintha in
Discovered by the British officers while
hunting a tiger in 1819 AD.
30 cave temples at Ajanta are set into the
rocky sides of a crescent shaped gorge in the
Inhyadri hills of the Sahyadri ranges.
5 caves are Chaitya-grihas, & rest are
Caves were constructed in two phases, first
group around 200 BC and second group
around 600 AD.
Depicts a large number of incidents from
the life of the Buddha (Jataka Tales).

Indian Architecture
ELLORA CAVES(5th -13th Cen AD)
Located in Aurangabad city.
3 major religion of india- Hinduism, Buddhism & Jainism.
Buddhist Caves:
Built around 5th-7th century AD
Cave 10 is famous and known as Carpenters Cave or
Vishvakarma Cave with a 3.3m high seated Buddha at the far
Cave 11 has the images of Durga and Ganesh also a Buddha
shrine, it is belived that it was converted in to hindu temple
after being deserted by buddhist.
Hindu Caves:
6th and 8th century AD.
Cave 16 also known as Kailasa Temple which is a multi
storeyed temple carved out of a single rock, built by
Rashtrakuta emperor Krishna I.
Jain Caves:
Belongs to Digambara faction.
Total 5 caves.
Most notable are cave 30 (Chotta Kailash), cave 32 (Indra
Sabha), and cave 33 (Jagannath Sabha).


Indian Architecture
Network of sculpted caves located on Elephanta Island,
or Gharapuri (literally "the city of caves") in Mumbai Harbour.
The island, located on an arm of the Arabian Sea, consists of two groups
of cavesthe first is a large group of five Hindu caves, the second, a
smaller group of two Buddhist caves.
The Hindu caves contain rock cut stone sculptures, representing
the Shaiva Hindu sect, dedicated to the god Shiva.
Dated to between the 5th and 8th centuries, although the identity of the
original builders is still a subject of debate.
Hewn from solid basalt rock. All the caves were also originally painted in
the past, but now only traces remain.
The island was called Gharapuri and was a Hindu place of worship
until Portuguese rule began in 1534.
The Portuguese called the island Elephanta on seeing its huge gigantic
statue of an Elephant at the entrance. The Statue is now placed in the
garden outside the Bhau Daji Lad Museum at Byculla in Mumbai.
This cave was renovated in the 1970s after years of neglect, and was
designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987 to preserve the
artwork. It is currently maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India.

Indian Architecture

Located near Bhopal in the Raisen District Madhya Pradesh.
First referred in the archeological records in
1888 AD as Buddhist site. Later discovered
by Dr Vishnu Wakankar in 1957-58.
More than 700 shelters. Bhimbetka group
(243) & Lakha Juar group (178).
Rock paintings can be traced back to the
Stone Age era, closely 30000 years old.
Excavations revealed history of continuous
habitation from early stone age (about 10000
years) to the end of stone age (c. 10,000 to
2,000 years).


World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: Aisa.
McGraw Hill Encyclopadeia of World Drama: