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Experiment 10: ATQ

1. What are the significant regions in the titration curve? Relate the characteristics of each
region to the pH results obtained.
The equivalence point is seen at the corresponding volume of the curves inflection
point where the pH change is highest. The points coming to the equivalence point are the preequivalence points where the pH values are acidic. The points following the inflection point are the
post-equivalence points where the pH of the analyte is towards basic.

2. Why is continuous stirring important in potentiometric titration?

During the experiment a magnetic stirrer was used since manual stirring would be
difficult without disturbing the burette and pH probe. Constant stirring is important for this titration in
order to disperse the titrant throughout the whole solution. If the titrant is not dispersed throughout
the pH probe would read the titrant instead of the pH of the overall solution and drastically increase
the pH reading.
3. Why should the increments of addition of titrant be narrowed down as the titration
approaches the equivalence point?
The end point is usually determined through second derivative of the titration curve.
Adding exactly 0.1 mL near the end point (both before and after) is a way of getting the second
derivative. It is a more accurate way of graphically determining the end point than ploying the
conventional S-shaped titration curve.
4. Discuss possible reasons behind the discrepancies (if any) in the experimental and
theoretical pKa values.
To calculate the pKa values of KHP, the half-equivalence point needs to be
determined. At half-equivalence point, where the volume of titrant used is half of the volume used
at equivalence point, the number of moles of KHP is equal to the number of moles of KHP left.
Therefore, given the pH at half-equivalence point and using the formula for the acid-dissociation
constant, the Ka can be calculated. Wrong reading of pH at equivalence points may cause
discrepancies in pKa values.
5. What are the possible sources of errors and their effect on the calculated parameters?
The working pH range for the experiment is 0.5 - 12. If the pH is less than 0.5 the
pH meter will give a higher pH value and if the pH is greater than 12 the pH meter will read a value
lower than the true value. These readings will result in wrong calculations and wrong Veq.