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COOKING WITH CHEMISTRY

Created by Caitlin Smith

MAGICAL MILK
Milk contains water, fat, vitamins and minerals
Dish soap is a bipolar molecule

WHAT ARE CHEMICAL BONDS?


Chemical bonds are the friendships molecules
make with each other.
There are three parts to the smallest unit of
matter in our bodies: molecules contain electrons
which float around the nucleus which is the home
to protons and neutrons.
When a molecule is missing an electron, it needs
to find a buddy that has an extra electron.
When these two molecules interact, a chemical
bond occurs!

TYPES OF BONDS
Covalent: the two molecules share electrons
Ionic: the two molecules donate electrons to each
other
Some bonds are stronger than others
The dogs will explain!

HOW DOES THE MILK EXPERIMENT


WORK?
Dish soap is bipolar!
It has a nonpolar end and a polar end.
Nonpolar shares the electrons equally
Polar means there is a slightly stronger pull
When the soap is introduced to the milk, it starts
to pull apart the bonds in the milk!
The polar end is hydrophilic so it creates a new
bond with the water molecules in the milk.
The nonpolar end attaches to the fat molecules.
We can watch this action occur by observing
where the food color moves.

NOW WE WILL WORK WITH WATER


Try balancing a paper clip on the top of your
water!
How does it do this?
Surface tension is created at the top of the water
because of cohesion.
Cohesion: the tendency for water molecules to
stick to other water molecules
We can break that cohesion by slowly adding the
paper clip over the edge.
The tendency for water to stick to other surfaces
is called adhesion.

LEMON POWER

Have you ever heard of a potato clock?

Were going to make a lemon battery!

HOW DOES A BATTERY WORK?


Batteries create energy when electrons
flow from one metal to another.
An electrolyte solution contains water
and various electrons.
The positive side of the battery is the
cathode and the anode is the negative
side.
Chemical reactions occur at the anode,
creating a build up of electrons.
They are conducting by the metal and
move to an area with less electrons or
the cathode.
This movement creates a current of
electrical energy that allows it to
power objects.

CIRCUITS

The connecting wire between the


cathode and the anode creates a
circuit.
When there is only one circuit
pathway, we call this a series circuit.
We can add more circuits to increase
energy production called parallel
circuits.
We will experiment by changing the
direction of the current, adding
resistors, and applying switches.
Switches turn the current on and off,
and convert the electrical energy into
heat or light.

SOLAR ENERGY
The sun is our most basic energy source. We eat
plants which use the suns energy in
photosynthesis as food. The fossil fuels used to
power our resources are ancient rocks of trapped
sun energy.
Today, the suns heat is reflected off of mirrors or
panels to warm water which will boil it into
steam, starting generators that power our
devices.
It is also concentrated in photovoltaic cells which
causes electrons to shift, creating a flow of energy
which we can use as power.

MENTOS & COKE - WHAT MAKES TH


E
EXPLOSION?

Carbon dioxide and nucleation


Sodas contain carbon dioxide-the fizzy sensation
The surface of Mentos is sprayed with 40 layers
of bumpy sugar.
The sugar crystals have a high surface area and
low volume.
Surface area: the area of all the faces of an object
added together
Volume: the amount of space an object occupies
Nucleation: the process of gas bubbles forming
around an object

BOOM!
The bumpy sugar crystals create nucleation sites
where the carbon dioxide gases turn into foam.
On its descent to the bottom of the bottle of soda,
the Mentos is interacting and building up
pressure with the carbon dioxide.
Once it hits a certain point, the pressure must go
somewhere, so it is released from the bottle,
making an explosion!

WHAT HAPPENED?
Discuss with each other what happened at each
station.
Did each soda react the same way with the
Mentos?
Why do you think it did or did not?

EXPLANATION
Because of the artificial sweeteners and extra
carbonation in diet drinks, the reaction occurs
better!
Why do you think the other soda/candy
combinations didnt work as well?

COOKIE ENGINEERING
What makes the perfect cookie? Fluffy, crunchy,
soft, hard, thick, thin, moist, gooey?
By using different ingredients and different
amounts of each, one can create a personal cookie
experience to satisfy your ideal cookie concoction.

THREE STEPS
Size of cookie is dependent upon the butter and time
cooking. The butter melts and expands in the dough
when heated. If the butter started hard, it will take
longer to spread out. If you soften the butter before
hand it will take a shorter amount of time.
Thickness of the cookie depends on water and
carbon dioxide. As the water is heated, it turns into
vapor that is released upward, creating holes and
height. The baking soda or powder turns into carbon
dioxide which must be released in a similar manner.
Finally, color and flavor are created by two chemical
reactions.

CARMELIZATION
This is a process of turning sugar into caramel.
This gives the cookie a brown color and sweet
taste and scent.
As the sugar heats up, the heat breaks down the
bonds between the sugar molecules, causing
them to disperse from each other and turn to
liquid.
As it breaks down and disperses, the color turns
to brown and releases aromas.

THE MAILLARD REACTION


This is a process similar to carmelization where
the reaction occurs between carbohydrates and
amino acids.
Like the sugar in carmelization, the heat breaks
apart the bonds of the carbohydrates and amino
acids, which then form new compounds to give off
different tastes and smells.