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Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

Cover illustration: Cross-well electromagnetic measurements

This book is the property of Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V.,


The Hague, The Netherlands. It must be promptly returned to them at any time
they may so request. It is confidentially loaned to the holder for his personal
information and use only, and neither its existence nor its contents shall be
disclosed by the holder to any third party. The holder shall take every precaution
to prevent third parties from perusing, reproducing or copying the same either
wholly or in part.
The copyright of this document is vested in Shell Internationale Petroleum
Maatschappij B.V., The Hague, The Netherlands. All rights reserved. Neither the
whole nor any part of this document may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval
system or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical,
reprographic, recording or otherwise) without the prior written consent of the
copyright owner.

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

PREFACE TO THE PRODUCTION HANDBOOK, REVISION 1991


Objective
The objective of the Production Handbook is to contribute to efficient performance by all
Engineering, Petroleum Engineering and Operations staff, by providing quick access to
and practical guidance on their own and related disciplines technology.
Being a comprehensive combination of condensed technical manuals, it provides a ready
source of information for reference and self-training.
It is not intended to replace detailed design manuals and state-of-the-art manuals; these
should remain the first source of reference for more experienced technical specialists.
Neither can the Production Handbook replace specialised training manuals.
Distribution
The Production Handbook should be available to all Engineering, Petroleum Engineering
and Operations staff at or above JG5, in Group E&P Operating Companies and SIPM.
These staff receive the Handbook as a personal loan; they may take it along when going
on transfer within the Group but must return it when leaving for other reasons. Staff of
other Functions parentages temporarily working in E&P companies may use library
copies.
The Handbook is confidential and holders should note the conditions stated opposite the
title page. Issue and recovery should be registered by company secretariats/libraries.
Reprinting and updating
The Production Handbook was first published by SIPM in 1986. It is the successor to the
Field Pocketbook versions of 1933, 1947, 1952 and 1955 and the Field Handbook of
1963. The 1986 version comprised 3000 pages in five A5 ringbinders; 6000 copies were
distributed.
An update of some 250 revised pages was issued in 1987 and a list of further corrections
was published in the Production Newsletter of November 1988.
A complete reprint is necessary at this time (1991). For flexibility and cost-effectiveness
this updated reprint is in nine paperback volumes, each one dedicated to a major
discipline with clear ownership by the SIPM-EP department concerned. These
custodian departments will initiate further updates of their respective volumes as and
when necessary. Additional volumes and state-of-the-art manuals in the same format
may be added later as special supplements.
Suggestions for revising and updating the Handbook should be directed to the SIPM-EP
custodian department of the respective volume, using copies of the Specimen
Amendment Sheet at the back of each volume.
Overall editorial custodianship of the Handbook rests with SIPM-EPD/11.

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

CONTENTS LIST PRODUCTION HANDBOOK SERIES (1991)


SIPM Custodian
Volume 1 Production General
Units and Conversion Factors
Health, Safety and Environment
Quality Management
Economic Analysis

EPO/71
EPO/6
EPO/72
EPE/1

Volume 2 Drilling and Transport


Drilling
Civil Engineering for drilling locations
Transport in Production Operations

EPO/51

Volume 3 Petrophysical Engineering

EPD/22

Volume 4 Reservoir Engineering

EPD/22

Volume 5 Production Technology


Production Engineering
Production Chemistry

EPD/41

Volume 6 Production Operations

EPO/53

Volume 7 Process Engineering


Oil Processing
Gas Processing
Custodian for Part I, Ch. 7, Terminals:

EPD/42
EPD/13

Volume 8 Pipelines

EPD/61

Volume 9 Facilities and Maintenance


Running Equipment
EPD/62
Piping Systems
EPD/62
Electrical Engineering
EPD/63
Instrumentation
EPD/64
Telecommunications
EPD/76
Reliability and Availability Assessment
EPD/13-EPO/54
Corrosion Engineering
EPD/65
Inspection Techniques and Maintenance Terminology
EPO/54
Diving and Underwater Operations
EPO/54
Air Conditioning
MFSH/11

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

PREFACE TO VOLUME 3, PETROPHYSICAL ENGINEERING, REVISION


1991
The subjects covered in this Volume were formerly included in the 1986 version
of the Production Handbook as Chapter 3, Petrophysical Engineering.

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

VOLUME 3, PETROPHYSICAL ENGINEERING, REVISION 1991

SUMMARY CONTENTS LISTING

page

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

10
70
130
144
167
187
205
239
258
269

Wireline Logging: General


Open Hole Logging
Wireline Coring, Testing and Sampling
Coring
Cased Hole and Production Logging
Perforating
Wellsite Geology
Safety and Environmental Control
Reservoir Compaction and Surface Subsidence
References and Further Reading

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

Volume 3

PETROPHYSICAL ENGINEERING
CONTENTS
1
1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.2

WIRELINE LOGGING: GENERAL


Logging Programmes
Open Hole
Cased Hole and Production Logging
Preparation for Logging

10
10
10
11
12

1.3
Depth Checks and Calibration
1.3.1 Depth
1.3.2 Calibration
1.3.3 Depth Scales
1.3.4 Repeat Section
1.3.5 Statistical Checks
1.3.6 Tension Recording
1.3.7 Log Scales and Scale Changes
1.3.8 Computerised Service Unit (CSU) Filtering
1.3.9 Bottom Hole Temperatures

13
13
14
15
15
15
15
15
15
16

1.4

17

Field Prints, Headings and Service Reports

1.5 Dispatch and Transmission of Data


1.5.1
Dispatch
1.5.2
Transmission

19
19
20

1.6

Services and Codes

21

1.7

Tool Dimensions, Weights and Ratings

29

1.8

Logging Cables, Heads and Fishing Tools

45

1.9

Wireline Logging Operations in Deviated Holes

50

1.9.1
1.9.2
1.9.3
1.9.4

Friction Reducing Devices


Other Devices
Logging Through Casing Drill Pipe: Pumpdown Techniques
Logging of Near-Horizontal Holes

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

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51
51
53

Petrophysical Engineering

1.10

Sticking of Wireline Logging Equipment

55

1.10.1

General Guidelines on Stuck Tool, Weak Point and Fishing


Kit
1.10.2 Fishing for Stuck Tool
1.10.2.1 Open Hole
1.10.2.2 Cased Hole
1.10.2.3 Fishing through Tubing

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57
57
59
60

1.11

61

Detection of Stuck Point/Back-Off Equipment

1.11.1
1.11.2

Stuck Pipe Indicator Tool


Back-Off Equipment

61
65

1.12

Wireline Logging Wave/Tide Compensation for Floating Rigs

65

OPEN HOLE LOGGING

70

2.1

Methods of Open Hole Logging

70

2.1.1
2.1.1.1
2.1.1.2
2.1.1.3
2.1.1.4
2.1.1.5
2.1.2
2.1.2.1
2.1.2.2
2.1.2.3
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.4.1
2.1.4.2
2.1.4.3
2.1.4.4
2.1.5
2.1.6
2.1.7
2.1.8
2.1.9
2.1.10
2.1.11

Rig-Up and Survey Checks


Rig-Up
Running in Hole
On Bottom
Surveying
After Survey
Induction - Spherically Focused
Spontaneous Potential (SP)
Spherically Focused Resistivity
Induction
Dual Laterolog
Micro Tools
Micro-SFL
Proximity Log
Microlaterolog
Microlog
Gamma Ray
Density
Neutron (Compensated)
Acoustic (Bore Hole Compensated)
Dipmeter/Diplog
Caliper
Gearhart Calibration Standards

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73
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74
74
74
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Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

Contents

2.2

Principles of Log Evaluation

83

2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.3.1
2.2.3.2
2.2.4

84
85
94
94
99

2.2.5
2.2.6

Lithology and Reservoir Thickness


Porosity
Hydrocarbon Saturation
Clean Rocks (Non-Argillaceous)
Shaly Sands
Determination of RW from SP curve Shell Method
Procedure
Reporting of Petrophysical Data
Quick-Look Evaluation Step by Step

116
124
124

WIRELINE CORING, TESTING AND SAMPLING

130

3.1

Sidewall Samples

130

3.1.1
3.1.2

Sidewall Sampling Using Explosive Bullets


Sidewall Coring Tool

130
131

3.2
3.3

Repeat Formation Tester


Sample Recovery

131
141

CORING

144

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6

General
Coring Equipment
Coring Fluids, Hydraulics and Bits
Coring Criteria for Exploration and Appraisal Wells
Preparation for Coring
Instruction for Handling Cores for Petrophysical and Related
Analyses

144
144
147
148
149

4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.3.1
4.6.3.2

Recovery of Consolidated Cores


Cleaning, Boxing, Sampling and Labelling
Recovery of Very Friable and Loosely Consolidated Cores
Rubber Sleeve Coring
Plastic Fibreglass Core Cartridges

151
151
158
158
161

4.7
4.8

Core Description
Petrophysical Core Analysis: Suggested Standard Programme

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166

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

151

Petrophysical Engineering

CASED HOLE AND PRODUCTION LOGGING

167

5.1
5.2

Preparation for Logging


Operation Against Pressure

167
169

5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6

Testing Risers and Hydraulic Grease Tube (HGT)


Testing BOPs
Entering the Well
Running in Hole
PLT Logging
Pulling Out of Hole

169
169
171
172
173
173

5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6

Cement Bond Survey


Thermal Decay Time Logging
Electromagnetic Thickness Tool (ETT)
Production Logging Tool (PLT)

174
176
177
177

5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4
5.6.5
5.6.6

Flowmeter
Gradiomanometer
High Resolution Thermometer (HRT)
Continuous Pressure Manometer
Through-Tubing Caliper
Tracer Ejector Tool

180
181
181
181
181
182

5.7
5.8
5.9

Continuous Flowmeter
Gradiomanometer
Thermometer

183
185
186

6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
7

PERFORATING

187

General Preparations
Arming Guns
Entering the Well
Depth Control
Retrieving the Gun
Gun Characteristics

187
189
190
192
194
196

WELLSITE GEOLOGY

205

7.1

Lithological Description of Sedimentary Rocks

205

7.1.1

Description and Coding of Rock Compositions

205

7.2

Hydrocarbon Detection

232

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

Contents

7.2.1 Natural Fluorescence


7.2.2 Solvent Cuts
7.2.3 Solvent Cut Fluorescence
7.2.4 Acetone Water Test (Acetone Reaction)
7.2.5 Visible Staining and Bleeding
7.2.6 Odour
7.2.7 Gas Detection Analysis
7.2.8 Irridescence
7.2.9 Acid Test
7.2.10 Reporting Results of Tests for Hydrocarbon Shows
7.2.10.1 Symbols for Hydrocarbon Shows
7.2.10.2 Reporting Procedure Example

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237

239

SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL

8.1

Handling and Storage of Radioactive Sources and Explosives

239

8.1.1 Radioactive Sources Safe Working Conditions, Handling,


Storage and Transport
8.1.1.1 Handling Radioactive Sources on the Wellsite
8.1.1.2 Storage of Radioactive Sources
8.1.1.3 Transporting Radioactive Materials
8.1.1.4 Safety Equipment
8.1.1.5 Emergencies Involving Radioactive Sources
8.1.2 Explosives Handling, Transport and Storage

239
239
240
241
242
242
243

8.2

245

Operating Safety and Radio Silence

8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.2.4

Radioactive Sources Operating Safety


Fishing for Radioactive Logging Tools
Explosives Operating Safety
Radio Silence

245
246
247
248

8.3

The Presence of Hydrogen Sulphide

254

8.3.1
8.3.2

Toxicity of Hydrogen Sulphide Gas


Determination of Sulphide Content in Mud and Fluid
Samples
Determination of H2S Content in Gas (Drger Tube Method)

254

8.3.3

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

254
255

Petrophysical Engineering

RESERVOIR COMPACTION AND SURFACE SUBSIDENCE

258

9.1
9.2

Introduction
Compaction Prediction

258
259

9.2.1
9.2.1.1
9.2.1.2
9.2.1.3
9.2.2
9.2.3

Sandstone Reservoirs
Linear Compaction Model
Rate Type Compaction Model
Recommended Procedure
Compaction of Shales
Prediction of Compaction due to Pore Collapse in
High-Porosity Carbonate Reservoirs
9.2.3.1 The Trendline Model
9.2.3.2 Prediction of In-Situ Pore Collapse with the Trendline
Model
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
10

Calculation of Surface Subsidence


The Nucleus-of-Strain Approach
Quick-Look Procedure to Calculate Subsidence in the
Deepest Point of the Subsidence Bowl Using the
Rigid-Basement Model
Detailed Calculation of Subsidence Using the
Rigid-Basement Model
REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

259
259
261
261
262
262
262
264
266
266
266
267
269

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

Tables and Figures

TABLES
Table 1.7-1
Table 1.7-2
Table 1.7-3
Table 1.8-1
Table 1.8-2
Table 1.8-3
Table 2.2-1

Schlumberger tool data


Western Atlas tool data
Gearhart tool data
Schlumberger logging cables and weak points
Dresser Atlas logging cables and weak points
Gearhart logging cables and weak points
Photo-electric absorption index, bulk density, electron
density and volumetric photo-electric absorption index
of some common minerals and liquids
Table 2.2-2
Porosity tools
Table 2.2-3
Summary petrophysical evaluation
(preliminary/final)
Table 4-1
Core recovery and sampling record
Table 6.6-1
Perforating gun performance summary
Schlumberger
Table 6.6-2
Perforating gun performance summary Western
Atlas
Table 6.6-3
Perforating gun performance summary Gearhart
Table 8.1-1
Radiation limits for working conditions
Table 8.1-2
Approximate barrier distance from source container
Table 8.2.4-1 Radio shut-down during operations with explosives
applicable to installations and vessels within 500
metres
Table 8.3.3-1 H2S determination by Drger tube
Table 9.2-1
Range of compressibilities and for various rock
Types

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

29
34
40
45
45
46
87
92
125
157
196
198
200
239
241
249
256
260

Petrophysical Engineering

FIGURES
Figure 1-1a
Figure 1-1b
Figure 1-1c
Figure 1-2a
Figure 1-2b
Figure 1-2c
Figure 1-2d
Figure 1-3a
Figure 1-3b
Figure 1-3c
Figure 1-3d
Figure 1-4
Figure 1-5
Figure 1.11-1
Figure 1.11-2
Figure 1.12-1
Figure 1.12-2
Figure 2.2-1
Figure 2.2-2a
Figure 2.2-2b
Figure 2.2-2c
Figure 2.2-3
Figure 2.2-4
Figure 2.2-5
Figure 2.2-6
Figure 2.2-7
Figure 2.2-8
Figure 2.2-9
Figure 2.2-10
Figure 2.2-11
Figure 2.2-12
Figure 2.2-13
Figure 2.2-14
Figure 2.2-15
Figure 2.2-16

Schlumberger tool schematics 1


Schlumberger tool schematics 2
Schlumberger tool schematics 3
Western Atlas tool schematics 1
Western Atlas tool schematics 2
Western Atlas tool schematics 3
Western Atlas tool schematics 4
Gearhart tool schematics 1
Gearhart tool schematics 2
Gearhart tool schematics 3
Gearhart tool schematics 4
Cable head fishing dimensions (Schlumberger)
Cable head fishing dimensions (Western Atlas
Stuck pipe indicator tool (SIT)
Stuck pipe pull and torque transmission
Mechanical wave compensation device
Hydraulic-pneumatic compensating device
Importance of lithology determination
Porosity and lithology determination from formation
density log and compensated neutron log (CNL*)
Porosity and lithology determination from formation
density log and compensated neutron log (CNL*)
Porosity and lithology determination from sonic log
and compensated neutron log (CNL*)
Density of water and NaCI solutions
Archie equations
Formation factor vs. porosity
Average values for porosity and saturation exponents
Resistivity Index vs. SW
Calculation of SW
Resistivity vs. temperature for NaCI solutions
Resistivity vs. porosity crossplot
The Waxman-Smits shaly sand model (1968)
The Archie clean sand model (1942)
B RW temperature relationship
BRW salinity relationship
Core conductivity 100% saturated with water
Shaly sands formation factor porosity
relationships

31
32
33
36
37
38
39
41
42
43
44
48
49
62
63
66
68
86
89
90
91
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95
96
97
102
103
104
105
106
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107
108
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110

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

Tables and Figures


Figure 2.2-17
Figure 2.2-18
Figure 2.2-19
Figure 2.2-20
Figure 2.2-21
Figure 2.2-22
Figure 2.2-23
Figure 2.2-24a
Figure 2.2-24b
Figure 3-1
Figure 3-2
Figure 3-3
Figure 3-4
Figure 3-5
Figure 4-1
Figure 4-2
Figure 4-3
Figure 4-4
Figure 4-5
Figure 5-1
Figure 5-2
Figure 5-3
Figure 7.1-1
Figure 7.2-1
Figure 9.2.3-1
Figure 9.2.3-2
Figure 9.2.3-3
Figure 9.3-1

Determination of cation exchange capacity Qv from


SP log
Graphical solution of Waxman-Smits equation
Solving Waxman-Smits by iteration
Spontaneous potential, four components
Streaming potential for various mud types
Electrochemical potential (Ec) vs. NaCI
concentration (CNaCl) for Qv shale
= 1, 2 and 4 mmol/cm3
Example of petrophysical data log
Resistivity vs. porosity crossplot, m = 1.8
Resistivity vs. porosity crossplot, m = 2.0
Western Atlas FMT assembly
Repeat formation tester system
Schlumberger RFT components
RFT pre-test permeability indications (qualitative)
Sample recovery at low pressure
Core handling procedure
Inner and outer labels for core boxes
Core description
Sawing device for cutting rubber sleeved cores
Sock for handling fibreglass sleeved cores
Wireline lubricator set-up
BOP test stand set-up
Production logging tool
Guide for lithological descriptions of sedimentary
Rocks (TAPEWORM)
Oil detection in rock specimens
Stress dependence of porosity for mouldic
limestone samples
Laboratory trendlines for various different
Carbonates
Procedure to calculate compaction due to pore
collapse from the porosity-stress trendline
Normalised subsidence above the entra of a
disc-shaped reservoir versus entraliza reservoir
depth

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

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114
115
118
119
123
127
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132
133
135
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160
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168
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206
last page
263
264
265
267

Wireline Logging: General

1. WIRELINE LOGGING: GENERAL


1.1 Logging Programmes
The following notes provide guidelines on open hole and cased hole logging
programmes.
1.1.1 Open Hole
The policy for Wireline Logging is that exploration and appraisal wells are to be
logged from the total depth to the surface and that development wells have to be
logged over the intervals containing the reservoirs.
The programme for Open Hole Surveys is integral with the Drilling Programme,
and is the responsibility of the Petrophysics Section.
No hard and fast rules can be laid down for logging programmes to cover all
possible contingencies. The following guidelines are offered.
(a) Exploration and Appraisal Wells
(i) Surface Casing Depth.
INDUCTION/SONIC/GR/SP from TD to Conductor Shoe. Transit Time Integration required. LITHO-DENSITY/NEUTRON/GR from TD to Conductor Shoe if required to confirm gas indications. GR through casing from
Conductor Shoe to surface.
Survey in 121/4 pilot hole.
(ii) Intermediate Logging.
INDUCTION/SONIC/GR/SP from TD to Casing Shoe or first reading previous survey, whichever is deeper. LITHO-DENSITY/NEUTRON/GR from
TD to Casing Shoe or first reading previous survey, whichever is deeper.
An overlap of 50 m is required with the previous run.
DIPMETER if required by Geologist/Production Geologist.
DUAL LATEROLOG/MICRO RESISTIVITY/GR/SP from TD to Casing Shoe
if hydrocarbon-bearing intervals are encountered.
SIDEWALL SAMPLES, REPEAT FORMATION TESTER (Pressures and
Formation Fluid samples), and CEMENT BOND LOG as requested.
(iii) Final Logging.
As intermediate, with the addition of Velocity Survey if requested.
CEMENT BOND/GR/CCL if casing is set for production testing.

10

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

Petrophysical Engineering

(b) Development Wells


(i) Surface Casing Depth
INDUCTION/SONIC/GR/SP may be requested to check gas indications.
Survey in 121/4 pilot hole.
(ii) Intermediate Logging
As for Surface Casing Depth. Only if unexpected lithology/shows are
encountered as for Intermediate Logging in Exploration and Appraisal
Wells.
CEMENT BOND LOGGING may occasionally be required for confirmation of cementation.
(iii) Final Logging.
DUAL LATEROLOG/MSFL/GR/SP from TD to Casing Shoe.
LITHO-DENSITY/NEUTRON/GR/SP and if required INDUCTION/SONIC/
GR/SP from TD to Casing Shoe.
REPEAT FORMATION TESTER may be required for formation pressure
monitoring.
CEMENT BOND/GR/CCL after casing/liner cementation.

1.1.2 Cased Hole and Production Logging


(a) The programme for perforation and completion logging is integral with
the Completion Programme; perforation intervals are selected by the
Petrophysics Section in conjunction with the Production Technology and
Reservoir Engineering Sections.
(b) Production Logging is normally required to solve a specific production or
injection problem.
Production Logging will normally be supervised by a Production Technologist or Petrophysicist to ensure valid and useful results.
(c) Unscheduled Wireline Services may be requested to solve unexpected
problems, e.g. Free Point Indication/Back-off, Temperature Survey for
lost circulation. Responsibility for demand and supervision of these services rests with Operations Section.

Confidential-Property and Copyright: SIPM, 1991

11

Wireline Logging: General

1.2 Preparation for Logging


(a) Ensure that all equipment and personnel required to carry out logging
programme are on site and operational.
(b) Ensure that surveys from adjacent/nearby wells are available for comparison /correlation.
(c) Discuss logging programme with Logging Engineer, and confirm running
order of tools. It is recommended to use a tool string with a maximum
amount of logging tools combined, including radioactive tools, with the
objective to minimise rig time used for evaluation. Take notice of Operating Safety and Radio Silence guidelines in Section 8.2.
(d) Provide Logging Engineer with the following data:
(i) Well description, location and DF elevation. Permanent datum is
Mean Sea Level or ground level for offshore and land wells respectively.
(ii) Bit and Casing Sizes, TD and Casing Shoe Depths.
(iii) Mud type, weight, viscosity, water loss, pH and mud filtrate salinity.
(iv) Changes to drilling/logging programme.
(v) Downhole conditions relevant to operation (deviation, tight spots,
doglegs, sloughing shales, over-pressurised or under-pressurised
formations, lost circulation intervals, gas zones, etc.).
(e) Provide samples of mud (5 dm3), mud filtrate and mud cake for resistivity
measurements. The mud cake should be thick enough (5 mm) to be
representative: the quantity of mud filtrate will then usually be adequate.
Mud samples should be homogeneous and taken from the flowline during
circulation just prior to logging. Ensure that measurements are made as
soon as samples are ready.

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Petrophysical Engineering

1.3 Depth Checks and Calibration

1.3.1 Depth
Log depths are standard reference for Shell Group Companies. All subsurface
maps and markers are established by reference to the gamma ray curve of the
gamma-ray density log, which is the REFERENCE SURVEY. The reference
survey must be correlated with the first tool run (Resistivity) and it is therefore
essential to determine depths accurately during the first run into the hole.
Depth below Derrick Floor (DF) will be determined as follows:
(a)

First Survey

(i) Set tool zero at DF and set spooler at zero.


(ii) Run in hole to first bell, check first bell at spooler pulling up.
(iii) Proceed to casing shoe (CS), checking bell every 30 m.
(iv) Just above CS catch mark at well, set at DF. Adjust spooler depth to read
(distance from tool zero to first mark) + y 30 m.
(v) Pull up and check mark at spooler. This is the bell to be used for the
survey.
(vi) If the bell in (v) differs from the bell in (ii) by more than 1 m, the reason for
the discrepancy must be determined (if necessary, by pulling out of the
hole and re-checking surface mark) before logging.
(b)

Subsequent Surveys

Subsequent surveys over the same section must be related to the first survey in
the sequence. The mark at surface need be checked only roughly, and accurate
correlation with the first survey made during recording of the overlap survey. It is
perfectly normal, as a result of cable slack at surface, differences in tool weight,
cable stretch, etc. for the bell at TD to be displaced several feet from the
anticipated depth. If the discrepancy is excessive, the survey should be run by
correlation with the first survey, and the tool zero checked at surface at the end
of the survey. Provided the first survey was correctly recorded, both logs will then
be at true depth.
Major errors between surveys usually arise as a result of movement of the
travelling blocks, either when the driller moves the blocks for rig maintenance
during logging, or when the brake is not properly set. If a major discrepancy
occurs between surveys, it is wise to check that the blocks have not moved.
Surveys are normally taped, and can be played back on correct depth without
wasting further rig-time, but this can only be done if the correct depth is known.

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(c) Overlap Survey


Overlap Surveys of about 50 m with previous surveys are normally required. If a
survey overlaps a previous survey in a hole which has not been cased off, depth
must still be determined as in (a) (First Survey) above; NOT by correlation with
the previous survey. If the discrepancy between the surveys is 0.5 m or less, the
new survey may be correlated with the original. If the discrepancy is greater than
0.5 m, the reason for the discrepancy must be established before the entire open
hole section is to be rerun, including the depth determination.
If logs are to be run in open hole, the cased part of which has previously been
logged, the first survey must include a gamma-ray tool. Depths are initially to be
determined as in (a) (First Survey) above, then a short through casing correlation
film is to be made. If the discrepancy is less than 0.5 m, the new survey may be
correlated with the original. If the discrepancy exceeds 0.5 m the reason for the
discrepancy must be established before surveying continues.
If it is considered that the new log is more accurate, the survey may be
continued, but a through-casing correlation log must be made over enough of the
cased section to correct the original survey.
If it is considered that the previous survey is more accurate, the new log will be
correlated with the original, but the correlation film at incorrect depth must be
attached to the calibration tail with a note indicating the reason for the
discrepancy.
(d) Stretch Correction
No stretch correction is to be applied to any open hole survey run at a depth of
less than 3000 m. Normal stretch correction is to be applied below 3000 m and
phased out to zero correction at 3000 m. When stretch correction is applied, this
must be noted on the log heading of the first survey.
Spooler depth correction is not to exceed 1 m in 300 m.
1.3.2 Calibration
(i) Calibration records (see Individual Tool Calibrations) must be made before and after each survey.
(ii) If problems are encountered with tools, and any part of the equipment
which could cause an alteration in recorded parameters is exchanged,
the equipment must be re-calibrated. Under no circumstances is a calibration record made with one set of equipment to be presented with a
survey with another set.

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Petrophysical Engineering

1.3.3 Depth Scales

Surveys are to be recorded on 1 : 200 and 1 : 1000 scale, unless instructed


otherwise.

1.3.4 Repeat Section


A repeat section should be run over the reservoir interval. If corrections or
memorisations are applied, part of the repeat section is to be run without
correction or memorisation, the other part with them. This is particularly important
in the case of a log run for perforating depth control, when this is the only way of
establishing how much depth correction has been applied. Take care that
radioactivity is not induced into the formations during this operation.
1.3.5 Statistical Checks
All radiation tools are subject to statistical variations. Make a check on statistics if
they appear to be excessive. The check should be made within the reservoir
zone where deflections are representative of the reservoir. Pad tools must be
opened, and statistics recorded for at least one minute. The check must be made
in such a way that induced radioactivity from the source to the formation will not
affect the main survey. No statistical check is to be made with the TDT.
1.3.6

Tension Recording

A recording of incremental cable tension is to be made on 1 : 200 scale only over


the reservoir interval. The trace is to be located on the log where it will not
interfere with more important data traces.
1.3.7

Log Scales and Scale Changes

With the exception of dipmeters, SP and temperature surveys, no scale changes


are to be made during the course of a logging run. When a scale change is
necessary, a 50 m overlap is to be made on both scales.
1.3.8

Computerised Service Unit (CSU) Filtering

All optical (film/print) surveys made using computerised units must be recorded with zero filtering (0.00). This will result in curves with minor deviations

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Wireline Logging: General

from the smoothed surveys recorded using Standard Logging Units, or filtered
surveys from computerised units, but this presentation must be adhered to for
unitisation purposes.
1.3.9

Bottom Hole Temperatures

Three maximum thermometers should be run on each trip in the hole during
open hole logging, the corresponding maximum bottom hole temperature to be
reported on the log heading, together with time elapsed since circulation.

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1.4 Field Prints, Headings and Service Reports


Final print headings, and those surveys still being run by non-computerised
logging units, are in the API format. Field prints of computerised logging units
have a different format. The following notes will help in checking correctness
of print headings.
API Headings
Most of the information supplied on a CSU heading is identical to the API data,
but could be in a different location.
Item

Description

1.
2.
3.

Location
Other Services
Permanent Datum

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Remarks

Latitude and longitude or co-ordinates of conductor.


Codes of other services run during this trip to well.
This normally is Mean Sea Level (MSL) for offshore
operations and ground level for land operations.
Elev.
Height of datum point above sea bed (ASB).
Log Measured from Derrick Floor (DF).
ft. above Perm. Datum Elevation of Derrick Floor above MSL/ground level.
Date
Day-month-year.
Run No.
Sequence number of that exact survey in that particular
well, e.g.lSF/SONIC is Run No. 1. FDC/CNL run afterwards can ALSO be Run No. 1.
Depth-Driller
Total well depth as reported by Driller/Tool Pusher before logging.
Depth-Logger
Maximum depth reached during this logging run according to wireline measurements (not necessarily the
same as Depth-Driller).
Btm. Log Interval
Deepest formation measured during this run (always
shallower than Depth-Logger).
Top Log Interval
Shallowest recording during this run.
Casing-Driller
Casing OD at Drillers Casing Shoe Depth.
Casing-Logger
Casing Shoe depth as registered by logging tool.
This must be the same on all surveys recorded through
this casing.
Bit Size
Nominal size of drill bit used.
Type Fluid in Hole
Brief description of nature of mud/completion fluid.
Fluid Level
Position of Well Fluid in borehole.
Dens.
Density of hole fluid in psi/thousand feet.
Visc.
Viscosity of hole fluid (centipoise NOT seconds in
Marsh funnel).
pH
Acidity (pH) of hole fluid.
Fluid Loss
30 minute fluid loss (cm3).

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21.

Source of Sample

22.

Rm, Rmf, Rmc

23.

Source: Rmf, Rmc.

24.

Rm at BHT

25.

Time Since Circ.

26.

Max. Rec. Temp.

27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

Equip.
Location
Recorded by
Witnessed by
Remarks

32.
33.
34.
35.

Run No.
C.D.
S.O.
Panel No.

36.

Cart. No.

37.

Sonde No.

18

Source (in mud system) of mud sample used for measurement of mud resistivity. This should always be the
flowline.
Resistivity of mud, mud filtrate, mud cake at measured
temperature.
Origin of sample used for resistivity determination,
usually filter PRESS. The use of a downhole sample
taken during a microtool run has now been discontinued.
Mud resistivity at measured bottom hole temperature,
estimated from charts.
Approximate time (in hours) since mud circulation
stopped.
Maximum temperature as recorded by three maximum
thermometers in this logging run.
Contractor's Logging Unit number.
Contractors base.
Logging Engineers name.
WSPEs name.
Use this space for any comments relating to surveying
problems which could conceivably affect interpretation
of the survey (overpulls, mud additives, lost circulation
intervals, tool faults/failures, depth errors).
Should be the same as item 7.
Centralising Device (Centraliser, Caliper).
Stand-off (Ex-centraliser, Induction stand-off).
Contractors serial number of equipment used for this
survey.
Contractor's cartridge number. The designation YELLOW TOOL etc. WILL NOT DO.
Contractors sonde number. The purpose of this item is
to track down the exact equipment used for a survey,
Sometimes years after a log was run.

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Petrophysical Engineering

1.5 Dispatch and Transmission of Data


1.5.1 Dispatch
Surveyed data must be dispatched to the Opco Head Office (HO) as quickly as
possible, to enable rapid decisions to be taken on other logging requirements
and future rig activity. The following procedure has therefore been adopted:

A. LOGGING ENGINEER
is responsible for all survey data.
He should supply:
1. Rough Print
2. Data Transmission
3. Field Prints
4. Sepias
5. Films
6. Tapes (CSU)
7. Service Order

To WSPE for transmission as soon as possible.


If a data transmission link is available, transmit
openhole logs to HO.
To WSPE for safehand forwarding by first means of
transport after logging. One set to be retained on
rig.
To WSPE to be dispatched with field prints. Sepias
are NOT required when data is transmitted.
To be taken by Logging Engineer or his representative to Service Company District Office by first transport for finalisation.
To be sent safehand with field prints to HO, except
except when surveys are data transmitted. In this case, field
tape is not required.
To be completed, signed and handed to WSPE as
soon as possible.

B. WSPE is to assist the Service Company Engineer, as required, to expedite data


transmission, and also carry out the following:
1. Mufax*) recorded Survey as soon as possible, 1:1000 first, 1:200 relevant
section ONLY. DO NOT MUFAX HEADING, BUT MARK SCALES CLEARLY
AT HEAD OF LOG.
2. Forward Field Prints safehand by first transport after logging to HO. One
complete set to be retained on rig.

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3. Forward Sepias with field prints to HO.


4. Sign Service Order, attach to computerised log data and time allocation input
sheets and forward to HO.
5. Arrange data transmission link for edit tape transmission to Wireline
Company Computer Centre if required (CSU/CLS Operations).

1.5.2 Transmission
1. Data transmission is only required for open hole surveys, by formal request
from HO.
2. The Write ring must be removed from the Master tape before copying is
attempted, to ensure preservation of the recorded data.
3. The Master tape must be copied, and from the copy a Field Edit Tape
prepared for data transmission.
4. The Logging Company Engineer is responsible for transmission of data to
the Computer Centre. On termination of transmission, the Computer Centre
prepares an optical recording and confirms that the received data appear
normal.
5. The WSPE notifies the Duty Petrophysicist that data transmission has been
completed.
6. On receipt of log prints from the logging company's computer centre, the
responsible Petrophysicist will check the transmitted log against the Mufax
dispatched from the well-site, and subsequently against the 1:200 Field
Prints hand-carried from the Wellsite.
*) Type of facsimile data transmission

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1.6 Services and Codes


Code

Company

Service

AC
ACBL
ACL
ACT
AIS
ASL(SDT)

WA
WA
WA
SL
BPB
SL

Borehole Compensated Acoustilog


Acoustic Cement Bond Log
Long Space BHC Acoustilog
Aluminium Clay Tool
Array Induction Sonde
Array Sonic Log

BCS
BGL(BGT)
BGN
BGS
BHC
BHT
BHTV
BHTV
BO
BP
BP

HLS
SL
BPB
BPB
SL
BPB
SL
WA
SL
BPB
SL

Borehole Compensated Sonic Tool


Borehole Geometry Log
Hole Tilt and Azimuth
Borehole Geometry
Borehole Compensated Sonic Log
Temperature
Borehole Televiewer
Borehole Televiewer
Explosive Service (Back off)
Plug Setting
Bridge Plug Setting

C/O

WA

CAC
CAL
CAL
CAST
CAV
CBL(CBT)
CBL-VDL

WA
BPB
SL
HLS
HLS
SL
SL

CBL/PET
CBL/VDL/CCL
CCAT
CCL
CCL
CCL
CDL

HLS
BPB
HLS
BPB
HLS
SL
WA

Multiparameter Spectroscopy
Instrument Continuous Carbon/
Oxygen Log
Circumferential Acoustilog
Caliper
Caliper
Circumferential Acoustic Scanning Tool
Compensated Acoustic Velocity Tool
Cement Bond Log
Cement Bond Log Variable Density
Log
Cement Bond Tool
Cement Bond Log
Compensated Cement Attenuation Tool
Casing Collar Locator
Casing Collar Locator Tool
Casing Collar Locator
Compensated Densilog

(continued on next page)

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Code

Company

Service (continued)

CDR
CDS
CDT
CEL(CET)
CFM
CFS
CHAR

SL
BPB
HLS
SL
SL
SL
HLS

CIC
CIS
CIT
CLAM
CNL(CNT)
CNL
CNS
CNT
CORA
CPL(PCT)
CSNG

HLS
SL
HLS
HLS
SL
WA
BPB
HLS
HLS
HLS
HLS

CSS
CST

BPB
SL

Directional Services-Continuous
Compensated Density
Compensated Density Tool (CDT-A)
Cement Evaluation Log
Flowmeter-Continuous
Continuous Flowmeter Sonde
Cased Hole Analysis and reservoir
Monitoring
Casing Inspection Caliper Tool
Customer Instrument Service
Casing Inspection Tool
Clay and Matrix Analysis
Compensated Neutron Log
Compensated Neutron Log
Compensated Neutron
Compensated Neutron Tool (CNT-K)
Complex Reservoir Analysis
Combination Production Log
Compensated Spectral Natural Gamma
Tool
Compensated Sonic Sonde
Continuous Sample Taker

DCL
DCL
DD
DEN
DGL
DIFL
DIL
DIL
DIL
DILB
DILT
DIS
DLL
DLL
DLL
DLLT

HLS
WA
SL
HLS
HLS
WA
HLS
SL
SL
HLS
HLS
BPB
HLS
SL
WA
HLS

Dielectric Constant Tool


Dielectric Log
Depth Determination
Density Tool
Dual Guard Tool
Dual Induction Focused Log
Dual Induction Tool
Induction Sperically Focused Log
Dual Induction SFL Log
Dual Induction Tool (DILTB)
Dual Induction Tool (DILTA)
Digital Induction Sonde
Dual Laterolog Tool (DDL)
Dual Laterolog
Dual Laterolog
Dual Laterolog Tool (PLS)

(continued on next page)

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Code

Company

Service (continued)

DLS
DNLL
DNLL
DPL
DSEN
DSN
DSN2

BPB
WA
WA
SL
HLS
HLS
HLS

DSNC
DTEMP

HLS
BPB

Dual Laterolog
Dual Detector Neutron Lifetime Log
Neutron Lifetime Log (Dual Detector)
Deep Propagation Log
Dual Spaced Epithermal Neutron Tool
Dual Spaced Neutron Tool
Dual Spaced Neutron/Model DSNT-A
Tool
Comprobe Dual Neutron Tool
Differential Temperature

EL
ENVR
EPT/PCD
EPT/PCD
ETT

HLS
HLS
SL
SL
SL

Electric Log Tool


Environmental Corrections
Electromagnetic Propagation Log
Powered Caliper Device
Casing Corrosion Detector

FAC
FACT
FBS
FDC
FDL
FDS
FED
FFS

BPB
HLS
SL
SL
HLS
BPB
HLS
BPB

FIT
FLOLOG
FMS
FMT
FMT
FPI
FPT/BO
FS
FTL
FWS

SL
WA
SL
WA
WA
WA
BPB
SL
HLS
HLS

Four Arm Caliper


Four Arm Caliper Tool
Fullbore Spinner Flowmeter
Formation Density Log
Fluid Density Tool
Fluid Density (Production Logging)
Four Electode Dipmeter Tool (Four Arm)
Fullbore Flowmeter (Production
Logging)
Formation Interval Tester
Flowmeter
Formation MicroScanner Log
Formation Multi-Tester
Formation Tester
Free Pipe Indicator
Pipe Recovery
Fluid Sampling
Fluid Travel Tool
Full Wave Sonic Tool

GCT
GEN

SL
HLS

Continuous Guidance Tool


General Purpose

(continued on next page)

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Wireline Logging: General

Code

Company

Service (continued)

GEOP
GMS
GR
GR
GR
GR-N
GRD
GRN
GRVL
GST
GTEM

HLS
SL
BPB
HLS
SL
WA
HLS
HLS
HLS
SL
HLS

Geophone
Gradiomanometer
Gamma Ray
Gamma Ray Tool
Gamma Ray Log
Gamma Ray Neutron Log
Guard Tool
Gamma Ray Neutron Tool
Gravel Pack Tool
Gamma Ray Spectroscopy Log
Gradiomanometer Temperature Tool

HDD
HDT
HMS
HMST
HRDIP
HRI
HTT

HLS
SL
SL
HLS
WA
HLS
SL

High Density Dipmeter Tool


High Resolution Dipmeter Log
Manometer Temperature Sonde (HP)
Multiset Tester Tool
Diplog (Four Arm High Resolution)
High Resolution Induction Tool
High Resolution Temperature Tool

IEL
IEL
IELT
IFS
IL

HLS
WA
HLS
BPB
SL

Induction Tool (DDL)


Induction Electrolog
Induction Tool (PLS)
Inline Flowmeter (Production Logging)
Induction Logging

JC

WA

Junk Catcher

LCS
LDL(LDT)
LFD
LIDA
LL
LL
LSAV
LSS
LSS

BPB
SL
HLS
HLS
HLS
WA
HLS
HLS
SL

Long Spaced Compensated Sonic


Litho Density Log
Low Frequency Dielectric Tool
Lithology Indentification Analysis
Laterolog Tool
Laterolog
Long Spaced Acoustic Velocity Tool
Long Spaced Sonic Tool
Long Spaced Sonic Log

MEL

HLS

Microelectric Tool

(continued on next page)

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Code

Company

Service (continued)

METT

SL

MFC
MFD
MGL
MGL
ML
ML
ML
MLL
MLL
MLL
MSCT
MSFL

SL
SL
HLS
WA
BPB
HLS
WA
BPB
HLS
WA
SL
SL

MSFL
MSG
MSI C/O
MTS
MWP

HLS
HLS
WA
SL
SL

Multifrequency Electromagnetic
Thickness Log
Multi Finger Caliper Log
Modular Formation Tester
Microguard Tool
Casing Thickness Log
Micro Log
MicroLog Tool
Mini-log
Micro Laterolog
Microlaterolog Tool
Micro Laterolog
Mechanical Sidewall Coring Tool
Microspherically Focused Resistivity
Log
Microspherically Focused Tool
Micro-Seismogram Frac-Finder Tool
Carbon/Oxygen Log
Manometer Temperature Sonde
Measurements While Perforating

NCS

BPB

NEU
NFD
NGS(NGT)
NL
NLL
NML

HLS
SL
SL
WA
WA
SL

Nuclear Combination Sonde


(GR-CN-CD)
Neutron Tool
Nuclear Fluid Densimeter
Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry Log
Neutron Log
Neutron Lifetime Log
Nuclear Magnetism Log

OBD
OBDT

BPB
WA

Oil Based Dip Meter


Oil Based Mud Dipmeter Log

PAL
PDC
PDK-100
PDS
PET
PFC

SL
SL
WA
BPB
HLS
WA

Pipe Analysis Log


Perforating Depth Control Log
Pulse and Decay
Photo Density Sonde
Pulsed Echo Tool
Perforating formation Collar

(continued on next page)

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Wireline Logging: General

Code

Company

Service (continued)

PFM
PI
PL
PL
PL
PLA
PLS
PML
PSD
PSGT
PTS
PTS
PTT

SL
SL
HLS
SL
SL
HLS
BPB
WA
BPB
HLS
BPB
SL
BPB

Flowmeter-Packer
Phasor Induction
Production Log
Production Logs/Flow Profiles
PL/Transient Pressure and Flow Tests
Production Log Analysis
Production Logging
Proximity-Minilog
Precision Strata Dip Meter
Pulsed Spectral Gamma Tool
Pressure Temperature Sonde
Pressure Temperature Sonde
Temperature (Production Logging)

QPG

BPB

Fluid Pressure (HP Gauge) (Production


Logging)

RFS
RFT
RFT
RSCT
RSFE

BPB
HLS
SL
HLS
BPB

Repeat Formation Sampler


Repeat Formation Tester Tool
Repeat Formation Tester
Rotary Sidewall Coring Tool
Shallow Focussed Guard Log

SASH
SCG
SDL
SED
SFE
SFT
SFT
SGP

HLS
BPB
HLS
HLS
BPB
HLS
WA
BPB

SGR
SGS
SHDT

HLS
BPB
SL

SHDT
SIT
SIT/FPIT

SL
SL
SL

Shaly Sand Analysis


Sidewall Core Gun
Spectral Density Tool
Six Electrode Dipmeter Tool (Six Arm)
Short Focussed Guard
Sequential Formation Tester Tool
Selective Formation Tester Tool
Fluid Pressure (Strain Gauge)
(Production Logging)
Spectral Gamma Ray
Spectral Gamma Ray
Stratigraphic High-Resolution Dipmeter
Log
Dual Dipmeter Log
Free Point Indicator
Stuck Point Indicator/Free Point
Indicator

(continued on next page)

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Code

Company

Service (continued)

SLD

HLS

SNL
SP
SP
SP
SP
SPEC
SPIN
SPL
SW
SWC
SWC
SWN
SWN

WA
BPB
HLS
SL
WA
WA
HLS
WA
BPB
HLS
WA
HLS
WA

Spectral Litho Density Tool


Sound (Sonan) Log
Sontanous Potential
Sontanous Potential
Sontanous Potential
Sontanous Potential
Gamma Ray Spectrum
Spinner Survey Tool
Spectralog
Sonic Waveform
Sidewall Coring Tool
Sidewall Samples
Sidewall Neutron Tool
Sidewall Epithermal Neutron Log

TAC
TBP
TCS
TDS
TDT
TEMP
TL
TMD
TRL
TVD

BPB
WA
SL
BPB
SL
HLS
WA
HLS
WA
HLS

Two Arm Caliper


Thru-Tubing Bridge Plug
Thru-Tubing Caliper Sonde
Thermal Neutron Decay
Thermal (Neutron) Decay Time Log
Temperature Tool
Temperature Log
Thermal Multigate Decay Tool
Injection Profile by Radioactive Tracers
True Vertical Depth

UCC
UGD
UHF

SL
BPB
HLS

Ultrasonic Caliper Log


Acoustic Noise
Ultra High Frequency Tool

VCST
VDL

HLS
SL

Vertical Cable Streamer Tool


Variable Density Log

WSS/SAS/DSAS
(WST/SAT/DSAT)
WSS/SAS/DSAT
(WST/SAT/DSAT)
WSS/SAS/DSAS
(WST/SAT/DSAT)

SL

Downhole Seismic Array

SL

Seismic Acquisition Tool

SL

Well Seismic Surveys

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Code

Company

Service (continued)

WTPS

SL

Well Tests Instruments Pressure Sonde

XYC

HLS

X-Y Caliper Tool

Z-Density

WA

Compensated Z-Densilog

Logging Company Abbreviations


SL Schlumberger
WA Western Atlas
HLS Halliburton Logging Services
BPB British Plaster Board

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1.8 Logging Cables, Heads and Fishing Tools

(continued on next page)

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Wireline Logging: General

Table 1.8-2 (continued)

*) These characters are for Rochester cables


Note: The maximum permissible pulling on a cable without customers order is 50% of the breaking strength of the
new cable.

(continued on next page)

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Petrophysical Engineering

Table 1.8-3 (continued)

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Wireline Logging: General

1.9 Wireline Logging Operations in Deviated Holes


The main problems in logging deviated holes concern the lowering of the tools in
open hole and the possible collapse of pad type tools due to gravitational force.
Another problem is that in a very oval hole the four pads of the dipmeter may not
all be in contact with the borehole wall.
Normal wireline logging tools have been lowered successfully in properly drilled
holes with deviation angles greater than 60 degrees, where all necessary care
had been taken to avoid washouts, ledges, doglegs and sticking hole conditions.
Under normal drilling conditions, holes with angles of greater than 45 degrees
may cause difficulties in lowering wireline logging tools. In cased holes these
tools can be lowered without difficulty at angles exceeding 70 degrees.
Where more rugose borehole conditions and/or increased borehole angles
prevent lowering of the tools, the first step is to log these holes with standard
tools adapted to reduce friction, increase tool weight and tool flexibility. These
tools can be used in open holes with angles up to 70 degrees.
Under more severe open hole conditions or greater borehole angles the logging
operation may have to be carried out by lowering the tools through casing, tubing
or drill pipe. A pumpdown technique may have to be used to propel the tool down
the pipe and into the open hole. These operations are time-consuming and
evaluation results become less certain if smaller diameter logging tools have to
be used because of the restricted diameter of the pipe.
For near-horizontal drilling, special techniques have been developed to lower
standard logging tools to the bottom of the drill pipe and make an electrical
connection between the wireline cable and the tool at logging depth.

1.9.1 Friction Reducing Devices


Two basic types of friction reducing device for open hole are available; these are
an in-line wheel device, and a stand-off device made from rubber or low-friction
plastic designed for operation in 57/8" diameter or larger bore-holes. For casing
and tubing operations various sizes of wheel centralisers, wheel subs and
weights, designed for installation at various places in the tool string, are
available. The wheel centralisers are useful for wells with very high deviation and
long intervals of smooth borehole wall consisting of consolidated rock.

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1.9.2 Other Devices


Weight Increasers
For open hole operations a 2.5 m long, 33/8" diameter device, weighing 120 kg
and containing straight-through electrical conductors, can be installed between
the cable head and the top of the tool string. More than one can be run in
tandem; other designs are available for cased hole and through-tubing
operations.
Tool Flexibility
A flexible adapter consisting of a 33/8" flex joint and two 33/8 in. in-line wheels
allowing a 4 flexure, can be installed between combination logging tools to
negotiate doglegs in the hole.
Tool Guidance
A semi-flexible guide with rubber fingers connected to the bottom end of the tool
string can assist in guiding the tool end past ledges or out of washouts.
The stand-off devices help the tool to overcome washouts by keeping it in the
middle of the hole and help in locating the hole in a ledge at the bottom of a
washout.
Schlumberger reports good results in with these friction reducing devices (Ref. 1)
open hole and up to 65 hole angle.

1.9.3 Logging Through Casing Drill Pipe: Pumpdown Techniques


Another method of lowering tools past difficult hole sections is to install open
ended casing, tubing or drill pipe over these sections and to log the open hole
section below it. Pumping down of the tools is required where friction is too high.
When the complete open hole section cannot be logged in one run, it is
necessary to lower the pipe over parts of the objective section as well and to log
the remaining open hole. This procedure may have to be repeated several times
to obtain logs over the complete sequence. It is advisable to install a tool re-entry
guide on the bottom of the pipe to facilitate re-entry of pad type tools and to avoid
cable damage.
The internal diameter of the casing, tubing or drill pipe used may be too small for
standard tools and slim hole tools have to be used. Allow 13 mm diameter
clearance in the drill string.

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The following tools are available:

The procedure for logging through drill pipe is as follows:


(a) Run in hole with open ended drill pipe. Collars and Heviwate should only
be used when essential (check clearance required for tools with the
minimum ID string). Fit a guide shoe or skirt to the bottom of the string to
permit easy re-entry of the logging tool. The pipe should be moved up and
down slowly with the blocks to prevent sticking.
(b) Attach mud pumps via Chicksan line to a circulating head installed at the
top of the drill string.
(c) Rig up logging company's top sheave wheel near the crown block using a
25 t sling.
(d) Thread logging cable over sheave wheels and through the pressure
control equipment and connect tool.
(e) Set pipe in slips. Pick up pressure control equipment with tugger line;
pick up tool with cable winch and run tool to 30 m below the drill floor.
Slack off on tugger and connect pressure control equipment to circulating
head.
(f) Reciprocate pipe and begin circulation with the mud pumps. The mud
pumps should be started with caution and only 10 15 bar pressure is
normally required to circulate the mud.

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(g) Run logging tool down inside the drill pipe as fast as possible without
causing any drop in cable tension. The pipe should not be reciprocated
as the tool approaches the guide shoe.
(h) As soon as the tool is descending in open hole, move the pipe again if
there is any risk of sticking.
(i) Log from the lowest depth reached. Continue circulating mud until tool is
inside drill pipe.
(j) Stop moving pipe when tool approaches the guide shoe.
(k) Depending on the maximum depth reached, it may be necessary to add
some more stands to the drill string and set the guide shoe about one
hundred metres deeper before the next attempt is made to get the tool
down to total depth.
If difficulty is encountered when re-entering the drill pipe after logging, very slow
rotation of the pipe should allow re-entry.
A disadvantage of slim hole tools is the reduced accuracy of the porosity
measurement (by 23%) and resistivity measurement due to the larger borehole
effects.
1.9.4

Logging of Near-Horizontal Holes

To overcome the problems with slim hole tools and to be able to log nearhorizontal holes, two systems have been developed as described below:
(a) Logging Horizontal Wells by the SIMPHOR System
The Institut Franais du Ptrole and Elf Aquitaine have developed and used this
method to log horizontal boreholes.
Standard open and cased hole Schlumberger logging and perforating (4" carrier)
tools have been lowered into the hole inside a protective housing on the bottom
of the drill-pipe string. When this string reaches the shoe of the last casing, a 7
conductor electric transmission cable connected to a sinkerbar and female
electrical connector system is lowered inside the drill pipe, until it locks
mechanically into the logging sonde and makes the electrical connection. The
logging cable is brought outside the drill string via a side entry sub. Further
adding of drill pipe brings the logging tool in the open hole and logging can
commence after power is applied to the cable.
Some 500 m of near-horizontal 81/2" hole have been logged in this manner with
standard 3 to 4 OD tools using the 5" OD SIMPHOR system.
A 3" SIMPHOR is available for running tools without a protective housing.

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Wireline Logging: General

Logs recorded to-date using this method are: induction, spherically focussed,
dual laterolog, gamma ray, neutron, BHC sonic, 4 arm-caliper, CBL, CCL and 4"
perforating gun for perforating 7" liner (9 m length).
(b) Logging Deviated Holes over 65
A prototype has been built by Schlumberger of a tool system to lower standard
size logging tools in a steel envelope with a stinger on the bottom of the drill pipe.
A locomotive brings an 8-conductor cable down through the drill pipe and first
connects the stinger and then makes the electrical connection with the tool.
Further pumping brings the tool out of the steel envelope into the open hole, and
logging can commence.

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1.10

Sticking of Wireline Logging Equipment

Most Frequent Causes of Stuck Tools


(a) Differential sticking. Cable or logging tools can be stuck to the wall of the
hole by differential pressure if the tools are not moved or moved at a very
low speed.
(b) Key seating. Cable or logging tools can be pulled into a slot (key seat)
which is sometimes cut in the (high) side of the hole by the cable during a
series of logging operations, particularly so in deviated wells.
(c) Unstable hole. Hole collapsing, loose formation and hole bridging.

Prevention of Differential Sticking


(a) Move the logging cable continuously when running tools in open hole.
(b) Calibration of certain tools which may be carried out in a 150 m open-hole
section immediately below the casing shoe should take the shortest
possible time.
(c) During WLFT, after setting the tool, the cable should be slackened off and
moved ('yo-yoing') throughout the test period.
(d) Limit the number of logging runs in between bit trips in the hole
particularly when heavy mud is used or frequent drag is experienced.
This limit may be relaxed if the hole is in excellent condition and no drag is
experienced. It is at the discretion of the Toolpusher advised by the WSPE
and the Logging Engineer to decide if and when a checktrip will be made.
(e) During sidewall sampling, the samples should be taken while moving the
tool very slowly upwards (sampling on the run).
(f) Should the Logging Unit break down whilst running tools in the open hole,
the following emergency procedures should be followed:
Move the traveling block over a 35 m interval to move the cable, taking
care that the cable does not jump out of the groove of the top sheave.
Check the weight on the Martin Decker gauge.
Before starting this operation, ensure that the Logging Contractors
weight indicator cable is not fastened to the derrick floor and can move
freely. The operation should always be supervised by the Logging Engineer.
If possible there should be inter-communication between the Logging Unit
and the Driller so that the operation can be controlled by the more sensitive
wireline logging tension meter.

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1.10.1

General Guidelines on Stuck Tool, Weak Point and Fishing Kit

(a) If tool is stuck on bottom, pull to maximum safe tension and hold it.
(b) If tool is stuck during logging, try to go down. If tool is free to descend,
attempt to pass bridge. If tool is not free to descend, tool or cable is
stuck. Pull to maximum safe tension and hold it.
(c) If the tool fails to come free after working the cable for 30-40 min, the
cut-and-thread technique should normally be attempted. The cable will
hold the tool in a centralised position and serve as a guide for the
overshot.
(d) On no account should an attempt be made to break the weak point
unless clear instructions have been given from base to do so.
(e) Sharp edges and abrasive formations will cause wear during working
the stuck cable. The weak point above the tool is therefore no longer the
weakest point necessarily. Even if successful, breaking the weak point
considerably reduces the chance of recovering the tool.
(f)

In a vertical hole of good condition with no sign of cable key-seating, or


when inside casing, a tool can be fished with good probability, using the
technique of breaking the weak point and fishing with an overshot with
OD slightly smaller than bit size.

(g) NEVER break the weak point when a radioactive tool is stuck. Cutting
and threading is obligatory.
(h) Never SUDDENLY release tension on a cable. This causes 'bird cages'
and broken cables. Tension should be released slowly and should not
drop below half the 'normal logging tension.
(i)

Know the cable weight, the allowed overpull and hence the maximum
safe pull which can be applied at all times.

(j)

Never pull more than 8,000 lb on a normal cable (break point 16,000 lb).
Check the type and age of the cable.

(k)

Never pull more than 2,500 lb on a small cable (break point 5,100 lb).

(I)

Never pull more than 7,500 lb on a spliced cable.

(m) Never pull more than 4,500 lb on the standard weak point unless breaking is intended (and only on clear instructions from Base).

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(n) Never pull more than 1,500 lb on the weak point of a small cable
unless breaking it is intended. Safe pull is 1,125 + (0.08 x depth in feet) lb.

Schlumberger Fishing Kit


The fishing kit is designed to fit 41/2" IF tool joint. It includes:
1. A complete overshot assembly. Four guides are available: 31/2", 4'/2", 53/4"
and 7" OD. The grapples fit the different cable heads.
2. A spear rope socket with matching overshot rope socket assembly.
3. A circulating sub.
4. A cable hanger.
Note: The WSPE should check with the Logging Engineer the correct size of grapple to
use for the logging head in use before to RIH. The size of the grapple should be measured
as a double check.

1.10.2 Fishing for Stuck Tool


1.10.2.1 Open Hole
When a tool becomes stuck in open hole and all attempts to free it have failed,
the decision must be made at Base whether to fish the tool or cement it in place.
This is particularly important in the case of tools containing radioactive sources,
to which special regulations apply (see 8.1).
In the unlikely event that the decision is made to cement the tool in place,
specific instructions for the procedure to be followed will be telexed from Base.
In general, the Wireline Company Engineer will probably have more experience
at fishing for wireline equipment than the Oil Company Engineer. Nevertheless
the responsibility for the fishing operation rests with the WSPE and the
Toolpusher who should familiarise themselves with the equipment and technique
to be used before the operation commences. The wireline company engineer will
supply the required fishing tools and advise if requested, but once the tool is
stuck his assistance is advisory only.
The following procedure is to be adopted when fishing with the cut and thread
technique' (stripping over cable):
Preparing the Cable:
(a) Set cable tension at 2,000 lb above normal hanging weight.
(b) Clamp the T-bar on the cable just above the rotary table, and lower the
cable until the T-bar is supported by the rotary table. Continue lowering
cable until there are several feet of slack cable on the drill floor.

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(c) Cut the cable a few metres (1.5-2 m) from the T-bar and make up the
Bowen spear to the logging unit end and socket to the tool end.
(d) Rig down Wave Compensator (floating rigs). Attach upper wireline
sheave to main cross-member of derrick with special chain to leave
blocks free to run pipe. Ensure that the wireline tension device cable is
carefully trained around the outside of the derrick to avoid damage
during drill floor operations.
Threading Cable Through Drill Pipe:
(e) Make up correct fishing guide and grapple assembly for fishing neck of
stuck tool. Use correct skirt for hole size. Feed socket on cable end
through fishing assembly.
(f) Thread overshot spear through first stand of pipe and stab into socket.
(g) Take tension on wireline, check overshot assembly. Remove T-bar.
Make up first stand to fishing assembly.
(h) Run first stand into hole, set slips.
(i)

Place C-clamp over top of drill pipe, lower cable assembly to catch lower
rope socket on C-clamp, disconnect spear.

(j)

Pick up next stand of drill pipe, thread overshot spear through pipe, stab
into rope socket, take cable tension with winch, remove C-clamp.

(k) Lower stand, watching cable tension carefully, and stopping if cable
tension increases. DO NOT ROTATE PIPE while lowering, to avoid
possibility of cutting cable.
Approaching and Engaging the Fish:
(I) When the grapple is one joint above the tool, install circulating sub, circulate
slowly to clean top of tool. Continue circulation while lowering pipe and
engaging fish in overshot. Note increase in pumping pressure and cable
tension as tool head enters overshot. Stop circulation. (While circulating, the
cable is held onto the circulating sub by a special bushing.)
Breaking the Weak Point:
(m) Ensure that fishing head is engaged in grapple, set pipe in slips. Attach
T-bar to cable (below socket), pick up T-bar with travelling blocks.
(n)

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(a) Remove Bowen spear overshot and rope socket, knot logging cable, take
cable tension with logging unit winch, remove T-bar.
(p) Spool cable on logging unit.
(q) Pull pipe out of hole slowly. DO NOT ROTATE. Close BOPs as soon as
tool is safely through.
(r) Ensure that complete tool has been recovered.
Grapples, guides, skirts and circulating sub are supplied by the Wireline Logging
Contractor.
In deviated wells ( > 25) it is almost invariably safer to strip over the cable to
recover both tool and cable. If the cable breaks at a dogleg, it will still be retained
inside the drill pipe.
The procedure to be followed in this case is given above.
1.10.2.2

Cased Hole

It should not normally be necessary to strip over the cable to recover a tool stuck
inside a vertical casing. In this case it is far quicker, easier and cheaper to break
the weak point and fish for the tool with the cable removed from the hole.
Nevertheless, the decision to follow this course must be made by Base.
Procedure in vertical casing when strip over is NOT required is as follows:
(a) Clamp the T-bar to the cable above the rotary table.
(b) Rig down Wave Compensator (floating rigs). Attach upper wire line
sheave to main cross-member of derrick with special chain to leave
blocks free.
(c) Pick up T-bar in travelling blocks, pull up and break weak point.
(d) Lower blocks, take cable tension with logging unit, remove T-bar, spool
cable on logging unit,
(e) Rig down wire line.
(f) Make up fishing assembly with correct fishing guide, skirt and grapple for
casing size and tool fishing neck.
(g) Run in to top fish, carefully engage fish.
(h) When fish is securely engaged, pull out slowly. DO NOT ROTATE.

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(i) Close BOPs as soon as tool is safely through.


(j) Ensure that complete tool has been recovered.
Grapples, guides, skirts and circulating sub are supplied by the Wireline Logging
Contractor.
1.10.2.3

Fishing through Tubing

1. When a tool gets stuck either in or below tubing, the only remedy in most
cases is to pull tubing to recover the fish. It is not unknown for a fish to be
retrieved by pumping it out, using reverse circulation (down the tubing/ casing
annulus, up the tubing).
2. Fishing can be attempted on piano wire. The technique can only be successful if the tool is free, e.g. it has dropped off the end of the logging cable.
Fishing for a stuck tool using piano wire will almost invariably aggravate the
problem.
3. Equipment required for fishing on piano wire is supplied and maintained by the
piano wireline contractor.

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1.11 Detection of Stuck Point/Back-Off Equipment


Detection of the stuck point in order to find the lowest possible back-off can be
established by stretching the string and using stretch charts for drill pipe. A more
accurate method of free point detection is using the Stuck Pipe Indicator Tool
(SIT) (see Figure 1.11-1).
1.11.1 Stuck Pipe Indicator Tool
In order to back-off the string at the deepest possible point a Stuck Pipe Indicator
Tool (SIT) can be run on electrical wireline to determine the deepest free point of
the string.
By applying stretch and torque on the pipe the SIT can determine elongation or
rotation at any depth by use of a strain sensor placed between two springloaded or hydraulic centralisers.
The operation is monitored at the surface and depth control is provided by a
CCL.
A plot of depth versus the percentage of surface torque and pull transmitted
downhole will show the deepest point at which the string is free (see Figure
1.11-2).
Procedure for Running the SIT
(a) Before running the tool the spring centraliser pads should be checked by
the WSPE both for wear and for the correct pressure for the particular size
of drill pipe. All IDs of the string should be checked to ensure the tool can
pass through.
(b) Determine approximately where the pipe is stuck by measuring the
stretch of the pipe.
(c) Using the Logging Company tables, determine the stretch and torque that
have to be applied to the pipe.
(d) Pull up to the neutral weight of the pipe above the stuck point. Mark the
pipe at this point. Label this Mark No. 1.
(e) Pull up to the neutral weight of the pipe plus the stretch required. Label
this Mark No. 2.
(f) After this the Martin-Decker gauge is not used but still observed. All
tensions are referred to by the marks on the DP.

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Write out for the Driller the four instructions for the measurements
viz:
(i) Pull pipe up to Mark No. 2. Take reading.
(ii) Release tension in pipe, go down below Mark No. 1 and pull back up
to Mark No. 1.
(iii) Drop in the slips without moving the pipe if possible. (If not using a
kelly).
Apply the required torque. Work down the torque using tongs preferably on a convenient tool joint to prevent the pipe from rotating.
Pull up to Mark No. 1 before taking the measurement. Keep all nonessential personnel off the drill floor during this operation.
(iv) Release the torque. Report the number of turns that come out of the
pipe. Work the pipe to remove all torque. Pull back up to Mark
No. 1.
Notes:
1. It is essential that the pipe is pulled up to the marks to avoid problems due
to pipe friction in the hole.
2. It is essential when measuring stretch that there is no torque in the drill pipe, and
vice versa.
3. When taking the readings the Logging Engineer should refer to each instruction by
number. This avoids any confusion and ensures that the operations are properly
repeated.

(g) Run the SIT down to + 60 m above the expected stuck point where it is
certain that the pipe is free. Take the stretch measurement first, followed
by the torque measurement. Check the readings to confirm that the SIT is
not slipping or that the torque has worked itself down.
(h) Measure stretch and torque below the stuck point, as close as possible.
(i) Take further measurements between the lowest free point and the highest stuck point. Take as many measurements as possible around the
stuck point.
(j) The PE and TP should co-ordinate the operations of the Driller and the
Logging Engineer.
Example: Rasau-6X (see also Figure 1.11-2).
Driller's Instructions:
1. Pull pipe up to Mark No. 2 (185,000 lb).
2. Release pipe to 145,000 lb and pull up to Mark No. 1 (165,000 lb).
3. Drop pipe in slips, work in 5 turns RH torque
4. Release torque.
Situation: 31/2 15.5 lb/ft drill pipe stuck at 10,586 ft.

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1.11.2 Back-Off Equipment


The back-off operation (with explosives) consists in transmitting torque to the
joint to be broken while applying pull for neutral weight at this depth. Choose a
connection that was broken on the last round trip.
An explosive device is positioned by a CCL in the joint to be broken and is
detonated to help unscrew the pipe.
String Shot Size
The size of the string shot should be determined as near as possible. It must be
big enough to back off the joint without splitting the pipe. In general 2 3 strands
of primer cord can be taken over and above the Schlumberger recommended
charge.
If no back-off torque can be applied, an attempt can be made to jump the
box:
Run 80 grain primer cord of a length (in feet) equal to at least 10 times the
pipe diameter (in inches), e.g. for 41/2" drill pipe use 45 ft (15 m) of 80 grain
primer cord.
Make sure the primer cord bundle passes through the minimum ID of the
string.
As a last resort the pipe can be cut by using explosive or chemical cutters
(111/16 Schlumberger severing tool). Here also the minimum restriction of
the pipe should be observed.

1.12 Wireline Logging Wave/Tide Compensation for Floating Rigs


The most common system used for wave/tide compensation is shown in Figure
1.12-1. The system works as follows:
Three sheave wheels A, B, C are required for compensation. C is attached to the
floating drill ship, below the reference point (in this example, the wellhead W). A
is held in the travelling blocks, and B is supported by a1/2" steel cable which
passes from the wellhead W, under wheel C, over wheel A, under wheel B and is
tied back to wheel A again.
The upper logging cable sheave wheel U is fastened to wheel B through the
tension device T, and the lower logging cable sheave wheel L is attached to the
drill floor of the rig.
Assume the entire floating system moves upwards a distance h relative to the
wellhead W, which is fixed to the sea bed.

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Wheel C will move upwards a distance h, and a length of cable equal to h will
pass around wheel C and also around wheel A, which is fixed relative to C. Since
the other end of the cable is attached to A, the extra cable is taken up by
movement of wheel B downwards through a distance h/2 relative to A. Wheel B
has therefore moved upwards by h/2 with respect to the wellhead and mean sea
level (MSL).
Now consider the logging cable. The upper sheave wheel U is attached to B, and
has moved upwards h/2. The lower sheave wheel L has moved upwards a
distance h. A length of cable h/2 therefore passes over U, equal to the upward
distance moved by U; the logging tool therefore remains at exactly the same
place relative to the wellhead and MSL.
Notes:
1.Distance WC must exceed the maximum tide/wave movement expected
throughout the logging operation.
2. The rucker system to the wellhead must be operational when the wave compensator is
in use.
3. State of the tide (above mean sea level) must be taken into account during the first
logging run when the magnetic mark is caught at the rotary table with the tool at casing
shoe.
Thereafter, the tool zero and mark are checked roughly at surface, and the surveys are
tied in to the first run.
4. Do not attempt to free a stuck tool with the Wave Compensator in use. Clamp off the
logging cable with a T-bar and rig up with the upper logging wheel U in the travelling
blocks.

An alternative compensating device is shown in Figure 1.12-2. This system is


much simpler than the older device, which it is rapidly displacing. The system
works as follows:
A heavy cable C is connected from the top of the marine riser, over a large
sheave wheel W which is supported by a tensioner D from the travelling blocks,
to a shear pin attached to the derrick floor. The upper logging sheave wheel U is
attached via the cable tension device to the sheave wheel W, and the lower
logging sheave L which is fastened to the derrick floor.
Suppose that the drillship moves down a distance h. The shear pin moves down
the same distance, but the other end of cable C remains stationary. The
compensatory device D operates to maintain tension in cable C, wheel W
therefore moves down, but only a distance h/2.
Now consider what happens to the logging cable.

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The lower sheave L, which is attached to the derrick floor, moves DOWN a
distance h. If the upper sheave sheel U were fixed (relative to the seabed), the
logging tool would have to rise through the same distance, h. But the upper
sheave wheel U has descended by a distance h/2, allowing the tool to descend
h/2 + h/2 = h. The net result is that the logging tool remains at a fixed depth
relative to the top of the marine riser.
Notes:
1. The compensating device (tensioner) D must have sufficient travel to cope with
maximum tide/wave movement expected during the logging operation.
2. State of the tide above mean sea level must be taken into account during the first
logging run (as in Note 3 above).
3. Attempts may be made to free a stuck tool with the wave compensator operating.

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Open Hole Logging

2 OPEN HOLE LOGGING


2.1 Methods of Open Hole Logging
2.1.1 Rig-Up and Survey Checks
Details of the calibration can be found in the latest contractor literature, e.g.
Schlumberger Cyber Service Unit, Well site Products Calibration Guide and
Mnemonics, CP 32 or (Dresser) Atlas, Calibration Guide, 486.
2.1.1.1 Rig-Up
(a) Check that the sheaves have been inspected on a regular basis.
(b) Lower sheave. The wheel tie-down chain must be fastened to an integral
part of the rig structure. The loose end of the chain should be taped or tied
with string to prevent accidental release.
(c) Tension device cable should be tied back out of the way of logging cable,
and its path from rig floor to survey unit must be carefully arranged to
avoid damage from crane operations during logging.
(d) Cranes must not traverse or lift above logging cable during wireline
operations.
(e) When making up combination tools in the hole, the blind rams must
always be closed. If the tool is too long to be made up above the closed
rams, it must be connected together over the mouse-hole
(f) Check that the lower sheave is aligned with the cable, and that the upper
sheave has rotated so that the cable does not foul itself, after the tool has
been picked up.
(g) Make surface calibration before survey
2.1.1.2 Running in Hole
(a) Set Tool Zero at drill floor.
(b) Check that Bell remains on depth.
(c) Check that tool appears to be working.
Run in hole with such speed that can be reached on changes in cable
tension without damaging the tool or entangling the cable. Overall maximum speed should be less than 12,000 m/hr (40,000 ft/hr).
(d) Note all bridges, tight spots, etc. by watching tension indicator.
(e) If tool hangs up above TD, attempt to work it past the obstruction but do
not endanger the tool and do not spud. It is cheaper to make a wiper trip
with the bit than to fish a radioactive source out of the hole.
(f) Make downhole calibration before survey.

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2.1.1.3 On Bottom
(a) Check depth.
(b) Make repeat section.
(c) Check scales, look for obvious anomalies, check light intensity of film
Check memorisation and applied corrections.
(d) Run survey.
2.1.1.4 Surveying
(a) Check lift-off point. Restart if footage is missed.
(b) Check readings to ensure they make sense.
(c) Make sure that film canisters are turning.
(d) Make sure Bell remains on depth.
(e) Cable Tension. When using standard weak point on normal cable, this
must not exceed 3,0001b overpull without permission from HO. The weak
point is designed to break at about 5,000 lb overpull. Monocable heads
(and monocables used for perforating) use weak points with considerably reduced breaking strength.
(f) Logging Speed. See individual tools for maximum speed.
(g) Correlate with previous logs.
(h) Record 30 m past casing shoe, or overlap with previous logs.
2.1.1.5 After Survey
(a) Check that repeat section repeats.
(b) Record downhole calibration after survey, and check that both calibrations are correct.
(c) Check that logging speed is correct. Note that the speed is indicated on
the film by breaks in the left hand margin of track one. The distance
between two breaks is the distance recorded in one minute.
(d) Be satisfied with the log before laying down tools.
(e) Check head, bridle, torpedo of the tool for damage as soon as the tool is
out of the hole.
(f) Make surface calibration after survey.
2.1.2

Induction Spherically Focused

2.1.2.1 Spontaneous Potential (SP)


(a) Scale
10 or 15 mV per division.

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(b) Speed
(As Induction) 1800 m/h (limited by GR requirements).
(c) Calibration
Recording not required.
(d) Common Faults.
(i) Noise. This is frequently caused by welding on the rig, storms and rig
generator faults.
(ii) Oscillation. Caused by magnetisation of drum, winch chain or spooler.
(iii) Galvo drifts off track.
2.1.2.2 Spherically Focused Resistivity
(a) Scale
Logarithmic 0.2 to 2000 - m.
(b) Speed
1800 m/h (but limited by GR requirements)
(c) Calibration

Note:
Look out for noise 'spikes caused by poor contacts in tool or electrodes, or wear on
commutator.
SFL cannot be run in oil-base mud.

2.1.2.3 Induction
(a) Scale
Logarithmic 0.2 to 2000 .m.
(b) Speed
1800 m/h (but limited by GR requirements)
(c) Calibration

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Notes;
1. Ensure that Induction has been correctly memorised.
2. Induction survey should repeat exactly.
1
3. Ensure that 1 /2" standoffs are used.

2.1.3

Dual Laterolog

(a) Scale
0.2 to 2000 .m logarithmic.
(b) Speed
1200 m/h (limited by speed of MSFL or GR when run in combination).
(c) Calibration
(i) SU
Calibration recorded downhole before and after survey, should
match exactly. Crucial reading is 31.6 m (last step).
(ii) CSU

2.1.4

Micro Tools

1. Pad tools will rarely repeat exactly, but any discrepancy between runs should
be minor. If in doubt, ask for extra repeats. In any case, check condition of
pads before and after survey.
2. Always make a short piece of film into the foot of the casing, and check the
resistivity readings and caliper.
3. Always run caliper with Microtools as it is essential for interpretation.

2.1.4.1

Micro-SFL

(a) Scale
Logarithmic 0.2 to 2000 . m.
(b) Speed
600 m/h.
(c) Calibration
(i) SU
Calibration before and after survey should match exactly. Check low
reading (2 . m) and high reading (1000 . m).
(ii) CSU

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Before Survey:
After Survey:
Tolerance:

Zero
0

Plus
1000mS/m

+2

+ 20mS/m

Note:

This tool sometimes has a tendency to oscillate, particularly at high resistivities.


Above 100 . m, the microtool reading is of little value.

2.1.4.2 Proximity Log


(a) Scale
Logarithmic 0.2 to 2000 .m.
(b) Speed
1200 m/h.
(c) Calibration
Calibration before and after survey should match exactly, except 1000
.m signal may not be very stable and may drift between 750 and 1050.
This need not cause concern.
Note: The survey can be run with cartridge in 'Microlaterolog position. This results in
a survey with the resistivities too low ( 1.65 to get true reading).

2.1.4.3 Microlaterolog
As for Proximity, except the most common fault is running the log with the
cartridge in Proximity position. This results in a survey with the resistivities too
high ( 0.6 to get true reading).

2.1.4.4 Microlog
(a) Scale
O to 10 .m
(b) Speed
600 m/h.
(c) Calibration
Calibrations before and after survey should match exactly.
Notes:
1. Reject a survey with negative readings.
2. One or both resistivity curves may read incorrectly often caused by faulty pad wiring.

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2.1.5 Gamma Ray


(a) Scale
0 100 API (Open and Cased Hole)
(If recorded value is around 100 API for long intervals the scale may be
changed to 0 150 API).
(b) Speed
550 m/h Time Constant 2.
1100 m/h Time Constant 1 (Cased hole, for correlation only).
(c) Calibration
Before survey calibration only required.
This includes zeros, memoriser sensitivity check, background and calibration.
Notes:
1. Check that GR is correctly memorised, to be on depth with main simultaneous survey.
2. Check for cross-talk with other pulsed tools.
3. Reject a survey with spurious, random peaks or zero readings.
4. Clean, porous sections have a GR background reading around 10 API.
5. Repeat will not be exact, as a result of statistical variations.

(6) Depth Control for Perforating


When surveying with CCL for perforating depth control, 60 m repeat
run should include 30 m with CCL depth corrections; 30 m without.
The log heading must include tool type and CCL and radioactivity tool
measure points. State clearly whether CCL or the correlation log is on depth.
If memorisation or optical correction is applied so that both the CCL and the
recorded log are on depth, this should be stated, along with the amount of
correction applied. Ensure that panel settings relevant to tool response are
noted on the heading.
Spooler adjustment is permissible during depth control logging, but must be
limited to 1 m per 200 m of survey.
2.1.6 Density
(a) Scales
Bulk Density: 1.95 to 2.95 g/cm3
Correction: 0.25 to + 0.25 g/cm3 (Track III)
(b) Speed
550 m/h (Time Constant = 2)

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(c) Calibration
Before and after survey calibration checks of response of long and short
spacing detectors should be as closely identical as statistical variations
on calibration time constant will allow. Shop (master) calibration should
be less than one month old. Checks include panel computation. Calibration film readings should correspond with legend on calibration tail, and
observed count rates during calibration should match shop-recorded
counts within 5%.
Notes:
1. Correction: Unless the mud weight is excessive, correction magnitude is close
to zero. Treat any survey with significant (0.05 g/cm3) and fairly constant
correction in porous intervals with suspicion.
2. Repeat: Repeat Section will not match main survey exactly, but differences
should be within statistical variation.
3. Check survey against logs from nearby wells, if possible.
4. Recording of caliper is essential for interpretation.
5. Record tension on 1:200 throughout survey.
6. Observe all safety precautions relating to handling and use of radioactive
sources.

2.1.7 Neutron (compensated)


(a) Scale
15: +15: + 45% porosity when run with density.
(b) Speed
550 m/h, T.C. = 2.
(c) Calibration
(i) SU Before and after calibration response should be as closely identical as statistical variation on calibration time constant will allow.
Shop (Master) calibration should be less than 1 month old.
Count rate deflection should match master calibration with jig.
Porosity should be 18%. Ratio should match within + 0.04.
Checks also include panel computation. After survey calibration
should be left attached to main survey. Ensure that the memoriser
sensitivity adjustment is recorded during panel test.
(iii) CSU
ZERO
PLUS
Before Survey NRAT
0
2.16 ( + 0.1)
After Survey
2.16 + 0.04
During calibration the calibrating box must be at least 0.6 m away from
any solid object.
See Table 2.1-1 for tolerances for nuclear tools.

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Notes:
1. Check that hole size correction switch is properly set.
2. Check that correct time constant (= 2) is being used.
3. Check that memorisation depth is accurate.
4. Check for cross-talk.
5. Erroneous readings. Ensure that repeat section and main survey are basically
identical. Then check against logs in nearby wells.
6. Recording of caliper is essential to interpretation of CNT when surveyed in open hole.
The CNL normally makes use of the FDC caliper. When CNL is recorded alone a
specially modified FDC caliper is run in conjunction for this purpose.
7. Record tension on 1:200 scale.
8. Observe all safety precautions relating to handling and use of radioactive sources.

2.1.8 Acoustic (Bore Hole Compensated)


(a) Scale
0-90 140 s/ft (run alone) over track 2 and 3
40-140 s/ft single track (in combination)
(b) Speed
1200 m/h (limited by gamma ray when run in combination).
(c) Calibration
(i) SU
Downhole calibration before and after survey should match exactly.
Calibrate signals are 40, 60, 80, 100 and 140 s/ft. If integrated time is
recorded, a check must be made with 100 s and 50 s signals for at
least 10 pulses/signal
(ii) CSU
No calibration recorded.
Notes:
1. Sonic equipment is not calibrated (in the accepted sense of the term) by feeding a
known signal into the downhole circuitry and adjusting the recording equipment to give
a standard output. Sonic calibration involves normalisation against time signals from a
quartz-controlled clock, and can be effected with the downhole equipment
disconnected. The only check of correct operation of the sound velocity recording
system is the travel time in steel casing, which is 57 s/ft.
2. Do not accept a survey with excessive cycle skips, which are long, thin pips caused by
severe signal attenuation. The 'pips may be either side of the correct reading.
Occasional cycle skips are no great disadvantage, but since they can normally be
prevented by a slight surface adjustment they should be kept to a minimum, particularly
in reservoir sections. If cycle skips cannot be cured by panel adjustment, two other
courses are possible:
Re-polarise the sonde.

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Ensure that centralisers are in good condition. Although cycle skipping is usually
recognised in the form of pips', it must be remembered that under appropriate
conditions several feet of survey can be recorded with the wrong t. This situation does not frequently arise but the possibility should be borne in mind.
3. Repeat will be exact, except for cycle skips.
4. Caliper is not normally required with BHC.
5. Sonic requires good centralisation.
6. Integrated Travel Time should always be recorded.
7. A short section must be run in casing to check correct t, which should be 57 s/
ft.
8. Ensure that trigger level is set manually by the Engineer, not automatically by the
equipment.

2.1.9

Dipmeter/Diplog

(a) Scale
Resistivity scale selection is based on the principle that curves have ample
variation, without saturation. Scales may be changed during the course of the
operation.
Caliper scales
Normally 6" 16" (may be changed to suit hole size)

(b) Speed
730 m/h maximum.
(c) Calibration
Before survey only. After panel calibration has been recorded, a check is made
of:
(i) Caliper calibration
(ii) Deviation
(iii) Azimuth and Relative Bearing correct and tracking.
(iv) Pads connected correctly, and no cross-talk.
(d) Notes
(i) This is one of the easiest tools for ensuring a good survey.

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Caliper
Inside casing, both calipers should be virtually identical and equal to
ID of casing. Over limestone/sandstone intervals calipers should be
similar and about bit size.
In shales the calipers may be considerably different, depending on
the ovality of the hole. Calipers with stair-steps are not acceptable.
The angle of dip will vary considerably depending on hole size an
accurate caliper is essential for accurate interpretation.
If one caliper indicates a very large hole, one or both resistivity
curves associated with that caliper may appear 'dead. This is simply
because the pad is not against the hole wall, and there is not much
that can be done about it.
Resistivity
Resistivity curves will all indicate about the same deflection from
zero at the same depth. Ensure that the intensity of the current is
continuously adjusted by the operator on the CSU unit so that all the
curves are lively without too much saturation. Scales can be changed
while logging without affecting the value of the survey. A mechanical
zero shift is unimportant. If one or more curves go dead', check the
hole size from the corresponding caliper if the hole is too big the
pads may not be touching the wall.
Angles
First check the deviation (solid trace). This should indicate the deviation known from surveys made while drilling. The curve is quite
smooth, since it has a long time constant, but it will be affected by
changes in resistivity scale. This need not cause concern, as rapid
variations are discounted in interpretation. Note where deviation is
less than 1/2, since this will affect the behaviour of the Relative Bearing.

Next, check the Azimuth (solid trace). Have available the exact co-ordinates of
the reference point used for the survey. If not, note precisely which fixed point
was used for future checks. As a result of the cable characteristics, the tool
rotates clockwise as it is pulled from the hole. When a low-angle dipmeter
cartridge is being used, the azimuth of # (No.) 1 electrode moves from 1 division
of Track 1 to the right hand edge of Track 1, then jumps back to repeat the
movement, as the tool rotates. In an oval hole the tool may even rotate a few
degrees counter-clockwise.

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Again, look out for stair-steps sudden changes of azimuth followed by


constant readings, a series of 'steps' as the tool rotates. Reject a survey
with steps in the Azimuth reading. However, in high-angle cartridges the
tool registers the actual hole azimuth, which is relatively constant, and
changes only when the orientation of hole deviation changes. In this case
long sections of constant azimuth, followed by a fairly rapid change, may
be quite normal.
Finally, check the relative bearing (dotted trace).
If the deviation is less than 1/2, the relative bearing may wander
indiscriminately over Track 1.
With a deviation greater than 1/2, in the low-angle cartridge, the relative
bearing behaves like the azimuth, with a separation which depends on the
direction of hole deviation. Consequently, the relative bearing and azimuth
track' together until the hole deviation changes direction in most holes,
infrequently. Again, look out for stair-steps' which indicate mechanical
problems in the relative bearing mechanism.
The relative bearing when a high-angle cartridge is in use may rotate
independently of the azimuth. Note that an oval hole may prevent rotation,
making the relative bearing almost constant.
(ii) Avoid sudden changes in cable tension with dipmeter: torque induced in the cable may not be releasable, and a birdcage in the cable
will result.
(iii) Dipmeter requires good centralisation.
2.1.10 Caliper
(a) Scale
One inch per division.
(b) Speed
As for logging tool
(c) Calibration
Record settings for 8" and 12" rings before survey.
(d) Notes
(i) Stair-steps.
Caliper does not move smoothly, but jumps from one reading to the
next. A log with this defect should be rejected.
(ii) Erroneous readings.
Checks: In production intervals the hole diameter should be bit size
minus up to 1" mud-cake. In tight intervals the hole diameter should
be bit size. Best check is ID of casing.

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(iii) Micro SFL or Microlaterolog caliper is a two-arm device with very


low pad force and soft pads. This caliper will follow the largest diameter hole (in the case of oval hole), but reduced by twice the mudcake thickness.
FDC Caliper is also two-arm with high pad force and steel pad and
back-up shoe. This caliper will also follow the greatest diameter,
reduced by mud-cake thickness since the back-up shoe is assumed
to cut through the mud-cake and press against the formation.
Sonic and CDM (three-arm dipmeter) caliper are both three-armed
calipers with moderate arm force. This device reads the smallest
diameter of all, since it averages the hole size reduced by twice the
mud-cake thickness. These calipers are no longer used.
The four-arm dipmeter has a four-arm caliper which gives two independent orthogonal readings of hole diameter. Pad force is extremely high, and the reading will be affected very little by mud
cake.
BGT (Borehole Geometry Tool) is a four-arm caliper similar to the
DIP Tool, giving two independent orthogonal readings of hole diameter, reduced by mud cake. The BGT can also be used to determine
the magnitude and direction of hole derivation.
Note The BGT includes a Hole Volume Integrator, but remember that the
integrated volume may be severely underestimated.

(iv) Do not run caliper on 1: 1000 scale.


Note: Gearhart calibration procedures generally follow the same principles.
Different standard values are used. For further reading, see Schlumberger Cyber
Service Unit, CSU Well Site Products and Calibration Guide, CP 26, Nov. 1983,
from which much of the information in 2.1 has been taken with permission.

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2.1.11 Gearhart Calibration Standards

Tolerances must be consequently adapted to match with SIPM specifications.

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2.2 Principles of Log Evaluation


Log Evaluation consists of a number of consecutive steps which result in the
determination of net pay, porosity, hydrocarbon saturation, fluid content and
where possible a permeability prediction. These data are required for the
determination of oil and/or gas reserves in place and for the selection of
intervals to be tested and/or produced preferentially.
The first step in log evaluation is the quality control of the logs followed by
correlation of these logs with the mudlog and logs of surrounding wells to
determine the significant events, such as markers, contacts gas/oil, oil/water
and gas/water, etc. The lithology is determined from the logs and compared
with the cutting and core descriptions, whereafter the porosity can be calculated from the porosity logs and the hydrocarbon saturation from the porosity and the resistivity logs.
The determination of the lithology is a significant step as the rock type determines input parameters for the porosity calculation and the method used
for calculating the hydrocarbon saturation.
For clean porous rocks the Archie Equations can be used, while for shaly
sand reservoirs the Waxman-Smits approach is required to evaluate the
hydrocarbon saturation.
An important parameter in the Waxman-Smits equation is the parameter Qv
(cation exchange capacity per unit total pore volume). Qv is normally obtained from a Qv - total porosity (T) relationship defined on the basis of
either core data or log-derived Qv and T values calculated via the WaxmanSmits equation in water-bearing sands.
In the absence of core data and water bearing sands the normalised Qv
concept can be used. SIPM does not recommend the use of the Simandoux
and the Indonesia equations as the validity of these equations cannot be
substantiated.
The accuracy of the calculated values for net reservoir rock, total porosity,
hydrocarbon saturation and where possible the permeability depends on the
evaluation approach selected and the available knowledge of the values of
the input parameters for the calculation.

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The selection of the approach to log evaluation depends on the time frame
and the knowledge available. A short description is given below:
TECHNIQUE

REMARKS

ACCURACY

Quick Look

Wellsite use

LOW

Preliminary Evaluation

Detailed evaluation requiring confirmation by SWS, RFT, cores and


tests.

FAIR

Final Evaluation

Detailed evaluation with parameters


obtained from analyses of SWS,
RFT, cores and produced fluids.

HIGH

Field Review

Detailed evaluation and reservoir


description based on many cored
and uncored wells, which have been
producing for a significant time.

HIGH

2.2.1 Lithology and Reservoir Thickness


The identification of the lithology and the determination of the reservoir
thickness is carried out with help of the cutting description, the natural gamma ray (GR), the natural gamma ray spectrometry tool (NGT) and the SP.
In more complex lithologies the use of other logs such as the litho-density,
neutron and sonic is essential to determine the lithology of the reservoir rock
with more accuracy.
The first step is the determination of the reservoir rocks by eliminating the
rocks built up of clay minerals. This can be done with the GR and NGT, as
clays, claystones and shales normally have high gamma ray radiation due to
the presence of montmorillonite, chlorite and illite, whereas most reservoir
rocks have low gamma ray activity. The clay mineral kaolinite, however, has
also a low gamma ray radiation due to its composition.
The Gamma Ray Tool (GR) records the total natural gamma ray radiation of
the formation, while the NGT differentiates between the three families of
naturally radio-active elements, U, K and Th, and assesses their respective
proportions.
The significance of the type of radiation is dependent on the rock in which it is
found. In carbonates uranium indicates the presence of organic matter, phosphates

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and stylolithes. In sandstones the thorium level is determined by the


heavy minerals and clay content, and the potassium is usually contained in
mica minerals and feldspars. In shales the potassium content reflects the
type of clay minerals and the presence of mica and the thorium level indicates the amount of detrital material or the degree of shaliness.
The presence of uranium would suggest that the shale is a source rock. In salt
sections the potassium content reflects the type of salt minerals: sylvite,
carnallite, polyhalite, and others.
In igneous rocks the ratios of the relative proportions of the three radio-active
families are a guide to the type of rock.
The Spontaneous Potential Curve (SP) indicates the presence of permeable
rock when sufficient salinity contrast between mud filtrate and formation
water exists.
The SP curve is the recording of the potential difference between an electrode moving in the hole and another constant potential electrode at the
surface. There is no zero on the SP log as the absolute value of this constant
potential is not known.
The SP readings along permeable beds will be made by reference to the
deflections opposite thick shales and clays; these deflections provide the
shale base line.
The bed boundaries are chosen at the inflection points of the GR and SP
curves. The SP curve can also be used for calculating the formation water
salinity. The net reservoir thickness has to be determined in combination
with the calculated porosity and porosity cut off applicable for the particular
rock.
2.2.2 Porosity
The porosity is defined as a fraction of pore volume per unit bulk volume of
rock. It is measured on core plugs cut from conventional cores at 1 foot
intervals and calculated by dividing the difference in bulk volume and grain
volume by the bulk volume. The laboratory measurements provide the total
porosity which includes the clay-bound water of shaly samples. The effective
porosity is the maximum space available for hydrocarbon storage assuming
no connate water.
SIPM reports the total porosity only and therefore it is not allowable to correct
the porosity derived from porosity logs for shaliness. The presence of shale
in the reservoir sands is accounted for in the calculation of hydrocarbon
saturation following the Waxman-Smits method.

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The porosity can be derived from density, neutron and sonic logs. For single
mineral rocks one porosity log suffices, for two mineral rocks a crossplot of
two porosity logs is required, while for triple mineral rocks three different
porosity logs are required as each porosity log will produce a different response at a given porosity for a different lithology.
The importance of proper matrix identification before translating a single
porosity log into porosity values is illustrated in Figure 2.2.-1.

On this RESISTIVITY versus DENSITY plot, the three points A, B, C are plotted according to, e.g. the Laterolog, and to the density log values at the corresponding
levels.
Figure 2.2-1

Importance of lithology determination

The litho-density log (LDT) is an improved and expanded version of the


standard Formation Density Log (FDC) and measures in addition to the bulk

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density (b) the photo-electric absorption index (Pe) of the formation.


This new parameter enables a lithological interpretation to be made without
prior knowledge of porosity. For evaluation the volumetric photo-electric
absorption index U = Pe.e is introduced of which the unit is barn/cm3,
where e is the electronic density in g/cm3. Table 2.2-1 shows various minerals, rocks and liquids and their properties.
Table 2.2-1 Photo-electric absorption index, bulk density, electron
density and volumetric photo-electric absorption index of some common
minerals and liquids

*) Approximate values

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For two-mineral rocks the FDC-CNL and/or the SONIC-CNL crossplots shown
in Figure 2.2-2 a, b and c respectively, can be used to determine the lithology
and porosity as the readings of the FDC, neutron and sonic log depend on
lithology, porosity and fluid content.
The porosity can be calculated from the formation density, sonic and neutron
logs (see Table 2.2-2). The equation relating porosity with log readings from
the density and sonic logs is as follows:
Xma Xlog
=

Xma - Xfl
where:
ma stands for matrix
fI stands for fluid
X = , g/cm3 (for the density log)
X = t, sec/ft (for the sonic log)
The neutron log is calibrated in apparent limestone porosity units (%) and
corrections are required for non-limestone lithologies.
Standard parameters for some lithologies are given below:
Matrix
Rock Type
Sandstones
Limestones
Dolomites
Fluid Type
Salt water
Fresh water
Oil

Density
(g/cm3)

Transit Time
(s/ft)

2.65
2.71
2.87

55.5--51.2
47.6--43.5
43.8--38.5

1.1
1.00
0.8

189
189
189

The variation of density for water and NaCI solutions with temperature and
pressure is given in Figure 2.2-3.
The FDC tool correction for mud cake varies with logging companies, depending on the principle of the tool. A limit must be fixed above which this
correction becomes meaningless.

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Borehole Corrections are necessary for the FDC and neutron logs (see
Schlumberger Log Interpretation Charts 1979).
In many areas the Formation Density Log is considered the best porosity log
and is also used as the standard depth reference log.
FRESH WATER, LIQUID-FILLED HOLES

Figure 2.2-2a Porosity and lithology determination from formation density log and
compensated neutron log (CNL*)
(By courtesy of Schlumberger)

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SALT WATER, LIQUID-FILLED HOLES

Figure 2.2-2b Porosity and lithology determination from formation density log and
compensated neutron log (CNL*)
(By courtesy of Schlumberger)

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Figure 2.2-2c Porosity and lithology determination from sonic log and compensated
neutron log (CNL*)
(By courtesy of Schlumberger)

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REMARKS: Subscripts `ma' and fl stand for matrix and fluid. They refer to theoretical
log readings in:
-- zero porosity context (matrix)
= 100% porosity context (fluid)

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Groups of curves plotted versus pressure are shown for Distilled Water, and for NaCI
solutions of five different salinities. Use the 70 bar lines to estimate the density at the
given salinity and temperature. Then estimate the pressure correction on the basis of
the separation between the 70 bar and 480 bar lines.
Curves for temperatures above 100 C are derived from data given by Ellis and Golding, American Journal of Science, Vol. 261, pp. 47-60 (Jan. 1963).
Figure 2.2-3 Density of water and NaCI solutions
(By courtesy of Schlumberger)

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2.2.3

Hydrocarbon Saturation

2.2.3.1 Clean Rocks (Non-Argillaceous)


In rock, the current emanating from the resistivity logging tools is conducted by
the formation water and not by the rock matrix and the hydrocarbons, which are
insulators.
In water bearing rock the ratio between the measured resistivity (Ro) and the
resistivity of the formation water (Rw) is called the Formation factor (F) by Archie:
F = Ro / Rw

(1)

Archie relates the formation factor (F) and the porosity () as follows:
F = -m
(2)
where:
= porosity fraction
m = porosity exponent.
Figures 2.2-4 and 5 give the equations and their derivation, while Figures 2.2-6
(a. to d.) gives average values for the lithological exponent.
In hydrocarbon bearing rock the volume of water, usually expressed as the water
saturation (Sw) in fractions of the pore volume, is less than in 100% water bearing
rock of the same porosity. The measured resistivity (Rt) is then higher than the
100% water-bearing rock resistivity (Ro). The ratio between Rt and Ro is called
the resistivity index I = Rt / Ro.
The results of many laboratory measurements on partially saturated sandstones can be expressed by a simple power relationship between saturation
and the resistivity index according to Archie:
Rt / Ro.= I = Sw -n
where:
Sw = fraction of pore space filled with water
n = saturation exponent
For sandstone samples the average n and m values measured on 579 samples are 1.95 and 1.82 respectively (see Figures 2.2-6 (a. and b.)). For Rotliegendes sandstones and other sandstones with very rough grain surfaces
n-values significantly lower than their m-values are measured.

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Figure 2.2-4 Archie Equations

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Figure 2.2-5 Formation factor vs. porosity

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In Figure 2.2-6 (c. and d.) histograms are given of the n- and m-values of
limestone and dolomite samples, respectively. The wide spread of the m- and nvalues and the limited number of data currently available prohibit general
conclusions except perhaps for the saturation exponent of limestones, which on
average appear to be significantly lower than 2.0 ( 1.8).
It should be borne in mind that certain carbonates with poorly connected vuggy
oomoldic porosity usually exhibit abnormally high m-values (which may range
from 2 to 5) whereas their saturation exponent is normal, say 1.8.
Calculation of Sw
The calculation of the hydrocarbon saturation Sh = 1 Sw is presented in Figures
2.2-7 and 8. A significant parameter is the formation water resistivity, which can
be calculated from the spontaneous potential (see 2.2.4), derived from water
bearing sands using the equation Ro= -m . Rw or obtained from production tests.
Figure 2.2-9 gives the plot resistivity vs. temperature for various NaCI concentrations.
Quick look Hydrocarbon Evaluation
For a quick evaluation, a crossplot of resistivity (Rt) vs. porosity is made (see
Figure 2.2-10). The points representing water bearing layers should fall on a
straight line representing the 100% waterline (Sw = 1.0), while hydrocarbon
bearing layers are represented by points to the right of this line (see also Figure
2.2-1 for the importance of lithology determination).
2.2.3.2 Shaly Sands
Laboratory observations on shaly water bearing sands indicate for the major part
a straight-line relationship between core conductivity and water conductivity. This
straight line does not cross the origin, due to the contribution of the conductance
of the clay (Ce). See Figure 2.2-11 for the Waxman-Smits Shaly Sand Model. For
comparison, the Archie Clean Sand Model is given in Figure 2.2-12. The
equations are described in terms of conductivity (= 1/ resistivity).
The clay does contribute to rock conductance due to the presence of positive
ions near the clay surfaces in the water, compensating for negative charges
in the clay crystal lattice. The concentration of these ions in the pore water is

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Qv (mmol/cm3). The mobility of these ions is B (1/.m)/(mmol/cm3). The product


of mobility and concentration BQv is the conductivity (1/.m).
B, the mobility of the clay counter ions, is a function of temperature and (in the
low conductivity range) also of formation resistivity. It is shown in Figure 2.2-13 in
graphical form and in Figure 2.2-14 is shown a more practical graph of BRw vs.
salinity.
In water bearing shaly rock the ratio between the equivalent bulk water
conductivity (Cwe) and the measured conductivity (Co) is called the shale
corrected formation factor (F*):
F* =

Cw + Ce
Co

Cwe
Co

where:
Cw is the conductivity of the formation water
Cwe is the equivalent bulk water conductivity of a shaly formation
Ce = BQv and
Co is the measured bulk conductivity.
The shaly sand formation factor and the total porosity are related as follows:
F* = m*
where:
m* = shale corrected lithological exponent.
Note: Porosity is determined (KSEPL) after drying the sample at 105C. This, supposedly
expels all the water from the sample. The measurement, therefore, correspond to the
TOTAL POROSITY, i.e. the sum of EFFECTIVE POROSITY + INTERSTITIAL/BOUND
WATER.

Figures 2.2-15 and 16 give the core conductivity 100% saturated with water and
shaly sands formation factor-resistivity relationships respectively.
In hydrocarbon bearing rock the counter-ions concentration in the water will be
increased proportionally to the space taken up by the oil. Therefore, relative to
the water phase, the effective counter-ions concentration will be Qv/Sw
The relation between the measured resistivity (Ct) and the conductivity of the
formation water (Cw) at water saturation below 100% can be expressed as
follows:

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Solving the Waxman-Smits Equation


Solving this equation requires the knowledge of m*, n* and Qv.
The components m* and n* can be ascertained from core measurements,
statistical data pertaining to the area, and in the absence of these data from
guesstimated values. KSEPL recommends the values m* = 1.82 and
n* = 1.94 in the absence of relevant core data for sandstones. Carbonate
samples show a considerable spread in m* and n* values and at present
there are not enough data on carbonates available to obtain meaningful
average m* and n* values. Available data for n* suggest that the average
value could be significantly lower than 2.0 (approx. 1.8).
The cation exchange capacity (CEC) is a measure of the extent to which a
substance will supply cations and it is related to the concentration of positive
ions (or counter-ions) near clay-layer surfaces in the water bearing pore
space (Qv). The CEO is expressed in milliequivalent or m.mol of exchangeable ions per 100 grams dry clay (meq/100 g) while Qv is expressed in milliequivalent of exchangeable ions per cm3 of pore volume (meq/cm3).

Qv can be obtained as follows:


1 from measurements on cores and SWS
2 from logs over water bearing intervals
3 from logs using the Normalised Qv method (information available from
SIPM, EPD/22).
4 from the SP curve if RW, Rmf, and E are known with sufficient accuracy (see
Figure 2.2-17 for the nomogram).
5 from locally valid relationships between Qv and porosity, generally having
the form Qv = d.-e or Qv = (s ) / c
The product BRw can be obtained from the water salinity with the help of the
nomogram presented in Figure 2.2-14.
The Waxman-Smits equation can now be solved by a graphical solution using
the nomogram shown in Figure 2.2-18. It should be noted that this method is
only valid if calibrated over a water bearing interval, thus Ro is known.
Otherwise:
RO = F*RW / (1+RWBQv)
must be calculated first. Alternatively an iterative procedure using Figure
2.2-19 may be used. This is described below:

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The above can easily be programmed on a HP 25, 65 and 41 CV.


In practice one does not need to account for shaliness when the correction
term RwBQv/Sw is smaller than say 0.1. In those cases the Archie equations
are valid and applicable.

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2.2.4

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Determination of Rw from SP curve Shell Method Procedure

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(Continued from previous page)

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Note: Pm is the alkalinity (OH- and CO- -) of the treated mud filtrate using 0.02 molar HCL and
phenolphthalein indicator.

Figure 2.2-21

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Streaming potentials for various mud types (continued)

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2.2.5 Reporting of Petrophysical Data


Dated Summary Sheets of Petrophysical Evaluation are important documents for presenting results of evaluation to management, geologists, reservoir engineers etc. (see example in Table 2.2-3). It is recommended this
summary is prepared in addition to the routine evaluation report or petrophysical note describing in detail the evaluation techniques used and the
detailed results of the evaluation.
2.2.6 Quick-Look Evaluation Step by Step
(a) Inspect mud log for intervals with reservoir rock, its lithology, hydrocarbon shows, mud losses and mud gains.
(b) Wireline logs: Check heading, depth and log scales, before and after
survey calibrations and tool checks.
(c) Inspect logs for obvious faulty readings by comparison and correlation
with logs from surrounding wells.
(d) Distinguish gross potential reservoir rock from non-permeable rock by
inspection of GR, SP, mudcake build-up and shape of curves from porosity logs. Make a sand count on a log, preferentially 1: 200 FDC/
Lithodensity log. See Figure 2.2-23 for an example.
(e) Square log readings over reservoir sections.
(f) Calculate porosity from bulk density and/or neutron depending on Iithology as follows:
- For sandstones use FDC only with ma = 2.65 (if unknown) and fl
dependent on salinity of mud filtrate (see Figure 2.2-3).
- For carbonates use the FDC-CNL crossplot to determine the approximate matrix bulk density (ma) of the limestone-dolomite mixture and
calculate the porosity from the FDC using the relevant fl. Examples of
FDC-CNL crossplots are given in Figure 2.2-2a, b and c.
(g) Calculate Rt from the deep laterolog RLLD and shallow laterolog RLLS
using the superdeep equation: Rt = 1.7 x RLLD - 0.7 RLLS.
(h) Plot on the resistivity-porosity crossplot for m = 1.8 for sandstones and
m = 2.0 for carbonates the data points. See Figure 2.2-10 for an exampIe. Blank sheets are given as Figures 2.2-24a and b.
(i) Determine the 100% water bearing line at reservoir temperature for the
above plot as follows.
1. If water-bearing reservoir rock is present then is Rt = Ro, i.e. the

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resistivity of 100% water bearing rock.


2. If no water-bearing reservoir rock is present obtain the formation
water salinity from surrounding wells and/or calculate the formation
water salinity from the spontaneous potential (SP) as described in
2.2.4
(I) Draw the lines for 70% and 50% water saturations for which the resistivity indices I = Rt/Ro are 2 and 4 respectively. Points with water saturation less than 50% are hydrocarbon bearing, while points with water
saturations between 70 and 50% need further investigation with RFTs to
determine the productivity and type of fluid producible.
(k) Determine the presence of hydrocarbon water contacts or hydrocarbon
down to from the logs and crossplots. It is advised to take the upper
100% water saturation level as the hydrocarbon water contact and describe the interval with hydrocarbon saturations between 0 and say 50%
as the transition zone.
(I) Determine the presence of gas or oil by SWS, RFT pressure data and/or
RFT sampling. For long hydrocarbon columns it is advisable to check for
changes in the oil properties in the column.
(in) For new discoveries it is recommended to drill stem'/production test
the reservoirs for fluid type, productivity and reservoir extent. It is also
recommended to test those layers where the petrophysical evaluations
are not conclusive concerning the presence/absence of hydrocarbons
and their producibility.
(n) Calculate net reservoir thickness, porosity and hydrocarbon saturation
from Rt using n = 2.0 (if not known) and the Archie equation.
(o) Prepare a summary of the petrophysical data (see 2.2.5) for Management and others.

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Wireline Coring, Testing and Sampling

3 WIRELINE CORING, TESTING AND SAMPLING


3.1 Sidewall Samples
Sidewall samples can be taken by firing hollow cylindrical bullets into the
formation at selected depths, or by drilling horizontally with a core bit.
3.1.1 Sidewall Sampling Using Explosive Bullets
1. Observe all perforating safety rules.
2. Check distance from measure point of correlation tool (SP or Gamma
Ray) to bottom shot. Make appropriate correlation before taking first
sample and adjust as firing proceeds.
3. Ensure that powder for each shot has been correctly loaded.
4. Ensure that:
(a) Correct size gun is used (large gun not to be run in hole less than 8"
diameter).
(b) Correct length fasteners are used (normally 13": run 24" for holes
over 12" diameter).
(c) High-temperature powder is used when necessary (above 138 C
BHT).
(d) Correct ring size for degree of rock consolidation is used.
5. Make depth correlation log (GR) at normal GR logging speed (548 m/hr)
and determine correct depth. CHECK CAREFULLY FOR CREEP, i.e.
movement of sample taker AFTER winch has stopped. If CREEP is a foot
or less, STOP at correct firing depth to shoot sample. If CREEP exceeds 1
foot, it is permissible to shoot on the run'. In this case, note on the report
form that this technique has been used. In particular report any samples
suspected of being shot off depth.
6. After succesfully firing each shot, try to work' the core free. If all attempts
at freeing a core fail, the retaining wires can be broken by lowering the
sampler rapidly, thereby snapping them off.
7. Move gun carrier with samples up and down slowly at speeds not exceeding 3000 m/h.
8. Watch tension very carefully when entering and ascending through casing.
9. Properly cap gun before removing cores.
10. Remove one bullet from gun at a time, pressing core into sample bottle
and noting recovery before proceeding to the next bullet. Removal of

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more than one bullet from the gun at a time leads to confusion and
errors.
11. Ensure that all relevant data (company name, well number, sample
depth, sample number) are noted on sample container. Scratch sample
number on container lid. Indentify SWSs which have been misfired, lost
and recovered.
12. Payment for cores is normally on the basis of full payment for any core
over 1.25cm in length, half payment for any core over 0.6 cm but less
than 1.25 cm in length.
13. Examination and handling of sidewall samples.
(a) Palaeontological samples. Limit description to assessment of shale,
silt or sandstone. Describe colour.
(b) Petrophysical samples. Determine lithology (i.e. sand, shale, etc;
grainsize/sorting; roundness, etc.; intergranular cement, etc.) and
hydrocarbon indications.
3.1.2 Sidewall Coring Tool
Description and operation of Gearhart's Hard Rock Coring Tool.
At a chosen depth a small electro-motor driven coring bit is turned horizontal
and ejected from a hole in the side of the tool. While coring, an arm on the
opposite side of the tool gives support. After 2.5 to 11 minutes, depending on
the formation, a 15/16 diameter plug of 13/4" length is cut. By a slight vertical
movement the sample is separated from the formation. When withdrawing
the bit into the tool, it is tilted vertical again and a rod pushes the sample into
a receiver tube. The samples are not compacted and give reliable core
analysis results. Up to 30 samples can be taken with one run in the hole.
Tool specifications:
capacity
length including GR
minimum borehole diameter
tool diameter
maximum temperature
maximum pressure

:12 or 30 samples
:17 ft
: 63/4 inch
: 47/8 inch
: 148 C
: 20,000 psi.

3.2 Repeat Formation Tester


The Repeat Formation Tester has the following characteristics:
1. An almost unlimited number of pressure tests can be made during one run
in the well.

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2. Two fluid samples (from separate depths) or a segregated sample can be


taken each run.
3. Pressure measurement incorporates a strain gauge transducer or a
quartz crystal with a direct digital read-out at the surface. Accuracy of this
gauge practically eliminates the need to run Ameradas in combination for
absolute pressure confirmation.
An adaptor allows Conversion of the open hole RFT to a cased hole RFT.
Tool Size
Minimum tool size can be reduced to 5.2" OD. Except in very unusual circumstances, no attempt should be made to run it into a hole less than 61/2"
nominal OD. The basic tool will cope with holes up to 93/4" OD, but spacers
may be added to increase the maximum to 143/4" OD, although in this case the
closed tool size is 10.2" (see Figure 3-1 for tool specification). Schlumberger
has also a few slim hole tools (RFT-N) with an OD of 33/8".
Tool Description and Operation (Open Hole)
When the tool is set, a rubber pad moves forward against the borehole wall. A
probe pushes forward into the formation, and the piston inside the probe
retracts, allowing formation fluid to enter the filter (see Figure 3-2). Fluid
flows initially into two pre-test chambers: from the appearance of the pressure build-up formation permeability can be assessed. This can be used to
determine whether the interval is suitable for sampling, and whether a good
seal has been obtained. Since only a small amount of fluid has been withdrawn from the formation the final build-up pressure gives an accurate value
of formation pressure.
Operation (Cased Hole)
The cased-hole RFT pre-test capability permits the operator to ascertain that
a good seal against borhole fluids has been achieved prior to taking a sample/pressure measurement. However, seal against borehole fluid before
firing does not guarantee that seal will be maintained after firing. Moreover, it
cannot be ascertained before sampling if the tool's probe' is not plugged
prior to sampling as is the case in openhole. Also, the depth of penetration of
the charges (maximum 5.15"), presently limits the tool's application in
washed out zones with thick cement sheath.
Sampling Techniques
Two sample chambers may be run with the RFT. In vertical holes, one may
be 23 dm3, the other 3.8 dm3. In deviated holes the largest chamber is 10
dm3. A different sample of formation fluid can be collected in each chamber,
or alternatively a segregated sample can be taken. The tool is operated at

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sampling depth and the pre-test completed. The larger sample chamber is
filled first, then the smaller chamber is filled at the same depth. The contents
of the smaller chamber form the segregated sample to be used for analysis.
See Figure 3-3 for an indication of possible arrangements for sample chambers and Amerada adaptor.
Multiple Pressure Testing
1. Discuss RFT pressure testing operation with reservoir engineer/petrophysicist beforehand so that reason for taking the measurements is fully
understood.
2. Use gamma ray for depth control. Check CCL if job is in casing in order to
ensure that depth chosen does not correspond to a collar.
3. Calibration and Tool Check
(i) A shop calibration not more than two months old forms part of the
survey. This should include pressures up to 345 bar (5,000 psi) taken
at ambient and 3 different temperatures between 77C and 121C, plus
a zero pressure offset' reading taken at a low temperature.
(ii) At the wellsite, the electronics is calibrated with zero' and calibrate'
(9,995 psi) values, and the Offset' calibrated rheostat is set at the zero
pressure offset' reading in Step (i). With the tool hanging in the derrick, the pressure indicated should now be equivalent to the zero
pressure' indication on the shop calibration chart at the prevailing
temperature an the rig. The equipment will not necessarily read zero
pressure.
(iii) Once the surface equipment has been set up, no alterations to panel
settings should be made during a sequence of pressure tests.
(iv) It is advisable to carry out a dry test in the casing to check if the tool
packers are all right.
4. Measurements should always be taken from bottom to top to minimise
depth errors and the chances of the tool becoming stuck. This requires
that the tool be shop calibrated with decreasing rather than increasing
pressures.
5. Switching tool to calibrate position removes power and the sensor cools.
Once calibrated, switch back to measure', wait 10 minutes for temperature stabilisation, leave surface panel settings for the sequence of
tests.
6. Plot stabilised mud and formation pressure measurements against depth
(ahbdf and TVDSS). Check that mud pressures lie on a straight line, and
check the gradient against reported mud weight. Ensure that formation
pressures are less than mud pressure. Compare pressures from other
wells in same reservoir (see Figure 3-4).
7. On completion of measurements, select three arbitrary depths and repeat

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pressure measurements. Repeat pressures should match original


readings within 340 mbar (5 psi).
8. The results of the testing have to be forwarded to the Head Office by telex
and by normal mail. Examples of reports as to be sent by normal mail are
shown on the following pages.

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Repeat Formation Test Report (1)


Pre-test results
WELL:
DATE:

1) Runs and tests should be numbered sequentially, i.e.


Run 1 Test 1- 1.1
Run 1 Test 2- 1.2
Run 2 Test 1 -2.1 etc.
2) Pressures should be corrected for temperature and pressure using the shop calibration for the particular tool used (strain gauge only).
3) High-good-moderate-poor-tight (see Figure 3-4).

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Repeat Formation Test Report (2)

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3.3 Sample Recovery


Occasionally PVT transfers may be required from the formation tester after
sampling a prospective hydrocarbon-bearing interval*). The chamber contents in all other cases should be carefully measured and sampled at the
wellsite. The equipment layout required is shown in Figure 3-5. It is important
to check that all connections are made up correctly. The procedure to recover
the sample is:
1. Connect the Xmas tree to the sample chamber. Check that all valves on
the tree are closed, then open the valve on the chamber. Note the pressure and temperature. (Tape a thermometer to the side of the chamber).
2. Connect up the plastic hose/separator/gas meter. Check that the meter is
zeroed.
3. Connect up the transfer line to the evacuated gas bottle.
4. Purge the sandtrap by cracking valve A, and allow the pressure in the
sandtrap to increase to 1.7 bar ( 25 psi) then close valve A and bleed off
the gas in the sandtrap to the gas meter via valve B. Make a check for H2S
and CO2 using a Multigas Detector.
5. Open the valve on the bottle, open valve A fully, and fill the bottle via
valve C to the sample chamber pressure. Close valve A.
6. Note final bottle conditions.
7. Close the bottle valve and bleed off the pressure in the sandtrap and line
to the gas meter.
8. Close all valves and disconnect the sample bottle.
9. Check that the bottle valves are not leaking by immersing in water or
applying Teepol to the valves.
10. Repeat steps 5 to 9 to obtain subsequent gas samples at different chamber pressures. For a normal test, two gas samples should be taken. If
recovery is mainly gas (gas/condensate reservoir), four samples are
taken: at opening pressure P, at 1/2P, 1/4P and final stage of recovery.
11. Bleed off all remaining gas through the separator, but DO NOT EXCEED
20 psi IN THE PLASTIC HOSE. Note the temperature of the exhaust.
12. Disconnect the separator and recover all liquid, ensuring that any mud/
*) The PVT sample transfer is normally covered by strict reservoir engineering procedures, which should be carefully observed.

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emulsion/filtrate is kept separate from the oil/condensate. This is particularly important if the reverse firing technique has been used. If the
sample is from a water zone, it should be recovered on the rig floor. In
this case, ensure that the mud (last to come over since the tool is vertical)
is not mixed up with the formation water/filtrate. Recover the mud in a
different container at first sight through the transparent hose.
13. Note the reading on the gas meter - the pointer revolves completely for
each unit stated under the dial.
14. Measure the volume of liquid in the separator bottle.
15. Measure volume of all other liquids/solids recovered.
16. Determine the density of the oil/condensate (note the temperature) and
the salinity of the water.
17. Complete the formation test report forms and calculate fill of the chamber
in order to check for discrepancies.
Note: if mercury is used for transferring the sample, make sure that there is no
spillage and that the operator is not exposed to vapours.

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Coring

4 CORING
4.1 General
It is sometimes argued that with the ever increasing quality of wireline logs and
log interpretation methods, coring should become less necessary. However,
cores will remain invaluable for geological control, wireline log calibration, fluid
flow properties, rock strength and other measurements of rock and fluid
properties. The increased interest in secondary recovery has led to coring in
partially depleted reservoirs. For residual oil saturation determination in depleted
reservoirs, special coring techniques are being applied.
The present policy is to core the hydrocarbon bearing reservoir section in the first
exploration well. Spot cores of a length of 9-18 m can provide geological control
where required. When a prospect is entered and found to be hydrocarbon
bearing, it is highly recommended that the prospect and part of the water leg are
fully cored. This will aid considerably in wireline log calibration, in detecting
differential diagenesis between hydrocarbon and water bearing reservoirs and in
measuring aquifer flow and compaction properties. For strike and dip control
orientated coring can give acceptable results, although this technique is not yet
fully proven due to an unacceptable failure rate of magnetic multishot equipment
available from the various survey companies.

4.2 Coring Equipment


For well consolidated and not too friable rock the conventional coring technique
with a steel inner barrel is used. The core is unloaded from the steel inner barrel
at the wellsite and described before it is packed for transport. The standard 63/4"
4" core barrel giving 4" diameter cores is mostly used for jack-up and land
operations. For coring from semi-submersible drilling units the stronger 61/4" 3
marine series core barrel should be used.
When it is necessary to obtain precise geological information on structural and
sedimentary dip, and/or for judging the information obtainable from dipmeter logs
in a particular geological setting, the oriented coring technique has to be used. In
this technique, three lines are incised on the core as it enters the inner barrel. By
means of a telescoping extension rod the central reference knife is aligned to a
magnetic multishot survey instrument. Thus the orientation of the knife is
recorded on film in the same way as the bent

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sub-alignment is recorded during a steering tool assisted kick-off. It is advisable


to use an 18 m core barrel to avoid the need to make connections during the
coring run. Surveys can be taken after each metre cored, with circulation and drill
string rotation stopped for 5 minutes to ensure that still pictures are obtained.
While coring, compass pictures can be taken at one minute intervals.
Cores can be taken in deviated holes, if proper stabilisation of the inner and outer
barrels has been provided.
For very friable and loosely consolidated sands rubber sleeve and plastic sleeve
coring equipment are available. Experience has shown that there are many
problems associated with rubber sleeve coring, such as core breakage and
fluidisation due to rotation of the barrel, and collapse and disturbance of the core
due to lack of support. Rubber sleeve coring equipment is only available for a 3"
core (Christensen) and cannot be used on floating rigs. The use of plastic core
cartridges, which fit inside a conventional inner barrel or fibreglass inner barrels
has alleviated these problems to a certain extent, and in general has resulted in
higher recoveries compared to rubber sleeve coring. The cartridge system has
the disadvantage of reducing core sizes for a given barrel size. Both methods
restrict the amount of core description that can be performed at the wellsite. It is
considered that this is more than offset by the greatly improved chances of the
core arriving in an undisturbed state at the laboratory. If large core samples or
long plugs are requested for analyses, 8" conventional coring equipment
available from American Cold-set Corporation can be used.
When considering enhanced oil recovery processes in flooded or partially
depleted reservoirs, it is essential to obtain knowledge of the residual oil
saturation. This can be done by recovering a core with the fluids kept under
reservoir pressure, in order to determine the residual oil saturation (Sor). The
determination of the Sor can be done using the pressure coring technique
provided that the oil in the reservoir is immobile at the time of coring. This
technique is expensive and time consuming and requires meticulous planning
and implementation.
Pressure coring equipment is available from Pressure Core Inc., formerly
Dowdco Loomis, and from Christensen and is designed for consolidated rocks.
Some good results have been obtained in less consolidated rock.
An alternative method to pressure coring, called Sponge Coring, is being
carried out by Dowdco. This Company claims that the sponge coring technique

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provides more accurate oil saturation data for enhanced oil recovery operations
at a relatively low cost for reasonably consolidated sandstones and carbonates.
The principle of the sponge coring technique is to collect the fluids expelled from
the core, as the core is brought to the surface, in a polyurethane sponge. This
sponge is fitted in an aluminium liner placed in the inner barrel of a conventional
core barrel (77/8" x 3.25"). This 'oil wet lining of polyurethane has a porosity of
70% and a permeability of 2 darcy and is designed to absorb up to 300% of the
oil bleeding capacity of most cores. In the laboratory the sponge and the core are
analysed foot by foot. The oil from the sponge is reconstituted into the porosity of
the rock, resulting in a higher and more accurate oil saturation figure. A 51/4" x
21/2" core barrel is also available for this technique.
For each of these coring techniques the instructions for tool operations issued by
the contractor should be followed. KSEPL has also issued instructions for coring

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4.3 Coring Fluids, Hydraulics and Bits


Normally, there are no special requirements for the mud used for coring
consolidated cores for standard analyses. When water sensitive clay minerals
are present, which can swell or disintegrate, then inhibition with KCI or the use of
an oil-base mud may be required.
When cores are cut for special core analysis it depends on the purpose of the
coring exercise which mud type should be selected. If the purpose is measurement of relative permeabilities, saturation exponents, oil/water capillary
pressure curve, wettability or (residual) oil/water saturations, then surface active
agents (particularly thinners, lubricants and corrosion inhibitors) should not be
used. Fluid loss control is, however, important to avoid excessive flushing of the
core. It is advisable that the mud filtrate salinity and composition do not differ too
much from that of the formation water. For determining residual oil saturations
the coring fluid should be water based, while for determining residual (connate)
water a low fluid loss oil-base mud is to be applied.
The following properties are recommended for the coring fluid:
(a) The mud weight should exert an overbalance over the formation pressure of less then 14 bar.
(b) The static fluid loss < 5 mL/30 min.
(c) The mud should have low viscosity and yield point to reduce core erosion.
Additional recommended properties if Remaining Oil Saturation analysis is
to be carried out:
(a) Oil base mud should not be used.
(b) The mud should be properly deoxygenated.
(c) No surfactants should be present in mud.
Further steps should be taken to ensure good core recovery by minimising
core erosion and flushing as follows:
(a) Use a fluid flow velocity as low as possible, staying within the range given
by the contractor.
(b) Use special face discharge bits for which the nozzles end in fluid passages which are in direct communication with the annular space.
(c) Use fast coring bits, to minimise both filtration ahead of the bit as well as
exposure of the core to the mud before it enters the core catcher. Good
coring rates have been obtained with polycrystalline diamond bits, such
as Stratapax.

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When it is important to know the amount of mud filtrate in the core, it is


necessary to add a tracer to the water-base mud. Good results have been
obtained with tritiated water added to the mud with a concentration of approx 450
curie/m3.
Foam coring has been successfully applied in a number of areas. It has been
observed that foam invades the core and that measurements are affected.
Subsequent logs have shown a 'gas-effect' caused by foam which had
penetrated the surrounding rock.

4.4 Coring Criteria for Exploration and Appraisal Wells

There is no generally applicable set of criteria to decide at which depth coring


should commence. A number of criteria are listed below to assist in decision
making:
1. The predicted depth of the rock required to be cored is reached.
2. An increase in the penetration rate occurs on entering the more porous
reservoir to be cored.
3. Hydrocarbon indications are observed in ditch cutting samples and/or in the
mud.
4. The type of rock.
The following procedure should be adhered to in all cases where a drilling break
and/or strong hydrocarbon indications are found:
(a) Stop drilling and observe well for flow.
(b) Circulate bottoms up and determine hydrocarbon indications (both in
mud and cuttings and from gas readings).
(c) If hydrocarbon indications are strong*), pull out for coring if required. If no
coring is programmed inform Base immediately.
(d) If hydrocarbon indications are poor, drill another 2 3 m and repeat items
(a), (b) and (c).
(e) If indications are still poor, continue drilling ahead unless advised to the
contrary.
*) Strong hydrocarbon indications are:
good fluorescence
significant gas shows
oil in the mud.

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4.5 Preparation for Coring


If coring is envisaged, guidance on taking, handling and transportation of
cores for petrophysical analysis should be sought from SIPM-EPD/22.
(a) Preparations before Coring
Make sure that the following items are available in sufficient quantity at the
wellsite:
1. Core boxes and lids. Make sure that the lids are the same length as the
boxes.
2. Rags
3. Hammer and nails
4. Plastic bags
5. Tins with lids
6. Aluminium foil
7. Marker pens (black and red)
8. Core, Porosity and Saturation labels
9. Hydrocarbon solvent for cut colour and cut fluorescence tests
10. Stapler and staples
11. Scotchwrap tape
12. Core description sheets.
13. 25 metal core trays (or core boxes clearly marked Top and Bottom and
numbered)
14. Wooden crates for transporting saturation sample containers
15. Standard Core Box; the inventory is specified below under (b).
Make sure the following items are in working condition:
Ultraviolet lamp
Can sealing machine (if required)
Plastic sealing machine.
Make timely arrangements for cleaning and laying out the cores. Prepare the
trays or boxes to collect the cores from the core barrel on the derrick
floor.
(b) Contents of 'Standard Core Box
Item
Core description pads
Hammer (claw)
Hammer (geologists)
Labels core box top bottom
Sample labels
Large marker pens black (indelible)

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Quantity
4
1
1
1000
500
12

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(c) Additional Items


If unconventional coring is required, the following additional items will be
required:
Fibreglass Coring
1. Fibreglass inner core barrels. Should be handled by the Operations Engineer.
2. Caps for top and base of each fibreglass section (These fit better if soaked in
hot water first).
3. Circular saw and spare blades to cut the fibreglass into lengths for the boxes
(+ 0.9 m).
Shrink Sleeve Coring (rarely used)
1. Shrink Sleeve (Ness Heat') type. Operations Engineer to order a sufficient
number.
2. Steam gun/hose for shrinking sleeve onto core.
3. Caps as in 2. (above).
Sponge Coring
1. Ensure that enough 5' length P.V.C. tubes, P.V.C. glue and expandable caps
are available. One cap per tube can be glued in advance.
2. Enough heavy duty cling film should be available.
3. Special shipping boxes for 5' core sections should be available.

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Before actual recovery of the core, prepare boxes and labels as far as possible.
With the latest type of core boxes (1m long), 20 boxes per 18 m core are
sufficient. Make arrangements for cleaning and laying out the cores in a relatively
quiet and spacious place. Prepare the trays or boxes to collect the core from the
core barrel on the derrick floor.

4.6 Instruction for Handling Cores for Petrophysical and Related


Analyses
If necessary, guidance on sampling, handling and analysis of cores may be
obtained from SIPM-EPD/22.
4.6.1 Recovery of Consolidated Cores
The following procedure is applicable to 18 m cores taken with the conventional
coring assembly:
1. Place the 25 transit boxes on the derrick floor in the right sequence with the
tops facing towards the core barrel. Two hammers must be available on the
floor.
2. One man should be ready to feed the boxes in the right sequence with the
tops facing towards the man collecting the core form the core barrel. Box No. 1
is the first box to be fed in and filled with the bottom part of the core.
3. Another man should be ready to receive the core from the core barrel and to
put the core in the right sequence in the core boxes or trays. This man should
NEVER get his hands between the core and the floor.
4. Ensure that the driller never lifts the core barrel more than 1 m above the
derrick floor.
5. Transport the boxes after the core barrel has been emptied, one by one, to the
place where they will be finally processed.
A basket is also permitted but NEVER use a pallet.
4.6.2 Cleaning, Boxing, Sampling and Labelling
1. Rebox the cores from the boxes in which they were carried from the
derrick floor to the final boxes and while doing so, clean them with rags
only. Draw a black line and a red line parallel to each other on the core

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such that seen from the bottom end of the core the red line is to the right.
The standard procedures indicated in Figure 4-1 are to be followed. It is
recommended (although in principle not necessary) that all cores be sealed in
polyethylene sleeves1) immediately after removal from the core barrel. This
relatively simple procedure will protect the cores for more detailed
measurements as and when required.
A possibly even better method is to put the cores in shrink sleeves, wrap them
in aluminium foil and pour peel coat over this. Gaps caused by the removal of
samples should be labelled and stuffed with rags. Make sure that the cores
cannot move inside the core boxes to avoid mechanical damage during
transport. Prevent freezing of cores, e.g. in high altitude transport, and
generally avoid exposure to extreme temperatures.
In case of sponge coring, the 5' aluminium liners with sponge and core are,
after a quick description of the ends or removing a chip from the end for later
description, wrapped in heavy duty cling film and aluminium foil before they are
put in P.V.C. shipping tubes. The remaining space is filled with brine before the
tubes are closed to reduce evaporations losses. If cores are to be stored long
before they are analysed, freezing is necessary for accurate determination of
remaining oil saturation. In case of high water saturations, freezing might
damage the pore system.
When taking sections of the core at the wellsite for special analysis, they must
be cleaned as described in Figure 4-1 and then packed and sealed,
immediately, either in tightly wrapped polyethylene sleeves or in shrink sleeves
as above. This will avoid oxidation by air entrapped inside the sleeve and/or
evaporation punctures of the sleeve. The sections should be packed
separately in tins or plastic containers. Each core section should be properly
marked (depth, top/bottom) and be given a code number. This code number
should also be indicated at the proper location inside the core box. Examples
of outer and inner core box labels are shown in Figure 4-2.
The reboxing must be done so that the original derrick floor box No. 1 (core
bottom) is the last box of the final boxes, e.g. DF Box No. 1 becomes final Box
No. 20. If recovery is not 100%, decide which part is missing and state the
reason in the report. If there is no way of telling, it is assumed that the bottom
part is missing. All depths should be reported in feet and decimal parts of feet
Labels, inserted in small plastic bags, giving the following information
must be securely fixed to the top and bottom rim of the core boxes: box

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number, well number, core number, depth (of box, not core), total percentage recovery. For addresses, interior and exterior of the boxes, see
Figure 4-2. Do not use damaged boxes.
2. Make a core description as in Figure 4-3 and take a few evenly spread
small samples for hydrocarbon tests on the rig.
The following information is required by the laboratory for analysis:
interval of each core and each core section2)
core recovery2)
salinity or resistivity of formation water and mud filtrate
type of mud
composition of formation water
logs: for correlation of Gramper results a LDT is essential
Notes:
1
) Polyethylene sleeving is available in rolls from Plastic Verkoop Kantoor, Bussum,
the Netherlands in two sizes:
flat width 20 cm, diameter 12.5 cm, thickness 0.25 mm and
flat width 15 cm, diameter 9.5 cm, thickness 0.20 mm.
2
) To avoid confusion when data on outside of box are illegible it is necessary that
these data are present inside each core box (see also Figure 4-2). A more detailed
core recovery and sampling record should be enclosed with the core (see Table
4-1).

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4.6.3 Recovery of Very Friable and Loosely Consolidated Cores


4.6.3.1 Rubber Sleeve Coring
Special Precautions in Rubber Sleeve Coring
(a) To prevent disturbance of the core due to expansion of fluids during
surfacing, especially if much gas is expected, the rubber sleeve should
be perforated before running the barrel. This can be done, after loading
the sleeve on the inner tube, by punching holes in the sleeve with a sharp
pointed tool at one to two foot intervals. Punching is preferable to drilling,
since a punched hole can function as a check valve to bleeding off highpressure fluid, closing again to prevent evaporation losses. It should
therefore be borne in mind that perforating weakens the overall strength
of the sleeve. Therefore, use of a fresh rubber sleeve in this case is of
utmost importance to ensure maximum strength.
(b) When coring with an oil-base or oil emulsion mud, a butyl rubber sleeve
should be used for better oil resistance. Butyl sleeves should also be
used in thermal areas.
(c) The total flow area (TFA), pump discharge and weight on bit should be
optimised for the formation to be drilled, so that excessive mud velocities
will not wash away the sand in unconsolidated formations. Before each
core is taken, make sure that the core-catcher rotates freely from the bit.
Excessive or fluctuating weight on the bit should be avoided.
Rubber Sleeve Core Handling
(a)The key precaution in core handling is to avoid jarring and bending of the
rubber sleeve. After removing the stripper tube, pull the core from the
inner tube using the cat line connected at the swivel. Place the rubbersleeve core, without bending, in a length of 41/2" pipe standing in the
mouse hole (this length of pipe should be cut lengthwise into halves
before-hand, bolted together and closed at the bottom). Place the pipe in
a horizontal position on the pipe racks and remove one half of the pipe.
Cut off the tapered end of the sleeve and cap the end with Christensen
rubber caps. Remove the swivel from top of the core and cap the top.
(b) To allow for later identification and orientation of core segments, draw a
red and green line parallel and close to each other over the full length of
the sleeve. Looking from bottom to top, the red line should be on the
right-hand side. The depths can then be marked on the sleeve at one foot
intervals. If recovery is not 100% and if there is no way of telling where
the missing section is, assume the bottom part is missing.

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Note: The use of Staedtler Glass Chrome pencils is recommended for marking the rubber
sleeve since the standard felt marker pens are almost invisible on the rubber sleeve.

(c) Remove the core from the half-shell pipe by rolling, without bending onto
a flat table
(d) Sections of sleeve not filled with formation material (as identified
by feel) should be cut out.
(e) Starting at the top, cut the core into sections of three feet length each,
and a remaining section of not more than 2 feet long (if recovery is
100%), with the aid of a hacksaw (see Figure 4-4).
(f) The core material showing at the sawn surfaces should be inspected as
to its degree of consolidation and samples taken at this point.
A small sample every three feet is sufficient for indications and
lithology determination.
If the inspection in Step (f) indicates that the material is unconsolidated, i.e. not
able to be sampled without disintegration, freezing the core at the wellsite should
be considered as a means of preventing gross disturbance of the sand during
shipment. This needs be done only on samples where mechanical formation
properties are to be measured. The cores can be frozen in thermally insulated
shipping containers packed with dry ice. The cores must be firmly supported and
must be kept frozen until arrival at the laboratory.
If freezing is not practical, the cores must be firmly packed in a shockproof
manner to prevent bending, and gentle handling must be ensured during
packing and shipment.
If the material appears to be sufficiently consolidated to allow sampling without
disintegrating, freezing should be avoided during shipment, since it may
disintegrate the sand. In this case, the same care in packing and handling as
above should be exercised.
(g) Cap the ends of each core section with rubber caps supplied by Christensen and
seal off with oil-resistant tape.
(h) Any punctures or perforations in the rubber sleeve should be closed with
oil-resistant tape.
(i) Indicate on each section the well number, and core number.
(j) Place each section in a plastic pipe halve ensuring empty space is filled
with waste paper, rags etc. Place the other plastic half on top and secure
with three straps of tape. Place core, packed in plastic pipe halves, in

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cardboard core boxes so that it cannot move. Use rags, paper waste, etc
as insulating material.
(k) Mark core boxes as outlined for conventional cores. Indicate on lid any
sections removed and whether they were gas filled (empty) or mud-filled.

4.6.3.2 Plastic Fibreglass Core Cartridges


1. Have available two handling socks (see Figure 4-5). Unscrew the core into
two 9 m sections in the rotary table. Transfer each section into a sock in the
mousehole and have it laid down in a convenient place (on deck or in the mud
chemical room in bad weather).
2. Remove core from sock' and unscrew metal shoe, catcher and connector from
both ends. Mark fibreglass sleeve with red and black lines (right side with red
line) using waterproof pens. Fibreglass will not mark unless it is dried and
sanded thoroughly.
3. Measure core and mark out 90 cm sections starting from bottom of the
sleeve.
Mark each section T (top) and B (bottom) and number them starting from
the top of the core, e.g. top section of core 7 is numbered 5.1.

4. Using rotary saw cut the core into sections.


Note: Geologists or petroleum engineers are not advised to attempt this themselves. All personnel involved should wear eye protection.

5. Estimate core recovery and reconcile this figure and depth cored with
drilling personnel.
Note: Remember to include effect of tide.

6. Take samples for lithology/biostratigraphy as required from top of each


section and also the bottom of the last section. Number the samples from
the top, e.g. the first sample in core 7 is numbered 7.0.
7. Put caps and clips on both ends of core sections and put sections into core
boxes. Stuff sleeves and boxes with rags as required to prevent the core
moving around and getting damaged. Nail up boxes and mark on the
outside with details of contents.
8. Dispatch cores by sea and samples by air as soon as possible. Send
appropriate dispatch telexes and make sure a boxing list and sampling
record is sent to the office.
9. Describe the samples and make up a core description telex and core

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description sheet to be sent by facsimile (e.g. Mufax) to Base as soon as


possible.
Warning:
Problems have been experienced with the handling of fibreglass sleeved cores recovered
to surface still being pressurised.
If there is any indication that the core may be pressurised, e.g. strong smell of gas,
bubbling out of top of core and hissing noises, the core should be unscrewed into two
sections in the rotary table with extreme caution including use of eye protection for all
personnel in the area.
The core should then be laid down and left for several hours before any attempt is
made to cut it into sections. Failure to follow this procedure may result in the core
being blown out with considerable force risking injury to personnel and losing
valuable information.

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4.7 Core Description


The following are general guidelines for the description of cores:
1. Inspect the cores as soon as possible after they have been recovered. The
rock will still have its original characteristics.
2. Only examine the freshly fractured planes, both parallel and perpendicular to
the bedding. Fractures already present in the core are usually contaminated
with mud and less suitable to appraise the rock.
3. Inspect the core as a whole. Do not put too much emphasis on one or two
outstanding features, for instance: a sandstone streak in a monotonous
claystone.
4. Keep the report concise and try to use terms of single meaning: 'thick and
thin are ambiguous, but 1 to 2 mm thick is more exact.
5. Care should be exercised in using the expression as above' in the core report.
The rock properties change within a core, the top part often not being the
same as the bottom part.
6. It is standard practice to examine and describe the rock in a set sequence
(examine the rock in a wet condition). This prevents omission of important
facts and leads to more uniform description.
Cores are usually described in the following order using Tapeworm as a guide
for lithological descriptions (see 7.1.1).
A. Main Components
Describe the rock as a whole under the first heading. Most cores contain more
than one rock type. These are described separately, but should be seen in the
context of the entire core. In this way the relative importance of some of the
different rocks can be appreciated.
B. Colour
Colours are preferably described referring to everyday colours, e.g. chocolate
brown, rust etc.
C. Hardness
This is a result of the consolidation of the rock, i.e. the way the individual grains
are cemented together. The hardness is sometimes expressed in the name of
the rock (sand or sandstone) but better and more useful expressions are for
instance:
For a sand-sandstone: loose, friable, crumbly, frangible, well consolidated,
hard, very hard.

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For a clay-claystone:

plastic, compact, frangible, hard, very hard.

It is recommended that the term 'hard' should be used for rocks which can only
be broken with a hammer; 'very hard' when this can only be achieved with
difficulty.
D. Fracture
The fracture should be described from a freshly broken piece. Do not describe from a fracture plane caused by bedding or tectonic influences.
For fracture description use expressions as:
shell shape, irregular, angular and splintery.
E. Grain Size and Shape
Permeability and porosity are depending of those two properties and thus
very important. Also the grain size is to some extend already expressed in
the rock name, e.g. fine sand, coarse sand, fine and coarse crystalline limestones. A sticky clay is more finely grained than a lean non sticky clay. For
sands also the sorting is mentioned, e.g. poorly sorted, well sorted.
Grain shapes are described in terms of:
rounded, subrounded, subangular and angular.
For limestones:
crystalline, granular.
Also include colour appearance, e.g. transparent, translucent, opaque.
F. Porosity
Mostly an indication of porosity can be determined by eye. Sands can be
described as: not porous, slightly porous, moderately porous, porous. With
limestones distinguish between primary and secondary porosity. The former is
intergranular, the latter owing to fissures and cavities etc. Primary porosity of
clayey rocks is practically nil.
Note: Porosity is referred to in relative and not in absolute terms, i.e. whether or not the
rock could be a reservoir rock.

G. Bedding
True bedding is caused by differences in composition of the various layers.
Descriptions are:
1. Bedding: well bedded, slightly bedded, non-bedded;
2. Bedding plane: wavy irregular;
3. Average thickness of the individual layers and
4. To which phenomena the bedding must be attributed, e.g. more or less
sandy.
Bedding planes are not always parallel, but in groups from different angles

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with respect to other groups. This is called a cross bedding. Clayey rocks which
appear cleavable parallel to the bedding are called shales; marls and sands can
thus be shaly.
H. Accessories
All components which only make up a small fraction of the rock. Commonly
occurring: fossils (shell fragments, foraminifera etc.), carbonised plant remains,
minerals (mica, pyrites, siderites, clay ironstone, calcite, gypsum, anhydrite,
glauconite).
It is wrong to attempt to identify more fossils and details than can be justified. It is
better to write shell fragments', when the reported ammonites were in fact
gastropodae. Furthermore the occurrence of accessories in the rocks is noted,
e.g. scattered, on bedding planes in particular, concentrated in certain layers.
For minerals: veins, nodules, lumps etc. Also details as sandiness, clayeyness
etc. which are not important enough to be included in the actual rock name, can
be mentioned here.
I. Tectonic Influences
Natural fault planes, veins and scratches*) are signs of tectonic influences. The
dip of the fracture plane and their shape is noted, e.g. flat, wavy, irregular.
*) Scratches on the outside of the core can easily be caused by the core barrel. Also
breaks in the rocks are often of core mechanical origin.
True tectonical breaks are seldom open; minerals have filled the crack in general.

J. Dip
The dip of the rock is determined from the main primary bedding with respect to
the axis of the core which is considered vertical.
K. Oil and Gas Indications
Oil smell, oil traces, gas bubbles, general hydrocarbon test results are mentioned in the appropriate column on the core description form.

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Cased Hole and Production Logging

5 CASED HOLE AND PRODUCTION LOGGING


5.1 Preparation for Logging
The Wireline Company should be provided with the following data:
1. A complete sketch of the well, including location of casing/tubing shoe,
packers, perforations, etc.
2. An outline of the purpose of the operation (choice of tools, etc.).
3. A list of casing collars (correlated to reference survey depths).
Prior to rigging-up, a meeting should be held between Logging Engineer,
Production Supervisor, Wireline Operations Supervisor, Well Site Engineer
and Toolpusher to establish communication channels and to discuss the
programme and any special circumstances, e.g. conditions of equipment (ID
and OD), amount of prinkerban to be used, H2S concentration during the
operation (cable embrittlement, safety measures), etc. (see 8.3).
Figure 5-1 shows a drawing of the installed equipment.

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Cased Hole and Production Logging

5.2 Operation Against Pressure


5.2.1 Testing Risers and Hydraulic Grease Tube (HGT)
(a) The Riser and HGT are to be laboratory tested 690 bar (10,000 psi) every
six months. A metal band indicating the date and test pressure is to be
attached to each item, and a copy of the Test Certificate retained for
inspection at the Wireline Contractor's base.
(b) Ensure that the riser is long enough to contain the longest tool to be
used.
- Schlumberger use a tool catcher at the top of the riser. In this case the
BOPs and Otis 7" riser above the Swab Valve may be considered as
part of the lubricator.
- Dresser Atlas use a tool trap between the BOPs and the bottom of the
lubricator. This arrangement requires the lubricator alone to be long
enough to hold the tool.
(c) Assemble the riser and HGT with cable-head, CCL and weights, but do
NOT install tool or gun, i.e. dummy CCL.
(d) Pull up to within 0.5 m of the tool catcher. Close stuffing box.
(e) Fill the riser with test fluid. On water wells fluid is to be water; on oil or gas
wells fluid is to be a mixture of water/glycol in a 50:50 proportion.
(f) Once the system is full of test fluid, activate grease injection and establish
seal in HGT. Slowly increase pressure to required test pressure -345 bar
(5,000 psi) in water/oil wells; 450 bar (6,500 psi) in gas wells. Test for 15
minutes.
Note: Normally the weight of the dummy tool is not sufficient to withstand the full
pressure test, therefore, the stuffing box must be closed to prevent entry into the
tool catcher. If the tool is allowed to engage in the tool catcher, the pressure must
be reduced to zero to disengage the catcher.

(g) When the riser and HGT have been pressure tested at the commencement of a series of operations, it is not necessary to retest before every
run.
5.2.2 Testing BOPs
(a) BOPs are to be laboratory tested to rated test pressure 690 bar
(10,000 psi) every six months. A metal band indicating the date and test
pressure is to be attached to the BOP, and a copy of the Test Certificate

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retained at the Logging Company's workshop. Only double BOPs adapted for grease seal injection between rams may be used.
(b) When the BOPs have arrived on the rig, they should be tested as soon as
possible to ensure no damage has occurred during transportation.
Thereafter, they must be tested before each set of operations against
pressure. If practical, testing of the BOPs should be carried out on the test
rig (see Figure 5-2). If not practical, they may be tested during rig-up (as in
(d)).
(C) Mount the BOPs on the test stand so that hydraulic pressure can be
applied from below. Insert a 7/32" or 5/16" (depending on cable size) I'
shaped polished test rod between the lower rams of the BOPs. Ensure
that the test rod is chained down to prevent movement during pressure
operation. Ensure that BOPs are filled with water, close rams, and apply
345 bar (450 bar for gas wells) with a hand or electrically-driven hydraulic
pump. If the lower rams held pressure, insert the test rod between the
upper rams, tie down test rod and again apply test pressure. See also
Section Wireline Blowout Preventer-Pressure testing' in Volume Production Operations'.
(d) Chain down the test rod. Open the manifold across the lower BOP rams
and close the manifold on the upper BOPs. Ensure that the BOPs have
been manually closed following hydraulic operation.
Slowly apply pressure from the cement unit and bleed off air from the
BOP manifold. When the system is full, close the manifold outlet and
apply test pressure to the top BOP. Test for 15 minutes.
Close manifold on the lower BOP. Bleed off pressure from the top BOP
manifold - pressure should remain constant. Test for 15 minutes.

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Bleed off pressure from the system and remove the rod. Open the BOPs.
The BOPs and their manifolds are now tested. No further tests are necessary during the operation.
(e) When this test has been personally witnessed with the Well Services'
Supervisor, a signed label should be attached to the BOPs giving the date
and test pressure. These BOPs may then be used for an uninterrupted
sequence of operations.

5.2.3 Entering the Well


(a) Before entering the well -check the tool length- CCL to measure point on
top shot (gun).
(b) Pick up the tool, install the riser, HGT and stuffing box. Tighten the Bowen
Union.
Pull the tool up to within 0.5 m of the tool catcher.
Set the Depth Indicator.
Close the Stuffing Box.
Note: All depths are referred to the derrick floor on drilling rigs and platform, and
to a theoretical point equivalent in height above MSL to the original DFE on wells
perforated using the workover hoist.

(c) Close the Upper Master Gate Valve (UMGV), open the Kill Wing Valve
(KWV) and Swab Valve (SWABV). Start pumping test fluid from the cement unit very slowly until all air has been evacuated from the lubricator
assembly. The test fluid is to be water for water wells and water/glycol
mixture in 50:50 proportion for oil or gas wells.
Note: Grease injection must not be activated at this stage.

The lubricator is full when test fluid is observed coming from the exhaust
hose on the HGT.
Note: Pumping must be done very slowly. Normally pressures should not exceed
69 bar (1,000 psi) before the old grease is removed from the flow tubes/hoses. The
stuffing box must be closed to prevent the tool being lifted into the tool catcher. The
tool catcher is a safety device which is activated when well pressure is applied.
Minimum pressure required for activation is 20-28 bar (300-400 psi).

A tool allowed to enter the tool catcher whilst equalising the riser pressure will therefore not be released until the pressure is reduced to
zero.

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(d) If CITHP is less than the anticipated CITHP during the operation (i.e. after
perforating), test to 35 bar (500 psi) above the anticipated CITHP. Activate
grease injection before testing.
Note: Weight of Schlumberger tools should be enough to balance the expected
CITHP, but may not be enough to balance test pressure.

(e) Equalise the lubricator pressure to existing CITHP at the cement unit or
BOP manifold. Close KWV then open UMGV.
Release the stuffing box. Lower the tool into the well.
(f) Throughout all wireline runs against pressure, inject glycol at the wellhead at a rate of 25 dm3/h.
WARNING:
At high production/injection rates fluid movement along the logging cable creates very large forces, which can lift the tool up the tubing (production) or break the cable (injection). Since these forces are still not
quantifiable, production/injection rates during wireline logging must be
strictly controlled as specified in the logging programme. Production/
injection must be stopped immediately if uncontrolled movement of the
tool is observed.
Note: The CCL tension and spinner must be monitored during bean up in high
3
flow rate wells (i.e. above 3000 m /d fluid).
Communication to the wireline unit must be established and personnel must be on
standby to reduce the flow rate in case of any movement.

5.2.4 Running in Hole


(a) Check the monocable magnetic marks near surface, and add extra marks
for close control when pulling out.
Check the number of wraps of cable on the drum before running in hole
and note monitor depth of each layer of cable when it reaches the flange
of the drum (zig-zag' diagram). Check and note depth (wireline of SSSV)
while running in.
Do not exceed 3000 m/h when running through tubing.
(b) Stop the tool in the tubing every 500 m and check the hanging weight.
Allow any slack from friction to be taken up. In very highly deviated wells
(60) it is most important to keep the tool moving down: do not stop, and
check descent using the CCL.
(c) Take extreme care when passing through tubing downhole accessories,
i.e. landing nipples, packers, tailpipe, etc.
(d) Check periodically to ensure that the grease seal is holding well pressure.

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5.2.5 PLT Logging


(a) Run the PLT log as recommended in the programme. Refer to the Bulletins on the individual tools.
(b) Always state on the log the distance between the CCL and recording/
operating point of the tool. State clearly on all logs whether the CCL or
recorded survey is on depth. If memorisation of optical correction is
applied so that the CCL and recorded log are on depth, this should be
stated, together with the amount of correction applied.
5.2.6 Pulling Out of Hole
(a) Slow down and watch tension when re-entering tubing after survey. Slow
down to not more than 100 m/h and take extreme care when passing
through the tubing downhole accessories, i.e. landing nipples, packers,
tailpipe, etc.
(b) Take extreme care near surface. Use the SSSV as correlation while
pulling out of hole. (Previously checked while running in loggers
depth).
Check magnetic marks if available. Check cable position on drum, i.e.
number of wraps.
Monitor the CCL and/or gamma ray, as the tool enters the riser assembly.
Pull up until the tool is completely in the riser. Check the depth system
display and cable position on the drum. The tool should now be a few feet
from the tool catcher.
If there is any doubt whether the tool is clear of the swab valve, proceed to
pull gently into the tool catcher.
(c) Close the swab valve.
(d) Bleed off pressure from lubricator
Note: In the case of Schiumberger's BOPs, bleed off should be done from the
wellhead connections as it is impossible to bleed the Otis riser from the
BOPs.

Check that pressure is zero before proceeding. Before breaking the


Bowen union, open the BOP manifold outlets and check for no gas coming
out.
(e) Break off the Bowen Union and lay down the tool.

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5.3 Cement Bond Survey


(a) Scales
0-50 mV Cement Bond
200-400 s t.
(b) Speed
1200 m/h
(c) Calibration
Before and after survey, the calibration should repeat exactly.
Notes:
1. Ensure that survey is run, triggering on correct signal (trigger on E1 for
CBL).
Always run 50 m of CBL in free pipe to check saturation value, t and correct
triggering.
2. Ensure centralisation is good. 6 mm eccentralisation can reduce amplitude
signal by 50%.
3. Check casing arrival time.

Collars appear as distortions on both amplitude and t logs. Use this phenomenon to check the logging engineer's assessment of corrected collar
depths.
4. Absolute saturation value will vary depending on several factors but would
normally be between 40 and 80 mVs for a polarised sonde.
5. Repeat survey should be exact.

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5.4 Thermal Decay Time Logging


(a) Scale
(Capture Cross-Section)
60-30-0 c.u. (10-3 cm-1)
( Decay Time)
100-300-500 s
(b) Speed
275 m/h Time Constant = 4 s
(c) Before-Survey Calibration
The TDT-M tool contains two detectors and sixteen time gates are selected for each detector. This allows more elaborate decay time computation. Counts are not calibrated. The ratio is normalised with a static
measurement. A source is placed near the detectors and counts in all
gates are added. The background level is measured first and subtracted
from the jig counts. There is no shop calibration for the TDT tool. The
static calibration with the source is made at the wellsite just before the
job.
The calibration summary is identical to that of the TDT tool. However the
tool must be at least 0.6 m above the ground, well away from any metal
object, and all neutron sources must be at least 50 m away from the
detectors. Before survey calibration cannot be made if the detectors have
been exposed to neutrons less than 2 hours before calibration.
Calibration after survey is not possible.
Notes:
1. Reject a survey which exhibits lack of character.
2. Ensure repeat section and main survey are basically identical. In principle, the
shape of the Decay Time survey follows the shape of the open-hole deep
resistivity log: as resistivity increases, Decay Time also increases (Capture
Cross-Section decreases).
Be aware of the two major anomalous effects:
- Acid effect (Capture Cross-Section over acidised interval too high, indicating
higher water saturation than actually exists). Magnitude of anomaly is
thought to be related to effectiveness of acid job.
- Filtrate effect (Capture Cross-Section over affected interval too low: water
saturation apparently lower than expected from open hole logs). Applicable
over water-bearing and transition zones only.

(d) Preparations
(i) TDT should always be run with well on production, to prevent settling and dispersion of fluids from the well-bore into arbitrary intervals.

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(ii) Run after acidisation and clean-up.


(iii) Ratio curve is closely related to porosity, and should correlate very
well with open-hole porosity surveys.
(iv) Repeat two or three times if background level is higher than normal.
(v) Ensure that Quality Control curve (at 9 divs Track 1) remains constant.
(vi) Check that x = 4500.
(vii) Do NOT make statistical checks.

5.5

Electromagnetic Thickness Tool (ETT)

(a) Scale
0-360o phase shift.
(b) Speed
1000 m/h.
(c) Calibration
Calibration before and after survey should be similar-a small change is
not important.
Notes:
1. The ETT cannot be considered a quantitative tool. With new casing in faultless
condition, each joint indicates a fairly uniform - but different - phase shift.
Generally speaking, it is useless to run an ETT in the hope of detecting corrosion unless a reference survey was made shortly after completing the well.
Comparison against a reference survey will readily indicate corroded areas.
2. Ensure that the correct diameter tool is used for the size of casing being
measured.
3. Run a junk catcher until it comes up clean before running the ETT.
4. The ETT is not a very robust tool. If the reading is constant, change the sensor
and re-run.

5.6

Production Logging Tool (PLT)

The Production Logging Tool (PLT) allows logging of several downhole parameters simultaneously during production control services in production,
monitoring and injection wells.
It can simultaneously record flow rate, fluid density, temperature, pressure,
caliper, casing collars and gamma ray.
It can be combined with additional sensors for tracer surveys and highprecision pressure recordings.

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The basic sensors are the flowmeter, gradiomanometer, thermometer, manometer and caliper. In addition to the CCL, a gamma ray detector can be added
to aid in correlation. Figure 5-3 shows the tool configuration with the main
sensors, including the two types of manometers which are available for use in the
PLT combination
To measure low flow rates and to detect fluid flow behind the casing a Tracer
Ejector Tool (TET) can be combined with the PLT string.
A PLT survey can be recorded with the tool moving up or down, and measurements can be made versus time with the tool stationary. Usually in a
production well the down logs are most relevant and generally one pass gives an
idea of what is happening over the producing interval. Conversely, in injection
wells the up logs generally show the features most clearly. For every flow rate
and at shut-in conditions several passes are made. During each pass all
parameters are measured simultaneously and the CSU system puts the readings
on depth by compensating for the different positions of the sensors. If an in-situ
flowmeter calibration has already been made with the well shut-in, then a single
run gives the necessary information to calculate flow rates and water cut under
flowing conditions.
The following notes are intended as a general guide for any engineer supervising a programme of production logging.
(a) Make sure the well is clean by running a dummy CCL or sinker bar (if
necessary, run a junk-basket) before starting production surveys. Flowmeter spinners have been clogged by bits of wire, remnants of ceramic
capsule, or congealed mud.
(b) Determine the location of the non-flowing sump early in the sequence of
surveys, and avoid running the flowmeter into the junk and debris at the
bottom of the hole.
(c) During logging operations the PLT must not be allowed to approach
closer than 20 feet to the tubing foot (or bottom of the tailpipe).
(d) Before opening the well or changing the flow rate for further production
logging ensure that the films of the logging surveys just completed are
developed and checked. If there is any doubt regarding reliability or
repeatability, re-run the respective logs.
(e)During any flow rate changes the PLT is to be left stationary in the well
at a point which is not directly opposite any perforations. Provided there
is enough space between perforated intervals, the tool should preferably
be placed between two of the lowermost intervals, just below a collar, but

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above the top of the sump. Watch the CCL carefully during the rate change.
If the tool starts to float the collar should be clearly observable. In this case
close the well in at once.
After opening the well or changing the flow rate, allow well production to
stabilise at the selected rate before commencing production logging. This
can take an hour, often longer.
Any changes to flowrate are to be made very slowly and carefully to avoid
excessive forces on tool and cable.
(f) Ensure that the survey date of any production survey is included on the
FRONT of the heading after the witness' name. Although the date also
appears as part of the survey statistics, including it in the front of the
heading is very useful for retrieving the correct log from our files.
Special Note: Maximum Flow Rates
When production logging is carried out inside a 5" casing or liner, special care
must be taken in observing the tension of the logging cable. If there is any
indication of upward movement of the PLT due to the force of the gas/oil flow the
well is to be closed in immediately.
Do not carry out any production logging at flow rates exceeding 1.1 106 m3/ d.
When logging inside 5" casing, check with base on the maximum flow rate to be
used.
Work is currently in progress to determine the maximum oil flow rates permissible during production logging, and these will be reported to the field as soon
as possible.
The PLT incorporates several logging sensors in one sonde. Before entering the
well, check the positions of each sensor in relation to the CCL, as the exact tool
configuration is quite variable. The sensors are briefly described below.
5.6.1 Flowmeter
Two spinner-type velocimeters are available to give a continuous flow profile
versus depth and to determine relative contributions of each zone to total
well production:
(a) CFM
This is a standard 1 11/16" diameter flowmeter, which is affected by turbulence, and has better sensitivity and discrimination than the FBS: in high
production or injection rate wells this flowmeter should normally be
chosen.

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(b) FBS
The full-bore spinner is less sensitive than the CFM, and appears to damp
down the effects of turbulence. It should only be selected when its response characteristics are essential for the operation planned, as in biphasic flow.
5.6.2 Gradiomanometer
The gradiomanometer measures the pressure gradient between two
membrane-type pressure sensors two feet apart, in relative density units.
5.6.3 High Resolution Thermometer (HRT)
The high resolution thermometer is a highly sensitive recorder capable of
detecting temperature anomalies as small as 0.5F. The device incorporates an
electrical bridge system using an exposed temperature-sensitive resistor as one
arm of the bridge. Although the tool is primarily used for locating fluid entries and
determining the lowest depth of production, other applications include
identification of tubing leaks and determination of geothermal gradients.
5.6.4 Continuous Pressure Manometer
These are of two types:
(a) A Hewlett-Packard quartz strain gauge. This is very sensitive to temperature, the corrections for which are cumbersome but significant. The HP
pressure sensor is recommended for comparison of downhole pressure
between wells.
(b) A Schlumberger RFT type strain gauge. This offers the pressure accuracy
of the RFT, without large temperature effects. This option should be
selected when continuous and accurate downhole pressures are required.
5.6.5 Through-Tubing Caliper
The Through-Tubing Caliper has three bow-spring arms, movement of which is
converted into movement of a linear potentiometer. This tool is useful for
measuring hole sizes up to 12" diameter in barefoot wells. It is rarely of value in
cased/lined wells.

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5.6.6 Tracer Ejector Tool


To measure low flow rates and to detect fluid flow behind casing a Tracer Ejector
Tool (TET) can be combined with the PLT string. With the tool stationary a small
amount of radioactive tracer fluid is injected into the well and transported with the
well fluid. Three gamma ray detectors measure the radiation continuously. There
is always one gamma ray detector above the injection point and one below, and
the position of the third is determined according to whether a producing or
injection well is being surveyed. The direction of fluid flow is readily determined,
and the time it takes for the tracer to move the distance between the gamma ray
detectors is a measure of the fluid velocity. If well fluid goes behind the casing,
the tracer tool can determine where the flow goes, by making a continuous
survey. Because of radioactive contamination of the well fluids the tracer tool is
normally used in water injection wells.
For further information on a production logging tool, see Anderson, R.A., J.J.
Smolen, Luc Laverdiere and J.A. Davis, A Production-Logging Tool with
Simultaneous Measurements. SPE 7447, 1978.

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5.7 Continuous Flowmeter


(a) Scale
Depends on maximum flow anticipated.
(b) Speed
This also depends on anticipated flow rate. The criterion is to generate
sufficient spinner speed at maximum flow to cover most of Tracks II and III
on the film within any interval where flow rates may be changing. Careful
control of logging speed is ESSENTIAL for determination of flow rates.
See paragraph (e).
(c) Calibration
Calibrate downhole before survey. Calibration to be in accordance with
paragraph (f).
(d) Running Procedures
(i) Record flow at a variety of cable speeds, to check linearity of tool
response.
(ii) Take readings at fixed stations, where the flow profile indicates constant flow without turbulence.
Notes:
1. Survey against direction of flow, for maximum sensitivity.
2. Avoid stationary readings within 10 m of tubing shoe or top perforations if possible
these are regions of high turbulence.
3. Avoid running below lowest point of inflow/injection, as there is danger of clogging
the spinner with mud or debris.
4. Flowmeters run in open hole should always be accompamed by a caliper.

(e) Control of Survey Speed:


The continuous flowmeter is the only tool in which careful control of
absolute logging speed is essential, as knowledge of cable speed is an
integral part of any attempt to establish flow rates quantitatively.
Methods available for determination of cable speed are:
(i) Meter on winchman's panel. This is NOT to be trusted.
(ii) One minute breaks on film track: the indicated 60 second period is a
function of generator frequency, and is sufficiently accurate for calibration purposes, BUT it cannot be observed until the film has been
developed.
(iii) Cable speed galvanometer: calibration of this speed indicator is also
a function of generator frequency.
(iv) Observation of footage travelled in a fixed time as indicated by a
watch with second hand. This is the only reliable check on cable
speed during the survey. In order to guarantee the accuracy of cable

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speed indication, ensure that the following procedure is adhered


to:
1. Calibrate speed galvanometer.
2. At a nominal cable speed of 15 m/min, check the exact distance
travelled (ft) during an elapsed time of two minutes.
3. Repeat at a nominal cable speed of 30 m/min.
4. Note the results of this check on the heading thus:
Nominal Speed
5 m/min
30 m/min

Actual Speed
15.15
= 7.575 m/min
2
30.30
= 15.150 m/min
2

(f) Calibration Procedure


(i) Record a flow profile as usual, against the direction of flow.
(ii) From the flow profile, select an interval of constant flow to make the
response calibration.
(iii) Moving the tool AGAINST the direction of flow within the selected
interval, record the spinner speed at each 5 m/min step in cable
speed, from zero to 30 m/min.
(iv) Moving the tool WITH the fluid flow within the selected interval, record the spinner speed until the spinner recommences rotation in the
opposite direction.
(v) Plot the flowmeter response line to ensure validity of calibration.
(vi) Make a zero flow calibration, as a check, if possible.

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5.8 Gradiomanometer
(a) Scale
0-1 g/cm2 per cm track
(b) Speed
2000 ft/hr ( 600 m/h)
(c) Calibration
Calibration is made at surface using air (0) and water (1). Before and after
survey calibrations should repeat.
Notes:
1. Most common problem is punctured bellows, which gives decreased readings.
2. Repeat section will be similar, but probably not exact.
3. Survey should be made twice, once with well flow, once against.
4. In gas wells, gradiomanometer should be run first, to determine liquid level at
bottom of well. This sump should be avoided in subsequent flowmeter runs.

(e) Interpretation
Friction and kinetic effects alter the gradiomanometer reading in a f lowing well, but these effects are usually spurious and unquantifiable.
The recorded pressure gradient is also reduced by well deviation. If is
the deviation angle from vertical, g is the gradiomanometer reading and
f is the correct fluid density, then:
g = f cos
Care must be taken to ensure that deviation changes are not misinterpreted as alterations in wellbore fluid density.

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5.9 Thermometer
(a) Scale
As required: Temperature scale may be changed while logging.
(b) Speed
1800 m/h.
(c) Calibration
Downhole calibration, before and after survey should repeat.
Notes:
1. Lack of character/sensitivity may be caused by broken sensor.
2. Always run three maximum reading thermometers with HRT to check absolute
value of readings.
3. Temperature survey should always be made running into the hole to avoid
disturbance of temperature readings by passage of the tool and cable.
4. Basically, temperature will increase from surface to TD on the basis of the
geothermal gradient. However, this will be affected by
- length of time since cementation of casing
- production rate
- length of time shut in
- gas production.
5. Ensure that a FULL history of anything which could possibly affect the interpretation of a temperature survey is added to the heading, e.g. an account of the
well production history.

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Perforating

PERFORATING

6.1 General Preparations


1. All tubulars should be laid down before perforating or testing on floating
rigs. This precaution is not necessary on platforms.
2. Working areas around the Xmas tree and separators should be kept clear
and there must be unobstructed access to these areas at all times.
When work is to be carried out on the wellhead, a suitable platform
should be erected.
Cranes must not be operated over or in the vicinity of separators.
3. Adequate killing fluid of the correct gradient should be available. Killing
lines from the rig/kill pump should be as direct as possible.
All valves should be trimmed and the non-return valve checked to ensure
that it is not leaking.
4. All testing and kill equipment must be satisfactorily pressure tested with
a pressure above the maximum pressures that can be anticipated during
the operation.
5. The standard Xmas tree pressure test should be carried out with a plug
installed in the tubing or hanger nipple. Each valve of the Xmas tree is to
be individually tested.
6. The steam lines to the heat exchanger of the test equipment should be
pressure tested with steam to the same pressure as the steam boilers are
rated.
7. Provision is to be made for two blow-off lines. For offshore operations this
involves one on either side of the platform.
8. A Blowout and Fire Drill' is to be held prior to perforating operations.
9. Electric arc welding may only take place when authorised by a Welding
Permit', which is to be signed by both Installation Manager and Production Supervisor.
10. Before commencement of perforating operations, the fire-fighting water
system should be under pressure.
The Installation Manager will ensure that the rig is visited by a Safety
Inspector before the well is perforated or tested.

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11. Gas explosion meters, a hydrogen suiphide detector and portable


breathing apparatus sets must be available. The gas must be checked as
soon as possible for the presence of hydrogen sulphide by either the
Production Engineer or Wellsite Petroleum Engineer (see 8.3).
12. A production operator (Company or Contractor) shall assist the wireline
operator in opening or closing the Xmas tree valves during perforating
and wireline operations.
13. A production operator (Company or Contractor) shall be on duty at all
times from the time that the well is perforated until the production test has
been concluded.
14. The Wellsite Petroleum Engineer is to witness the earth testing of equipment.
15. Radio Silence (see 8.2.4).
16. Dummy Run
Before the first gun is run in the hole, a dummy run is made on piano wire
to check that the tubing and casing are free from obstruction. The dummy
should have the same OD as the perforating gun to be run, and be at least
1.2 m long.

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6.2 Arming Guns


1. During production tests in exploration wells, or initial perforations in
deeper/unknown reservoirs drilled from a platform, the first perforation must
be carried out in daylight, although later runs may be made at night. This
procedure ensures that the wellhead and testing lines are not being
pressurised by unknown hydrocarbons in darkness.
2. Ensure that the lubricator and BOPs have been tested to the pressure
specified in the well programme.
3. Check rig wiring which could contact the cable armour for loose cables, faulty
insulation, etc.
4. Shut down electric arc welding operations.
5. Initiate radio silence.
6. Visually inspect the gun assembly before the detonator is connected. Count
the number of shots and overall length of gun and check this with the
perforation programme. Measure and check the programme blank intervals
(if any). Measure the total length of the gun. Check the distance between the
CCL recording point and the top shot of each gun.
7. Examine unijet guns very closely before running in the hole. The most
frequent causes of sticking unijet guns in tubing are:
(a) Screws used for coupling the assembly fall out and jam between
head assembly and tubing. This will not happen if screws are properly tightened.
(b) Carrier wires work free of head adaptor or bottom weight: this usually
happens if they are incorrectly bedded from the beginning.
(c) In deviated wells, sharp shoulders on gun assembly (particularly the
adaptor head in the vicinity of the magnet) can lodge on X nipples and
prevent descent. Make sure all shoulders on the gun are chamfered.
8. Check that casing-rig voltage is less than 0.25 V.
9. Ensure wireline unit safety switch is off and key is in engineers possession.
10. Move non-essential personnel to a safe distance
11. Arm gun.
12. Cable head must be checked for stray voltages before attachment to the gun.

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13. When attaching head to gun, all personnel must be out of the line of fire.
Non-essential personnel must REMAIN out of the line of fire until the gun is
safely in the well.

6.3 Entering the Well


1. Check gun length, CCL to top shot.
2. Pick up gun and install lubricator, grease injection tube and stuffing box.
Tighten Bowen Union. Ensure gun assembly head is lodged against tool
catcher (leave 0.6 m slack in the cable, then pull up by hand). Set depth
indicator.
Note: All depths are referred to the derrick floor on drilling rigs and platforms, and to a
theoretical point equivalent in height above MSL to the original DFE on wells
perforated using the workover hoist.

3. Close upper master gate valve (UMGV), open kill wing valve (KWV)/swab
valve (SWABV). Slowly pressure up lubricator to anticipated CITHP using
water/glycol from cement unit, and check for leaks. If CITHP is less than
pressure expected during the operation (as a result of perforation), test to 35
bar above anticipated CITHP.
4. Equalise lubricator pressure to existing THP at cement unit. Close KWV.
Ensure tool catcher/trap is closed, then open UMGV. When both SWABV
and UMGV are fully open, release tool from tool catcher or open tool trap and
lower gun into well.
5. Ensure magnetic marks are boosted near surface and add extra marks for
close control when pulling out. Switch on cable safety device when gun is
below the seabed.
6. Speed
A. Carrier Guns
After the first trip in the hole, carrier guns can be run and pulled out at
any speed consistent with limitations of personnel and well safety and
winch mechanics. However, remember that stuffing boxes and high
cable speeds are not compatible.
B. Unijets
In casing, speed should not exceed 3000 m/h.
In tubing, even 3000 m/h may be too fast. Always drive flexible guns
down tubing, watching tension and CCL indication closely and stopping at the first sign of hang-up.

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C. General
Speed through wireline entry guide, tubing landing nipples, other
tubing accessories and SSSV, should not exceed 1000 m/h for
both descending and ascending.
7. When descending to perforate trigger interval, run gun down to 150 m above
top packer. Open KWV. Pressure up tubing so as to get a 20 bar drawdown
of the formation, using water/glycol and cement pump. Close KWV.
8. Continue down, checking depths of all tubing accessories such as landing
nipple, ball valve nipple, etc. the packer and tailpipe and any pup joints in the
casing string below the packer. Any large depth discrepancy may necessitate
the running of a completely new GR/CCL log to be recorrelated with the
original FDC-GR.
9. Always pull up slowly when entering tubing shoe.
10. In highly deviated wells, gun weight may not be sufficient to overcome
combined cable friction and wellhead pressure forces. In this case the
possibility of pumping guns down may be considered. Do not attempt to pump
down a gun which has stuck. The reason for this is very simple. Should the
obstruction be overcome, the cable will be subject to high drag forces
downwards, while at the stuffing box, pump pressure tends to push the cable
upwards. The net result is that the cable will part just below the stuffing box.
11. Avoid running capsule guns on to obstruction in the well bore such as
cement plugs, bridge plugs, etc.

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6.4 Depth Control


Casing collars are tied to formation depths using the gamma ray, usually in
combination with the CBL/VDL. Collar indications on the CBL can thus be used
to confirm the CCL correction interval.
Perforation depths will be quoted relative to the GR recorded with a Density
survey over the reservoir interval. This survey is the REFERENCE LOG.
1. On GR/CCL log the CCL is recorded off depth from the GR. Establish the
collar depths at their correct location with respect to this GR, and mark these
collars on the GR/CCL.
2. If there is a depth discrepancy between the GR of the GR/CCL and the
GR/LDT, adjust the collars as determined from the GR/CCL to reference log
depths as in the following example:
The depth of a correlatable peak on the LDT-GR (reference log) is 3010.0 m,
whilst the depth of the same peak on the GR/CCL log is 3010.6 m, i.e. the
GR/CCL is reading 0.6 m too deep relative to the reference log. If the casing
collar nearest to this correlation peak is at 3011 m on the GR/CCL, the true
reference log depth of this collar is 3010.4 m.

3. Note the location of the 'short joint in the casing string.


4. Run a collar log over the entire interval to be perforated before shooting.
Check the location of the short joint with the CCL run with the perforating gun
to ensure correct depths. Make a 1/20 scale recording of the lower end of the
tubing string to confirm the downhole assembly.
5. Check two collars below perforating depth before stopping to perforate, to
ensure that there is no slack or loop in the cable.
6. In setting the gun depth, consider the spacing from CCL measure point to top shot,
as measured before arming gun.

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All possible checks should be made to ensure that the gun is at the correct
depth before shooting. Rectifying an incorrectly located set of perforations is
costly and time-consuming and almost certainly involves rig-work.
7. During the detonation look for indications that gun has fired, e.g. changes in
cable tension or galvanometer reading. After firing capsules, leave gun for
around three minutes to allow gun debris to fall before pulling up. This
precaution is not necessary with carrier guns. Record on film the casing
collars (at least three) immediately above the perforated zone before pulling
tool into tubing.
8. When shooting multiple intervals, it is good practice to start from the lowest
zone and work upwards. This minimises the possibility of debris blocking
intervals not yet perforated, particularly when perforating with capsules. This
procedure is not necessary with carrier guns.

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6.5 Retrieving the Gun


1. After shooting, pull up slowly and re-check collars above perforating depth.
(Wait a few minutes if perforating with unijets to allow for debris to settle).
2. After last gun of a sequence has been fired, run a collar log across the entire
interval to check perforated zones.
3. Take care when entering tubing shoe, particularly with unijets and enerjets.
Carrier wires/strips can break and prevent entry. Occasionally a sharp edge
on the downhole assembly, combined with magnetic positioning device
(MPD) angles, can cause re-entry problems.
4. Pull out of hole with caution. The gun may jam as a result of debris, broken
wires or strips, misfired charges, improperly assembled carriers. As long as it
can still be moved, there is a chance of retrieving the gun without killing the
well and pulling tubing.
5. Watch tension closely, and watch out for cable armour balling up inside
stuffing box.
6. Assume the gun has not fired until confirmed by observation.
7. 60 m below seabed:
shut down all welding
maintain radio silence
remove logging unit safety key which should be kept by the Operating
Company engineer
move all non-essential personnel to a safe distance
close tool-trap.
8. Observe magnetic marks near surface.
9.

Pull gun into lubricator. Ensure that passage of CCL into lubricator is
observed on hand-held magnetic mark detector at rig-floor.

10. Take care when head is approaching stuffing box. Weak points have been
broken by accidentally engaging the wrong gear in the wireline unit when gun
was inside lubricator. ENSURE that gun is in the top of the lubricator
BEFORE closing main valve.
11. Close BOPs.
12. Bleed off pressure in riser.
13. Disconnect riser. If the quick-joint is difficult to unscrew, BEWARE
of pressure in the riser.

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14. Lay gun on cat walk.


15. If gun has fired: Check carrier for unfired charges.
16. If gun has not fired:
(a) Keep all personnel out of line of fire in so far as this is practicable.
(b) Unijet guns
Cut cleanly through primacord just below blasting cap so that
charges cannot fire. Disconnect gun from cable. Remove blasting
cap, twist leg wires together, render safe. Investigate reason for
misfire.
(c) Carrier guns
Disconnect head from gun, cap gun. Remove blasting cap, investigate reason for misfire.
17. Check insulation and continuity of wireline.

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7 WELLSITE GEOLOGY
7.1 Lithological Description of Sedimentary Rocks
The Wellsite Petroleum Engineer is responsible for keeping up-to-date a
continuous cuttings log, which includes the description of cores and sidewall
samples.
This log, called the `mud' log, should contain the following information:
(a) Penetration rate
(b) Well depth
(c) Lithology described as per Tapeworm
(d) Lithology interpretation
(e) Total gas readings and gas chromatograph
(f) Hydrocarbon detection (see 7.2)
(g) Mud data
(h) Bit data
(i) Deviation data
(j) Casing data
(k) Remarks on losses, gains, oil in mud and H2S indications.
7.1.1 Description and Coding of Rock Compositions
A complete lithological description taken from the EP Standard Legend
(1976) showing the symbols and abbreviations describing rock samples and
hydrocarbon indications is given as Figure 7.1-1 (next 26 pages). It is also
available from SIPM as a fold-out for field use (Reference: Guide for Lithological Descriptions of Sedimentary Rocks ['TAPEWORM] by E.H.K. Kempter; revised by E.D. Benjamins, Shell-Gabon, Port Gentil, September
1981).

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7.2 Hydrocarbon Detection


Methods used for detection and identification of hydrocarbons at the wellsite
include the following:
1. Natural Fluorescence
2. Solvent Cuts
3. Solvent Cut-Fluorescence
4. Aceton-Water Test (Acetone Reaction)
5. Visible Staining and Bleeding
6. Odour
7. Gas Detection Analysis
8. Irridescence
9. Acid Test.
The application of these methods is the responsibility of the Wellsite Petroleum Engineer.
7.2.1 Natural Fluorescence
Examination of mud, drill cuttings, SWS and cores for hydrocarbon fluorescence under ultraviolet light often indicates oil in small amounts or oil of light
colour which might not be detected by other means. All samples should be
examined using this method. It is important to note that in addition to hydrocarbons other minerals fluoresce under the ultraviolet wavelength used
in the common fluoroscope. The method of distinguishing between the two
types is to test for cut-fluorescence not shown by the minerals.
A portion of the lightly washed cuttings or freshly broken core is placed in the
view box and observed under the ultraviolet light. Those parts of the sample
exhibiting fluorescence are picked out and placed in a porcelain test plate
hole to be tested for cut-fluorescence. It is important that the fluorescence
examination is made on fresh wet samples that have not been dried. In many
cases, very light oils or condensates will not fluoresce after the sample has
dried.
False indications may arise from any or all of the following:
(a) The presence of resinous material in the formation.
(b) Gilsonite cement, which has been known to give a colour reaction with
some solvent.
(c) Contamination of cuttings by grease used for casing joints, tool joints or
rotary table bearings.
(d) Fluorescence and/or solvent coloration may arise from oil used for preparing emulsion muds. This can occur when the oil is not efficiently

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emulsified or when the formation samples have not been cleaned sufficiently.
7.2.2

Solvent Cuts

The cut is the coloration observed with the naked eye imparted to a colourless solvent by the hydrocarbons (crude oils, etc.) bearing sample.The colour
of the cut is reported. The heavier oils usually give stronger cuts than light
oils for a given concentration, but oils of equal gravity show appreciable
differences according to their chemical composition. Naphthenic (asphaltic)
oils generally show darker cuts than alkanid (paraffinic) oils. Condensate will
give a light to very light cut. In addition to the cut, an oil ring can often be
observed on the side of the test tube or watch-glass after evaporation of the
solvent.
Place 3cm of dried and crushed sample in a 10cm3 test tube and add
solvent (Chlorothene or chloroform, etc.) up to 1 cm above the sample. Shake
well for 3 to 4 min and leave the sample to stand for about 15 min. Hold the
tube against a sheet of white paper and note the discoloration. See Figure
7.2-1, shown on the inside of the back cover, for oil detection in rock specimens.
Chlorothene is the recommended solvent (especially for heavy hydrocarbons) as it is non-flammable and relatively non-toxic. It is the registered trade
mark of a chlorohydrocarbon containing methylchloroform. Trichloroethane,
ether, chloroform, petroleum ether and acetone are other solvents commonly
used (carbon tetrachloride used to be the most popular solvent for both
light and heavy hydrocarbons until it was discovered that it is a cumulative
poison particularly dangerous in enclosed spaces).
Ether is the strongest solvent, but is not selective between oil-like substances
and the oxygen-containing compounds derived from vegetable matter. In
addition it is a potential fire hazard.
Chloroform is also a good solvent (for heavy hydrocarbons), but is also not
very selective and it can be dangerous in enclosed spaces.
Petroleum ether is a relatively selective solvent for all hydrocarbons.

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7.2.3 Solvent Cut-Fluorescence


The cut-fluorescence is recorded by placing the test tube (used for determining cut) under UV light, taking care to fill a test tube with pure solvent as
control/comparison.
It is sometimes useful to withdraw some of the solvent with a pipette from the
test plate and to drop it on a piece of filter paper. A brown ring may form
and/or the spot may fluoresce.
7.2.4 Acetone Water Test (Acetone Reaction)
Acetone is a poor solvent, especially for the heavier hydrocarbons, but a
good one for bituminous material and light oils.
If the presence of light oil or condensate is suspected and provided no
carbonaceous or lignitic matter is present in the rock sample, the acetonewater test may be tried. The rock is powdered and placed in a test tube and
acetone is added. After shaking vigorously it is filtered into another test tube
and an equal amount of water is added. Since acetone and water are fully
miscible and since hydrocarbons are insoluble in water, a milky white dispersion of hydrocarbons is formed when hydrocarbons are present in the
sample. In case of abundant fluid hydrocarbons in the samples some oil may
coalesce and float on top of the acetone-water mixture.
7.2.5 Visible Staining and Bleeding
The amount by which cuttings and cores will be flushed on their way to the
surface is primarily a function of the permeability. In very permeable rocks
only very small amounts of oil are retained in the cuttings. Often bleeding oil
and gas may be observed in cores, and sometimes in drill cuttings, from
relatively tight formations.
The amount of oil staining on ditch cuttings and cores is a function primarily of
the distribution of the porosity and the oil distribution within the pores. The
colour of the stain is a function primarily of oil gravity; heavy oils give a dark
brown stain, while light oil tends towards colourless. It is important to observe
is differentiation since the amount of staining is often described according
to the colour, which can give very erroneous results in exploration wells.

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7.2.6 Odour
The smell of a freshly broken core is distinguishable and should be noted, i.e.
petroliferous, sulphurous, etc. Smells from cuttings are often apparent during the drying process.
7.2.7 Gas Detection Analysis
When an air-combustible gas mixture is passed over the hot detector filament
of the gas detector wire, combustion of the gas occurs, causing the detecting
filament temperature to be higher than when air or non-combustible gases
are passed over the filament. The higher temperature increases the electrical resistance of the filament wire, which is one branch of a Wheatstone
bridge. The increased resistance of the filament branch and the amount of
unbalance is shown on a galvanometer. At high voltages all the combustible
gases burn; at a specified lower voltage all the gases except methane burn.
By recording the readings at both voltage settings, qualitative indications of
the amount of total gas and of gas heavier than methane can be obtained. For
even more refined determinations in special cases the gas detector can be
connected up to a chromatographic unit.
7.2.8 Irridescence
Irridescence may occur with oil of any colour or gravity but is more likely to be
observed with the lighter, more colourless oils, where oil staining may be
absent. Irridescence maybe observed in the wet sample tray or in the mud
stream. Irridescence without oil coloration or staining may indicate the presence of light oil or condensate. When oil emulsion or oil-base muds are
used, irridescence from the mud occurs and should not be mistaken for
formation hydrocarbons.
7.2.9 Acid Test
The presence of oil in calcareous cuttings can often be detected by dropping
them into weak acid (10% HCL). The reaction of the acid on an even faintly
stained cutting may form relatively large bubbles, which adhere to the cutting
and cause it to rise to the surface. Sometimes the bubbles burst and the
cutting falls again with a characteristic bouncing motion.

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7.2.10 Reporting Results of Tests for Hydrocarbon Shows


The reporting of these results in a timely and accurate manner is of the
greatest importance. The results can be fully described or expressed in
symbol form. Examples of the symbols used and of a typical report are given
in 7.2.10.1 and 2.
7.2.10.1 Symbols for Hydrocarbon Shows
(a) Natural Fluorescence: Should be analysed for the following properties
and reported. The use of the symbols below is optional.
(i) Distribution
A = Even
B = Streaked.
C = Spotted (patchy)
Z = None
(ii) Intensity
3 = Bright (good)
2 = Dull (fair)
1 = Pale (weak)
0 = None
(iii) Colour
A = White
B = Blue
C = Yellow
D = Gold
E = Orange
F = Brown
G = Coffee
Z = None
(b) Solvent Cut: To be reported (numerically) for the colour gradation given
below (see Figure 7.2-1).
5 = Dark Coffee
4 = Dark Tea
3 = Normal Tea
2 = Light Tea
1 = Very Light
0 = Nil (Pure Solvent)

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(c) Solvent Fluorescence: To be reported the same way as for Natural Fluorescence (intensity).
3 = Bright (good)
2 = Dull (fair)
1 = Pale (weak)
0 = None
(d) Acetone Reaction: Report numerically as follows:
4 = Milky (good)
3 = Opaque white (fair)
2 = Translucent white (weak)
1 = Traces (faint)
0 = Nil (clear)
(e) If applicable, results of visible staining and bleeding, odour, gas detector
analysis, irridescence and acid test should be reported in this standard
order, using the following symbols:
P = Positive
N = Negative
Q = Questionable
7.2.10.2 Reporting Procedure Example
When reporting indications, either the depth (corrected for time lag) from
which the cuttings originate, or in the case of the same results for more than
one sample in sequence, the interval should be mentioned first, followed by
the alphabetical and numerical symbols in a standard sequence as shown in
the following example.
A cutting sample exhibiting shows' should be reported as follows:

If required or considered significant the presence of staining, odour etc. can


be added.

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Combined symbols to show average or in-between ratings may also be used,


e.g.:

If there are no indications, the information should read:


400-420 Z0Z000

(Zulu Zero for verbal reporting).

When describing hydrocarbon indications according to the standard system,


cuttings fractions should be described separately, i.e.:
(i) Those thought to represent genuine cuttings from the bottom
(ii) Those thought to represent cavings.
When drilling potential reservoirs, particularly those situated below a shale
cap, the relevant cuttings may only account for a small fraction of the sample.
If only the genuine cutting fraction of such a sample gives fluorescence, it is
meaningless to describe the whole sample as `spotty'. It is also meaningless
to report solvent tests made on a mixture of shale cavings and fluorescent
cuttings.
The entire report should refer only to the cuttings which are reasonably
believed to come from the bottom. In cases of severe cavings, specify;
e.g. A 3 B 5 3 1 (10% sst, 90% shale cavings).
In cases where only a fraction of the genuine cuttings show natural fluorescence, particular care should be taken in reporting the intensity and colour
of the fluorescence fraction, and only the fluorescent fraction should be
tested with solvent.

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Safety and Environmental Control

8 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL


8.1 Handling and Storage of Radioactive Sources and Explosives
8.1.1 Radioactive Sources Safe Working Conditions, Handling,
Storage and Transport
The information given below is derived from the Radiation Manual for Well
Logging Operations'. Refer to this document and to 'Contractor Radiation Safety
Manuals for more detailed information. General information on radiation can be
obtained from the lonising Radiation Safety Guide', Shell Safety and Health
Committee, 1991. Table 8.1-1 gives the Radiation limits for working conditions.

The logging engineer is responsible for the supervision of all work involving
radioactive sources. He must be at the work site when sources are handled and
he is responsible for compliance with legislation, Company and Contractor
guidelines and procedures and for safety in general.
Only the logging engineer, or the operators under his direct instructions are
authorised to handle carrying shields containing the radioactive sources used in
logging operations. Only the logging engineer is authorised to remove the
sources from their carrying shields.

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The following should be adhered to:


1. Procedures must exist which cover a rig or platform emergency.
2. A contingency plan for accidents/incidents with radioactive sources should
exist.
3. Emergency safety equipment as listed below should be available on
site.
4. A work permit is required.
5. Radiological workers handling radioactive materials should wear their
appropriate monitoring badges.
6. A working area must be defined and fenced off with warning signs prior to
taking the sources from storage. The drillers' doghouse is excluded from the
'controlled area' for reasons of maintaining full well surveillance.
7. Gamma and/or neutron radiation monitors must be available at the working
area.
8. Prior to removing the sources from their carrying shield, a pre-exposure
warning must be given using the public address system informing rig
personnel that source(s) are about to be exposed.
9. Dedicated source handling tools should be used; radioactive sources must
not be handled with bare hands.
After the operation:
10. Logging contractor personnel must check that the source is placed back in its
carrying shield.
11. Radioactive materials must be returned to the storage facility.
12. A radiological survey must be conducted to ensure that the wellsite is free of
contamination.
13. A Tannoy announcement should be made informing personnel of the end of
the operation involving radioactive sources.
8.1.1.2 Storage of Radioactive Sources
All radioactive sources when not in use should be kept under lock in a radioactive
source store. The sources are kept in the store inside their locked carrying shield
(some calibration sources are kept in a calibration instrument).
A radioactive source register must be kept by the logging engineer showing: type
of source, identification number, source activity, location on installation, owner,
date of arrival, date/destinatian of departure and manifest number.

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The maximum permitted radiation level outside (above, below, at the sides) of
the storage container or outside a fence errected around the storage container
are:

8.1.1.3 Transporting Radioactive Materials


Radioactive sources are always transported in their carrying shields. On land, the
carrying shields are placed in the source compartment of the logging truck or a
special transport truck is used. Offshore, the carrying shields are placed in a
dedicated transport container. Carrying shields and transport containers are
marked with a Transport Index (Tl) number. No passengers are allowed when
sources are shipped by helicopter.
When sources are received at a location they should be transferred immediately
from the transport container or logging truck to the permanent storage facility.
Such should be done by the logging engineer or the operators under his
instructions. In their absence, the Shell Competent Person may transfer the
sources or alternatively, barriers may be erected around the transport container
at the 2.5 or 7.5 Sv/hr level. Consideration must be given to radiation levels
above and below the container (see Table 8.1-2)

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For transport of sources from a location, all preparations such as packaging,


labelling and paper work should be made by logging contractor personnel.
8.1.1.4 Safety Equipment
The safety equipment that may be required during emergency situations
involving radioactive sources should be kept on site:
1. Radiation monitors for gamma and neutron radiation; contamination monitors
are required when unsealed sources are being handled.
2. Three bags of lead shot for shielding of gamma radiation (2 kg per bag).
3. Parafin slabs or plastic bags with water or oil (three) for shielding of neutron
radiation. Neutrons in reaction with hydrogen produce gamma radiation which
may also require shielding.
4. Absorbent material (e.g. sand) and a spare pair of impermeable coveralls and
plastic gloves when unsealed sources are handled.
5. Spare chain barriers and ionising radiation warning signs.
6. The fishing tools for the wireline logging tool string.
8.1.1.5 Emergencies Involving Radioactive Sources
Procedures have been developed which outline action to be taken and aspects to
be considered in case of accidents or incidents involving radioactive sources in
logging operations. Refer to Radiation Manual for Well Logging Operations,
Section 7.

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8.1.2 Explosives Handling, Transport and Storage


Three basic types of explosives are in use for wireline operations:
Class 1. Slow-burning Charges, which burn without exploding. These include
Baker packer setting charges and sidewall sample gun charges.
Class 2. High Explosives
These burn only with difficulty, and do not normally explode unless initiated by an
explosion or confined at high temperatures. Included in this category are all
charges for perforating guns, jet cutters, formation interval tester charges and
primacord.
Class 3. Detonators
These will explode violently if exposed to excessive shock (hammering), high
temperature, electrical current above a certain minimum (including induced
current from radio transmissions). Detonators for perforating guns and cutters,
sidewall sample and formation interval tester igniters, and Baker igniters are all of
this type.
Classes 1 and 2
Explosives in the first two categories are a little more dangerous to handle than
matches, provided reasonable care is exercised. Certain specific regulations
apply to their shipment by air or sea, and these must be adhered to. They may
be shipped either in their original packing cases, or properly mounted in hollow
carrier guns, provided the ends are carefully capped against mechanical damage
or water ingress.
Care must be taken to prevent droppage, spillage, water damage or exposure to
excess heat during transportation. An explosives store is provided for the
exclusive storage of wireline charges on the rig/platform in a location remote from
personnel accommodation and working areas. This store is designed to be
jettisoned into the sea in the event of fire. Contents of this store must be limited
to those charges required for perforation within one month, plus a small supply of
primacord, Baker charges, and jet cutters or sidewall sample charges if
necessary.
Keys to this store are held by the TP and Logging Engineer and access is also
permitted to the WSPE by permission of the TP.

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Class 3
Detonators must be handled, transported and stored with extreme care. They
must be kept at all times free from shocks, heat and sources of electrical power
including radio transmitters and lightning discharges. Stringent regulations apply
to their transport, and these must be scrupulously observed.
A separate storage cabinet remote from all other explosives, accommodation and
working areas is supplied on each rig/platform. Contents of this store must be
limited to blasting caps required for immediately foreseeable jobs.
Keys to this store are held by the TP and Wireline Engineer and access is also
permitted to the WSPE by permission of the TP.
Explosives-on-Board Log
A log of explosives on board the rig/plafform is to be maintained by the WSPE.
The explosive log should show the following:
(a) Charge type, e.g. 2" Unijets, 7" cutter, primacord
(b) Date of stock change (IN/OUT)
(c) Number of charges added to/withdrawn from store
(d) Quantity currently in stock.

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8.2 Operating Safety and Radio Silence


8.2.1 Radioactive Sources Operating Safety
(a) Many Operating Companies incorporate supercombo/grandslam tool
runs in their logging programmes, which include the use of radioactive
sources on the first logging run. Based on the good experience with this
practice and provided hole conditions do not indicate undue risk, it is no
longer recommended to avoid running radioactive sources on the first
logging run.
(b) The Logging Crew involved in handling radioactive sources must be
issued with and wear a monitor badge.
(c) Movement of radioactive sources inside the protective shield is not hazardous, but in principle the source should be conveyed from its storage
container to the vicinity of the logging tool as rapidly as possible by the
experienced Wireline Crew, and all other personnel should keep at least
3 m away during the transfer.
(d) The vicinity of the logging tool/radioactive source should be marked by
'Radioactive Material' warning signs and people not directly required
must keep clear.
(e) The source (in its logging shield) must be transferred from the protective
shield using special source holders, and locked into the tool, by the
Wireline Engineer (not by any other member of the Wireline Crew).
(f) The rig floor must be cleared of all personnel not directly involved while
the tool containing a radioactive source is lifted to be lowered into the
well. All personnel must be cleared from working areas below the drill
floor before the tool is lowered into the well. Divers must be advised to
maintain a safe distance from the well as the tool is being lowered.
(g) If a tool containing a radioactive source becomes stuck in the well, the
overstripping fishing techniques must be used. Under no circumstances
is the cable weak point to be broken in open hole until the fish is safely
engaged in the overshot.
(h) When the tool is brought back to surface, similar remarks apply as in (f)
above. Wash the tool from a distance and MAKE SURE THE RADIOACTIVE SOURCE IS STILL IN PLACE.
(i) Lay down the tool, and return the logging source to its shield, and the
shield to its storage container, as in (c) and (d) above.

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(j) A gamma ray radiation monitor (Gammatrol PR 9) should be available at


the wellsite and (where applicable) a neutron monitor.
8.2.2 Fishing for Radioactive Logging Tools
(a) General
If a radioactive logging tool sticks in the hole, the following procedure should
be adhered to:
(i) Ensure that the weak point will not be broken. Do not continue endlessly
to work' the tool since this may reduce the weak point strength.
(ii) Inform Base (both Head Toolpusher and Operations Engineer) and provide them with all relevant information position of fish, allowable tension of weak point and cable, etc.
(iii) Base will then decide on further action together with relevant authorities
(mining inspection).
(iv) WSPE to ensure that Logging Engineer informs Wireline Companys
representative at the Base.
(b) Fishing Operations
Regardless of where the fish is stuck the cable will always be cut and
threaded through the drill pipe.
The following points should be adhered to:
(i) Circulate once around before latching on to the fish.
(ii) Monitor constantly the mud returns with a Gamma Ray tool placed in the
return line or close thereafter.
(iii) Do not locate or engage tool with more than 5 t (10,000 lb) weight.
(iv) Discuss with 6ase the maximum allowable pull.
(v) No personnel other than Wireline Contractor should be near mud pits or
returns lines.
(vi) Ensure that with the tool engaged in the overshot, circulation remains
possible. Use a circulating sub in the fishing assembly one stand above
the overshot.
(c) Handling of Retrieved Source
The following points should be adhered to:
(i) Limit rig personnel to the minimum required on the rig floor.
(ii) Pull the source as far as possible in the derrick (min. 20 m).
(iii) Cover rotary table, close rams, etc. then rig personnel except driller
leaves rig floor.
(iv) Driller assists Wireline Contractor in laying down equipment.
(d) Abandonment of a Source in the Hole

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When everything else has failed, a separate plugging back programme will be
issued.
8.2.3 Explosives Operating Safety
The following general safety precautions should be taken at all times when
operating with electrically-fired perforating guns and charges:
(a) Work involving the use of explosives should be carried out only by
specialist personnel but never when electrical storms are in the vicinity.
(b) During any job involving the use of explosives, the number of authorised
personnel employed should be kept to a minimum. All other persons
should be excluded from the danger area (e.g. walkway and derrick floor)
throughout the operation.
(c) Warning signs should be placed on access routes to the danger area to
prevent access of unauthorised persons.
(d) Electric Arc Welding can cause unacceptable voltage differences be
tween different parts of the rig, or even create dangerous EM radiation
levels. All arc welding should be stopped before electrical blasting caps
are connected to the gun, and remain shut down until the gun is more than
60 m below the sea bed.
(e) Radio Transmissions have the potential to fire blasting caps and/or igniters. Warning signs should be placed in the radio room to advise personnel of radio shut-down (see 8.2.4 on radio silence).
(f) Faulty Rig Wiring has been known to set off guns at the surface. Check the
rig wiring for loose wires or hanging cables, particularly in the vicinity of
the derrick V adjacent to the cat-walk.
(g) Casing and rig must be electrically bonded together, and stray voltage
between them reduced to less than 0.25 V. The Service Company supplies a voltage monitor which should be checked frequently. If the potential difference exceeds the limit at any time throughout the perforating
operation, all sources of electrical energy must be switched off (Note:
This may preclude perforating at night). The WSPE is to witness the earth
testing of the equipment.
(h) The Logging Unit includes a safety switch which isolates the logging
cable from internal circuits and grounds the cable conductors through
5000 ohm resistors. Before attaching an explosive device to the cable
head, and whenever the device (whether fired or not) is less than 60 m
from the surface, the logging unit safety key must be removed and in the
Logging Engineers possession.

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(i) Pre-armed guns must be properly capped until attachment to the cable
head.
(j) The cable head should always be checked for stray voltages before
attachment to the gun.
(k) All non-essential personnel must be moved to a safe distance before the
head is attached to the gun, until the gun is safely in the well.
(I) A gun which has been lowered into the well should always be treated as live
and dangerous until observation outside the lubricator confirms a successful
firing.
8.2.4 Radio Silence
In certain operations there must be radio silence for the following reasons:
Radio Silence is a general term which covers all precautions taken to reduce or
eliminate potential sources of stray currents and radio induced voltages, which
could detonate explosives prematurely (see Table 8.2.4-1).
During Radio Silence the rig platform status will remain Normal'.
Stray Currents are eliminated by stopping all electric welding, shutting down
electrical equipment which may cause stray currents in the rig structure, isolating
cathodic protection and fitting grounding straps between critical areas such as
the casing, rig structure and wire line logging unit.
Radio Induced Voltages are reduced to insignificant levels by ensuring radio and
radar transmissions from the installation are controlled by a radio shutdown. The
area in which transmissions are controlled will also include all vessels within 500
m of the installation. (Outside 500 m the standby boat will warn vessels of the
radio shut-down area). Essential radio links for production and pipeline control
operations may remain operational, when on-site electromagnetic field
measurements have shown that the fields generated by these radio links will not
detonate the explosives prematurely.
Radio Silence is enforced whenever operations involving the use of electroexplosive detonators are being carried out. This comprises perforating, side wall
sampling, formation interval testing (FIT), explosive backing-off (string shot) and
explosive cutting, wireline set packers or bridge plugs. The WSPE must inform
the TP when Radio Silence is required.
On installations where an OIM (Offshore Installation Manager) is present notice
of the need for Radio Silence should be given at least 24 hours in advance to the
OIM. This should also apply to cancellation of the intended

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Radio Silence if required. The OIM will act as co-ordinator for the Radio Silence
procedure.
Table 8.2.4-1 Radio shut-down during operations with explosives applicable to
installations and vessels within 500 metres

TEMPORARY RELAXATIONS: (Prior Agreement OIM, Petroleum Engineer,


Logging Engineer required)
1. Operation of a single 1 watt hand portable radio (more than 10 m from the
wireline) for communication with the standby boat.
2. Temporary operation of any fixed transmitter for urgent communications.
Notes:

1. 'RECEIVE ONLY RADIOS CAN REMAIN IN OPERATION DURING ANY OF


THE OPERATIONS LISTED ABOVE.
2. Although line-of-sight links may be permitted, the back-up UHF transmitter
must be switched off while operations defined in A are being carried out.
3. When operations defined in A are being carried out, the troposcatter link to
shore must be switched off.

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4. No operation defined in A or B will be carried out during weather conditions


which are likely to produce electrical discharges.
5. Potential difference between casing and rig must not exceed 0.25 V. (Electrical
equipment may have to be isolated to achieve this).
Temporary Relaxation of Radio Silence
The normal procedure is that an installation and all vessels within 500 m will
remain in radio shut-down until the specific task is completed. However, if the
task is delayed, or is of a protracted nature, and there is an urgent requirement to
break radio silence, a limited temporary relaxation of some of the radio shutdown requirements is permitted.
Most relaxations will be permitted only when the detonators are more than 75 m
below the sea bed. Below this level, the direct hazard area is restricted to the
wellbore, and although a potential hazard of detonation remains, it is greatly
reduced.
In the case of packers and bridge plugs, radio silence may be interrupted when
the wireline is more than 60 m below sea bed. For all cases, radio silence must
be instigated when running in and when pulling out in the last 60 m until the clear
sign is given by the Logging Engineer, Petroleum Engineer or Toolpusher (TP).
Any relaxation will be by prior agreement between the OIM, the TP, the Logging
Engineer and the Petroleum Engineer, and will be restricted to the use of certain
radios. Any such relaxation must be strictly controlled.
Permanent Relaxation of Radio Shut-Down for the Operation of Pipeline Integrity
and Production Operations Systems
The operation of these systems is dependent on the continuous operation of the
interplatform line of sight links and the Troposcatter link to shore. Troposcatter
cannot be used from a platform in Radio Silence due to the large power radiated.
In the field it is necessary to maintain the inter-platform line of sight links, even
from the installation in Radio Silence. If the contractors (e.g. Schlumberger and
Dresser Atlas) agree that the line of sight links does not pose a detonation
hazard it may safely remain in service during operations with explosives.
Note: Any back-up UHF transmitters must be switched off during Radio Silence.

Alert Conditions
In the event of a platform Yellow Alert status being raised while explosives are
being made up prior into going in the well, the explosives must be made safe and
the operation suspended until the platform is returned to Normal'

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status. When live explosives are in the well they should be lowered to more than
75 m below the sea bed and the operations suspended until the platform is
returned to Normal status.
In the case of a Red Hazard' status the operation must be suspended as for the
'Yellow Alert but in addition the well must be secured by closing the BOPs
around the logging cable. The nature of the emergency should be established
BEFORE operating shear rams/cutting the cable (when using explosives in a
drilling well) or before closing the Xmas tree/SSSV (when using explosives in a
completed well).

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8.3 The Presence of Hydrogen Sulphide


Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) may occur as a component of produced gas. It is an
extremely toxic gas. Protection against hydrogen sulphide requires stringent
precautionary measures.
8.3.1 Toxicity of Hydrogen Sulphide Gas
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) occurs widely at varying concentrations in EP gas
production and processing operations. It is an extremely toxic gas (almost as
lethal as hydrogen cyanide and more lethal than chlorine). It should also be
noted that when H2S is burnt it is oxidised to sulphur dioxide (SO2).
H2S at very low concentrations has the smell of rotten eggs. However, at slightly
higher concentrations, the sense of smell is anaesthetised and it cannot be
detected. Under these circumstances a victim can lose consciousness without
warning.
H2S therefore presents a potentially serious hazard to personnel and requires
stringent safety precautions at every stage of design, operation and particularly
maintenance (see also Health, Safety and Environment in Vol. 1)
Whenever it is necessary to work in areas where the concentration of H2S in the
atmosphere exceeds 10 cm3/m3 (ppm by vol.), PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
MUST BE WORN. (10 ppm is termed the Threshold Limit Value or TLV and is
the time weighted concentration for an 8-hour period to which a person can be
exposed without harmful effect.)
The choice of sampling/analysis method (see below) is critical to accident
prevention.
8.3.2 Determination of Sulphide Content in Mud and Fluid Samples
Method Summary
When H2S contaminates mud and fluid samples, water soluble sulphides as well
as insoluble sulphides are formed. For this reason a method has been chosen to
measure the total sulphide content.
Principle
By adding an excess of concentrated HCI to a sample of drilling mud the total
sulphides present in the mud are converted to H2S. The H2S is stripped from the
liquid and forced through a lead acetate test paper. Lead acetate turns

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brown or black even with traces of H2S. The sulphide content is then estimated
by comparison of the test paper colour with a standard colour chart.
Apparatus
Sample bottle (35 mm diameter, 100 mm high) with perforated plastic
cap
Hydrogen sulphide test papers
Drop bottle with antifoam (NF-1 Bayer Entsch.)
Graduated colour chart
10% wt. hydrochloric acid
Stripping tablets, e.g. Alka Seltzer.
Procedure
1. Place 25 mL mud in sample bottle.
2. Place piece of test paper inside plastic cap.
3. Add 5 7 drops of antifoam to sample and mix carefully.
4. Add 7 mL HCI 10% to sample and IMMEDIATELY snap the cap containing the
test paper on the bottle.
5. Shake carefully, taking care that liquid does not touch the test paper.
6. After the acid is spent (appr. 5 min) remove test paper and compare with
standard colour chart.
Note:
If the colour of the test paper is too dark for proper comparison, the sample may be diluted with water
and the result corrected for dilution. When a high dilution is required, it may be necessary to add an
Alka Seltzer tablet to strip the H2S from the liquid.

8.3.3 Determination of H2S Content in Gas (Drger Tube Method)


Method summary
Drger tubes containing colourless crystals, change colour when H2S gas is
passed through them. The colour change depends on the H2S concentration;
brownish for concentrations up to 2000 ppm vol., and black for high
concentrations.
Procedure
Make a connection with a kerotest valve and lead the gas via a plastic hose to
the bottom of a sampling bottle (max. 1 litre) with a sufficiently wide neck. Flush
the bottle clean and continue with H2S determination procedure whilst the gas
flows continuously via the bottle.

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The apparatus can also be used for H2S determination in the free air above
mudpits, on the drill floor, etc.
Determination
The Drger apparatus equipped with the correct tube (see Table 8.3.3-1) is
placed inside the bottle so that the lower tip of the tube reaches half-way down
the sampling bottle. For the actual H2S determination both tips of the tube should
be broken off with an eye attached near the chain of the pump.
Make the required number of strokes by pushing in the pump completely and
wait till the chain is fully stretched again.
The amount of H2S can then be determined directly from the colour change in the
tube.

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9 RESERVOIR COMPACTION AND SURFACE SUBSIDENCE


9.1 Introduction
Withdrawal of fluids from hydrocarbon reservoirs can result in a substantial
reservoir pore pressure drop when aquifer support is limited. As a result of
the pressure drop in the reservoir, the effective stress which acts on the rock
matrix (the difference between overburden and pore pressure) increases
and as a result reservoir compaction may occur. The degree of compaction
depends on the rock mechanical properties of the depleting reservoir.
The reservoir compaction can have far-reaching implications and proper
prediction and monitoring can be significant attributes of a field development
(planning) activity. The possible implications are:
1. The compaction may act as an additional drive mechanism, affecting
ultimate recovery. This is discussed in more detail in Volume 4, chapter 9
FORMATION COMPRESSIBILITY. The same process may, however, result
in a reduced permeability, canceling out the effect of partial pressure
maintenance.
2. Compaction of a reservoir may result in subsidence of the overburden.
This can present downhole and surface problems:
(a) Downhole casing damage may occur. Research is ongoing to quantify
the effects of compaction on casing damage. The results are planned
to be incorporated in a future update of the Casing Design Manual (EP
50600). It should be noted that the combination of compaction and
sand production will be even more detrimental to casing integrity, as
the cavities resulting from sand production will locally reduce support
to the casing. For more background information, see Refs. 13,14, 15
and 16.
(b) At the surface, subsidence may or may not be a problem, depending
on the field location. in sensitive areas a maximum allowable surface
subsidence may impose a pressure maintenance scheme to prevent
further compaction/subsidence. For the allowable remaining subsidence additional measures may have to be taken, such as upgrading
the system of ground water level management. In offshore areas,
expected subsidence will dictate platform height.
The following Sections outline the various procedures to predict reservoir
compaction and the related surface subsidence, the laboratory procedures to
determine the relevant rock mechanical parameters and the procedures to
monitor in situ compaction at the reservoir level.

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9.2 Compaction Prediction


It is clear from the foregoing that an accurate prediction of compaction and
related subsidence is an important issue and the development of prediction
models has been the subject of various studies in the recent past. In this
paragraph the relevant prediction models for sandstones, shales and carbonates will be treated separately.
9.2.1 Sandstone Reservoirs
9.2.1.1 Linear Compaction Model
The linear compaction model assumes compaction to be proportional to the
reservoir pressure drop at all stages of field production. The compaction is
estimated according to:

In which:
h is the amount of compaction as a result the increase in effective
stress.
cm,o is the uniaxial compressibility in 10-5 bar

-1

or in 10-7 psi-1

hi is the initial thickness of the depleting reservoir


p is the pressure drop in the depleting reservoir in bar or in psi as a result of
production.
Where the reservoir consists of several layers with distinctly different properties, compaction h of each layer has to be evaluated separately using eq.
(1) and the appropriate parameters for each layer. Total compaction htot of
the reservoir is then obtained by summation of the contributions of the individual layers. The same approach can be taken for stacked reservoirs,
where also the pressure differential will be different for each contributing
reservoir.
The uniaxial compressibility cm,o can be obtained from laboratory compaction tests on representative core material. These measurements are carried
out in a triaxial (or alternatively an oedometer) compaction cell, where the
sample is loaded along one axis, while adjusting the applied radial stress to
maintain the condition of zero radial strain. As the lateral dimensions of a
reservoir are usually large compared to its height, the reservoir will deform
predominantly in the vertical direction. The uniaxial measurement is therefore considered the most representative of the reservoir compaction process.

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The ratio of matrix-to-bulk compressibility, , should in theory be used


in the correction of the lab-measured bulk compressibilities to the effective
formation compressibilities. In practice, however, this correction may not be
as straightforward as assumed in the theory. As evident from Table 9.2-1 the
value of is only significant at low values of cm,o at which the fluid compressibility is likely to dominate in any case.
For elastic deformations, use of linear elasticity theory allows for correction
of the compressibility data measured under hydrostatic conditions to uniaxial
values by the use of Poisson's ration, . When only hydrostatic compressibility data are available the hydrostatic bulk compressibility cb should be
converted to the uniaxial compressibility cm,o according to:

A conversion to calculate pore compressibility cf can be simply done by


dividing the uniaxial compressibility cm,o by the sample's porosity:

If no core derived compressibility data are available, order-of-magnitude


estimates can be obtained from the table below.

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9.2.1.2 Rate Type Compaction Model


The Rate Type Compaction Model (RTCM) was developed at KSEPL during
the early 1980s for the description of campaction of sandstone reservoirs as a
result of pressure depletion (Ref. 1). The model was based on an observation
during the laboratory experiments, when it was noted that the compaction
behaviour of reservoir rock depended upon the rate of loading of the rock.
When the loading rate was increased, a delay was observed: the rock did not
respond immediately with an increased compaction rate. This observed experimental behaviour was placed in a theoretical framework, and several
field cases were studied. This led to the formulation of the RTCM as a tool for
the prediction of compaction in the field, using laboratory measurements on
core samples as input data.
In some reservoirs, however, this theoretical increase in compaction rate
has not been observed and the actual field data still show a linear compaction
behaviour, although at a rate of about one half to one third of what would have
been expected on the basis of the laboratory compressibility measurements.
Based on this discrepancy, KSEPL have carried out a review of the RTCM (for
more details see Ref. 12) and have concluded that, although support was
found in data from a number of fields, the extrapolation to field conditions and
time frame is not as straightforward as suggested by the RTCM. In addition,
the core derived compressibility values may be higher than those observed
in the field. This is thought to be due to the non-native state of the core
material and possibly also due to core damage. Care has to be taken therefore in the use of compressibility data derived form core analysis.
9.2.1.3 Recommended Procedure
It follows from the above that, pending the results of further research, the
RTCM should not be used for the prediction of sandstone reservoir compaction.
Instead, it is recommended that the following procedure should be applied to
make a prediction before production of the field has started and when field
compaction and subsidence data have not yet become available.
- Use a linear compaction model.
- Use core-determined rock compressibility data as input. These core data
may be pessimistic, as the core may be damaged and weakened without
this being obvious from visual inspection.
- Take other uncertainties into account: thickness of the depleting interval,
aquifer support etc.
- Use the Nucleus of strain' approach (see paragraph 9.3) for the conversion
of compaction to subsidence.

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With this procedure a maximum case' prediction of compaction and subsidence can be made. Based on this, and depending on the circumstances,
data gathering can be planned to monitor field behaviour. When field data
become available, uncertainties can be reduced and the original prediction can be updated and refined. Due to the potentially far reaching implications of subsidence, expert advise from KSEPL may be sought in an
early stage.
9.2.2 Compaction of Shales
When shales are present within the actual reservoir intervals as relatively
thin intervals (thicknesses as a few of feet or less), the pressure depletion in
the shales is virtually equal to that in the pay zones. Compaction of these
shales can be calculated with the compaction models generally applied for
sandstones (Section 9.2.1) as follows:
- Compaction of thin interbedded shale laminations can be taken into account in the total compaction of the sand-shale sequence using laboratory
compressibility data on representative shale-laminated (sandstone) samples.
- Compaction of a 100%-shale interval (of small thickness) is evaluated from
the relevant shale thickness and the laboratory uniaxial compressibility.
When core compressibility data are not available, a first estimate of
cm,o (shale) can be obtained from Table 9.2-1, using the appropriate total
porosity range.
In low-permeable (thick) shale layers, which are located adjacent to the
reservoir, pressure lags may occur that can give rise to non-linear (time
delayed) compaction of these shales.
9.2.3 Prediction of Compaction Due to Pore Collapse in High-Porosity
Carbonate Reservoirs
9.2.3.1 The Trendline Model
In general the bulk compressibilities of carbonates are much lower than
those of sandstones of comparab!e porosity. Field cases of considerable
reservoir compaction and surface subsidence due to hydrocarbon production from carbonate reservoirs are therefore rare. In high-porosity carbonates however, the phenomenon of pore collapse can occur in the pressure
regime prevailing during production (Refs. 6, 7 and 8). These carbonates,
which are usually well consolidated, exhibit a low compressibility up to a
certain stress level (elastic deformation regime), but strong compaction at

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higher stress. This sudden increase in compressibility, coupled with a large


irreversible deformation, is called pore collapse.

The compaction behaviour of carbonate rock is strongly dependent on the


initial porosity: high porosity rock shows pore collapse at a much lower
stress level than rock material of lower porosity. After the onset of pore
collapse, the porosity reduction as a function of stress is independent of the
initial porosity and can be described by an average porosity - stress trendline (Figure 9.2.3-1). This trendline is strongly dependent on carbonate rock
type, as is shown in Figure 9.2.3-2 (The laboratory trendlines depicted in this
Figure have been obtained on water-saturated samples).
The procedure to predict compaction due to pore collapse in high-porosity
carbonate reservoirs is outlined in Section 9.2.3.2. Compaction in low porosity

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carbonate reservoirs, in which pore collapse does not occur during


production, can be calculated using the linear compaction model (Section
9.2.1.1), which is often adequate at these low compressibilities and gives a
worst-case estimate.
9.2.3.2 Prediction of In-Situ Pore Collapse with the Trendline Model
The trendline model can be used to predict the pore collapse stress of the
various layers and the total amount of compaction to be expected at a given
stage of depletion by means of the following procedure:
1. Establish the laboratory trendline(s) for the various carbonate rock types
present in the reservoir. To this end, uniaxial compaction tests should be
done on a set of non-cleaned core samples with as large a range of initial
porosities as possible (The samples should be partially saturated with
water).
2. Divide the reservoir into a number of layers (gridblocks) of more or less
constant (average) porosity and carbonate type.
3. Determine the collapse stress and the amount of compaction after collapse

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for each layer (gridblock) according to the procedure illustrated in


Figure 9.2.3-3, using the appropriate trendline and the value of the effective stress at the stage of depletion considered (e.g. at abandonment).
Note that the value of the effective stress corresponding to a given drop in
pore pressure can depend on the reservoir geometry and on the compressibility of the rock surrounding the collapsing layers, If this is suspected, more detailed 3D computer modelling may be required.

4. Calculate the total amount of compaction due to pore collapse in a given


layer (gridblock) using the equation:

The total amount of reservoir compaction is then obtained by aggregating the


contributions of the various layers (gridblocks). If the collapse stress is not
reached during depletion, the contribution of normal' compaction can be
taken into account, for example by using the correlation between porosity
and compressibility prior to pore collapse for the relevant carbonate type.

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9.3 Calculation of Surface Subsidence


It should be noted that the models described below exclude the prediction of
surface subsidence caused by the settlement of shallow (young) sediments
as a result of their own weight and as a result of surface activity such as
building facilities and traffic. This effect will have to be taken into account
separately.
9.3.1 The Nucleus-of-Strain Approach
Surface subsidence can occur above strongly compacting reservoirs that are
of relatively large lateral extent. For deeply buried reservoirs, compaction
results in a rather continuous subsidence bowl, in which surface subsidence
is a maximum above the field centre. A commonly applied procedure to
calculate subsidence above compacting hydrocarbon reservoirs is the nucleus-of-strain approach (Ref. 10). In this model the reservoir and the overburden are assumed to have equal linear elastic properties. Moreover, this
model assumes a rigid basement to be present at some depth below the
reservoir to account for the usually large stiffness of the underburden' (Ref.
11). This rigid-basement' model enables a realistic calculation to be made of
subsidence above hydrocarbon reservoirs which are buried at a sufficiently
large depth. The model has the following advantages: (1) the model is 3D, (2)
any reservoir of arbitrary shape can be handled, and (3) computation of
subsidence is rapid and at low cost.
For shallow compaction prone reservoirs, subsidence can be accompanied
by fault reactivation from the reservoir up to surface due to large differential
strains in the reservoir. In such cases, it is advisable to have a Finite Element
calculation carried out to assess whether fault reactivation is likely to occur
for the reservoir under consideration.
9.3.2 Quick-Look Procedure to Calculate Subsidence in the Deepest
Point of the Subsidence Bowl Using the Rigid-Basement Model
Subsidence can be rapidly calculated from compaction (calculated as described in Section 9.2) when the reservoir (being depleted by a pressure drop
p) can be approximated by a disc of average radius R and a constant
thickness.
Figure 9.3-1 depicts the ratio of subsidence above the field centre over compaction (normalised subsidence) as a function of the ratio of reservoir depth
over reservoir radius (C/R), for different ratios of basement depth over reservoir depth (curve parameter K/C). (The rigid basement should always be
taken below the reservoir: K > C.) Figure 9.3-1 shows that for C/R ratios of

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less than 0.2, subsidence is vitually equal to reservoir compaction, irrespective of the depth of the basement. This plot has been calculated for an average Poisson's ratio of overburden and reservoir equal to 0.25. (Given the
minor influence of Poisson's ratio, Figure 9.3-1 can also be applied for other
values of .)

9.3.3 Detailed Calculation of Subsidence Using the Rigid-Basement


Model
To obtain detailed subsidence contour plots as a function of time or pressure
drop, a numerical calculation must be carried out by running the SUBCAL
computer program. In this package, which is available under ICEPE, three
different compaction models are implemented: the linear model and the
RTCM for sandstones, and the pore collapse trend line model for carbonates.
The RTCM has not yet been removed from SUBCAL, but should not be used
pending results of further research (see 9.2.1.2).

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10 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING


WIRELINE LOGGING: GENERAL (1)
Further Reading
Atlas Wireline Services
Log Interpretation Charts, 1985
Services Catalog (Dresser Atlas), 1985
Equipment and Specification Catalog, 1989
Calibration Guide (Dresser Atlas), 1986
Schlumberger
Log Interpretation Charts, 1989
Openhole Services Catalog, 1983
Production Services Catalog, 1984
Cyber Service Unit, Wellsite Products, Calibration Guide, and Mnemonics, 1989
Log Interpretation Principles/Applications, 1989
Advanced Interpretation of Wireline Logs, 1986
Cased Hole Log Interpretation Principles /Applications, 1989
Halliburton Logging Services
Gearhart Well Service Systems, 1983
Welex Open Hole Services, 1986
Welex Cased Hole Services, undated
Gearhart Formation Evaluation Chart Book, 1985
OPEN HOLE LOGGING (2)
Further Reading
Lynch, E.J., Formation Evaluation. A Harper International Reprint, Harper and
Row New York, Evanston and London, 1964
Desbrandes, R., Thorie et Interprtation des Diagraphies, Publication de
LInstitut Franglais du Ptrole, Editions Technip, Paris, 1985
idem translated, Encyclopedia of Well Logging, Graham & Trotman Ltd,
London and Edetions Technip, Paris, 1985
Dewan, John T., Essentials of Modern Open-Hole Log Interpretation. Penn
Well Books, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1983

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269

References and Further Reading

Serra, O. Fundamentals of Well-Log Interpretation, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984


Bateman, R.M., Log Quality Control, Reidel, Dordrecht, 1985.
CORING (4)
Further Reading
Abrams, A., Mud Design to Minimise Rock Impairment due to Particle
Invasion. Journal of Petroleum Technology, May 1977
Determination of Residual Oil Saturation. Interstate Oil Compact Commission, June 1978
Christensen Diamond Products, Operating Manual 67/8" X 3" Model B
Rubber Sleeve Core Barrel. Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, (undated)
Jenks, L.H., Huppler, J.D., Morrow, N.R. and Salathiel, R.A., Fluid Flow
within a Porous Media near a Diamond Core Bit. Journal of Canadian
Petroleum Technology, December 1968
CASED HOLE AND PRODUCTION LOGGING (5)
Further Reading
Bateman, R.M., Cased-Hole Log Analysis and Reservoir Performance
Monitoring, Reidel, Dordrecht, 1985
SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL (8)
Operating Safety and Radio Silence (8.2)
Further Reading
Institute of Petroleum, Offshore Operations United Kingdom Shelf. Recommended Practices for Radio Silence when Conducting Wireline Services Involving the Use of Explosives, Aberdeen, Nov. 1983
BS 4992/a and /b for onshore operations (in preparation 1984) (UK)
Guidance Note GS 21 from Health and Safety Executive (UK)

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RESERVOIR COMPACTION AND SURFACE SUBSIDENCE (9)


References
1. de Waal, J.A., On the Rate Type Compaction Behaviour of Sandstone Reservoir
Rock. Thesis, Technical University of Delft, 1986.
2. de Waal, J.A. & Smits, R.M.M., Prediction of Reservoir Compaction and Surface
Subsidence: Field Application of a New Model. SPE 14214, 1985.
3. Geertsma, J., 1957a, The Effect of Fluid Pressure Decline on Volumetric Changes of
Porous Rocks.
Trans. AIME, 210, pp. 331-338.
4. Jaeger, J.C., & Cook, N.G.W., Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics.
Chapman & Hall, London, 1977.
5. Smits, R.M.M. & de Waal, J.A., A comparison between the Pressure-Lag Model and
the Rate-Type Compaction Model for the Prediction of Reservoir Compaction and
Surface Subsidence, paper submitted for publication in SPE Formation Evaluation.
6. Blanton III, T.L.: Deformation of Chalk Under Confining Pressure and Pore Pressure.
SPE Journal, February 1981, pp. 43-50.
7. Newman, G.H.: The Effect of Water Chemistry on the Laboratory Compression and
Permeability Characteristics of Some North Sea Chalks. SPE paper 10203.
8. van Ditzhuijzen, P.J.D & de Waal, J.A.: Reservoir Compaction and Surface
Subsidence in the Central Luconia Gas-Bearing Carbonates Offshore Sarawak, East
Malaysia. Offshore South East Asia Conf., Singapore, 21 24 February 1984, Paper
12400.
9. Smits, R.M.M., De Waal, J.A. & Van Kooten, J.F.C., Prediction of abrupt reservoir
compaction and surface subsidence due to pore collapse in carbonates. SPE 15642.
Geertsma, J., A Basic Theory of Subsidence Due to Reservoir Compaction: the
10. Homogeneous Case. Trans. Royal Dutch Society of Geologists and Mining
Engineers, 1973, 28, pp. 43-62.
11. van Opstal, G., The Effect of Base Rock Rigidity on Subsidence Due To Compaction.
Proceedings of the Third Congress of the International Society of Rock Mechanics,
Denver, Colorado, September 1-7, 1974. Vol. 2. part B, National Academy of
Sciences, Washington D.C.
12. van Hasselt, J.P., Description and Prediction of Sandstone Reservoir
Compaction. Present Position and Recommended Procedures. EP
89-2383 (RKGR 89-152)
13. Cernocky, E.P. and Scholibo, F.C., Casing Compaction Design. Part 1:
Development and Calibration af a Finity Element Model of Casing Cross

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References and Further Reading

Sections Subjected to Nonuniform, Transverse Loads. EP 88-0034


14. Cernocky, E.P. an Scholibo, F.C., Casing Compaction Design. Part 2:
Development of Guidelines for the Ability of Casing to Resist Cross
Section Deformation under Nonuniform Transverse Load and pressure
acting on the Cross Section. EP 87-2172
15. Cernocky, E.P. and Scholibo, F.C., Casing Compaction Design. Part 3:
Influence of Internal and External Fluid Pressures on the Cross Sectional
Deformation of Casing Subjected to Nonuniform, Transverse
Compaction Loads. EP 88-1070.
16. Cernocky, E.P. and Scholibo, F.C., Casing Compaction Design. Part 4:
Crushing Resistance of Casing in the Presence of Axial Tensile and
Compressive Loads. EP 90-3172.

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