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Produk ini diterbitkan oleh Mohd. Nasarruddin Bin Ahmad dan
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X
Hak Cipta Terpelihara Mohd Nasarruddin Bin Ahmad i
Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Ia bermula dengan Ini diikuti oleh katakunci Cabang "Science" pula akan www.petaminda.com
cabang utama yang bercambah dari bercambah menjadi ranting yang
cabang ini iaitu yang mengandungi fakta yang berturutan
A berlabel 1 yang berlabel a , b , dan c .
iaitu "SCIENCE: PART iaitu "Science" Habiskan membacanya sebelum anda
OF EVERYDAY LIFE" pergi ke dahan yang berlabel 2
iaitu "Natural Phenomena".
4
5
3

Sebagai contoh,
sila lihat peta
2 CARA
minda yang PENGGUNAAN
pertama di muka
1 iaitu
"Introduction To 1 6
Science"
Ulangi langkah yang sama
Nota yang terdapat dalam peta minda ini hendaklah
A bagi dahan 2 dan 3
dibaca menurut turutannya. Ia mengandungi cabang dengan membaca ranting
utama yang berlabel dengan huruf bersaiz besar dan ranting kecil mengikut
seperti: turutan huruf a, b, c....dan
A B C nombor 1, 2, 3.... sebelum
dan seterusnya. anda pergi ke cabang
utama berlabel
B
iaitu "AREAS OF STUDY AND
KEJAYAAN CAREERS" untuk
AKAN MENANTI meneruskan bacaan.
Sebelum menduduki ANDA !
peperiksaan anda akan
hanya lakukan ulangkaji E-book Peta MInda untuk SAINS UPSR adalah dalam
pantas yang merumuskan
3 C B format PDF. Untuk membukanya komputer anda harus
Ulangkaji semula dari
masa ke semasa kesemua bahagian ingatan. mempunyai program Adobe Acrobat Reader. Jika tidak
mengikut keperluan anda. muaturunkan dari:
Masa yang diambil akan 1 http://get.adobe.com/reader/
MENGULANGKAJI
menjadi semakin singkat SALINAN
kerana ingatan anda e PETA MINDA Gunakan pencetak warna untuk supaya gambar yang
semakin mantap. ANDA KERAS, dipaparkan adalah berwarna dan menarik untuk dibaca
d PENJILIDAN DAN sebelum dijilidkan. Ini adalah kerana warna berupaya
2 2 meningkatkan ingatan. Apabila dicetak, mukasuratnya
PEMBESARAN
Ulangkaji peta minda adalah dalam saiz A4. Walaupun boleh dibaca oleh mata
c 1
anda seberapa kerap CARA kasar, jika anda mahukan saiz huruf yang lebih besar, anda
yang mungkin. boleh membuat salinan fotokopi ke kertas A3 dengan
Abaikan bahagian pembesaran 141% untuk paparan yang lebih besar dan
yang anda telah ingat. b Kajian telah menunjukkan
jelas. Selepas itu bolehlah dijilidkan menjadi buku.
Baca bahagian yang a bahawa ingatan akan
berkurang mengikut masa yang 3
anda terlupa.
tertentu.Sebagai persediaan
Baca semula peta minda Selepas 1 jam proses bagi peperiksaan, anda
anda keesokan harinya pembelajaran, anda haruslah mengulangkaji peta dan

nji li
untuk mengisi semula minda anda dari masa ke Pe
seharusnya mengulangkaji
ingatan yang telah hilang semula selama 10-30 minit. semasa. Ini membolehkan anda
untuk memperbaiki bahagian Fo
yang kurang diingati, atau Saiz A4 tokopi Penjilidan

141
mengingatkan semula bahagian %
yang terlupa . ii
Saiz A3
Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 www.petaminda.com

CHAPTER 1 : I. HUMAN CELL ORGANISATION........................................ 8 C. PROPERTIES OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE.. 13 L. EFFECTS OF HEAT ON STATES OF MATTER............ 19
INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE D. OXYGEN FOR RESPIRATION....................................... 13 M. CHANGES OF STATE SUMMARY................................. 19
J. HUMAN BEINGS: COMPLEX ORGANISMS.................... 8
A. SCIENCE PART OF EVERY DAY LIFE........................... 1 E. CARBON DIOXIDE FROM RESPIRATION...................... 13 N. APPLICATIONS OF EXPANSION AND
CHAPTER 3: MATTER CONTRACTION.............................................................. 20
B. AREAS OF STUDY........................................................... 1 F. OXYGEN FOR COMBUSTION........................................ 14
O. SOLVING PROBLEMS USING
C. CAREERS..........................................................................1 A. CHARACTERISTICS........................................................ 9
G. AIR POLLUTION.............................................................. 14 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION................................ 20

D. THE SCIENCE LABORATORY (1)................................... 1 B. MADE UP SMALL PARTICLES........................................ 9


H. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL.......................................... 14 P. HEAT ABSORPTION AND HEAT RELEASE.................. 20

E. THE SCIENCE LABORATORY (2)................................... 2 C. 3 STATES OF MATTER.................................................. 9


Q. HEAT FLOW BENEFITS................................................ 20

F. USING THE BUNSEN BURNER....................................... 2 D. PARTICLE ARRANGEMENT........................................... 9 CHAPTER 6:


SOURCES OF ENERGY
G. HAZARD SYMBOLS........................................................ 2 E. PARTICLE MOVEMENT.................................................. 9
A. ENERGY: Ability to do work............................................. 15
H. SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION......................................... 3 F. DENSITY............................................................................ 10
B. ENERGY FORMS............................................................. 15
I. PHYSICAL QUANTITIES................................................. 3 G. FLOAT OR SINK?............................................................ 10
C. ENERGY SOURCES........................................................ 15
J. PREFIXES......................................................................... 4 H. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES................................................ 10
D. POTENTIAL ENERGY AND KINETIC ENERGY............ 15
K. MEASURING LENGTHS.................................................. 4 I. APPLICATIONS OF PROPERTIES OF MATTER.......... 10
E. NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES...................... 16
L. MEASURING AREAS........................................................ 4
CHAPTER 4: F. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES................................ 16
M. MEASURING LIQUID VOLUMES.................................... 5 VARIETY OF RESOURCES ON EARTH
G. USING ENERGY EFFICIENTLY...................................... 16
N. MEASURING SOLID VOLUMES..................................... 5 A. AIR..................................................................................... 11
H. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY SOURCES................... 16
O. MEASURING TEMPERATURE........................................ 5 B. WATER.............................................................................. 11
I. RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPEMENT..................... 16
P. CHOOSING SUITABLE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS.. 6 C. SOIL.................................................................................. 11

Q. WEIGHT AND MASS........................................................ 6 D. MINERALS........................................................................ 11


CHAPTER 7: HEAT
R. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WEIGHT AND MASS........ 6 E. FOSSIL FUELS............................................................... 11
A. A FORM OF ENERGY...................................................... 17
Q. IMPORTANCE OF STANDARD UNITS........................... 6 F. LIVING THINGS..................................................................11
B. HEAT PRODUCTION........................................................ 17
G. ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS, MIXTURES....................... 12
CHAPTER 2 : C. HEAT AND TEMPERATURE............................................ 17
CELL AS A UNIT OF LIFE H. ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS, MIXTURES
COMPARISON............................................................... 12 D. HEAT/TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES.......................... 17
A. CELL................................................................................. 7
I. METALS AND NON-METALS.......................................... 12 E. HEAT FLOW EFFECTS.................................................. 17
B. MICROSCOPE.................................................................. 7
J. EARTH'S RESOURCES CONSERVATION F. HEAT FLOW..................................................................... 18
C. CELL STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS......................... 7 AND PRESERVATION................................................... 12
G. HEAT FLOW TYPES....................................................... 18
D. USING A MICROSCOPE.................................................. 7
H. HEAT FLOW IN NATURAL PHENOMENA...................... 18
E. ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL COMPARISON.................. 7 CHAPTER 5:
I. HEAT CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS.................... 18
THE AIR AROUND US
F. UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS.......................................... 8
J. USES OF HEAT CONDUCTORS..................................... 19
A. COMPOSITION................................................................ 13
G. MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS..................................... 8
K. USES OF HEAT INSULATORS....................................... 19
B. AIR: A MIXTURE............................................................... 13
H. MICROORGANISMS........................................................ 8 iii
Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Occurences Growth of plants Make lives more www.petaminda.com
Throw solid 1 comfortable
in nature
waste into bins a Examples 2 Aurora 1
Never point the not into sinks b
mouth of test tube Do not waste water, 4 3 Conserve
towards anyone electricity and gas
Do not taste any Experimentation Natural Scientific 2 Improve standard environment
2 Gained Rainbow
when heating it
chemicals or inhale
knowledge
Phenomena Eclipse of Discoveries of living
any gas unless formation 1
1 from.. moon and sun
instructed Observation
Never pour
c
2 a Scientific 2 Preserve
unused Report any Knowledge environment
chemical
i j breakages or b
into reagent k faulty equipment Science Importance
bottle to h l of Science
prevent contamination Report any mishaps 1 SCIENCE: 3 Modern highways,
g m b a Faster, safer,
PART OF vehicles
safer & faster
Use small amounts of Wash and return EVERYDAY LIFE c travelling
chemicals n apparatus after use To Systematic 1
2
to prevent f understand study of Application of
wastage
Safety Light rail/commuter
how nature nature scientific 1 trains transport more
Precautions o Wash hands Transportation 3
thoroughly after affects lives knowledge passengers, reduce
Technology
Handle e handling chemicals and traffic jams /pollution
p envionment
2 a
chemicals Makes lives more
Keep 3
with spatula d comfortable
c
benches A Telephone Facsimile

Check clean Examples a b


b a c Radio
labels on
chemicals 2 b
1
Tools
d
d Television
Communication
Handle c f e
apparatus THE SCIENCE FORM 1 CHAPTER 1 Medicine 2 Satellites - Computers
carefully Never carry out Organ transplant
experiment without LABORATORY 2
long distance
Read instructions permission (1) D INTRODUCTION
a
Healthier &
ICT
(Information
communication
carefully before Longer Life Communication
1
doing experiment.
Consult teacher if
1
TO SCIENCE Surgeries
b Technology)
necessary.
Line up (1 - 6) Tools
a
Agriculture
Transfer money, pay
a outside the X-ray bills, shopping, work
General lab before d machines 1 from home
Consult the
e Rules entering dialysis b
teacher for c
b
help and advice Never enters
the lab without Lasers Increase Food
d c Electrocardiographs
a Plants with
permission Production higher yeilds/
Apparatus and
chemicals cannot Food and drinks C B e b
resist diseases
d c
be taken out of lab are not allowed in Insecticides Animals grow faster
the lab
Fertilisers Tractors, combine
harvester
Develope
computer
software
Computer Composition
Programmer a
Patients care Chemical
Microorganisms Chemistry b properties
specialist
Nurse
10 Chemistry trained Microbiology Living organism
Processes and a
9 Chemist 1
functions of living 10 Biology b Life processes
Animal doctor Veterinarian 1 systems
8 Plant science
Physiology 2 Matter
CAREERS 9 AREAS OF a
2 specialist
Botanist STUDY 3
Microbiologist
7 8 Physics b Energy
Astronomy
3 4 c
6 Sun, planets, stars 7 Natural forces
Specialist in 5 4 Doctor 6 5
microorganisms Architect Biochemistry
Geology
Trained in a Biochemical
Engineer Pharmacist medical science processes of
Rocks, minerals, Botany Biotechnolgy living things
Designs buildings earth's structure a
Industrial use of
Prepares b
living orgnisms
Designs, builts, and Plants and To make
maintains engines, dispenses their useful 1
buildings, roads medicines structures products
Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 To contain To measure To hold www.petaminda.com
specific apparatus wire gauze
To small
collect amounts of To heat volumes of
To separate experiment liquid To hold test
gases substances small
setup from outside To support tubes
amounts of accurately retort
environment c la m p
apparatus vertically
substances
during heating
Gas jar Test tube Pipette
Bell jar Tripod stand
Boiling tube Test-tube
Radium To measure Retort stand
To contain/ volumes of rack
Plutonium To separate solid collect liquid ( 1 cm3 d e
3 from liquid using g chemicals
Thorium filter paper f Conikal accuracy) c
2 e h f
4 flask Test-tube
Uranium Filter funnel Burette
Radioactive 1 i holder
substance
b g
Examples d Co mm on To contain Co mm on To hold test tube
Apparatus Round chemicals Apparatus when heating
Displacement c j
Keep in lead (1) bottom when a (2) h
can Measuring
containers
Handling flask preparing Bunsen To provide
b gases cylinder burner heating
Methods To find the a i
c flame
volume of Evaporating dish j
Emits radiation l k Stop
b
liquid
Crucible To measure volumes of 2 watch
harmful to body displaced
cells / tissues
1 liquid ( 1 cm3 accuracy)
To measure
a time
To evaporate liquid To heat solids directly
from solution over flames SCIENCE Beam balance
Radioactive
Bromine Chlorine LABORATORY
3 Thermometer To measure
Ammonia
2 Chloroform FORM 1 CHAPTER 1 (2) temperature
4 Metre rule
1
Examples E To measure mass
Use fume To measure length
cupboard
2 c
INTRODUCTION (accuracy 0.1 cm)

Avoid
inhalation 1
Handling
Methods
TO SCIENCE
b Irritant /
Irritates skin / Harmful (2 - 6) barrel
a
eye / respiratory
system
6 collar
F air hole
gas jet

5 G
Hydrogen USING THE 1
Concentrated peroxide BUNSEN BURNER
alkali Bromine
3 HAZARD
2 4
Concentrated SYMBOLS 2 Turn collar to close air hole
acids a
1 Examples 4
c
3 Steps b Bring match to
Wash with mouth of barrel
Corrosive 3 1
running water b c
2 Handling
when
contacted
Methods 2
1 a Flame Turn on gas
Avoid direct
Causes damage
contact a
to skin / eye

b
Toxic / When air hole
poisonous Explodes closed,
Explosive when mixed luminous Temperature
with other yellow flame 300 o C
Bromine c When air hole
b a subsrances
Chloroform 6 a opened ,
5 Flammable Catches fire/ b non-luminous air hole
Examples burn easily closed
Benzene 4 Handling Causes harm/ Handling blue flame
White/yellow
Methods death if swallowed Examples Methods Temperature
3 phosphorus b a
Lead 2 1 / inhaled / skin 5 1 700 o C
3
2 1 absorbed Hydrogen/air 3 2
Cyanides Mercury Examples Handling mixture 2 1 Keep in air hole
Methylated 4
Store in Do not taste Methods paraffin opened
locked spirits 3 Concentrated Sodium/ Keep away Avoid
1 potassium
place 2 acids/alkali from heat/fire contacting paraffin
Ethanol metals water
X Kerosene Petrol
Keep away
from heat/fire
2
Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 www.petaminda.com
A systematic method Involve the principle Hypothesis: A Shows relationship between
Celcius (oC) : used by scientists in of logic in s olving statement that can be manipulated variable and
for daily use their investigations scientific problems tested by experiment responding variable
Ampere (A)
kelvin (K) 2
Eg: Normal What to Example: The longer the length
temperature of 1 Open ended of a pendulum the longer the
1 investigate
milligrams (mg) 3 body is 37oC question period of osccilation
Physcical SI unit Symbol The a b
grams (g) SI Units SI Units quantity 1 question to b c Control the
2 2 c
1 Length metre m be solved variables Determine
a materials and
Smaller a a
Mass kiogram kg Forming a a apparatus
mass Identifying
Eg: Mass of a baby Time seconds s
SCIENTIFIC the Problem hy pothesis b
is 3 kg.
TEMPERATURE ELECTRIC INVESTIGATION Determine
b Temperature kelvin K Planning the c
2 CURRENT procedure
experiment
Current ampere A
SI Units d Determine
a 3 collection data
MASS
and data
1
7
Summary H Variables : Factors analysis
kilogram 6 that affect the method
8 result of
(kg)
5 experiment Manipulated
FORM 1 CHAPTER 1 Variable :
days a Variable that is
b changed to see
hours 3
mon ths INTRODUCTION the effect
2 4
PHYSICAL Controlling
STEPS
Examples 5 y ears QUANTITIES
I TO SCIENCE variables c Responding
1 (3 - 6) d
Variable : Variable
that is being
minu tes b 4
1 observed
Fixed Variables :
3 2 Variable that are not
TIME A quantity that can
be measured changed throughout
experiment
Writing a
a In SI units (International report Record data by:
a
System of Units) Contains the complete (a) observation
LENGTH experimental procedures (b) measurements
SI Units b
and results
met re a
a Report
2 1 1 (m) format Collecting
c b M aking
(a) Aim of experiment, on the data b Measurements
SI Units Form new
Eg: Time taken seconds
2 Eg: Length of room relationship between variables conclusion types:
hypothesis
for an athlete to
(s ) (b) List the 3 variables and carry
d Interpreting Analysing (a) time
run 100 m is (c) List all apparatus and materials data c (b) temperature
10.00 s further data changes
Longer needed experiments c
Shorter (d) Draw a labelled scientific b a a (c) colour
distance  
distance 6m drawing of the arrangement of Reject a b
1
Tabulate data in
apparatus hypothesis Identify patterns in appropriate tables
4
1
2 kilom etres (e) Write the procedures carrying if not data and relationship
3 2 Organise data
(km) out the experiment supported Accepting Make an inference: between manipulated
Eg: Length of insect in tables,
(f) Tabulate the data obtained by results hypothesis a statement made variable and
Eg: Distance between house graphs,
centimetres and school = 5km
(g) Analyse the data (by graphs, if by reasoning responding variable
(cm) calculation or comparison) supported based charts,

16 mm
 Example: diagrams
(h) Conclusion
milliimetres The longer the by results observations and
Eg: Length of book pendulum, the measurements
( mm)  Example: Time
20 cm longer the

period of taken for the bar chart
oscillation. pendulum to make pie chart
Hypothesis is one swing
accepted increases as the
length of the
pendulum line
increases graph 3
Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 www.petaminda.com
SI Units: Other Units:
Rectangle Use formulae square metres (m 2 ) square millimetres (mm 2 ) Prefixes Symbol Numerical value
l e ng t h
Area = width x length square centimetres (cm 2 )
a Is the size of b c To express Tera T 1 000 000 000 000 or 1012
w id t h
b square kilometres (km 2 )

Triangle surface of object physical quantities
a Giga G 1 000 000 000 or 109
c Regular which are very big
Area = ½ x base x height Area d Conversions:
Shapes 1m2 = 100 cm x 100 cm or very small Mega M 1 000 000 or 106
 Circle d = 10 000 cm2
  2 1 kilo k 1 000 or 103
Area =  x radius2 1cm2 = 10 mm x 10 mm
= 100 mm2 hecto h 1 00 or 102
Mark ( ) on every complete 1 deca da 10 or 101
square ( 1 cm2) covered by Use graph MEASURING
shape paper for
1 estimation a AREAS deci d 0.1 or 10-1
Mark ( ) on every Irregular 3 2 centi c 0.01 or 10-2
incomplete square which Shapes
cover half the area of 2 Methods b
milli m 0.001 or 10-3
30 square or more
3
PREFIXES micro m 0.000 001 or 10-6
Find total
number of Can measure nano n 0.000 000 001 or 10-9
ticks ( ) for in tern al internal and
total area c al i p er s external diameters Measure L 3 pico p 0.000 000 000 001 or 10-12
Measurements diameters up to
femto f 0.000 000 000 000 001 or 10-15
to the nearest 0.01 mm
0.1 mm J
Number of ticks = 51 external a b
Examples
Area = 51 unit 2 c al i p er s b c
b
a FORM 1 CHAPTER 1 Example 2:
Micrometer a Change the following units of
Vernier measurements into kg
Measure the
Open the legs of the
calipers until their tips diameter
calipers screw gauge
INTRODUCTION (a) 250 g
using the ruler Example 1: = (250 / 1000) = 0.25 kg
touches the inner wall of
the gas jar gas
1 2
TO SCIENCE Write the following using prefixes
(a) 77 000g
ja r (b) 6 000 Mg
b More Accurate
(4 - 6) 77 x 1000g = 77kg 6 000 Mg = 6 000 000 000 g
= (6 000 000 000 / 1000) kg
Tools (b) 0.000 004 A = 6 000 000 kg
Measure the a 4 x 0.000 001 A = 4 A
Internal (c) 5 mg
diameter
diameter 5 mg = 5 x 0.001 g
using the ruler (c) 7 800 m = 0.005 g
1
b K 7.8 x 1000 m = 78 km = (0.005 / 1000) kg
= 0.000 005 kg
b (d) 0.006 g
Grip the Diameter of 6 x 0.001 m = 6 mg (d) 40 000 g
cylindrical Using Calipers
Externel
2 and ruler
a Objects 40 000 g = 40 000 x 0.000 001 g
tube at the
place where
diameter
(cylinders/ MEASURING = 0.04 g
a 3 = (0.04/1000) kg
the sp here s) LENGTHS = 0.000 04 kg
calipers'
legs open Use ruler or
the largest
1 measuring tape
cyl indri cal
tube a
Ruler 2 Straight
Internal External
Objects Place eye vertically on
calipers calipers Error caused by the wrong
mark (correct position)
Place one end of 2 to take reading position of eye is called
In sophisticated models, the wheel is
connected via gearing to a rotary dial from
Curved
object at zero
mark of ruler/tape X 
C
X
parallax error

2
c Objects / A B
which the line length can be directly read. 4
Using Lines b
An instrument Opisometer b 3 Do not place eye at position A or B
with a revolving 1 (incorrect position) because the
wheel for
a 1
readings are not accurate.
Using 4 Reading = 2.4 cm
measuring a
measuring
curved line
tape
Reading = 63 cm 1 Using string &
meter rule 1
Use string to trace
3 the curve surface
Place string on ruler
2
to measure length
Wrap the measuring tape around the st ri ng
object and read the scale that meets the Make mark on string
zero mark on the tape. 4
Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Conversions: www.petaminda.com
To measure temperature Other Units:
of water, place the bulb cubic millimetres (mm 3) 1 cm3 = 1 ml
of the thermometer in cubic centimetres (cm 3) 1 l = 1 000 ml (cm3)
the water millitres (ml) 1 m3 = 1 000 000 ml (cm3) Usually measured in A measuring }
Bulb
Place under tounge containing litres (l) and cylinder
litres (l)
for 2 minutes alcohol with 2 millilitres(m l ) Smallest division
red dye d Volumes of Measurement = 1 cm3
1 Liquids
4 c to nearest ml
Between Alcohol Usually measured in
e or cm 3
35 oC and 42o C Thermometer cm3 and m3.
3 SI Units: Place
Clinical cubic metres (m 3) b Meniscus eye at
Volume f Volumes of a
Thermometer curve upwards same
2 b Solid b
Measures level at
a a bottom of
body 1 Water/ meniscus
temperature Is a measure of 1 Using Solutions
Liquid-in-glass c
space occupied M easuring
T h er mom et er incorrect X
by object
Cylinder
capillary tube MEASURING 2
LIQUID VOLUMES correct   Bottom part
1 of
d
Bulb containing meniscus.
mercury incorrect X Reading
M = 42 cm3
MEASURING Mercury
FORM 1 CHAPTER 1 incorrect X
TEMPERATURE O
The volume of 3 Meniscus
4
water is equal to
the volume of solid. INTRODUCTION curve 50

downwards correct  Top part of
TO SCIENCE 40
meniscus.
Reading = 49 cm3
Lower a solid tied
to a string into
(5 - 6) incorrect X

the eureka can

d
Place an empty N Using a A burette
Using
measuring Burrete
Pipette
cylinder below its c Using Eureka
spout b
Can
2 MEASURING c
c
b b a
Fill a eureka can SOLID Measurement to }
with water until a VOLUMES Techniques
A pipette nearest 0.1 ml or cm 3
Smallest division
excess water
2 = 0.1 cm3
overflows
1 Measure fixed
For solids too large for 1 The volume is exactly volume (25 cm3)
measuring cylinder 25.0 cm3 when the Techniques
meniscus reaches the Suck in water/solution
Water 25 cm3 mark. into pipette using a 4 1
Displacement pipette filler.
Volume in conical flask
3 2
c Add water/solution
Volume of solid M ethod = final reading - initial reading into burrete using a 1a Clamp
= Final volume - initial volume = 3.90 - 3.30 filter funnel vertically
= 40 - 30 = 0.60 cm3 Record final
b Record initial
= 10 cm3 reading
a reading

Lower a solid tied


to a string into the
measuring Fill a measuring (3.30 cm3 )
cylinder. Record cylinder with
final volume water. Record 25 cm3 mark
initial volume (3.90 cm3 )

Open tap to
release some
water / solution
0.60 cm3 5
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Zero error occurs The difference in
when reading of Improve accuracy by value between several High precision:
A single system instrument does A set of reading that differs
taking average readings m ea su re me nt s
makes not show zero slightly from average
measurements in Eg:
No zero error Zero error occurs Three ammeter readings: Example:
daily activities, Three ammeter readings:
in both readings
manufacturing and a
3 1.2A 1.3A 1.4A b
trade very easy More accurate and c 1.2A 1.3A 1.4A
precise readings Average = 1.2 + 1.3 + 1.4
2
4 Average = 1.2 + 1.3 + 1.4
a has smaller errors PRECISION 4
= 1.3A
ERRORS b = 1.3A
ACCURACY c
1
Useful in International The difference 2
1 Example: Low precision:
communications between the Three ammeter readings: A set of reading
measured value a that differs a lot
and the actual CHOOSING SUITABLE 1.2A 0.9A 1.4A from average
3 value How close
Lengths: MEASURING
measured value is
1 inch = 2.54 cm
to actual value INSTRUMENT
1 foot = 12 inches = 0.3048 m 116N
1 yard = 3 feet = 0.9144 m
1 mile = 1 760 yards = 1.609 km
IMPORTANCE OF Force exerted on Weaker gravity, M oo n
1 cm = 10 mm = 0.3937 inch STANDARD UNITS object due to smaller weight
1 metre = 100 cm = 3.28 ft P earth's gravity
1 km = 1 000 cm = 0.621 mile 1

Weights:
1 ounce = 28.35 g 2 1 S FORM 1 CHAPTER 1 a Weight changes
1 pouns = 16 ounces = 453.59 when force of
1 tonne = 2 000 pounds = 907.18 kg gravity changes
INTRODUCTION Force of gravity
b
Old to new system WEIGHT
conversion: Accuracy in TO SCIENCE 3
d m ea su re me nt s Q
2
(6 - 6) WEIGHT 1
Consistency in AND
b c
M e asur emen ts a 700N
c
MASS
To enable Need to know Need to know
exact amount of exact amounts of Near zero gravity,
scientist share Earth
information with b a
money to buy food ingredients to R near zero weight

greater accuracy supplies at the produce food


market products
2 Measuring Stronger gravity,
Weights larger weight
Old system:
1
foot-pound-second (fps)
New system(1960):
metre-kilogram-second (mks) DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 3 2 SI units:
Newton (N)
WEIGHT AND MASS MASS
Compression Spring
balance
Weight Mass Electronic c
balance
balance b a
4
Definition Force of gravity that Quantity of matter in
acts on object an object
Measuring
Beam 3 Mass
Changes according to Constant at any balance Mass of object The quantity of
Value
does not matter contained in
gravity place
2 change a substance.
1
All have same volume and same type of particle.
SI Units Newtons (N) Kilograms (kg) Lever
balance SI units:
Measuring Spring balance Beam balance Kilogram (kg)
The quantity of
Instruments Compression balance Lever balance matter of object is Solid has the Liquid Gas has the least
Electronic balance constant most matter, has matter, has
largest mass. smallest mass. 6
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Discovered by Carry chemical
cells like
Basic units for Robert Hooke reactions to keep
Plant cell small rooms
cell plants and animals alive
Building (cell)
membrane
a blocks of life b c a
Both have a Reproduce by Cell
cell division dividing
a. cell membrane b b
Nucleus Similarities Basic unit of Perf orm
b. cytoplasm
c. nucleus living organism Living
c Pro cess es M agnifies
Cytoplasm 1 objects To observe
Carry out life
objects not visible
processes
1 2 to naked eye
Animal cell 1
ANIMAL AND 2
Differences 2 PLANT CELL
COMPARISON CELL
PARTS OF
Animal cells Plant cells MICROSCOPE 3 MICROSCOPE
Lens to look
through
Part that contains Magnifies
Cell shape No fixed shape Fixed shaped A all lenses the image
E
B Eyepiece
Arrangement No fixed pattern Regular pattern Body tube
Lens that
FORM 1 CHAPTER 2
magnifies
Cell wall
  CELL AS A UNIT Change magnification
specimen

Vacuole
  OF LIFE by changing objective
lens
Objective
Place to hold
when
(1 - 2) carrying
Chloroplast
  D Magnification range:
lens

Arm
From x 10 to x 40 Place for slide
with specimens
CELL Contains clips
Stage
STRUCTURES to hold slide

AND FUNCTIONS
To move lens
Absorb light to closer
Contains make food To hold slide Clips
chlorophyll (photosynthesis) Dense jelly-like specimens Coarse Caution: Lens
Large space (sac) Control centre of cell focus knob
Keep cell firm, structure must not touch
2 3
1 2 take in water 1 2 Controls Diaphragm the slide
Carries genetic amount of light
Contain 3 information Fine
Chloroplast 3
Vacuole cell sap
Nucleus
C Condenser
focus knob
To move lens
1 Concentrates
closer in small
light onto Light
Disc like degrees
Place where specimen source
structures chemical reaction Base
Colourless occurs Provide light To stabilise
watery jelly that Stores food / for observation microscope
fills cell waste material
2
1 3
Place microscope on flat surface
Hold together Cytoplasm
with other cells 1 Turn to use low power
2 objective lens first
Give cell fixed USING A
shape 4
MICROSCOPE 3 Raise the stage to
3 Turn fine focus
Cell 8 highest position.
m em b r an e knob to obtain a 4
Cell wall sharp image 7 Look through eyepiece,
PLANT CELL 6 adjust diapraghm for
5
1 2 Look through eyepiece, turn coarse maximum light
2 1 ANIMAL CELL focus knob anticlockwise where the Turn coarse focus knob
Support cell Thick cellulose Thin layer Controls substance Place slide with
stage is lowered down until a clear clockwise until objective lens
layer surrounds cell movement in and out of cell
image of specimen is seen almost touchest the slide
specimen and clip 7
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Ameoba
Learn 4
1
For smooth and The larger the Spirogyra
systems efficient functions or Plant Animal
Create e Chlamydomonas 3 kingdom size, the more Hydra (animal) (plant)
organism kingdom
4 d 2 Paramecium More cells, complex
organs 2 1
Imagine larger size 2
3
c Euglena 1
a b Mucor
Division of Complex
tissues 2 (fungus)
labour among: Reason Simple 3
c b brain Yeast
multicelluar
1 Living organisms a b
cells b a
Speak made of one cell c
Mammals, birds,
1
Complex 1 Complex reptiles (animals)
Living organisms d multicelluar
Perform specific a organisation of 1 made of more
function cells
(Division of labour) than one cell 2
2
HUMAN BEINGS: UNICELLULAR 1
Trees (plants)

COMPLEX ORGANISMS
ORGANISMS
MULTICELLULAR
Very tiny
br ai n oesophagus ORGANISMS organisms
spinal cord stomach n os e F
nerve la rg e
intestine
trachea
lun gs
J G 1
sm al l pen is

Digestive
intestine
t e st i s
Not seen by naked eye,
muscle Respiratory
system FORM 1 CHAPTER 2 2 only by microscope
system uterus
ovary
Nervous Reproductive
system system CELL AS A UNIT H MICROORGANISMS
vagina
Muscular
d
e f
OF LIFE 3 M ost: Virus
system g Contains unicellular 1
heart
artery
different
systems that
(2 - 2) 4
c Examples
work
vein Blood
together
circulatory b Examples 2
system Some: Bacteria
a I multicellular
skull Human:
rib cage Skeletal Organism Complex
system Hydra
back bone 2 multicellular 1

1 organism Examples
Contains different e HUMAN CELL 2
To perform life
organs that work
together to perfom a
1
System
ORGANIZATION processes
Spirogyra
a
function
d 3 2 efficiently
Cell Cell
stomach liver
Organisation Specialisation
b Have different
g To cover outer
skin f functions
c layer of body
e
Examples c For body
ear d 2 a To absorb & excrete Muscle
Organ Ephitelial movement
c b substances cells
b cells
heart a 1 8 1
eye To carry oxygen
Contains different tissues To grow and Examples Red lood
brain Tissue 7 2 to parts of body
that work together to perfom Cell develop after Egg cell cells
a function fertilisation (Ovum) 3
6
2 5 4
1
To transfer To kill bacteria
1
White blood inside body
Examples genetic
Basic unit Sperm cells
Nerve tissue c information Protect from
cells Nerve
Contains same type Bone infection
b a To fertililize cells cells
of cells that work
egg (ovum)
Bone tissue Muscle tissue together perform
specific function Make up To detect
bones to stimuli from
support body To carry impulses surrounding
to parts of body 8
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Solid Liquid Gas


Balloon with
Gas
Spread out Collision more gas has
 more mass



to fill between c
At high particles more
collide container Liquid
speeds frequent b

Move randomly c
b d HAS MASS OCCUPIES
in all direction a
Solid SPACE Ato m s
a
collide
GAS
1 2 1 M olecules
Gas particles
2 Balloon filled b
are small
3 with gas enough to
Collide with diffuse out of
one another LIQUID
CHARACTERISTICS becomes smaller the balloon
c MADE UP 3
b
2 OF SMALL a
Vibrate, spin and a PARTICLE PARTICLES
A
move around MOVEMENT
one another move freely
B 4
1 E
SOLID FORM 1 CHAPTER 3
SOLID
Vibrate and spin b Diffussion of potassium a
at fixed position
a
H MATTER manganate(VII) particles

Cannot (1 - 2)
vibrate spin move freely b
C
Potassium manganate(VII)
Lot of spaces between particles particles separate and diffuse
 NO Fixed volume and shape 3 STATES OF into spaces of water particles
 Easily compressed c D
GAS MATTER
b Potassium
NOT in fixed pattern manganate(VII)
a 3 3 1 crystal
Further apart PARTICLE GAS
2
ARRANGEMENT SOLID
SOLID
SOLID
More spaces between particles c 2 Flows easily in
 Fixed volume but LIQUID all directions
d LIQUID
NOT fixed shape
Fixed shape
 Difficult to compress b Properties a
c Properties
Can be
NOT in fixed pattern a 1 compressed
b a b
d Fixed volume
c
Properties
Close together No fixed volume No fixed shape, follow a Does not Cannot be
shape of container No fixed shape, flow compressed
SOLID d follow shape of
Cover
c b
c Smo ke Flows
container
Very little space between particles removed
 fills both easily
 Fixed volume & shape ja rs Cannot be Fixed volume
Smo ke
b a compressed
 Cannot be compressed

Packed in fixed
Close together
pattern

9
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Water pumped out of Measure: Find volume:
Mass
ballast tank a. length, l v=lxwxh Calculate density. Density =
T r ip l e Volume
Hot air inside A i r  Decrease density balance b. width, w
balloon is less Submarine floats c. height, h
dense. c Example:
Air inside float Measure mass of object d Solution:
and bouy makes raise balloon Water fills balast b A wooden block of mass 100g has Mass=100 g
tank using triple beam balance e has a length, width and height of Volume = 10 x 5 x 6 = 300 cm3.
them less than
Increase density a 10 cm, 5 cm and 6 cm
than water. Density Of Mass 100g
Floats on water Submarine sinks respectively. Find its density Density = = = 0.33 g/cm3
g/cm 3 Regular shaped Volume 300 cm3.
ballast ( gram per b
tank centimetre cube) objects
Floating/
Hot air balloon Sinking Mass UNITS
Volume = a
Submarine Density kg/m 3
Floating Large Measure mass of object
(kilogram per
f (eg: rock) using triple
Fishing buoys e
Metal Ships metre cube)
2 3
b a beam balance
g
d Density Of
M as s Irregular b Measure volume of object
Using Density = 1 DENSITY 4
Hollow shape Volume shaped objects using water displacement
Float c Density  Contains lots of air method
Concept  Decrease density c
a Volume of object =
b d Final volume - initial volume
Rafting
a
Large volume
Decrease density
F
Mass = Density x Volume
Calculate density.
Transporting 3 Mass
timber logs FORM 1 CHAPTER 3 Density =
Volume

Wood is less dense


than water. H MATTER
Floats on water
I (2 - 2) a Oil is less than
APPLICATIONS water. Oil droplets
Electricity
generation 2 OF PROPERTIES A less dense floats on water
OF MATTER substance floats
using steam G in a denser liquid
1 Ice is less dense
H FLOAT
b than water. Ice
OR floats on water.
c
Example 1: SINK?
The density of an Cork floats
1 1 object is 2.7 g/cm3 . on water
NUMERICAL Find the mass of 5 2
EXAMPLES cm 3 of the object.
3
Solution:
Mass = Density x Volume
4 A denser
= 2.7 x 5
Example 4: 2 substance sinks A coin
= 13.5 g
Compressing A 10 g wooden block has in a less dense sinks
a volume of 13 cm 3 . If
3
gases into Example 2: liquid because it
liquids a the density of cooking oil is denser
Under high
is 0.6 g/cm 3, determine Example 3: Comparing than water
d pressure The mass of a
whether it floats or sinks The density of sea 2 cm Densities
cuboid shown is
Save
Benefits b in cooking oil. water is 1.03 g/cm3 .
space c 25 g. What is its
Solution: Calculate the volume density? A denser
3 cm 5 cm
Density of wooden block, of see water with a false teeth in
Easy transportation Solution:
Big volumes mass of 82.4 g. cork Least dense water
Mass 10g Solution: Mass = 25 g
of gas stored = = Volume = 3 x 5 x 2 = 30 cm3 alcohol
Examples Volume 13 cm 3
in small Mass wood
containers = 0.77 g/cm3 Volume = Density Mass
Density= Volume water
Nitrogen (cylinders)  Density of wooden 84.2 g
= 1.03 g/cm3 25g lead
Cooking block greater than = 30 cm3
Oxygen Hydrogen gas
cooking oil = 81.7 cm 3
= 0.83 g/cm3 mercury Most dense
 Wooden block sinks in
cooking oil
10
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Produce heat
Generate
Leaves Wo ol
Latex Wo od electricity
Si lk Rat tan Carbon
Cot ton dioxide Water
Gi nseng Clothes Skin B amboo Oxygen
vapour Combustion
Building of fuels Drive
Skin Nitrogen b c Inert vehicles
Medicines c materials d 1
Plastic Wax Quini ne a gases
Petrol, diesel b d
e Oxygen Oxygen Carbon
(vehicles) b Honey Sources Firewood Obtain energy dioxide
2
Cooking a E g gs a from food
Of... e Composition Respiration
gas Milk a Fuels
Charcoal Body cells carry out
Burning of coal Petroleum Meat Food (Mangrove)
Uses
1 living processes
produces heat to
generate
Natural Drinks
Petroleum, coal, b Produce
electrical energy
gas (coffee,tea) Vegetable &
natural gas (plant &
1 Carbon food
in power stations
3 Fruits Vegetables LIVING animal oi ls
animal remains)
2 dioxide 1 Photosynthesis
+ Oils in Plants
2 THINGS 4 2 Gives out
Coal 3 oxygen
Fire
1 Carbonated extinguishers
FOSSIL AIR drinks
Dry ice
F
gem stones
glass
(from sand)
FUELS
(from quartz & feldspar)
E A
Uses FORM 1 CHAPTER 4
b cytoplasm
Non-metals Transport
a VARIETY OF digested Excretion
Quartz Examples 2 food & of waste
Feldspar
RESOURCES ON oxygen products

Sand MINERALS D EARTH Cell cytoplasm Gas exchage


1 (90% water)
2 3
during breathing carbon oxygen

Metals (1- 2) 1 4 in moist lungs


dioxide

70% of Basic need Animals


b Platinum 5
a earth's for all living Controls body
Containers
From B surface things 6 temperature
ores of... Examples Silver a
Found in
Habitat for
Iron natural
state Gold C 1 2 aquatic
animals
Copper Support plants'
growth Important
Construction Uses Utensils
earthworms 3 To..
Wires Cooking
utensils Plants WATER b
Germination
ants 1 of seeds
Ornaments,
jewellery a Animals Plants
4 2 Cell cytoplasm (90%)
b
3
1 Habitat microorganisms Transport
SOIL 4
mineral salts
Natural c
4 Uses
gas Formation Respiration of
2 1 Support aquatic
of Fuels plant roots
b
3 Air
plants
Petroleum 2 Respiration of c
a b a
a soil organisms
Human g Contains b Water
C lay Water Human use:
Coal Use Ceramic 2 1
Absorption
transport Generation of drinking,
e f c
1 by plant electricity bath,
e d
Manufacturing Bricks roots cooking,
d a
c Sand Humus washing,
b 1 watering
Organic substance from
Agriculture decayed plants & animals plants
Mining Gravels Minerals 2
Glass
Livestock 2 Make soil fertile
Construction 1
Examples
Roads
For healthy Phosphates
plants' growth 11
Sulphates Nitrates
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Graphite
electron flows
slowly
Wise management and systematic Protect natural Protect natural resources Do not throw
Sulphur Do not Pour
use of natural resources to
Phosphorus
(Carbon)

a
b EXCEPT carbon prevent waste or loss
habitat from being being depleted
destroyed
b Maintain population of
rubbish into
drains X hazardous
products into
X
b a a 1 drains eg: paint,
Carbon Brittle Poor heat a b c endangered species insecticide
a Dull conductor 2
TO d Maintain a balanced Conserving
appearance Poor electrical Pencil lead CONSERVATION Conserve
a ecosystem to Water 3
Sulphur conductor Charcoal water, use less
3 4 b Keeping natural minimise destruction
(s oli d)
Carbon 3 Resources P ap e r
c 2 5 resources in their of natural habitat a
c Diamond Plas tic
Solids, liquids or original and 2
Bromine b gases at room 1 Properties 1 Conserving 1 Gla ss
a Fertilisers balanced state BY b mat er ials
(liq uid)
temperature Phosphorus Other C lo t h

Chlorine
a Uses 2
EARTH'S 4 Resources
3 c Avoid open burning
a Medicines
(ga s) a
Sulphur
RESOURCES 1
b 5 4 PRESERVATION 1 Conserving
electron flows
b Explosives CONSERVATION Atmosphere 2 Car pool to
easily
NON- Nitrogen
Chlorine AND one type
reduce cars
a on roads
Electrical METALS a
b Germ PRESERVATIONS of atom
Cooking wires Bleach killers
Atoms
utensils b Fertilisers
a closely
a packed Gold
Machines Tools
Good electrical 2 together
c
Good heat
conductor & J Only one type of Copper
b conductors particle (atom) a
ductile Examples Iron
Vehicles a b
Hard 3 1 Sulphur
4 Metals
Aluminium METALS FORM 1 CHAPTER 4
e l em e n t e l em e n t
X Y Examples Bromine
beverage cans
b
2
AND  1
Non-Metals
a
(liq uid)

Malleable 1
Uses
NON-METALS I VARIETY OF Cannot be broken 2 Types
2
Compound
Chlorine (gas)
down into simpler of X and Y
Aluminium
a RESOURCES ON substance b
Made up of two or
foil b more elements
1 EARTH a
chemically combined
(2 - 2) ELEMENTS a
Good electrical METALS Broken down into simpler
conductor COMPOUNDS b substance by chemical methods
G 1
Good heat
9 a
H c
conductor Water a Hydrogen
8 2 Examples 1
Iron filings b Oxygen
Ductile 7 attracted to 2
Properties Solid at room ELEMENT, mag net
ELEMENTS, 4 3 Rust
1 a Iron
6
2
temperature COMPOUND, Use magnet COMPOUNDS, Sugar Salt b
Malleable 5 (except mercury) to separate Oxygen
4 3 MIXTURE MIXTURES c
a
Sodium
High density 2 Oxygen b a b
Shiny COMPARISON Iron filings
and sulphur Hydrogen Carbon Chlorine
Hard High melting mixt ure Mix them 1
Iron filings 3
point + sulphur
1 mixture
2 Salt Made up of two or
Mixture of
X and Y
Solution
c
a
MIXTURES more substances
Element
Element Compound
Compound Compound Mixture Evaporation
Examples
(elements or compounds)
2
Residue
b physically combined
Only one type of More than one Different elements Elements/compounds (Sand)
Salt + sand c b
Only one type of More than one type of Filtration 2
mixture a 3 Dust
particle type of particle combine chemically mix physically Filtrate a Water vapour
particle particle (Salt solution)
Separation by Air
b
Iron filings
1
1 c Nitrogen
Dissolving Salt or Sugar Examples d Oxygen
Cannot be broken down Can be broken down into Cannot be broken down and
s ul p hu r solution Physical Methods e
the salt
Cannot be broken
into simpler down
substances Can be broken
simpler down into
substances by mixt ure Carbon dioxide
into components by 2
into simpler substances simpler
chemical methods by
substances Evaporation 2 4 3
physical methods. Only Oxygen Salt, sand Salt or sugar
1 Sea a Water
chemical
sodium methodswater
chloride and and water Solution water
by chemical means. ni trog en mixt ure Filtration Evaporation b
Salt
mixt ure
Solvent
Blood Soil c
Electrolysis: Filter
A funnel Solution c
a
Sand Other
ch emic al
method to
Can be separated into Residue Filter
paper Evaporating
minerals b a
c
Humus
b minerals
Blood Water e d
copper atoms oxygen
break down
wat er
components by Filtrate cells Clay
sodium chlorine oxygen hydrogen Mineral Water
molecules atom atom atom atom physical methods Hea t
salts
12
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Limewater in flask C turns cloudy Limewater in flask D turns
Nitrogen

much slower than limewater in cloudy much faster than Air Filter pump Carbon Inert
flask D because the air has less limewater in flask C because the 78% y cm
carbon dioxide.
dioxide ga se s Oxygen x cm
exhaled air from the mouse has Oxygen
Cobalt chloride paper in 21%  {
more carbon dioxide.
tube X turns pink much Dust
Air Filter pump slower than in Nitrogen 3 4 y
tube Y because the air
2 5 Percentage of oxygen = x x100%
has less water vapour tube X Cobalt tube Y 1 Microorganisms Carbon dioxide 0.03% ~ 20%
chloride paper 6 + others 0.97%
c Respiration of mouse Cobalt chloride paper in Argon
b Nitrogen
produces water vapour tube Y turns pink much COMPOSITION 7 Water a
1 Neon
flask C flask D faster than in Oxygen
Limewater b 2
Experiments tube X because the air Helium
Respiration of mouse Elements 3
produces carbon dioxide has more water vapour c Inert gases
a 1 4 Krypton
AIR: 5
Inhaled air Exhaled 2 A MIXTURE Xenon
a Carbon dioxide
2
Candle A burns Candle B burns Water
Compounds b
longer. in shorter time. CARBON A
Inhaled air has Exhaled air has DIOXIDE FROM 3 c Dust + microorganisms
more oxygen less oxygen
RESPIRATION Cover Sterile nutrient agar
candle A candle B Environment
B Composition
a
White thread-
Inhaled air Exhaled air Varies due b Human activities like growth and
1
E to.. c 1
More oxygen After 3 days black spots due
to growth of
Air that we Air that we in jungle m i cr o o rg a n is m s
Examples
breathe in breathe out FORM 1 CHAPTER 5 2
More carbon
No change
dioxide in cities
THE AIR
Oxygen 21 % 16% - less TESTS OXYGEN CARBON DIOXIDE
AROUND US
Carbon dioxide Colour and smell Colourless and Colourless and
0.03% 4% - more (1- 2) odourless odourless
Nitrogen 78 % 78% - unchanged
Solubility in
Water vapour Less More
C alkaline Very Solube Not soluble
PROPERTIES pyrogallol solution
Temperature Same as Higher than OF OXYGEN
surroundings surroundings D AND CARBON
Solubility In Water Slightly soluble More soluble

In Tube C red incicator position DIOXIDE


remains unchanged because oxygen Living cells oxidise food using Solubility In Not Soluble Very Soluble
content remains unchanged oxygen to produce carbon
e Red Sodium hydroxide
indicator Experiment dioxide, water and energy
Oxygen content in tube A Wire gauze droplet 3 OXYGEN FOR
Splinter ignited Splinter goes out.
and B decreases causing Tube C RESPIRATION Effect on glowing glowing
a Test for Does not
a decrease in air
pressure
c
1 Oxygen
 Glowing Splinter
splinter
Supports
combustion
splinter
support
combustion
Tube B Higher atmopheric
d Respiration
Cockroach and
Cockcroach  pressure pushes red 2
seeds use oxygen a indicator inwards
Tube A Oxygen enters Ignites a glowing Splinter burns more brightly. Splinter goes out.
during respiration burning Does not
 during breathing splinter Effect on Lighted burning Supports
All living through lungs Splinter
Splinter
splinter
burning
splinter support
Germinating
Cotton soaked with b glowing
ignites burning
green beans
sodium hydoxide things oxygen splinter
Carbon dioxide produced b solution 1
c a
absorbed by sodium carbon No change. Neutral gas. Moist blue litmus changes
hydroxide solution Microorganisms
b dioxide
+ Glucose + Oxygen
Animals Effect on moist to red. Red litmus
water
vapour unchanged.
1 blue & red litmus
Oxygen enters by diffusion Plants 2 Acidic gas
Carbon dioxide Test for
across cell membrane Oxygen Glucose No change. Lime water turns cloudy
2 + Carbon
cell
membrane Glucose Oxygen
1
Oxygen enters through Water dioxide  Effect
Water
on Lime oxygen
limewater
unchanged
carbon
dioxide
white
Oxygen Glucose stomatal pores of leaves + precipitate
Energy Turns limewater
Carbon cloudy/milky/chalky oxygen
stomata dioxide Effect on No change. Indicator colour changes
Energy
Carbon
Water
white precipitate Bicarbonate from red CO2
dioxide Carbon CaC Bicarbonate
Water dioxide Energy
(cloudy) Indicator to yellow
Energy Water indicator 13
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Heat
Light Wood
Heat (to ignite) a Examples
1 Carbon
X
2
3
Use public transport / Fuel Substance 1 Charcoal
2 Produces that burns
car pool Coal
Stop open Action against Requires
d
Types Contains hydrogen
burning motor vehicles Oxygen 1 a and carbon
Recycle paper, owners c
c b 2 a
b glass & metals Kerosene
Stop
a Burning
smoking d b Fuel Hydrocarbon
a Chemical reaction Natural gas
habit b Examples
Law between a substance
Public a
and oxygen
Enforcement
Candle Petrol
Use unleaded petrol
Supported 1 2 Diesel
b by oxygen
b 3 4 Action against
M otor factory owners
Use Vehicles Reactions
catalytic a 2
OXYGEN 3 a
Carbon + Oxygen
converters
AIR POLLUTION FOR
to reduce b
pollutants CONTROL COMBUSTION
Carbon dioxide
1 Hydrocarbon + Oxygen +
W at e r Heat
Use less CFC c Factories F +
H produced
Light
4 when Carbon dioxide
b hydrogen
a FORM 1 CHAPTER 5 + 1
Fix filters to trap re act s 2 Water*
pollutants in with CaC
Set up far away +
chimneys
from housing THE AIR o xyg e n .
Heat Carbon dioxide
+ produced when
areas
AROUND US Light carbon reacts with
o xyg e n .
CaC
(2 - 2) Experiments
a
Candle B burns
Depleted ozone Green house Increases earth's
Fossil fuel b longer because
layer at south pole effect temperature Candle A burns
burning its larger
c in shorter time.
Rubbish Due to pollutants - Smaller container
Atmosphere cannot
burning Effects chemicals in contains more
filter harmful
ultraviolet light Sources
G atmosphere harmful
container has
less oxygen oxygen.
b to life
Damages a 2 Filter pump candle A candle B
ozone layer
Carbon AIR Filter pump
Effects
Dioxide POLLUTION
Electronic b Funnel
factories
Limewater turns cloudy Funnel Limewater turns cloudy
Sources a Chlorofluorocarbon  Carbon dioxide
Aerosol  Carbon dioxide
(CFC) Burning Cobalt chloride
produced produced
sprays 1 charcoal paper unchaged
h Cobalt chloride
Retards ( Carbon)  No water produced Burning candle paper changes to pink
children's g  Contains NO hydrogen ( Hydrocarbon)  Water produced
mental
Air
Effects b f Pollutants  Hydrocarbon contains hydrogen
Damages
Lead a
a
kidney, e
heart, Sources b Cigarettes Motor vehicles
brain d c Smoke
1 Burning rubbish
Leaded and soot Sources
Oxides of Dust
petrol Carbon Fossil fuel burning
Nitrogen Kills aquatic life Kills plants Cement plants
Acid clouds b Sulphur monoxide Cigarettes 1 2 Forest
Damages Dioxide 2 fires
Effect a marble/
1
Sources Effects
2 Death 2
Acid snow Acid rain Acid rain Sources
Sources limestone Effects Effects
1
Brain Effects Construction sites Haze
Damages Headache Motor Breathing Eye irritation
Motor vehicles metals damages Sources damage Lung cancer
Acid rain vehicles Cough & athma difficulties
Tiredness
lung cells

Coal 14
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Potential
Potential energy Cables Pylons Bulb Candle
energy Kinetic
Guitar
energy a b a b string
b Blowing a
Burning Electric Released trumpet
a gas heater Carried in by lighted a
Examples Sun electric b
objects
b c current Released by
a
vibrations
2 Released
Maximum by hot
potential
Maximum ENERGY : Light Food
potential objects Fuels
Electrical Energy
energy
energy POTENTIAL Ability to do Sound
a b Batteries
(minimum
(minimum
Energy Energy
kinetic
kinetic
ENERGY work c
energy)
2 3 Stored in
energy) AND KINETIC Heat 4
1 ENERGY Energy Chemical
Maximum Interchangeble 1 5 Energy
kinetic ENERGY Cyclist on top of hill
energy
(minimum A FORMS a
potential D 6 Stored in
energy) Potential
7 objects due to
9 Energy its condition/ b
generating
Uranium Plutonium
B 8 Stretched
position
station
Produce nuclear energy bow
FORM 1 CHAPTER 6
in form of heat energy Kinetic c
to generate electricity in
Nuclear Solar Energy Compressed spring
Cold water Steam and
hot water
Steam produced
Uranium and
Plutonium
a nuclear plant
SOURCES OF Energy Energy Possesed by
pump used to rotate moving
b
down
turbines to
generate
a ENERGY objects a
Running
electricity, heat
homes & factories Radioactive (1 - 2) Stored in Released by
the sun b
man
nucleus of
substances atom Flying plane
a
b
In forms of geysers c b Solar heater Solar
a cells
and hot springs Solar car
Nuclear bomb
b
C
All energy
Heat energy Geothermal sources traced
from inner layer a
of earth
7 Nucleus 1
back to Sun

Primary source
6 a of energy
ENERGY
1 Sun
Move water turbines in SOURCES b light energy
dams to generate electricity
5 1
gives
(hydroelectricity) b 2 c 2 heat energy
Water
turbine and 4
generator a Plants a Uses light energy from
Stored as potential 3 sun, carbon dioxide and
energy in dams provide water
b water to make food 1
stored energy
Energy is in 2
wind
Wind Fuels a gives heat and stored in food
3
Move wind Produces b light energy Food
5 4
turbines to waves when burnt
produce a b plants
electricity 3 fuels animals
Uses Classes Formed from
2 of Fuel dead plants
Move windmills to pump and animal
water or grind corn 1
2 1 a
1 Coal
Move sailing boats  heat
From garbage  c Fossil b Types

Biomass
fuels
fuels
3 2
From plants  b a 
wood, charcoal, Petroleum
Natural gas
alcohol, biodiesel 
Animal waste gas 15
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Will not Will be Fuel to generate
Garbage burning in Plants and animal residues are Cannot electricity in
last used up
incinerator produces heat to decomposed in a digester to produce be power station Fuels for
forever
generate electricity methane gas and alcohol as fuels. replaced vehicles
Biogas plant 1
a b 2
c
b Petroleum Burnt to produce heat
c
Palm oil can be Biodiesel plant for cooking, heating
Incinerator Wood is still less Cannot be 1 and electricity
d processed into
expensive than a Biomass replenished a Natural gas
biodiesel fuel
fossil fuels fuels
e b
Solar cookers Burnt to produce heat
2 Types and generate electricity
focuses light that Cane sugar juice 1 c 1
Coal
produce heat for can be fermented
cooking. b to alcohol for fuel 2 d
Solar RENEWABLE NON- Produce nuclear
Convert light energy a energy 1 Radioactive 1 energy in nuclear
to electrical energy ENERGY RENEWABLE substances reactors to generate
using solar cells DEVELOPEMENT ENERGY 2
electricity

solar cell
Bioalcohol plant SOURCES Power ships,
submarine,

Close cooking pots


I satellites

when cooking, shut


E
refrigerators
Reuse, Reduce FORM 1 CHAPTER 6
properly Cannot be used up
and Recycle
materials a

Use
SOURCES OF Can be
replenished b Can be replaced naturally
renewable ENERGY or by human
energy 7
sources 6 (2 - 2) F 1
Light energy converted into
Solar energy
Use 5 RENEWABLE electrical energy using

fluorescent H ENERGY a
b
solar cells

lamps (use less SOURCES


energy)
4 The Sun solar cells
CONSERVATION G c
To heat water in
Develope more efficient 3 2 homes
machines and engines OF ENERGY a
SOURCES Reduce pollution water
heater
5 Geothermal
2 Energy within the earth 1 f Types solar cells
b
Use public transport, car Prevent wastage Water
1 4 USING ENERGY e
pool - save petrol 1
EFFICIENTLY Biomass fuels d c
Used potential energy of water
Save cost on 3 to generate electricity in hydro
paying for energy 2 electric power stations
Switching off lights/ W av e
Fuel in form of wood, gas, alcohol
appliances when not and biodiesel.
1
Wind
using 2 1
1
Fuels 3
Ensure enough 2 1
processed
energy for future Using from plants, Use floats that
Has lots of
move up and down Propel wind
non-renewable animal
to generate turbines to Clean kinetic
wastes and energy
energy electricity produce energy
garbage. source
electricity
c
Use wisely so that
b a
can last longer

Took millions of
If used up leads to
years to form
energy crisis
(shortage of energy sources) a wind turbine 16
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Rubbing
Cooking Drying Fuels

a Ironing a a
Iron ball can b Drilling
Water level A cold object c b
pass through
the ring
drops due to has less heat
Ice A hot object has Use s d Keeping warm Burning Friction
Bulb
contraction
more heat a
e Electric
A 2 Melting
B
3 b heater
1 1 2 Electricity
Metal B contracts faster
a ci d
than metal A Coloured
A FORM 3 Reactive
trapped
Sun: a metal and
liquid OF 4 HEAT acid me ta l
moves Primary 4 Chemical
2
down ENERGY Source Energy PRODUCTION
Reaction b a ci d
Acid and
Solid Liquid base
1 Contraction Contraction
A Unit : Joules ba se
Ice
Same a
Iced water 50oC
d e
Gas
Contraction
B temperature
b
Called CONTRACTION b Beaker B has
c FORM 1 CHAPTER 7 Hotness of more mass
f Beaker A Beaker B
MATTER Beaker B
an object a HEAT Mass has more heat
Becomes smaller b CONTRACTS
WHEN HEATED HEAT
c
Volume decreases
a
(1 - 4)
Temperature
Depends on
2 1 Same mass
E C a
Bubbles of gas
escapes, when gas
in flask expands 80oC 50oC
HEAT HEAT Material b
Beaker A Beaker B
FLOW EFFECTS AND Beaker A has
Gas D TEMPERATURE
higher temperature
Expansion Beaker A has more heat
Concrete block Wooden block
1 kg; 40oC 1 kg; 40oC
Water
Water level rises Concrete block absorb more heat to
when heated due
1 to reach 40oC.
f Concrete block has more heat
to expansion 2
Volume increases
Liquid
a HEAT/
Expansion
MATTER TEMPERATURE
e EXPANDS WHEN b Becomes bigger
HEATED DIFFERENCES TEMPERATURE
a
c Degree of hotness
Called EXPANSION b
HEAT TEMPERATURE e
d d c
Cold object Unit :
Hotness of Degree of hotness has low Degree celcius (oC)
Solid
Expanding a object of object temperature or
Expansion
Bimetallic Hot object Tells how hot or
kelvin (K)
strip Unit: Joule Unit: Celcius (oC) or has high cold the object is
Both strips bend
b Kelvin(K) temperature
a
A
A Cold Ho t
B Iron ball cannot Travels from hot Increases when
B pass through to cold area movement of
Metal B Two strips of different Before experiment, the ring
the iron ball just fits
particles increases
expands faster metals (A and B) Iron ball expands,
than metal A joined together the iron ring 17
becomes bigger
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Alco called poor conductor Wood
Glass Due to
b 1 temperature
2
Substance that From a hot object
allows heat to move a HEAT difference
c Examples 3 Plastic
through slowly INSULATOR to cold object hot cold
Aluminium 7 4
Cork 6 5 Good High
Rubber 1 2 conductors conduction rate
3
Iron Polystyrene
2 Asbestos a b
Examples Depends on
material
Copper 1 d Metals Bad conductors : Insulators
2
HEAT HEAT a
1
Becomes cold very fast c CONDUCTOR FLOW Heat travels from 2
Heat flow hot to cold end
b HEAT Non - Metals b Low conduction rate
Becomes hot very fast 1 through solids Conduction 3
a CONDUCTORS rate
Substance that allows heat to
AND a
b
4 wax
move through easily INSULATORS c
F Experiment
Air condtioner B C
Warm air
placed near ceiling
CONDUCTION A b
rises Warm air rises
I a Pin A falls first,
2 1 Heat flows from then pin B followed
hot end to cold by pin C.
Heater 2 end by conduction
3 Convection Colder FORM 1 CHAPTER 7
current placed near
floor air sinks
produced
1 4
1
Cold air sinks
b BUILDINGS'
c
Cold air
3
Convection
HEAT Heat flow through fluids
(liquids and gases)
COOLING/ enters current
(2 - 4)
HEATING heater produced

Hot air rises Ventilation


SYSTEM G HEAT FLOW a By circulatory movement
and escapes holes at a
of heated fluid.
TYPES b
from top roof
4 2 Hot fluids moves upwards,
1 c
H CONVECTION cold fluids move downwards.

HEAT 3
d
FLOW IN NATURAL 1 SEA BREEZE
e
PHENOMENA Forms convection current
During Daytime
2

Cool air enters from RADIATION


windows near the ground 3 Co ld
3 W ar m 2
Cooler air flows
towards land ai r
air rises sinks Experiments
2 4
c 1 Purple stream of
a water move upwards,
WARMING OF b and downwards in
1 Smouldering
EARTH BY SUN Land heats circular motion.
up faster Experiment incense stick
hot air
Heat flow Potassium
LAND BREEZE To switch Can permanganate
flow without medium cold air crystal
RADIATION Heat flows in through 2
During Nighttime
vacuum by
radiation. vacuum
Convection current
Co ol 4 A convection current is formed
Vacuum ai r
Cooler air flows
3 W ar m 1 2 in heated water and air.
towards sea
(No conduction sinks ai r
rises After 10 minutes,
or convention) 5 To thermometer shows a
vacuum rise in temperaure.
p um p
Land cools 1 Sea warmer 2
down faster than land 18
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Good Become heating
Sublimation Heat up Made of conductors element in
food hot iron
metals
quickly quickly
Good a b
conductors c heating element at tip of
c soldering iron
Made of b Heating coils Conduct heat to
metals a surroundings
a
/ elements
Cooking cooling coil of
Measure
Engine coolers / refrigerator
utensils b Become cold
temperature cooling coils
3 quickly Car radiator Motorcycle fins
change accurately 2
c 4 To handle
pots without plastic Prevent tables
Thermometer 1 USES OF HEAT burning hands burnt by hot
wood
Expand and
b CONDUCTORS objects
Sublimation contracts a
CHANGES OF easily a
a table mat asbestos tile
STATE SUMMARY Handles of
Made of mercury Table mats/
Cooking Trapped air in
fine iodine
As best os fabric prevent
crystals 3 utensils
s ubli me
mercury J Tiles a
heat loss
Ioine
f ume s
2 M 1 2
cotton
Keep body clothe
formed ammonium
through Solid carbon chloride warm
1
sublimation
io di ne
dioxide (dry ice) FORM 1 CHAPTER 7 3
woolen blanket
crystals
1
2
napthalene
(mothballs)
USES OF HEAT
heated 3
heat absorbed HEAT K INSULATORS 4 Trapped air
Other Slow down a in sawdust
substances
(3 - 4) 5
melting of prevent heat
reaching the
heat released ice
c 6 ice
WITHOUT
Keep
b
Solid state 
LIQ UID Gaseous state liquids hot ice covered by
sawdust
 a b Keep home or cold a
Ceilings made of soft
STAG E SUBLIMATION warm Plastic and glass used
boards contain air
Occurs at any
L bubbles to prevent
in vacuum flask keep
ga s a liquids hot or cold
(water vapour) temperature below heat gain or loss by
100oC (boiling point) conduction Ice used in igloos
4
acts as an insulator
c to pevent heat loss
water Occurs at
by conduction.
surface of water b
EVAPORATION
3 EFFECTS OF HEAT Solid state  Liquid state
a ON STATES OF
Liquid WITHOUT Gaseous a
state 
BO ILIN G state MATTER
b
Heat absorbed
from surroundings
liquid 2 1 Melting solid
Particles vibrate c Particles
MELTING
1
more slower and vibrate faster
BOILING d
comes closer c AND e
AND
FREEZING
Condensation CONDENSATION Particles
Temperature : move freely
b water
Gas loses heat Melting point
0oC Temperature : 2 ice liquid
energy to a 100 o C Liquid Gaseous
surroundings state
 state
Freezing point 0oC

Temperature : a e

gas
Gaseous  Liquid Boiling Boiling point
e b
Liquid absorbs Particles
Freezing
state state water Boiling d
heat energy move at fixed
position
a Liquid state  Solid state
d c b
Particles move c
more quicklty Heat released
Particles
and freely Particles to surroundings
vibrate slower 19
gas vibrate faster liquid solid liquid
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Sea & land breezes Expands
Air conditioning Temperature rises, Brass expands more than iron
c Good rapidly with
d glass mercury expands bimetalic strip bends
conductor little heat
Warmth b tube level rises towards contact
Comfortable alarm bell Brass strip
1 2 1 1 start the alarm
life expands when
Hydro a heat
Cook food Temperature iron 1 hot, contracts
3 2 Mercury during when cold
scales brass
a fire
W aves 2 Earth's bimetalic strip
2
b Heat flow contact Fire alarm curls to show
energy 1 HEAT FLOW Temperature drops,
Wind
1 from sun mercuy contracts
temperature rise
a BENEFITS level drops a or fall.
Supports life 1 Bulb 2

a
Thermometer Pointer moves when strip
A good insulator, BIMETALLIC b
prevent heat 5 curls showing temperature
escaping Cork THERMOMETER STRIP readings metal track
Good insulator
Prevent heat 1
escaping 1 2
Thermos flask Vacuum GAPS IN a
4 Good
2 insulator
keeps water hot RAILWAY
for a long time
Silvered, Plastic
casing
Q gap allows track to
shiny
3 TRACKS
Buildings kept cool by surface Temperature APPLICATIONS expand in hot weather.
3
kept constant
having shiny glass to Liquid
longer
OF EXPANSION b
reflect heat d Prevent
AND track
FORM 1 CHAPTER 7
CONTRACTION 4
c Cork buckling
support N ROLLERS AND
APPLICATIONS OF HEAT GAPS OF STEEL buckled track
5 BRIDGES
White clothes absorb less b
HEAT ABSORPTION (4 - 4) gap allows
heat, keep us cool AND HEAT RELEASE
bridge to
b a metal bridge
GAPS BETWEEN expand in hot
a weather.
SLABS IN Prevent
1
Car radiator
painted black so PAVEMENTS bridge from
roller
that it releases 3 P distorted and
heat faster O b a slab damange 2

Prevent
bridge from Allows bridge to slide
cracking and during expansion
After 15 minutes gaps allows
metal block covered
HEAT ABSORPTION damaged slabs to expand
with rough black AND in hot day.
paper has a lower Pull out the top
Dull and dark 2 HEAT RELEASE SOLVING PROBLEMS 2 glass after the
temperature surface releases USING EXPANSION lower glass
(radiates) heat expanded
2
faster than white AND 1 Separating
a
After 15 minutes metal CONTRACTION Two Stuck
shiny surface block covered with 1 G lasses Hot water 1
rough black paper has
a higher temperature 2 Dip the lower glass in
covered with white
3 3 hot water so that it
bulb
shiny paper Dull and dark expands
Loosening
surface absorbs
Repairing a Tight Bottle a
heat faster than Immerse the
covered Dented Ping- Cap 1
white shiny tight bottle cap in
with rough a
surface Pong Ball Hot hot water to
black paper 1 Place a dented
water expand it
b ping-pong ball in
1 2
Metal block The air inside it hot water 2
2 hot metal Metal block
covered with expands and push

blocks with same covered with



 
 Expanded
white shiny the dented part to

temperature rough black paper bottle cap


paper its original lossens
position 20